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Sample records for binocular viewing conditions

  1. Quantitative perimetry under binocular viewing conditions in microstrabismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.V. Joosse (Maurits); H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.M. van Minderhout; P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); B. Noordzij (Bastiaantje); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn order to elucidate the type, size and depth of suppression scotomata in microstrabismus and small angle convergent strabismus, we performed binocular static perimetry in 14 subjects with strabismus and four normal observers. The strabismic cases had an objective angle of convergent

  2. Quantitative perimetry under binocular viewing conditions in microstrabismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, M. V.; Simonsz, H. J.; van Minderhout, H. M.; de Jong, P. T.; Noordzij, B.; Mulder, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    In order to elucidate the type, size and depth of suppression scotomata in microstrabismus and small angle convergent strabismus, we performed binocular static perimetry in 14 subjects with strabismus and four normal observers. The strabismic cases had an objective angle of convergent squint between

  3. Differences of accommodative responses between two eyes under binocular viewing condition mediated by polarizing glasses

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    Rui-Qing Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes under 3 different polarized viewing conditions. METHODS:Fifteen volunteers with emmetrope were recruited into this study(aged 18~38, 6 males and 9 females. Three different viewing conditions were set up by using polarizing glasses and liquid crystal display:(1right eye could see the visual target on the screen, but left eye cannot see it;(2left eye could see the visual target on the screen, but right eye cannot see it;(3both eyes could see the target. Accommodative responses were measured by infrared auto-refractor when fixating at the target at 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33m under the above 3 viewing conditions. The differences of accommodative responses under different viewing conditions were compared by using variance analysis of repeated measuring and t test. RESULTS:Significant differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes were found under condition(1and(2at all the fixating distance. The accommodative responses in used eyes which can see the visual target were higher than in non-used eyes which cannot see the visual target(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Ciliary muscles in the used eyes were more relatively tonic than non-used eyes under binocular open viewing condition. The imbalance of accommodative responses between two eyes may be one of the risk factors resulting into the occurrence of myopia.

  4. Quantitative visual fields under binocular viewing conditions in primary and consecutive divergent strabismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, M. V.; Simonsz, H. J.; van Minderhout, E. M.; Mulder, P. G.; de Jong, P. T.

    1999-01-01

    Although there have been a number of studies on the size of the suppression scotoma in divergent strabismus, there have been no reports on the full extent (i.e. size as well as depth) of this scotoma. Binocular static perimetry was used to measure suppression scotomas in five patients with primary

  5. The Scintillating Grid Illusion is Enhanced by Binocular Viewing

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    Jenny C. A. Read

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The scintillating grid illusion is an intriguing stimulus consisting of a grey grid on a black background, with white discs at the grid intersections. Most viewers perceive illusory “scintillating” black discs within the physical white discs, especially at non-fixated locations. Here, we report for the first time that this scintillation percept is stronger when the stimulus is viewed binocularly than when it is presented to only one eye. Further experiments indicate that this is not simply because two monocular percepts combine linearly, but involves a specifically cyclopean contribution (Schrauf & Spillmann, 2000. However, the scintillation percept does not depend on the absolute disparity of the stimulus relative to the screen. In an intriguing twist, although the basic illusion shows more scintillation when viewed binocularly, when the illusion is weakened by shifting the discs away from the grid intersections, scintillation becomes stronger with monocular viewing.

  6. Viewing geometry determines the contribution of binocular vision to the online control of grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Bruce D; Watt, Simon J

    2017-12-01

    Binocular vision is often assumed to make a specific, critical contribution to online visual control of grasping by providing precise information about the separation between digits and object. This account overlooks the 'viewing geometry' typically encountered in grasping, however. Separation of hand and object is rarely aligned precisely with the line of sight (the visual depth dimension), and analysis of the raw signals suggests that, for most other viewing angles, binocular feedback is less precise than monocular feedback. Thus, online grasp control relying selectively on binocular feedback would not be robust to natural changes in viewing geometry. Alternatively, sensory integration theory suggests that different signals contribute according to their relative precision, in which case the role of binocular feedback should depend on viewing geometry, rather than being 'hard-wired'. We manipulated viewing geometry, and assessed the role of binocular feedback by measuring the effects on grasping of occluding one eye at movement onset. Loss of binocular feedback resulted in a significantly less extended final slow-movement phase when hand and object were separated primarily in the frontoparallel plane (where binocular information is relatively imprecise), compared to when they were separated primarily along the line of sight (where binocular information is relatively precise). Consistent with sensory integration theory, this suggests the role of binocular (and monocular) vision in online grasp control is not a fixed, 'architectural' property of the visuo-motor system, but arises instead from the interaction of viewer and situation, allowing robust online control across natural variations in viewing geometry.

  7. The research of binocular vision ranging system based on LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuan; Yang, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the study of the principle of binocular parallax ranging, a binocular vision ranging system is designed and built. The stereo matching algorithm is realized by LabVIEW software. The camera calibration and distance measurement are completed. The error analysis shows that the system fast, effective, can be used in the corresponding industrial occasions.

  8. Binocular astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Binoculars have, for many, long been regarded as an “entry level” observational tool, and relatively few have used them as a serious observing instrument. This is changing! Many people appreciate the relative comfort of two-eyed observing, but those who use binoculars come to realize that they offer more than comfort. The view of the stars is more aesthetically pleasing and therefore binocular observers tend to observe more frequently and for longer periods. Binocular Astronomy, 2nd Edition, extends its coverage of small and medium binoculars to large and giant (i.e., up to 300mm aperture) binoculars and also binoviewers, which brings the work into the realm of serious observing instruments. Additionally, it goes far deeper into the varying optical characteristics of binoculars, giving newcomers and advanced astronomers the information needed to make informed choices on purchasing a pair. It also covers relevant aspects of the physiology of binocular (as in “both eyes”) observation. The first edition ...

  9. Corneal Transplantation in Disease Affecting Only One Eye: Does It Make a Difference to Habitual Binocular Viewing?

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    Praveen K Bandela

    Full Text Available Clarity of the transplanted tissue and restoration of visual acuity are the two primary metrics for evaluating the success of corneal transplantation. Participation of the transplanted eye in habitual binocular viewing is seldom evaluated post-operatively. In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye may remain functionally inactive during binocular viewing due to its suboptimal visual acuity and poor image quality, vis-à-vis the healthy fellow eye.This study prospectively quantified the contribution of the transplanted eye towards habitual binocular viewing in 25 cases with unilateral transplants [40 yrs (IQR: 32-42 yrs and 25 age-matched controls [30 yrs (25-37 yrs]. Binocular functions including visual field extent, high-contrast logMAR acuity, suppression threshold and stereoacuity were assessed using standard psychophysical paradigms. Optical quality of all eyes was determined from wavefront aberrometry measurements. Binocular visual field expanded by a median 21% (IQR: 18-29% compared to the monocular field of cases and controls (p = 0.63. Binocular logMAR acuity [0.0 (0.0-0.0] almost always followed the fellow eye's acuity [0.00 (0.00 --0.02] (r = 0.82, independent of the transplanted eye's acuity [0.34 (0.2-0.5] (r = 0.04. Suppression threshold and stereoacuity were poorer in cases [30.1% (13.5-44.3%; 620.8 arc sec (370.3-988.2 arc sec] than in controls [79% (63.5-100%; 16.3 arc sec (10.6-25.5 arc sec] (p<0.001. Higher-order wavefront aberrations of the transplanted eye [0.34 μ (0.21-0.51 μ] were higher than the fellow eye [0.07 μ (0.05-0.11 μ] (p<0.001 and their reduction with RGP contact lenses [0.09 μ (0.08-0.12 μ] significantly improved the suppression threshold [65% (50-72%] and stereoacuity [56.6 arc sec (47.7-181.6 arc sec] (p<0.001.In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye does participate in gross binocular viewing but offers limited support to fine levels of binocularity. Improvement in the transplanted

  10. Binocular astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Stephen F

    2007-01-01

    This book contains everything an astronomer needs to know about binocular observing. The book takes an in-depth look at the instruments themselves. It has sections on evaluating and buying binoculars and binocular telescopes, their care, mounting, and accessories.

  11. Comparison of Performance on a Tracking Task Utilizing Binocular, Dominant and Non-Dominant Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    clearness of detail, changes in colour , lights and shadows, movement parallax and accommodation (Postman and Egan, 1949). C. MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR...Development, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1976. Mood , Graybill and Boes, Introduction to Theory of Statistics New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1976. Ostle, B

  12. Emotion and Interhemispheric Interactions in Binocular Rivalry

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    K L Ritchie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that fear-related stimuli presented in peripheral vision are preferentially processed over stimuli depicting other emotions. Furthermore, emotional content can influence dominance duration in binocular rivalry, with the period of dominance for an emotional image (e.g. a fearful face being significantly longer than a neutral image (e.g. a neutral face or a house. Experiment 1 of the current study combined these two ideas to investigate the role of emotion in binocular rivalry with face/house pairs viewed in the periphery. The results showed that faces were perceived as more dominant than houses, and fearful faces more so than neutral faces, even when viewed in the periphery. Experiment 2 extended this paradigm to present a rival pair in the periphery in each hemifield, with each eye either viewing the same stimulus in each location (traditional condition, or a different stimulus in each location (Diaz-Caneja condition. The results showed that the two pairs tended to rival in synchrony only in the traditional condition. Taken together, the results show that face dominance and emotion dominance in binocular rivalry persist in the periphery, and that interhemispheric interactions in binocular rivalry depend on an eye- as opposed to an object-based mechanism.

  13. Unmixing binocular signals

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    Sidney R Lehky

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Incompatible images presented to the two eyes lead to perceptual oscillations in which one image at a time is visible. Early models portrayed this binocular rivalry as involving reciprocal inhibition between monocular representations of images, occurring at an early visual stage prior to binocular mixing. However, psychophysical experiments found conditions where rivalry could also occur at a higher, more abstract level of representation. In those cases, the rivalry was between image representations dissociated from eye-of-origin information, rather than between monocular representations from the two eyes. Moreover, neurophysiological recordings found the strongest rivalry correlate in inferotemporal cortex, a high-level, predominantly binocular visual area involved in object recognition, rather than early visual structures. An unresolved issue is how can the separate identities of the two images be maintained after binocular mixing in order for rivalry to be possible at higher levels? Here we demonstrate that after the two images are mixed, they can be unmixed at any subsequent stage using a physiologically plausible nonlinear signal-processing algorithm, non-negative matrix factorization, previously proposed for parsing object parts during object recognition. The possibility that unmixed left and right images can be regenerated at late stages within the visual system provides a mechanism for creating various binocular representations and interactions de novo in different cortical areas for different purposes, rather than inheriting then from early areas. This is a clear example how nonlinear algorithms can lead to highly non-intuitive behavior in neural information processing.

  14. A study on approaching motion perception in periphery with binocular viewing: Visibility is increased in the absence of one eye's information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Idesawa, Masanori; Wang, Qin

    2009-07-01

    The visibility of an approaching target on the horizontal plane in peripheral vision with binocular viewing was studied. It was found that the perceptual performance for the target moving toward the middle point of the two eyes was remarkably worse; under this circumstance it has rather high performance in the absence of one eye’s target information with occlusion or falling on the blind spot. These facts imply that the conventional change disparity mechanism does not work in the peripheral visual field; while some simple combinations of the monocular information of two eyes, such as the sum of two eyes’ image motion with sign, can be used to detect an approaching motion in the periphery.

  15. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  16. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

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    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  17. [Binocular coordination during reading].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  18. The Binocular Advantage in Visuomotor Tasks Involving Tools

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    Jenny C. A. Read

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We compared performance on three manual-dexterity tasks under monocular and binocular viewing. The tasks were the standard Morrisby Fine Dexterity Test, using forceps to manipulate the items, a modified version of the Morrisby test using fingers, and a “buzz-wire” task in which subjects had to guide a wire hoop around a 3D track without bringing the hoop into contact with the track. In all three tasks, performance was better for binocular viewing. The extent of the binocular advantage in individuals did not correlate significantly with their stereoacuity measured on the Randot test. However, the extent of the binocular advantage depended strongly on the task. It was weak when fingers were used on the Morrisby task, stronger with forceps, and extremely strong on the buzz-wire task (fivefold increase in error rate with monocular viewing. We suggest that the 3D buzz-wire game is particularly suitable for assessing binocularly based dexterity.

  19. What is Binocular Disparity?

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    Joseph S Lappin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the geometric primitives of binocular disparity? The Venetian blind effect and other converging lines of evidence indicate that stereo-scopic depth perception derives from disparities of higher-order structure in images of surfaces. Image structure entails spatial variations of in-tensity, texture, and motion, jointly structured by observed surfaces. The spatial structure of bin-ocular disparity corresponds to the spatial struc-ture of surfaces. Independent spatial coordinates are not necessary for stereoscopic vision. Stere-opsis is highly sensitive to structural disparities associated with local surface shape. Disparate positions on retinal anatomy are neither neces-sary nor sufficient for stereopsis.

  20. Improved Binocular Outcomes Following Binocular Treatment for Childhood Amblyopia.

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    Kelly, Krista R; Jost, Reed M; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Dao, Lori; Beauchamp, Cynthia L; Leffler, Joel N; Birch, Eileen E

    2018-03-01

    Childhood amblyopia can be treated with binocular games or movies that rebalance contrast between the eyes, which is thought to reduce depth of interocular suppression so the child can experience binocular vision. While visual acuity gains have been reported following binocular treatment, studies rarely report gains in binocular outcomes (i.e., stereoacuity, suppression) in amblyopic children. Here, we evaluated binocular outcomes in children who had received binocular treatment for childhood amblyopia. Data for amblyopic children enrolled in two ongoing studies were pooled. The sample included 41 amblyopic children (6 strabismic, 21 anisometropic, 14 combined; age 4-10 years; ≤4 prism diopters [PD]) who received binocular treatment (20 game, 21 movies; prescribed 9-10 hours treatment). Amblyopic eye visual acuity and binocular outcomes (Randot Preschool Stereoacuity, extent of suppression, and depth of suppression) were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye visual acuity (P game adherence, 100% movie adherence). Depth of suppression was reduced more in children aged <8 years than in those aged ≥8 years (P = 0.004). Worse baseline depth of suppression was correlated with a larger depth of suppression reduction at 2 weeks (P = 0.001). After 2 weeks, binocular treatment in amblyopic children improved visual acuity and binocular outcomes, reducing the extent and depth of suppression and improving stereoacuity. Binocular treatments that rebalance contrast to overcome suppression are a promising additional option for treating amblyopia.

  1. First Peruvian binoculars

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    Baldwin, Guillermo; Gonzales, Franco; Pérez S., Carlos

    2017-11-01

    In Peru, as in almost all Latin America, precision optical industry is almost null. One reason is the scarcity of human and technological resources. But, a few years ago, a masters and diploma university program in optical engineering was started in our university: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú1 (PUCP) in Lima. Also, an optical shop on precision optics was implemented. Some students were trained at CIO in Leon, Mexico. In order to motivate optical business startups in Peru we planned to show some possibilities of optical devices fabrication trough doing prototypes. So, we started doing a small reflective telescope for moon observation2, 3, where mirror and ocular polishing and opto-mechanics had priority. Aluminum evaporation was included. Now, we do a new step developing a binocular, as we know, it never was made before in Peru. This work includes the binocular geometric optics and opto-mechanical designs, the ocular manufacturing, and the binocular characterization of an 8x35 binocular for amateur observation.

  2. The effect of Bangerter filters on binocular function in observers with amblyopia.

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    Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Deng, Daming; Yuan, Junpeng; Chan, Lily; Hess, Robert F; Yu, Minbin

    2014-10-28

    We assessed whether partial occlusion of the nonamblyopic eye with Bangerter filters can immediately reduce suppression and promote binocular summation of contrast in observers with amblyopia. In Experiment 1, suppression was measured for 22 observers (mean age, 20 years; range, 14-32 years; 10 females) with strabismic or anisometropic amblyopia and 10 controls using our previously established "balance point" protocol. Measurements were made at baseline and with 0.6-, 0.4-, and 0.2-strength Bangerter filters placed over the nonamblyopic/dominant eye. In Experiment 2, psychophysical measurements of contrast sensitivity were made under binocular and monocular viewing conditions for 25 observers with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age, 17 years; range, 11-28 years; 14 females) and 22 controls (mean age, 24 years; range, 22-27; 12 female). Measurements were made at baseline, and with 0.4- and 0.2-strength Bangerter filters placed over the nonamblyopic/dominant eye. Binocular summation ratios (BSRs) were calculated at baseline and with Bangerter filters in place. Experiment 1: Bangerter filters reduced suppression in observers with amblyopia and induced suppression in controls (P = 0.025). The 0.2-strength filter eliminated suppression in observers with amblyopia and this was not a visual acuity effect. Experiment 2: Bangerter filters were able to induce normal levels of binocular contrast summation in the group of observers with anisometropic amblyopia for a stimulus with a spatial frequency of 3 cycles per degree (cpd, P = 0.006). The filters reduced binocular summation in controls. Bangerter filters can immediately reduce suppression and promote binocular summation for mid/low spatial frequencies in observers with amblyopia. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Amblyopia and Binocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual loss in children, affecting 1.3% to 3.6% of children. Current treatments are effective in reducing the visual acuity deficit but many amblyopic individuals are left with residual visual acuity deficits, ocular motor abnormalities, deficient fine motor skills, and risk for recurrent amblyopia. Using a combination of psychophysical, electrophysiological, imaging, risk factor analysis, and fine motor skill assessment, the primary role of binocular dysfunction in the genesis of amblyopia and the constellation of visual and motor deficits that accompany the visual acuity deficit has been identified. These findings motivated us to evaluate a new, binocular approach to amblyopia treatment with the goals of reducing or eliminating residual and recurrent amblyopia and of improving the deficient ocular motor function and fine motor skills that accompany amblyopia. PMID:23201436

  4. Disparity profiles in 3DV applications: overcoming the issue of heterogeneous viewing conditions in stereoscopic delivery

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    Boisson, Guillaume; Chamaret, Christel

    2012-03-01

    More and more numerous 3D movies are released each year. Thanks to the current spread of 3D-TV displays, these 3D Video (3DV) contents are about to enter massively the homes. Yet viewing conditions determine the stereoscopic features achievable for 3DV material. Because the conditions at home - screen size and distance to screen - differ significantly from a theater, 3D Cinema movies need to be repurposed before broadcast and replication on 3D Blu-ray Discs for being fully enjoyed at home. In that paper we tackle that particular issue of how to handle the variety of viewing conditions in stereoscopic contents delivery. To that extend we first investigate what is basically at stake for granting stereoscopic viewers' comfort, through the well-known - and sometimes dispraised - vergence-accommodation conflict. Thereby we define a set of basic rules that can serve as guidelines for 3DV creation. We propose disparity profiles as new requirements for 3DV production and repurposing. Meeting proposed background and foreground constraints prevents from visual fatigue, and occupying the whole depth budget available grants optimal 3D effects. We present an efficient algorithm for automatic disparity-based 3DV retargeting depending on the viewing conditions. Variants are proposed depending on the input format (stereoscopic binocular content or depth-based format) and the level of complexity achievable.

  5. Attentional modulation of binocular rivalry

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    Chris ePaffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1 voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2 both endogenous and exogenous attention influence perceptual dominance during rivalry, (3 diverting attention from rival displays does not arrest perceptual alternations, and that (4 rival targets by themselves can also attract attention. From a theoretical perspective, we suggest that attention affects binocular rivalry by modulating the effective contrast of the images in competition. This contrast enhancing effect of top-down attention is counteracted by a response attenuating effect of neural adaptation at early levels of visual processing, which weakens the response to the dominant image. Moreover, we conclude that although frontal and parietal brain areas involved in both binocular rivalry and visual attention overlap, an adapting reciprocal inhibition arrangement at early visual cortex is sufficient to trigger switches in perceptual dominance independently of a higher-level ‘selection’ mechanisms. Both of these processes are reciprocal and therefore self-balancing, with the consequence that complete attentional control over binocular rivalry can never be realized.

  6. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero

    1998-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. With the addition of the partners from Ohio State and Germany in February 1997, the Large Binocular Telescope Corporation has the funding required to build the full telescope populated with both 8.4 meter optical trans. The first of two 8.4 meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors for LBT was cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in 1997. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes adaptive infrared secondaries of a Gregorian design. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage the two folded Gregorian focal planes to three central locations. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance were important drivers for the design of the telescope in order to provide the best possible images for interferometric observations. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure was completed in 1997 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). A series of contracts for the fabrication and machining of the telescope structure had been placed at the end of 1997. The final enclosure design was completed at M3 Engineering & Technology (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia. During 1997, the telescope pier and the concrete ring wall for the rotating enclosure were completed along with the steel structure of the fixed portion of the enclosure. The erection of the steel structure for the rotating portion of the enclosure will begin in the Spring of 1998.

  7. Monocular and binocular mechanisms mediating flicker adaptation.

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    Zhuang, Xiaohua; Shevell, Steven K

    2015-12-01

    Flicker adaptation reduces subsequent temporal contrast sensitivity. Recent studies show that this adaptation likely results from neural changes in the magnocellular visual pathway, but whether this adaptation occurs at a monocular or a binocular level, or both, is unclear. Here, two experiments address this question. The first experiment exploits the observation that flicker adaptation is stronger at higher than lower temporal frequencies. Observers' two eyes adapted to 3Hz flicker with an incremental pulse at 1/4 duty cycle, either in-phase or out-of-phase in the two eyes. At the binocular level, the flicker rate was 6Hz in the out-of-phase condition if the two eyes' pulse trains sum. Similar sensitivity reduction was found in both phase conditions, as expected for independent monocular adapting mechanisms. The second experiment tested for interocular transfer of adaptation between eyes. Results showed that (1) flicker adaptation was strongest with adapting and test fields in only the same eye, (2) adaptation can be partially transferred interocularly with adaptation in only the opposite eye, and (3) adaptation was weakened when both eyes were adapted simultaneously at different contrasts, compared to test-eye adaptation alone. Taken together, the findings are consistent with mechanisms of flicker adaptation at both the monocular and binocular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamentals of Presbyopia: visual processing and binocularity in its transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanova, Olga I; Shchuko, Andrey G; Mischenko, Tatyana S

    2018-01-01

    The accommodation has considerable interactions with the pupil response, vergence response and binocularity. The transformation of visual reception processing and the changes of the binocular cooperation during the presbyopia development are still poorly studied. So, the regularities of visual system violation in the presbyopia formation need to be characterized. This study aims to reveal the transformation of visual reception processing and to determine the role of disturbances in binocular interactions in presbyopia formation. This study included 60 people with emmetropic refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity 1.0 or higher (decimal scale), normal color perception, without concomitant ophthalmopathology. The first group consisted of 30 people (from 18 to 27 years old) without presbyopia, the second cohort comprised 30 patients (from 45 to 55 years old) with presbyopia. The eyeball anatomy and optics were evaluated using ultrasound biomicroscopy, aberrometry, and pupillometry. The functional state of the visual system was investigated under monocular and binocular conditions. The registration of the disparate fusional reflex limits was performed by the original technic using a diploptic device which facilitated investigation of the binocular interaction under natural conditions without the accommodation response, but with the different vergence load. The disparate fusional reflex was analyzed using the proximal and distal fusion borders, and the convergence and divergence fusion borders. The calculation of the area of binocularity field was performed in cm 2 . The presbyopia formation is characterized by a change in an intraocular anatomy, optics, visual processing, and binocularity. The processes of binocular interaction inhibition make a significant contribution to the misalignment of the visual perception. The modification of the proximal, distal and convergence fusion borders was determined. It was revealed that 87% of the presbyopic patients had

  9. Binocular combination of luminance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2017-11-01

    We develop and test a new two-dimensional model for binocular combination of the two eyes' luminance profiles. For first-order stimuli, the model assumes that one eye's luminance profile first goes through a luminance compressor, receives gain-control and gain-enhancement from the other eye, and then linearly combines the other eye's output profile. For second-order stimuli, rectification is added in the signal path of the model before the binocular combination site. Both the total contrast and luminance energies, weighted sums over both the space and spatial-frequency domains, were used in the interocular gain-control, while only the total contrast energy was used in the interocular gain-enhancement. To challenge the model, we performed a binocular brightness matching experiment over a large range of background and target luminances. The target stimulus was a dichoptic disc with a sharp edge that has an increment or decrement luminance from its background. The disk's interocular luminance ratio varied from trial to trial. To refine the model we tested three luminance compressors, five nested binocular combination models (including the Ding-Sperling and the DSKL models), and examined the presence or absence of total luminance energy in the model. We found that (1) installing a luminance compressor, either a logarithmic luminance function or luminance gain-control, (2) including both contrast and luminance energies, and (3) adding interocular gain-enhancement (the DSKL model) to a combined model significantly improved its performance. The combined model provides a systematic account of binocular luminance summation over a large range of luminance input levels. It gives a unified explanation of Fechner's paradox observed on a dark background, and a winner-take-all phenomenon observed on a light background. To further test the model, we conducted two additional experiments: luminance summation of discs with asymmetric contour information (Experiment 2), similar to

  10. Acute alcohol drinking promotes piecemeal percepts during binocular rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingcai eCao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e. percepts of complete left or right images and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol’s effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol’s effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry.

  11. Assessing the binocular advantage in aided vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lawrence K; McIntire, John P; Hopper, Darrel G

    2014-09-01

    Advances in microsensors, microprocessors, and microdisplays are creating new opportunities for improving vision in degraded environments through the use of head-mounted displays. Initially, the cutting-edge technology used in these new displays will be expensive. Inevitably, the cost of providing the additional sensor and processing required to support binocularity brings the value of binocularity into question. Several assessments comparing binocular, binocular, and monocular head-mounted displays for aided vision have concluded that the additional performance, if any, provided by binocular head-mounted displays does not justify the cost. The selection of a biocular [corrected] display for use in the F-35 is a current example of this recurring decision process. It is possible that the human binocularity advantage does not carry over to the aided vision application, but more likely the experimental approaches used in the past have been too coarse to measure its subtle but important benefits. Evaluating the value of binocularity in aided vision applications requires an understanding of the characteristics of both human vision and head-mounted displays. With this understanding, the value of binocularity in aided vision can be estimated and experimental evidence can be collected to confirm or reject the presumed binocular advantage, enabling improved decisions in aided vision system design. This paper describes four computational approaches-geometry of stereopsis, modulation transfer function area for stereopsis, probability summation, and binocular summation-that may be useful in quantifying the advantage of binocularity in aided vision.

  12. Monocular and binocular smooth pursuit in central field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanidze, Natela; Heinen, Stephen; Verghese, Preeti

    2017-12-01

    Macular degeneration results in heterogeneous central field loss (CFL) and often has asymmetrical effects in the two eyes. As such, it is not clear to what degree the movements of the two eyes are coordinated. To address this issue, we examined smooth pursuit quantitatively in CFL participants during binocular viewing and compared it to the monocular viewing case. We also examined coordination of the two eyes during smooth pursuit and how this coordination was affected by interocular ratios of acuity and contrast, as well as CFL-specific interocular differences, such as scotoma sizes and degree of binocular overlap. We hypothesized that the coordination of eye movements would depend on the binocularity of the two eyes. To test our hypotheses, we used a modified step-ramp paradigm, and measured pursuit in both eyes while viewing was binocular, or monocular with the dominant or non-dominant eye. Data for CFL participants and age-matched controls were examined at the group, within-group, and individual levels. We found that CFL participants had a broader range of smooth pursuit gains and a significantly lower correlation between the two eyes, as compared to controls. Across both CFL and control groups, smooth pursuit gain and correlation between the eyes are best predicted by the ratio of contrast sensitivity between the eyes. For the subgroup of participants with measurable stereopsis, both smooth pursuit gain and correlation are best predicted by stereoacuity. Therefore, our results suggest that coordination between the eyes during smooth pursuit depends on binocular cooperation between the eyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Refractive and binocular vision status of optometry students, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the refractive and non-strabismic binocular vision status of Optometry students in University of Cape Coast, Ghana and to establish any associations between these conditions. A cross sectional study of 105 Optometry students were taken through a comprehensive optometric examination to investigate the ...

  14. A Novel Binocular Vision System for Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haitian; Li, Hui; Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui

    2014-04-25

    We present a novel binocular imaging system for wearable devices incorporating the biology knowledge of the human eyes. Unlike the camera system in smartphones, two fish-eye lenses with a larger angle of view are used, the visual field of the new system is larger, and the central resolution of output images is higher. This design leads to more effective image acquisition, facilitating computer vision tasks such as target recognition, navigation and object tracking.

  15. Display of high dynamic range images under varying viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Recent demonstrations of high dynamic range (HDR) television have shown that superb images are possible. With the emergence of an HDR television production standard (ITU-R Recommendation BT.2100) last year, HDR television production is poised to take off. However research to date has focused principally on HDR image display only under "dark" viewing conditions. HDR television will need to be displayed at varying brightness and under varying illumination (for example to view sport in daytime or on mobile devices). We know, from common practice with conventional TV, that the rendering intent (gamma) should change under brighter conditions, although this is poorly quantified. For HDR the need to render images under varying conditions is all the more acute. This paper seeks to explore the issues surrounding image display under varying conditions. It also describes how visual adaptation is affected by display brightness, surround illumination, screen size and viewing distance. Existing experimental results are presented and extended to try to quantify these effects. Using the experimental results it is described how HDR images may be displayed so that they are perceptually equivalent under different viewing conditions. A new interpretation of the experimental results is reported, yielding a new, luminance invariant model for the appropriate display "gamma". In this way the consistency of HDR image reproduction should be improved, thereby better maintaining "creative intent" in television.

  16. Interactions between binocular rivalry and Gestalt formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, C.M.M. de; Snoeren, P.R.; Koning, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    A question raised a long time ago in binocular rivalry research is whether the phenomenon of binocular rivalry is purely determined by local stimulus properties or that global stimulus properties also play a role. More specifically: do coherent features in a stimulus influence rivalrous behavior?

  17. P3-5: Temporal Interactions between Binocular Inputs in Visual Evoked-Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkyue Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between neural activity driven by inputs through the two eyes were examined using visual evoked-potentials (VEP in normal human subjects. VEP recordings were obtained at the occipital electrodes using binocularly asynchronous pattern-reversal checkerboard stimuli: The patter-reversal times for the two eyes differed by 0, ±50, ±150, or ±350 ms, with the positive stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA meaning that the right-eye reversal occurred first. For comparison, monocular VEPs were also obtained using trial conditions where the checkerboard pattern-reversals were shown to only one eye, while a blank field to the other. The VEPs of the various trial conditions were analyzed using both temporal and frequency analysis methods. Three observations were made: First, the N75 amplitude was significantly reduced in the ±50 ms SOA conditions. Second, on ±150 ms and ± ms SOA conditions, a negative potential was observed over the period when the stimuli were binocularly incongruent. Third, the alpha-band power was reduced and the beta-band power increased on asynchronous conditions, compared to the synchronous patter-reversal. These findings show that activities of binocular neurons in the visual cortices get modulated by binocular incongruity in the asynchronous pattern-reversal stimuli. Our stimuli may prove valuable in elucidating neural mechanisms of integration of binocular visual inputs, especially when combined with brain source-localization techniques and compared between normal subjects and patients with dysfunction in binocular vision.

  18. Absence of binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning effects in color discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; Ventura, Dora Fix; Perazzolo, Felipe; Murakoshi, Marcio; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated binocular summation, eye dominance, and learning in the Trivector and Ellipses procedures of the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT). Subjects (n = 36, 18-30 years old) were recruited among students and staff from the University of São Paulo. Inclusion criteria were absence of ophthalmological complaints and best-corrected Snellen VA 20/20 or better. The subjects were tested in three randomly selected eye conditions: binocular, monocular dominant eye, and nondominant eye. Results obtained in the binocular and monocular conditions did not differ statistically for thresholds measured along the protan, deutan, and tritan confusion axes (ANOVA, P > 0.05). No statistical difference was detected among discrimination ellipses obtained in binocular or monocular conditions (ANOVA, P > 0.05), suggesting absence of binocular summation or of an effect of eye dominance. Possible effects of learning were examined by comparing successive thresholds obtained in the three testing conditions. There was no evidence of improvement as a function of testing order (ANCOVA, P > 0.05). We conclude that CCT thresholds are not affected by binocularity, eye dominance, or learning. Our results differ from those found by Verriest et al. (1982) using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test and Hovis et al. (2004) using the Farnsworth-Munsell panel D-15 test.

  19. [On a binocular vision testing in concomitant strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, A V; Vakurin, E A; Kashchenko, T P

    2011-01-01

    Character of vision in 105 children with strabismus (with regular eye position) was tested using four dot test on different distance (5.0, 2.5, 1.0 m) and "Phorbis" device comprising phoropter and a set of light filters, that let us perform examination in the conditions of colour, polaroid and bitmapped division of visual fields. Stereoscopic vision was examined using original method based on anaglyph haploscopy. Binocular vision in strabismus was found to become more frequent as the distance and dissociating effect of light-filters decrease, and turned to be maximal in near testing in conditions of bitmapped haploscopy. Visual stereoscopic acuity in children with concomitant strabismus even on reaching regular eye position and binocular vision is significantly lower compared with healthy children of the same age.

  20. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  1. Brief monocular deprivation as an assay of short-term visual sensory plasticity in schizophrenia – the binocular effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Foxe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual sensory processing deficits are consistently observed in schizophrenia, with clear amplitude reduction of the visual evoked potential (VEP during the initial 50-150 milliseconds of processing. Similar deficits are seen in unaffected first-degree relatives and drug-naïve first-episode patients, pointing to these deficits as potential endophenotypic markers. Schizophrenia is also associated with deficits in neural plasticity, implicating dysfunction of both glutamatergic and gabaergic systems. Here, we sought to understand the intersection of these two domains, asking whether short-term plasticity during early visual processing is specifically affected in schizophrenia. Methods: Brief periods of monocular deprivation induce relatively rapid changes in the amplitude of the early VEP – i.e. short-term plasticity. Twenty patients and twenty non-psychiatric controls participated. VEPs were recorded during binocular viewing, and were compared to the sum of VEP responses during brief monocular viewing periods (i.e. Left-eye + Right-eye viewing. Results: Under monocular conditions, neurotypical controls exhibited an effect that patients failed to demonstrate. That is, the amplitude of the summed monocular VEPs was robustly greater than the amplitude elicited binocularly during the initial sensory processing period. In patients, this binocular effect was absent. Limitations: Patients were all medicated. Ideally, this study would also include first-episode unmedicated patients.Conclusions: These results suggest that short-term compensatory mechanisms that allow healthy individuals to generate robust VEPs in the context of monocular deprivation are not effectively activated in patients with schizophrenia. This simple assay may provide a useful biomarker of short-term plasticity in the psychotic disorders and a target endophenotype for therapeutic interventions.

  2. Hydrologic Conditions Viewed by the Nimbus Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabchevsky, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    The unexploited value of the Nimbus meteorological sensor data relates to the satellites' ability for global, temporal, repetitive and uniform tonal and spatial coverage of the earth's surface. Examples are presented illustrating how synoptic views of large areas increase interpretive capability and enable focusing on large targets of interest. The effect of resolution of the Nimbus imaging systems on these observations is discussed, together with the assessment of the areal and temporal magnitude of changes observed by these systems. Two case studies are presented exemplifying the satellites' ability for repetitive observations enabling phenomena to be monitored under special conditions. One study deals with changes observed in the Antarctic ice conditions utilizing the Nimbus 2 and 3 television picture data. The other study deals with terrestrial changes in the Mississippi River Valley and the Niger River Valley (Africa), observed primarily in the 0.7 to 1.3 micron spectral band.

  3. Observation on postoperative binocular visual function reconstruction in intermittent exotropia children with binocular visual training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy of the binocular vision training on intermittent exotropia children postoperative binocular visual function reconstruction.METHODS:From January 2010 to October 2011, 112 intermittent exotropia children were treated, divided into three groups, the first group used synoptophore for binocular visual training, the second group used the binocular visual training software for binocular visual training, the third group was control group, no binocular visual training. The postoperative far and near stereoacuity and postoperative 1 year eye position orthophoria rate of the three groups were observed and compared. RESULTS: The two groups of children with visual training, the far and near stereoacuity was significantly higher than that of the control group, the difference was significant. In the 1-year follow-up after surgery, the eye position orthophoria rate of the control group was significantly lower than the other two groups.CONCLUSION: Intermittent exotropia postoperative binocular visual training can significantly promote the reconstruction of children with binocular vision, reduce eye rollback rate, improve the success rate of surgery.

  4. Age- and stereovision-dependent eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Simon; Suttle, Catherine; Melmoth, Dean R; Conway, Miriam L; Sloper, John J

    2014-08-05

    To examine factors contributing to eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0 to 9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity, along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from four additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system while subjects reached-to-precision grasp objects (two sizes, three locations) under binocular, dominant eye, and amblyopic/nonsighting eye conditions. Kinematic and "error" performance measures were quantified and compared by viewing condition and subject group using ANOVA, stepwise regression, and correlation analyses. Movements of the younger amblyopes (age 5-6 years; n = 30) were much slower, particularly in the final approach to the objects, and contained more spatial errors in reaching (∼×1.25-1.75) and grasping (∼×1.75-2.25) under all three views (P age-matched controls (n = 13). Amblyopia severity was the main contributor to their slower movements with absent stereovision a secondary factor and the unique determinant of their increased error-rates. Older amblyopes (age 7-9 years; n = 25) spent longer contacting the objects before lifting them (P = 0.015) compared with their matched controls (n = 15), with absence of stereovision still solely related to increases in reach and grasp errors, although these occurred less frequently than in younger patients. Pilot prospective data supported these findings by showing positive treatment-related associations between improved stereovision and reach-to-grasp performance. Strategies that children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity use for reach-to-precision grasping change with age, from emphasis on visual feedback during the "in-flight" approach at ages 5 to 6 years to more reliance on tactile

  5. Age- and Stereovision-Dependent Eye–Hand Coordination Deficits in Children With Amblyopia and Abnormal Binocularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Simon; Suttle, Catherine; Melmoth, Dean R.; Conway, Miriam L.; Sloper, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine factors contributing to eye–hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. Methods. Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0 to 9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity, along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from four additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system while subjects reached-to-precision grasp objects (two sizes, three locations) under binocular, dominant eye, and amblyopic/nonsighting eye conditions. Kinematic and “error” performance measures were quantified and compared by viewing condition and subject group using ANOVA, stepwise regression, and correlation analyses. Results. Movements of the younger amblyopes (age 5–6 years; n = 30) were much slower, particularly in the final approach to the objects, and contained more spatial errors in reaching (∼×1.25–1.75) and grasping (∼×1.75–2.25) under all three views (P age-matched controls (n = 13). Amblyopia severity was the main contributor to their slower movements with absent stereovision a secondary factor and the unique determinant of their increased error-rates. Older amblyopes (age 7–9 years; n = 25) spent longer contacting the objects before lifting them (P = 0.015) compared with their matched controls (n = 15), with absence of stereovision still solely related to increases in reach and grasp errors, although these occurred less frequently than in younger patients. Pilot prospective data supported these findings by showing positive treatment-related associations between improved stereovision and reach-to-grasp performance. Conclusions. Strategies that children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity use for reach-to-precision grasping change with age, from emphasis on visual feedback during the “in-flight” approach at ages

  6. The impact of stimulus complexity and frequency swapping on stabilization of binocular rivalry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, B; Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when an image is presented to one eye while at the same time another, incongruent, image is presented to the other eye in the corresponding retinotopic location and conscious perception alternates spontaneously between the two monocular views. If a short blank period is i...

  7. Insights from intermittent binocular rivalry and EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Pitts

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel stimulation and analytical approaches employed in EEG studies of ambiguous figures have recently been applied to binocular rivalry. The combination of intermittent stimulus presentation and EEG source imaging has begun to shed new light on the neural underpinnings of binocular rivalry. Here, we review the basics of the intermittent paradigm and highlight methodological issues important for interpreting previous results and designing future experiments. We then outline current analytical approaches, including EEG microstates, event-related potentials, and statistically-based source estimation, and propose a spatio-temporal model that integrates findings from several studies. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using binocular rivalry as a tool to investigate the neural basis of perceptual awareness.

  8. Research situation and development trend of the binocular stereo vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tonghao; Liu, Bingqi; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yichao

    2017-05-01

    Since the 21st century, with the development of the computer and signal processing technology, a new comprehensive subject that called computer vision was generated. Computer vision covers a wide range of knowledge, which includes physics, mathematics, biology, computer technology and other arts subjects. It contains much content, and becomes more and more powerful, not only can realize the function of the human eye "see", also can realize the human eyes cannot. In recent years, binocular stereo vision which is a main branch of the computer vision has become the focus of the research in the field of the computer vision. In this paper, the binocular stereo vision system, the development of present situation and application at home and abroad are summarized. With the current problems of the binocular stereo vision system, his own opinions are given. Furthermore, a prospective view of the future application and development of this technology are prospected.

  9. The Observation of Binocular Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropelewski, Mike; Argyle, R. W.

    The night sky presents a fascinating variety of double stars, ranging from wide, AQ1 optical pairs to close binary systems. A few doubles can be divided with the unaided eye, while a modest pair of binoculars will reveal many more; the study of double stars can be enjoyed by those who do not possess a large telescope or expensive equipment. There is a broad selection of binoculars on the market, so let us take a 10 look at those that might be suitable for this branch of astronomy.

  10. Viewing condition dependence of the gaze-evoked nystagmus in Arnold Chiari type 1 malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasia, Fatema F; Gulati, Deepak; Westbrook, Edward L; Shaikh, Aasef G

    2014-04-15

    Saccadic eye movements rapidly shift gaze to the target of interest. Once the eyes reach a given target, the brainstem ocular motor integrator utilizes feedback from various sources to assure steady gaze. One of such sources is cerebellum whose lesion can impair neural integration leading to gaze-evoked nystagmus. The gaze evoked nystagmus is characterized by drifts moving the eyes away from the target and a null position where the drifts are absent. The extent of impairment in the neural integration for two opposite eccentricities might determine the location of the null position. Eye in the orbit position might also determine the location of the null. We report this phenomenon in a patient with Arnold Chiari type 1 malformation who had intermittent esotropia and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus with a shift in the null position. During binocular viewing, the null was shifted to the right. During monocular viewing, when the eye under cover drifted nasally (secondary to the esotropia), the null of the gaze-evoked nystagmus reorganized toward the center. We speculate that the output of the neural integrator is altered from the bilateral conflicting eye in the orbit position secondary to the strabismus. This could possibly explain the reorganization of the location of the null position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Binocular visual function of myopic pseudophakic monovision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken; Yoshida, Motoaki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hirata, Akira

    2018-02-20

    To compare binocular visual function of myopic pseudophakic patients with myopic monovision to patients without monovision. Randomized comparative study METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized to one of two groups: patients whose refraction was targeted to -2.75 diopters (D) in the dominant eye and -1.75D in the nondominant eye (myopic monovision group), and patients whose refraction was targeted to -2.75D bilaterally (non-monovision group). Binocular uncorrected and corrected visual acuity at various distances was measured using an all-distance vision tester, and contrast visual acuity and near stereoacuity were examined. In the myopic monovision group mean refraction was -2.74D in the dominant eyes and -1.94D in the nondominant eyes, and in the non-monovision group it was -2.96D bilaterally. Mean binocular uncorrected distance (UDVA) and intermediate visual acuity (UIVA) from 0.5 m to 5.0 m were significantly better in the myopic monovision group than in the non-monovision group (P≤ 0.0134), while binocular uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) at 0.3 m did not differ significantly between groups. The distribution of UIVA and UDVA was significantly better in the myopic monovision group (P≤ 0.0035). Corrected visual acuity at any distance, photopic and mesopic contrast visual acuity, and stereoacuity did not differ significantly between groups. Patients with myopic monovision exhibited significantly better binocular UIVA and UDVA than those without monovision, while UNVA, corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity were comparable between groups, suggesting that this method is useful for patients who want to see near and intermediate distances without spectacles.

  12. Crossmodal Semantic Constraints on Visual Perception of Binocular Rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Environments typically convey contextual information via several different sensory modalities. Here, we report a study designed to investigate the crossmodal semantic modulation of visual perception using the binocular rivalry paradigm. The participants viewed a dichoptic figure consisting of a bird and a car presented to each eye, while also listening to either a bird singing or car engine revving. Participants' dominant percepts were modulated by the presentation of a soundtrack associated with either bird or car, as compared to the presentation of a soundtrack irrelevant to both visual figures (tableware clattering together in a restaurant. No such crossmodal semantic effect was observed when the participants maintained an abstract semantic cue in memory. We then further demonstrate that crossmodal semantic modulation can be dissociated from the effects of high-level attentional control over the dichoptic figures and of low-level luminance contrast of the figures. In sum, we demonstrate a novel crossmodal effect in terms of crossmodal semantic congruency on binocular rivalry. This effect can be considered a perceptual grouping or contextual constraint on human visual awareness through mid-level crossmodal excitatory connections embedded in the multisensory semantic network.

  13. Calibration of Binocular Vision Sensors Based on Unknown-Sized Elliptical Stripe Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS depend on a high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult and costly to manufacture and. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed. With known intrinsic parameters, the proposed method adopts the elliptical stripes located on the parallel planes as a medium to calibrate BSVS online. In comparison with the common calibration methods, the proposed method avoids utilizing high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points. Therefore, the proposed method is not only easy to implement but is a realistic method for the calibration of BSVS with optical filter. Changing the size of elliptical curves projected on the target solves the difficulty of applying the proposed method in different fields of view and distances. Simulative and physical experiments are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. When the field of view is approximately 400 mm × 300 mm, the proposed method can reach a calibration accuracy of 0.03 mm, which is comparable with that of Zhang’s method.

  14. Can binocular rivalry reveal neural correlates of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Randolph; Brascamp, Jan; Heeger, David J

    2014-05-05

    This essay critically examines the extent to which binocular rivalry can provide important clues about the neural correlates of conscious visual perception. Our ideas are presented within the framework of four questions about the use of rivalry for this purpose: (i) what constitutes an adequate comparison condition for gauging rivalry's impact on awareness, (ii) how can one distinguish abolished awareness from inattention, (iii) when one obtains unequivocal evidence for a causal link between a fluctuating measure of neural activity and fluctuating perceptual states during rivalry, will it generalize to other stimulus conditions and perceptual phenomena and (iv) does such evidence necessarily indicate that this neural activity constitutes a neural correlate of consciousness? While arriving at sceptical answers to these four questions, the essay nonetheless offers some ideas about how a more nuanced utilization of binocular rivalry may still provide fundamental insights about neural dynamics, and glimpses of at least some of the ingredients comprising neural correlates of consciousness, including those involved in perceptual decision-making.

  15. Eye tracking under dichoptic viewing conditions : a practical solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, J.W.; Naber, M.

    In several research contexts it is important to obtain eye-tracking measures while presenting visual stimuli independently to each of the two eyes (dichoptic stimulation). However, the hardware that allows dichoptic viewing, such as mirrors, often interferes with high-quality eye tracking,

  16. A Novel Approach to Calibrating Multifunctional Binocular Stereovision Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, T; Zhu, J G; Wu, B; Ye, S H

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel multifunctional binocular stereovision sensor for various threedimensional (3D) inspection tasks. It not only avoids the so-called correspondence problem of passive stereo vision, but also possesses the uniform mathematical model. We also propose a novel approach to estimating all the sensor parameters with free-position planar reference object. In this technique, the planar pattern can be moved freely by hand. All the camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters with coefficient of lens radial and tangential distortion are estimated, and sensor parameters are calibrated based on the 3D measurement model and optimized with the feature point constraint algorithm using the same views in the camera calibration stage. The proposed approach greatly reduces the cost of the calibration equipment, and it is flexible and practical for the vision measurement. It shows that this method has high precision by experiment, and the sensor measured relative error of space length excels 0.3%

  17. Binocular Therapy for Childhood Amblyopia Improves Vision Without Breaking Interocular Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Manuela; Tailor, Vijay K; Anderson, Elaine J; Bex, Peter J; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret; Dakin, Steven C

    2017-06-01

    Amblyopia is a common developmental visual impairment characterized by a substantial difference in acuity between the two eyes. Current monocular treatments, which promote use of the affected eye by occluding or blurring the fellow eye, improve acuity, but are hindered by poor compliance. Recently developed binocular treatments can produce rapid gains in visual function, thought to be as a result of reduced interocular suppression. We set out to develop an effective home-based binocular treatment system for amblyopia that would engage high levels of compliance but that would also allow us to assess the role of suppression in children's response to binocular treatment. Balanced binocular viewing therapy (BBV) involves daily viewing of dichoptic movies (with "visibility" matched across the two eyes) and gameplay (to monitor compliance and suppression). Twenty-two children (3-11 years) with anisometropic (n = 7; group 1) and strabismic or combined mechanism amblyopia (group 2; n = 6 and 9, respectively) completed the study. Groups 1 and 2 were treated for a maximum of 8 or 24 weeks, respectively. The treatment elicited high levels of compliance (on average, 89.4% ± 24.2% of daily dose in 68.23% ± 12.2% of days on treatment) and led to a mean improvement in acuity of 0.27 logMAR (SD 0.22) for the amblyopic eye. Importantly, acuity gains were not correlated with a reduction in suppression. BBV is a binocular treatment for amblyopia that can be self-administered at home (with remote monitoring), producing rapid and substantial benefits that cannot be solely mediated by a reduction in interocular suppression.

  18. Preparing for an Important Event: Demonstrating the Modern View of Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Art; Kalat, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Explains a simple classroom demonstration of the modern view of classical conditioning. Suggests that the exercise is a useful demonstration of the view that classical conditioning helps prepare an organism for an upcoming event. Argues that the demonstration can show students that classical conditioning is broader and more intriguing than…

  19. The time course of binocular rivalry during the phases of the menstrual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jocelyn L.; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Patel, Vaama; Blake, Randolph

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when markedly different inputs to the two eyes initiate alternations in perceptual dominance between the two eyes' views. A link between individual differences in perceptual dynamics of rivalry and concentrations of GABA, a prominent inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, has highlighted binocular rivalry as a potential tool to investigate inhibitory processes in the brain. The present experiment investigated whether previously reported fluctuations of GABA concentrations in a healthy menstrual cycle (Epperson et al., 2002) also are associated with measurable changes in rivalry dynamics within individuals. We obtained longitudinal measures of alternation rate, dominance, and mixture durations in 300 rivalry tracking blocks measured over 5 weeks from healthy female participants who monitored the start of the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Although we demonstrate robust and stable individual differences in rivalry dynamics, across analytic approaches and dependent measures, we found no significant change or even trends across menstrual phases in the temporal dynamics of dominance percepts. We found only sparse between-phase differences in skew and kurtosis on mixture percepts when data were pooled across sessions and blocks. These results suggest a complex dynamic between hormonal steroids, binocular rivalry, and GABAeric signaling in the brain and thus implicate the need to consider a systemic perspective when linking GABA with perceptual alternations in binocular rivalry. PMID:28006072

  20. Target Image Matching Algorithm Based on Binocular CCD Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed target image in a subpixel level matching algorithm for binocular CCD ranging, which is based on the principle of binocular CCD ranging. In the paper, firstly, we introduced the ranging principle of the binocular ranging system and deduced a binocular parallax formula. Secondly, we deduced the algorithm which was named improved cross-correlation matching algorithm and cubic surface fitting algorithm for target images matched, and it could achieve a subpixel level matching for binocular CCD ranging images. Lastly, through experiment we have analyzed and verified the actual CCD ranging images, then analyzed the errors of the experimental results and corrected the formula of calculating system errors. Experimental results showed that the actual measurement accuracy of a target within 3 km was higher than 0.52%, which meet the accuracy requirements of the high precision binocular ranging.

  1. Adapting stereoscopic movies to the viewing conditions using depth-preserving and artifact-free novel view synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devernay, Frédéric; Duch"ne, Sylvain; Ramos-Peon, Adrian

    2011-03-01

    The 3D shape perceived from viewing a stereoscopic movie depends on the viewing conditions, most notably on the screen size and distance, and depth and size distortions appear because of the differences between the shooting and viewing geometries. When the shooting geometry is constrained, or when the same stereoscopic movie must be displayed with different viewing geometries (e.g. in a movie theater and on a 3DTV), these depth distortions may be reduced by novel view synthesis techniques. They usually involve three steps: computing the stereo disparity, computing a disparity-dependent 2D mapping from the original stereo pair to the synthesized views, and finally composing the synthesized views. In this paper, we focus on the second and third step: we examine how to generate new views so that the perceived depth is similar to the original scene depth, and we propose a method to detect and reduce artifacts in the third and last step, these artifacts being created by errors contained in the disparity from the first step.

  2. Automated Detection of Ocular Alignment with Binocular Retinal Birefringence Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David G.; Shah, Ankoor S.; Sau, Soma; Nassif, Deborah; Guyton, David L.

    2003-06-01

    We previously developed a retinal birefringence scanning (RBS) device to detect eye fixation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new binocular RBS (BRBS) instrument can detect simultaneous fixation of both eyes. Control (nonmyopic and myopic) and strabismic subjects were studied by use of BRBS at a fixation distance of 45 cm. Binocularity (the percentage of measurements with bilateral fixation) was determined from the BRBS output. All nonstrabismic subjects with good quality signals had binocularity >75%. Binocularity averaged 5% in four subjects with strabismus (range of 0 -20%). BRBS may potentially be used to screen individuals for abnormal eye alignment.

  3. Transference in view of a classical conditioning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Merav; Kacen, Lea

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative metasynthetic study, addressing 33 transference case studies, that investigates the interrelationship of the transference concept from psychoanalysis and cognitive-behavioral concepts in an attempt to construct a theoretical platform for clinical integration. Relationship between categories analysis was used to compare Luborsky's (1998) transference components (wish, response from other, and response of self) and cognitive-behavioral ones. Results showed reciprocal relations between transference and classical conditioning. Furthermore, explicit occurrences of distorted thinking due to overgeneralization were found in more than 90% of the cases. A conceptual model describes transference as a conditioned response activated by thematic conditioning, a particular case of classical conditioning that repeatedly pairs a given interpersonal situation with internal thematic stimuli, thus shaping the person's narrative. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed as well.

  4. Eye tracking under dichoptic viewing conditions: a practical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brascamp, Jan W; Naber, Marnix

    2017-08-01

    In several research contexts it is important to obtain eye-tracking measures while presenting visual stimuli independently to each of the two eyes (dichoptic stimulation). However, the hardware that allows dichoptic viewing, such as mirrors, often interferes with high-quality eye tracking, especially when using a video-based eye tracker. Here we detail an approach to combining mirror-based dichoptic stimulation with video-based eye tracking, centered on the fact that some mirrors, although they reflect visible light, are selectively transparent to the infrared wavelength range in which eye trackers record their signal. Although the method we propose is straightforward, affordable (on the order of US$1,000) and easy to implement, for many purposes it makes for an improvement over existing methods, which tend to require specialized equipment and often compromise on the quality of the visual stimulus and/or the eye tracking signal. The proposed method is compatible with standard display screens and eye trackers, and poses no additional limitations on the quality or nature of the stimulus presented or the data obtained. We include an evaluation of the quality of eye tracking data obtained using our method, and a practical guide to building a specific version of the setup used in our laboratories.

  5. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel García-Muñoz

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3 were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies.

  6. Binocular cyclotorsion in superior vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, R; Pellegrino, A; Ricci, G; Cagini, C; Faralli, M

    2017-11-30

    Conjugated cyclotorsion of the eyes toward the affected side can commonly be observed in vestibular neuritis. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in cyclotorsion between the ipsi- and contralesional eye during selective involvement of the superior branch of the vestibular nerve. We studied binocular cyclotorsion through ocular fundus photographs in 10 patients affected by acute superior vestibular neuritis (SVN). Cyclotorsion was also studied in 20 normal subjects. All SVN patients showed an ipsilesional cycloversion of the eyes. Normal subjects exhibited a constant mild excyclovergence (6.42 ± 2.34°). In SVN patients, contralateral incyclotorsion (8.4 ± 8.14°) was lower and not normally distributed compared to ipsilateral eye excyclotorsion (17.9 ± 4.36°) with no correlation between them. The interocular difference in cyclodeviation could be related to the starting physiological excyclovergence, to different tonic effects on the extraocular muscles of the two eyes and to the different influence of spontaneous nystagmus on cyclodeviation in the two eyes. We recommend referring only to ipsilateral excyclotorsion in the evaluation of utricular function during SVN and its subsequent compensation. Further studies are required to determine the binocular cyclotorsion in the case of other kinds of selective involvement of the vestibular nerve. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  7. Binocular Vision and the Stroop Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, François; Kapoula, Zoï

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies report a link between optometric results, learning disabilities, and problems in reading. This study examines the correlations between optometric tests of binocular vision, namely, of vergence and accommodation, reading speed, and cognitive executive functions as measured by the Stroop test. Fifty-one students (mean age, 20.43 ± 1.25 years) were given a complete eye examination. They then performed the reading test L'Alouette and the Stroop interference test at their usual reading distance. Criteria for selection were the absence of significant refractive uncorrected error, strabismus, amblyopia, color vision defects, and other neurologic findings. The results show a correlation between positive fusional vergences (PFVs) at near distance and the interference effect (IE) in the Stroop test: the higher the PFV value is, the less the IE. Furthermore, the subgroup of 11 students presenting convergence insufficiency, according to Scheiman and Wick criteria (2002), showed a significantly higher IE during the Stroop test than the other students (N = 18) who had normal binocular vision without symptoms at near. Importantly, there is no correlation between reading speed and PFV either for the entire sample or for the subgroups. These results suggest for the first time a link between convergence capacity and the interference score in the Stroop test. Such a link is attributable to the fact that vergence control and cognitive functions mobilize the same cortical areas, for example, parietofrontal areas. The results are in favor of our hypothesis that vergence is a vector of attentional and cognitive functions.

  8. Combining Motion-Induced Blindness with Binocular Rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jaworska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion-induced blindness (MIB and binocular rivalry (BR are examples of multistable phenomena in which our perception varies despite constant retinal input. It has been suggested that both phenomena are related and share a common underlying mechanism. We tried to determine whether experimental manipulations of the target dot and the mask systematically affect MIB and BR in an experimental paradigm that can elicit both phenomena. Eighteen observers fixated the center of a split-screen stereo display that consisted of a distracter mask and a superimposed target dot with different colour (isoluminant Red/Green in corresponding peripheral areas of the left and right eye. Observers reported perceived colour and disappearance of the target dot by pressing and releasing corresponding keys. In a within-subjects design the mask was presented in rivalry or not—with orthogonal drift in the left and right eye or with the same drift in both eyes. In control conditions the mask remained stationary. In addition, the size of the target dot was varied (small, medium, and large. Our results suggest that MIB measured by normalized frequency and duration of target disappearance and BR measured by normalized frequency and duration of colour reversals of the target were both affected by motion in the mask. Surprisingly, binocular rivalry in the mask had only a small effect on BR of the target and virtually no effect on MIB. The overall pattern of normalized MIB and BR measures, however, differed across experimental conditions. In conclusion, the results show some degree of dissociation between MIB and BR. Further analyses will inform whether or not the two phenomena occur independently of each other.

  9. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W A

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter). By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  10. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W. A. Wijntjes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter. By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  11. The reproducibility of binocular pattern reversal visual evoked potentials: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellow, Tessa B; Liasis, Alki; Lyons, Ruth; Thompson, Dorothy A

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the within-participant variability over time of both amplitude and peak latency measures of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). As a large number of factors are known to contribute to the variability of the pVEPs (such as fixation instability and drowsiness), testing was conducted in controlled conditions with two co-operative participants. PVEPs were recorded during 24 sessions, over an eight-week period using the same equipment and recording settings. The participants viewed a plasma monitor binocularly from a distance of 1 meter. High contrast (97%), black and white checks of side subtense 50', 25', and 12.5' pattern reversed 3/s in a 28 degree test field. The different sized checks were presented in a pseudo-random order. Three runs, each of 100 trials, were acquired to each stimulus from an active electrode placed at Oz referred to aFz. The amplitude of N80-P100 and the latency of P100 were measured. P100 amplitude and latency were stable across sessions and did not depend upon the order of check size presentation. As expected, variation in amplitude was greater than peak latency. The coefficients of variation for different check sizes and participants were 9-14% for pVEP amplitude, but only 1-2% for P100 latency.

  12. Assessing Attention Deficit by Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan Antonio; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan Jairo; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Medina-Peña, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether the frequency and duration of the periods of suppression of a percept in a binocular rivalry (BR) task can be used to distinguish between participants with ADHD and controls. A total of 122 participants (6-15 years) were assigned to three groups: ADHD-Combined (ADHD-C), ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and controls. They each performed a BR task and two measures were recorded: alternation rate and duration of exclusive dominance periods. ADHD-C group presented fewer alternations and showed greater variability than did the control group; results for the ADHD-I group being intermediate between the two. The duration of dominance periods showed a differential profile: In control group, it remained stable over time, whereas in the clinical groups, it decreased logarithmically as the task progressed. The differences between groups in relation to the BR indicators can be attributed to the activity of involuntary inhibition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Binocular treatment of amblyopia using videogames (BRAVO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Lam, Carly S Y; Dai, Shuan; Gao, Tina Y; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kowal, Lionel; Parag, Varsha; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Walker, Natalie; Wadham, Angela; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-10-18

    Amblyopia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is characterised by visual impairment in one eye and compromised binocular visual function. Existing evidence-based treatments for children include patching the nonamblyopic eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Currently there are no widely accepted treatments available for adults with amblyopia. The aim of this trial is to assess the efficacy of a new binocular, videogame-based treatment for amblyopia in older children and adults. We hypothesise that binocular treatment will significantly improve amblyopic eye visual acuity relative to placebo treatment. The BRAVO study is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre trial to assess the effectiveness of a novel videogame-based binocular treatment for amblyopia. One hundred and eight participants aged 7 years or older with anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia (defined as ≥0.2 LogMAR interocular visual acuity difference, ≥0.3 LogMAR amblyopic eye visual acuity and no ocular disease) will be recruited via ophthalmologists, optometrists, clinical record searches and public advertisements at five sites in New Zealand, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia. Eligible participants will be randomised by computer in a 1:1 ratio, with stratification by age group: 7-12, 13-17 and 18 years and older. Participants will be randomised to receive 6 weeks of active or placebo home-based binocular treatment. Treatment will be in the form of a modified interactive falling-blocks game, implemented on a 5th generation iPod touch device viewed through red/green anaglyphic glasses. Participants and those assessing outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is the change in best-corrected distance visual acuity in the amblyopic eye from baseline to 6 weeks post randomisation. Secondary outcomes include distance and near visual acuity, stereopsis, interocular suppression, angle of strabismus (where applicable) measured at

  14. Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy. PMID:26603125

  15. Assessing Binocular Interaction in Amblyopia and Its Clinical Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Miller, Alexandra; Kazlas, Melanie; Hunter, David G.; Bex, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. Methods Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n = 7), anisometropic amblyopia (n = 6), strabismus without amblyopia (n = 15) and normal vision (n = 40). Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe to the cyclopean perceived phase of a dichoptic pair of gratings whose contrast ratios were systematically varied. The resulting effective contrast ratio of the weak eye was taken as an indicator of interocular imbalance. Testing was performed in an ophthalmology clinic under 8 mins. We examined the relationships between our binocular interaction measure and standard clinical measures indicating abnormal binocularity such as interocular acuity difference and stereoacuity. The test-retest reliability of the testing method was also evaluated. Results Compared to normally-sighted controls, amblyopes exhibited significantly reduced effective contrast (∼20%) of the weak eye, suggesting a higher contrast requirement for the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. We found that the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye covaried with standard clincal measures of binocular vision. Our results showed that there was a high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements (r = 0.94, pamblyopia. PMID:24959842

  16. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes & binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today's market.

  17. An iPod treatment of amblyopia: an updated binocular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, B; Black, J M; Machara, G; Zhang, P; Bobier, W R; Cooperstock, J

    2012-02-15

    We describe the successful translation of computerized and space-consuming laboratory equipment for the treatment of suppression to a small handheld iPod device (Apple iPod; Apple Inc., Cupertino, California). A portable and easily obtainable Apple iPod display, using current video technology offers an ideal solution for the clinical treatment of suppression. The following is a description of the iPod device and illustrates how a video game has been adapted to provide the appropriate stimulation to implement our recent antisuppression treatment protocol. One to 2 hours per day of video game playing under controlled conditions for 1 to 3 weeks can improve acuity and restore binocular function, including stereopsis in adults, well beyond the age at which traditional patching is used. This handheld platform provides a convenient and effective platform for implementing the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia in the clinic, home, or elsewhere. American Optometric Association.

  18. Comparison of binocular through-focus visual acuity with monovision and a small aperture inlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christina; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M.; Fernández, Enrique J.; Artal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Corneal small aperture inlays provide extended depth of focus as a solution to presbyopia. As this procedure is becoming more popular, it is interesting to compare its performance with traditional approaches, such as monovision. Here, binocular visual acuity was measured as a function of object vergence in three subjects by using a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer. Visual acuity was measured at two luminance levels (photopic and mesopic) under several optical conditions: 1) natural vision (4 mm pupils, best corrected distance vision), 2) pure-defocus monovision ( + 1.25 D add in the nondominant eye), 3) small aperture monovision (1.6 mm pupil in the nondominant eye), and 4) combined small aperture and defocus monovision (1.6 mm pupil and a + 0.75 D add in the nondominant eye). Visual simulations of a small aperture corneal inlay suggest that the device extends DOF as effectively as traditional monovision in photopic light, in both cases at the cost of binocular summation. However, individual factors, such as aperture centration or sensitivity to mesopic conditions should be considered to assure adequate visual outcomes. PMID:25360355

  19. Low-cost micro condition monitoring system based on LabVIEW and SQL server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhizhou; Guo, Yu; Fan, Yajun

    2013-03-01

    Due to most of the existing condition monitoring systems have a rather complicated structure and the high cost makes even big companies can only afford on a few key equipments, a developing scheme of low-cost micro condition monitoring system based on LabVIEW and SQL Server is proposed in this paper. The low-cost micro condition monitoring system can realize the effective monitoring to general machinery by full taking the advantages of LabVIEW and SQL Server respectively. The system supplements the existing condition monitoring systems to some extent. It affords good applicability and expanding ability, which make it suitable for the equipment management of enterprises for general equipment condition monitoring and health maintenance.

  20. The Views of New Teachers at Private Teaching Institutions about Working Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine the views of teachers about working conditions working at private teaching institutions for 5 years or less. The research was designed as a phenomenology model. The data were collected by focus group interview technique of qualitative research method. 10 teachers from private teaching institutions…

  1. The Effects of Involvement, Message Appeal, and Viewing Conditions on Memory and Evaluation of TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Glen; Thorson, Esther

    A study tested an information processing model that incorporates the concepts of episodic and semantic memory. The model was designed to provide for the concurrent study of three advertising and communication variables: product involvement, message appeal, and distraction in viewing conditions. Among the five hypotheses being tested were that…

  2. Perception of contextual size illusions by honeybees in restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Scarlett R; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Garcia, Jair E; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Dyer, Adrian G

    2017-11-29

    How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested whether honeybees perceive contextual size illusions, and whether errors in perception of size differed under restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions. When the viewing distance was unrestricted, there was an effect of context on size perception and thus, similar to humans, honeybees perceived contrast size illusions. However, when the viewing distance was restricted, bees were able to judge absolute size accurately and did not succumb to visual illusions, despite differing contextual information. Our results show that accurate size perception depends on viewing conditions, and thus may explain the wide variation in previously reported findings across species. These results provide insight into the evolution of visual mechanisms across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, and suggest convergent evolution of a visual processing solution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Study on flexible calibration method for binocular stereo vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Sun, Huashu; Sun, Changku

    2008-12-01

    Using a binocular stereo vision system for 3D coordinate measurement, system calibration is an important factor for measurement precision. In this paper we present a flexible calibration method for binocular stereo system calibration to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera and the exterior orientation of the turntable's axis which is installed in front of the binocular stereo vision system to increase the system measurement range. Using a new flexible planar pattern with four big circles and an array of small circles as reference points for calibration, binocular stereo calibration is realized with Zhang Plane-based calibration method without specialized knowledge of 3D geometry. By putting a standard ball in front of the binocular stereo vision system, a sequence pictures is taken at the same by both camera with a few different rotation angles of the turntable. With the method of space intersection of two straight lines, the reference points, the ball center at each turntable rotation angles, for axis calibration are figured out. Because of the rotation of the turntable, the trace of ball is a circle, whose center is on the turntable's axis. All ball centers rotated are in a plane perpendicular to the axis. The exterior orientation of the turntable axis is calibrated according to the calibration model. The measurement on a column bearing is performed in the experiment, with the final measurement precision better than 0.02mm.

  4. Predicting Visual Consciousness Electrophysiologically from Intermittent Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Shea, Robert P.; Kornmeier, Jürgen; Roeber, Urte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We sought brain activity that predicts visual consciousness. Methods We used electroencephalography (EEG) to measure brain activity to a 1000-ms display of sine-wave gratings, oriented vertically in one eye and horizontally in the other. This display yields binocular rivalry: irregular alternations in visual consciousness between the images viewed by the eyes. We replaced both gratings with 200 ms of darkness, the gap, before showing a second display of the same rival gratings for another 1000 ms. We followed this by a 1000-ms mask then a 2000-ms inter-trial interval (ITI). Eleven participants pressed keys after the second display in numerous trials to say whether the orientation of the visible grating changed from before to after the gap or not. Each participant also responded to numerous non-rivalry trials in which the gratings had identical orientations for the two eyes and for which the orientation of both either changed physically after the gap or did not. Results We found that greater activity from lateral occipital-parietal-temporal areas about 180 ms after initial onset of rival stimuli predicted a change in visual consciousness more than 1000 ms later, on re-presentation of the rival stimuli. We also found that less activity from parietal, central, and frontal electrodes about 400 ms after initial onset of rival stimuli predicted a change in visual consciousness about 800 ms later, on re-presentation of the rival stimuli. There was no such predictive activity when the change in visual consciousness occurred because the stimuli changed physically. Conclusion We found early EEG activity that predicted later visual consciousness. Predictive activity 180 ms after onset of the first display may reflect adaption of the neurons mediating visual consciousness in our displays. Predictive activity 400 ms after onset of the first display may reflect a less-reliable brain state mediating visual consciousness. PMID:24124536

  5. Loewald's "binocular vision" and the art of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J David

    2008-12-01

    In his 1988 monograph on sublimation, Hans Loewald describes the process as a transformation of the drives aimed at re-creating what he presumes to be the subjective experience of infantile attachment. To describe this experience, he invokes a state of mind that he calls "binocular vision." He maintains that this mental state may arise not only in activities usually associated with sublimation, such as the creation and enjoyment of art, but in all forms of sublimation, including effective psychoanalysis. Because Loewald's discussion is largely theoretical, it does not convey how the concept of binocular vision may inform clinical technique and interdisciplinary study. A comparative application of his theory to psychoanalytic process and to the viewer's response to art enables one to grasp binocular vision as a common aspect of both. It emerges as a useful model with which to conceptualize and integrate the ambiguous reality of analytic experience.

  6. Binocular HMD for fixed-wing aircraft: a trade-off approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Alain M.; Roumes, Corinne; Gardelle, C.; Cursolle, J. P.; Kraus, Jean-Marc

    1993-12-01

    From a physiological point of view, HMDs presenting an image on each eye are known to offer some advantages comparatively to monocular presentation. Besides the obvious fact that a binocular display provides more `natural' visual perception, it also prevents rivalry and improves several components of the visual function, such as perceptual threshold, contrast sensitivity, and visual acuity. Binocular vision is also a crucial element in depth perception, though its main characteristic, stereopsis, is not yet really used. However, these advantages must be paid by an increased technical complexity and added weight on the head, raising safety related concerns, but also comfort and operational (performance) issues, which imply several tradeoffs. An R&D program funded by the French MOD currently aims to build a night attack HMD for experimental flight tests. Human factor basic requirements were to achieve a head supported mass below 2 kg with minimum encumbrance and to project imagery and symbology on the helmet visor with a large Field of View. The optical and mechanical design was first optimized to allow a head/system resultant CG within the safety limits for ejection. Considering experimental results, a tradeoff is made favoring head mobility rather than seeking stability. Two miniature CRTs are used to display imagery coming either from IR, I2 or TV sources, while symbology is projected monocularly. Consideration of operational needs also implies several tradeoffs at this level.

  7. Binocular iPad treatment for amblyopia in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E; Li, Simone L; Jost, Reed M; Morale, Sarah E; De La Cruz, Angie; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Stager, David R

    2015-02-01

    Recent experimental evidence supports a role for binocular visual experience in the treatment of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated binocular visual experience with dichoptic iPad games could effectively treat amblyopia in preschool children. A total of 50 consecutive amblyopic preschool children 3-6.9 years of age were assigned to play sham iPad games (first 5 children) or binocular iPad games (n = 45) for at least 4 hours per week for 4 weeks. Thirty (67%) children in the binocular iPad group and 4 (80%) in the sham iPad group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Visual acuity and stereoacuity were assessed at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 3 months after the cessation of game play. The sham iPad group had no significant improvement in visual acuity (t4 = 0.34, P = 0.75). In the binocular iPad group, mean visual acuity (plus or minus standard error) improved from 0.43 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.34 ± 0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (n = 45; paired t44 = 4.93; P iPad games for ≥8 hours (≥50% compliance) had significantly more visual acuity improvement than children who played 0-4 hours (t43 = 4.21, P = 0.0001). Repeated binocular experience, provided by dichoptic iPad game play, was more effective than sham iPad game play as a treatment for amblyopia in preschool children. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  9. Real-time markerless Augmented Reality for Remote Handling system in bad viewing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaei, Z.; Hahto, A.; Mattila, J.; Siuko, M.; Semeraro, L.

    2011-01-01

    Remote Handling (RH) in harsh environments usually has to tackle the lack of sufficient visual feedback for the human operator due to the limited number of on-site cameras, the not optimized position of the cameras, the poor viewing angles, occlusion, failure, etc. Augmented Reality (AR) enables the user to perceive virtual computer-generated objects in a real scene. The most common goals usually include visibility enhancement and provision of extra information, such as positional data of various objects. The proposed AR system first recognizes and locates the markerless object by using a template based matching algorithm, and then augments the virtual model on top of the recognized item. The tracking algorithm is exploited for locating the object in a continuous sequence of frames. Conceptually, the template is found by computing the similarity between the template and the image frame, for all the relevant template poses (rotation and translation). As a case study, AR interface was displaying measured orientation and transformation of the Water Hydraulic Manipulator (WHMAN) Divertor preloading tool, in near real-time tracking. The bad viewing condition implies on the case when the view angle is such that the interesting features of the object are not in the field of view. The method in this paper was validated in concrete operational context at DTP2. The developed method proved to deliver robust positional and orientation information while augmenting and tracking the moving tool object.

  10. Ptolemy's contributions to the geometry of binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, I P; Wade, N J

    1996-01-01

    Ptolemy's Optics which was written in about the year 150 AD contains an account of the geometry of binocular vision which has been almost totally neglected in the vision literature. An English translation of the relevant passages from the Latin text in Lejeune (1956) is presented together with commentaries and a brief introduction.

  11. The sensitivity of schlieren systems for viewing ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanstead, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    A novel set of simplifying assumptions makes computer prediction of schlieren sensitivity possible economically. Predictions correlate with experimental and published figures. Other means of improving sensitivity are given. A compact schlieren system giving binocular stereoscopic viewing is described

  12. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  13. In vivo near-infrared fluorescence three-dimensional positioning system with binocular stereovision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bofan; Jin, Wei; Wang, Ying; Jin, Qinhan; Mu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence is a powerful tool for in-vivo imaging in living animals. The traditional in-vivo fluorescence imaging equipment is based on single-view two-dimensional imaging systems. However, they cannot meet the needs for accurate positioning during modern scientific research. A near-infrared in-vivo fluorescence imaging system is demonstrated, which has the capability of deep source signal detecting and three-dimensional positioning. A three-dimensional coordinates computing (TDCP) method including a preprocess algorithm is presented based on binocular stereo vision theory, to figure out the solution for diffusive nature of light in tissue and the emission spectra overlap of fluorescent labels. This algorithm is validated to be efficient to extract targets from multispectral images and determine the spot center of biological interests. Further data analysis indicates that this TDCP method could be used in three-dimensional positioning of the fluorescent target in small animals. The study also suggests that the combination of a large power laser and deep cooling charge-coupled device will provide an attractive approach for fluorescent detection from deep sources. This work demonstrates the potential of binocular stereo vision theory for three-dimensional positioning for living animal in-vivo imaging.

  14. Parts-based stereoscopic image assessment by learning binocular manifold color visual properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyong; Yu, Mei; Luo, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-11-01

    Existing stereoscopic image quality assessment (SIQA) methods are mostly based on the luminance information, in which color information is not sufficiently considered. Actually, color is part of the important factors that affect human visual perception, and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and manifold learning are in line with human visual perception. We propose an SIQA method based on learning binocular manifold color visual properties. To be more specific, in the training phase, a feature detector is created based on NMF with manifold regularization by considering color information, which not only allows parts-based manifold representation of an image, but also manifests localized color visual properties. In the quality estimation phase, visually important regions are selected by considering different human visual attention, and feature vectors are extracted by using the feature detector. Then the feature similarity index is calculated and the parts-based manifold color feature energy (PMCFE) for each view is defined based on the color feature vectors. The final quality score is obtained by considering a binocular combination based on PMCFE. The experimental results on LIVE I and LIVE Π 3-D IQA databases demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve much higher consistency with subjective evaluations than the state-of-the-art SIQA methods.

  15. Binocular rivalry and multi-stable perception: independence and monocular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Helen; Arnold, Derek H

    2010-08-12

    When discrepant images are shown to the two eyes, each can intermittently disappear. This is known as binocular rivalry (BR). The causes of BR are debated. One view is that BR is driven by a low-level visual process, characterized by competition between monocular channels. Another is that BR is driven by higher level processes involved in interpreting ambiguous input. This would link BR to other phenomena, wherein perception changes without input changes. We reasoned that if this were true, the timing of BR changes might be related to the timing of changes in other multi-stable stimuli. We tested this using combinations of simple (orthogonal gratings) and complex (pictures of houses and faces) stimuli. We also presented simple stimuli in conjunction with a stimulus that induced an ambiguous direction of rotation. We found that the timing of simple BR changes was unrelated to the timing of either complex BR changes or to direction changes within an ambiguous rotation. However, the timings of changes within proximate BR stimuli, both simple and complex, were related, but only when similar images were encoded in the same monocular channels. These observations emphasize the importance of monocular channel interactions in determining the timing of binocular rivalry changes.

  16. A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation. (paper)

  17. Zograscopic viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The "zograscope" is a "visual aid" (commonly known as "optical machine" in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened "plasticity" of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common "explanations" of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance.

  18. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim

  19. Maximum reading speed and binocular summation in patients with central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarita-Nistor, Luminita; Brent, Michael H; Markowitz, Samuel N; Steinbach, Martin J; González, Esther G

    2013-10-01

    Visual acuity is a poor predictor of the maximum reading speed of patients with central vision loss. This study examines the effects of binocular summation of acuity on the maximum reading speed of these patients. Prospective, observational case series. Twenty patients with central vision loss participated. Maximum reading speed was measured binocularly using the MNREAD acuity charts. Monocular and binocular acuities were measured with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Binocular summation was evaluated with a binocular ratio (BR) calculated as the ratio between the acuity of the better eye to binocular acuity. Fixation stability and preferred retinal locus (PRL) distance from the former fovea were evaluated with the MP-1 microperimetre. Six patients experienced acuity summation (BR > 1.05), 5 experienced acuity inhibition (BR reading speed was significantly slower (p reading speed for the overall sample (r[18] = 0.49, p = 0.03). BR together with PRL distance from the former fovea in the better eye explained 45% of the variance in maximum reading speed. Binocular summation of acuity rather than visual acuity alone affects maximum reading speed of patients with central vision loss. Patients with binocular inhibition read significantly slower than those with binocular summation or equality. Assessment of binocular summation is important when devising reading rehabilitation techniques. © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of lighting conditions on responses of cells selective for face views in the macaque temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, J K; Perrett, D I; Oram, M W; Benson, P J; Dittrich, W H

    1992-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying recognition of objects must overcome the changes in an object's appearance caused by inconsistent viewing conditions, particularly those that occur with changes in lighting. In humans, lesions to the posterior visual association cortex can impair the ability to recognize objects and faces across different lighting conditions. Inferotemporal lesions in monkey have been shown to produce a similar difficulty in object matching tasks. Here we report on the extent to which cell responses selective for the face and other views of the head in monkey temporal cortex tolerate changes in lighting. For each cell studied the (preferred) head view eliciting maximal response was first established under normal lighting. Cells were then tested with the preferred head view lit from different directions (i.e. front, above, below or from the side). Responses of some cells failed to show complete generalization across all lighting conditions but together as a "population" they responded equally strongly under all four lighting conditions. Further tests on sub-groups of cells revealed that stimulus selectivity was maintained despite unusual lighting. The cells discriminated between head and control stimuli and between different views of the head independent of the lighting direction. The results indicate that constancy of recognition across different lighting conditions is apparent in the responses of single cells in the temporal cortex. Lighting constancy appears to be established by matching the retinal image to view-specific descriptions of objects (i.e. neurons which compute object structure from a limited range of perspective views).

  1. Binocular Rivalry in a Competitive Neural Network with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2010-01-01

    We study binocular rivalry in a competitive neural network with synaptic depression. In particular, we consider two coupled hypercolums within primary visual cortex (V1), representing orientation selective cells responding to either left or right eye inputs. Coupling between hypercolumns is dominated by inhibition, especially for neurons with dissimilar orientation preferences. Within hypercolumns, recurrent connectivity is excitatory for similar orientations and inhibitory for different orientations. All synaptic connections are modifiable by local synaptic depression. When the hypercolumns are driven by orthogonal oriented stimuli, it is possible to induce oscillations that are representative of binocular rivalry. We first analyze the occurrence of oscillations in a space-clamped version of the model using a fast-slow analys is, taking advantage of the fact that depression evolves much slower than population activity. We th en analyze the onset of oscillations in the full spatially extended system by carrying out a piecewise smooth stability analysis of single (winner-take-all) and double (fusion) bumps within the network. Although our stability analysis takes into account only instabilities associated with real eigenvalues, it identifies points of instability that are consistent with what is found numerically. In particular, we show that, in regions of parameter space where double bumps are unstable and no single bumps exist, binocular rivalry can arise as a slow alternation between either population supporting a bump. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Recentering bias for temporal saccades only: Evidence from binocular recordings of eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagu, Jérôme; Doré-Mazars, Karine; Vergne, Judith; Lemoine-Lardennois, Christelle; Vergilino-Perez, Dorine

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that the saccadic system presents multiple asymmetries. Notably, temporal (as opposed to nasal) saccades, centripetal (as opposed to centrifugal) saccades (i.e., the recentering bias) and saccades from the abducting eye (as opposed to the concomitant saccades from the adducting eye) exhibit higher peak velocities. However, these naso-temporal and centripetal-centrifugal asymmetries have always been studied separately. It is thus unknown which asymmetry prevails when there is a conflict between both asymmetries, i.e., in case of centripetal nasal saccades or centrifugal temporal saccades. This study involved binocular recordings of eye movements to examine both the naso-temporal and centripetal-centrifugal asymmetries so as to determine how they work together. Twenty-eight participants had to make saccades toward stimuli presented either centrally or in the periphery in binocular conditions. We found that temporal and abducting saccades always exhibit higher peak velocities than nasal and adducting saccades, irrespective of their centripetal or centrifugal nature. However, we showed that the velocity advantage for centripetal saccades is only found for temporal and not for nasal saccades. Such a result is of importance as it could provide new insights about the physiological origins of the asymmetries found in the saccadic system.

  3. Is there any evidence for the validity of diagnostic criteria used for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Martínez, Pilar; García-Muñoz, Ángel; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the diagnostic criteria used in the scientific literature published in the past 25 years for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions and to explore if the epidemiological analysis of diagnostic validity has been used to propose which clinical criteria should be used for diagnostic purposes. We carried out a systematic review of papers on accommodative and non-strabic binocular disorders published from 1986 to 2012 analysing the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS databases. We admitted original articles about diagnosis of these anomalies in any population. We identified 839 articles and 12 studies were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. The review shows a wide range of clinical signs and cut-off points between authors. Only 3 studies (regarding accommodative anomalies) assessed diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs. Their results suggest using the accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility for diagnosing accommodative insufficiency and a high positive relative accommodation for accommodative excess. The remaining 9 articles did not analyze diagnostic accuracy, assessing a diagnosis with the criteria the authors considered. We also found differences between studies in the way of considering patients' symptomatology. 3 studies of 12 analyzed, performed a validation of a symptom survey used for convergence insufficiency. Scientific literature reveals differences between authors according to diagnostic criteria for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions. Diagnostic accuracy studies show that there is only certain evidence for accommodative conditions. For binocular anomalies there is only evidence about a validated questionnaire for convergence insufficiency with no data of diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Binocular Symmetry/Asymmetry of Scleral Redness as a Cue for Sadness, Healthiness, and Attractiveness in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Provine

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Among primates, only humans have the white sclerae that provide the ground necessary to display their own color and that of the overlying conjunctiva. Scleral color, primarily redness, provides cues of socially and biologically significant information about an individual. The present study examines the effect of the asymmetry of binocular scleral redness on perceived sadness, healthiness, and attractiveness by contrasting ratings of images of individuals who had one, both, or neither sclera reddened by digital editing. Building upon previous research, this study further defines the details of the scleral color display and contributes to the more general issue of facial and body symmetry, predictors of phenotypic condition and genotypic quality that are of interest to evolutionary theorists. Individuals with binocular and monocular redness were rated as sadder, less healthy, and less attractive than those with untinted control sclerae, with ratings corresponding to the degree of redness or whiteness. Bilaterally symmetrical (binocular scleral redness or whiteness provided anchorage points for ratings, with ratings for bilaterally asymmetrical (monocular redness or whiteness falling between them; there was no unique effect of asymmetry.

  5. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Wijntjes, Maarten W. A.

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we...

  6. The future of binocular rivalry research: reaching through a window on consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van Ee, Raymond; Miller, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Binocular rivalry is often considered an experimental window on the neural processes of consciousness. We propose three distinct approaches to exploit this window. First, one may look through the window, using binocular rivalry as a passive tool to dissociate unaltered sensory input from wavering

  7. The Large Binocular Telescope as an early ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John; Hinz, Philip; Ashby, David

    2013-12-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has two 8.4-m primary mirrors on a common AZ-EL mounting. The dual Gregorian optical configuration for LBT includes a pair of adaptive secondaries. The adaptive secondaries are working reliably for science observations as well as for the commissioning of new instruments. Many aspects of the LBT telescope design have been optimized for the combination of the two optical trains. The telescope structure is relatively compact and stiff with a lowest eigenfrequency near 8 Hz. A vibration measurement system of accelerometers (OVMS) has been installed to characterize the vibrations of the telescope. A first-generation of the binocular telescope control system has been deployed on-sky. Two instruments, LBTI and LINC-NIRVANA, have been built to take advantage of the 22.65-m diffraction baseline when the telescope is phased. This diffraction-limited imaging capability (beyond 20-m baseline) positions LBT as a forerunner of the new generation of extremely large telescopes (ELT). We discuss here some of the experiences ofphasing the two sides of the telescope starting in 2010. We also report some lessons learned during on-sky commissioning of the LBTI instrument.

  8. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  9. Reinforcement of perceptual inference: reward and punishment alter conscious visual perception during binocular rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor eWilbertz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception is an inferential process, which becomes immediately evident when sensory information is conflicting or ambiguous and thus allows for more than one perceptual interpretation. Thinking the idea of perception as inference through to the end results in a blurring of boundaries between perception and action selection, as perceptual inference implies the construction of a percept as an active process. Here we therefore wondered whether perception shares a key characteristic of action selection, namely that it is shaped by reinforcement learning. In two behavioral experiments, we used binocular rivalry to examine whether perceptual inference can be influenced by the association of perceptual outcomes with reward or punishment, respectively, in analogy to instrumental conditioning. Binocular rivalry was evoked by two orthogonal grating stimuli presented to the two eyes, resulting in perceptual alternations between the two gratings. Perception was tracked indirectly and objectively through a target detection task, which allowed us to preclude potential reporting biases. Monetary rewards or punishments were given repeatedly during perception of only one of the two rivalling stimuli. We found an increase in dominance durations for the percept associated with reward, relative to the non-rewarded percept. In contrast, punishment led to an increase of the non-punished compared to a relative decrease of the punished percept. Our results show that perception shares key characteristics with action selection, in that it is influenced by reward and punishment in opposite directions, thus narrowing the gap between the conceptually separated domains of perception and action selection. We conclude that perceptual inference is an adaptive process that is shaped by its consequences.

  10. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  11. Telemetry correlation and visualization at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Kellee R.; Summers, Douglas M.; Biddick, Christopher; Hooper, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    To achieve highly efficient observatory operations requires continuous evaluation and improvement of facility and instrumentation metrics. High quality metrics requires a foundation of robust and complete observatory telemetry. At the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO), a variety of telemetry-capturing mechanisms exist, but few tools have thus far been created to facilitate studies of the data. In an effort to make all observatory telemetry data easy to use and broadly available, we have developed a suite of tools using in-house development and open source applications. This paper will explore our strategies for consolidating, parameterizing, and correlating any LBTO telemetry data to achieve easily available, web-based two- and three-dimensional time series data visualization.

  12. Origins of strabismus and loss of binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Quoc, Emmanuel; Milleret, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Strabismus is a frequent ocular disorder that develops early in life in humans. As a general rule, it is characterized by a misalignment of the visual axes which most often appears during the critical period of visual development. However other characteristics of strabismus may vary greatly among subjects, for example, being convergent or divergent, horizontal or vertical, with variable angles of deviation. Binocular vision may also vary greatly. Our main goal here is to develop the idea that such “polymorphy” reflects a wide variety in the possible origins of strabismus. We propose that strabismus must be considered as possibly resulting from abnormal genetic and/or acquired factors, anatomical and/or functional abnormalities, in the sensory and/or the motor systems, both peripherally and/or in the brain itself. We shall particularly develop the possible “central” origins of strabismus. Indeed, we are convinced that it is time now to open this “black box” in order to move forward. All of this will be developed on the basis of both presently available data in literature (including most recent data) and our own experience. Both data in biology and medicine will be referred to. Our conclusions will hopefully help ophthalmologists to better understand strabismus and to develop new therapeutic strategies in the future. Presently, physicians eliminate or limit the negative effects of such pathology both on the development of the visual system and visual perception through the use of optical correction and, in some cases, extraocular muscle surgery. To better circumscribe the problem of the origins of strabismus, including at a cerebral level, may improve its management, in particular with respect to binocular vision, through innovating tools by treating the pathology at the source. PMID:25309358

  13. Binocular diplopia in a tertiary hospital: Aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Fuentes, D; Gómez de Liaño, P; Ordóñez, M A

    2017-12-01

    To study the causes, diagnosis and treatment in a case series of binocular diplopia. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients seen in the Diplopia Unit of a tertiary centre during a one-year period. Diplopia was classified as: acute≤1 month since onset; subacute (1-6 months); and chronic (>6 months). Resolution of diplopia was classified as: spontaneous if it disappeared without treatment, partial if the course was intermittent, and non-spontaneous if treatment was required. It was considered a good outcome when diplopia disappeared completely (with or without treatment), or when diplopia was intermittent without significantly affecting the quality of life. A total of 60 cases were included. The mean age was 58.65 years (60% female). An acute or subacute presentation was observed in 60% of the patients. The mean onset of diplopia was 82.97 weeks. The most frequent aetiology was ischaemic (45%). The most frequent diagnosis was sixth nerve palsy (38.3%), followed by decompensated strabismus (30%). Neuroimaging showed structural lesions in 17.7% of the patients. There was a spontaneous resolution in 28.3% of the cases, and there was a good outcome with disappearance of the diplopia in 53.3% at the end of the study. The most frequent causes of binocular diplopia were cranial nerve palsies, especially the sixth cranial nerve, followed by decompensated strabismus. Structural lesions in imaging tests were more than expected. Only one third of patients had a spontaneous resolution, and half of them did not have a good outcome despite of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Origins of strabismus and loss of binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBui Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Strabismus is a frequent ocular disorder that develops early in life in humans. As a general rule, it is characterized by a misalignment of the visual axes which most often appears during the critical period of visual development. However other characteristics of strabismus may vary greatly among subjects, for example, being convergent or divergent, horizontal or vertical, with variable angles of deviation. Binocular vision may also vary greatly. Our main goal here is to develop the idea that such polymorphy reflects a wide variety in the possible origins of strabismus. We propose that strabismus must be considered as possibly resulting from abnormal genetic and/or acquired factors, anatomical and/or functional abnormalities, in the sensory and/or the motor systems, both peripherally and/or in the brain itself. We shall particularly develop the possible central origins of strabismus. Indeed, we are convinced that it is time now to open this black box in order to move forward. All of this will be developed on the basis of both presently available data in literature (including most recent data and our own experience. Both data in medicine and biology will be referred to. Our conclusions will hopefully help ophthalmologists to better understand strabismus and to develop new therapeutic strategies in the future. Presently, physicians eliminate or limit the negative effects of such pathology both on the development of the visual system and visual perception through the use of optical correction and, in some cases, extraocular muscle surgery. To better circumscribe the problem of the origins of strabismus, including at a cerebral level, may improve its management, in particular with respect to binocular vision, through innovating tools by treating the pathology at the source.

  15. Doctors' views of working conditions in rural hospitals in the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management support impact negatively on doctors' views of working in district hospitals. Unless these ... and skills gap of district hospital practitioners in .... or tertiary hospitals, were highly regarded as a means of updating skills. Practical hands-on training was preferred to lectures. Lack of time, need for locums, remoteness.

  16. Complete Binocular Blindness as the First Manifestation of HIV-Related Cryptococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Young; Kwon, Seok-Beom; Song, Ki-Bong; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Min, Yang-Ki; Kwon, Ki-Han; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Ocular complications of HIV-related cryptococcal meningitis are reasonably common, but complete binocular blindness as the first manifestation of HIV is extremely rare. A 58-year-old man presented with binocular blindness. He experienced blurred vision for 3 days before the blindness. Mild pleocytosis was present in the cerebrospinal fluid, from which Cryptococcus neoformans was cultured. Serology revealed positivity for HIV antibody. He was treated with antifungal and antiretroviral therapy. This case indicates that HIV-related cryptococcal meningitis should be taken into consideration when determining the cause of unexpected sudden binocular blindness. PMID:19513136

  17. Design of a Binocular Pupil and Gaze Point Detection System Utilizing High Definition Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Durna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel binocular pupil and gaze detection system utilizing a remote full high definition (full HD camera and employing LabVIEW. LabVIEW is inherently parallel and has fewer time-consuming algorithms. Many eye tracker applications are monocular and use low resolution cameras due to real-time image processing difficulties. We utilized the computer’s direct access memory channel for rapid data transmission and processed full HD images with LabVIEW. Full HD images make easier determinations of center coordinates/sizes of pupil and corneal reflection. We modified the camera so that the camera sensor passed only infrared (IR images. Glints were taken as reference points for region of interest (ROI area selection of the eye region in the face image. A morphologic filter was applied for erosion of noise, and a weighted average technique was used for center detection. To test system accuracy with 11 participants, we produced a visual stimulus set up to analyze each eye’s movement. Nonlinear mapping function was utilized for gaze estimation. Pupil size, pupil position, glint position and gaze point coordinates were obtained with free natural head movements in our system. This system also works at 2046 × 1086 resolution at 40 frames per second. It is assumed that 280 frames per second for 640 × 480 pixel images is the case. Experimental results show that the average gaze detection error for 11 participants was 0.76° for the left eye, 0.89° for right eye and 0.83° for the mean of two eyes.

  18. An obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Jia, J.; Li, L.

    In this paper we present an implementation of an obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation The fisheye lenses can improve image acquisition efficiency and handle minimal clearance recovery problem because they provide a large field of view However the fisheye lens introduces significant distortion in the image and this will make it much more difficult to find a one-to-one correspondence In addition we have to improve the system accuracy and efficiency for robot navigation To compute dense depth maps accurately in real time the following five key issues are considered 1 using lookup tables for a tradeoff between time and space in fisheye distortion correction and correspondence matching 2 using an improved incremental calculation scheme for algorithmic optimization 3 multimedia instruction set MMX implementation 4 consistency check to remove wrong stereo matching problems suffering from occlusions or mismatches 5 constraints of the recovery space To realize obstacle detection robustly we use the following three steps 1 extracting the ground plane parameters using Randomized Hough Transform 2 filtering the ground and background 3 locating the obstacles by using connected region detection Experimental results show the system can run at 3 2fps in 2 0GHz PC with 640X480 pixels

  19. Choosing Flourishing: Toward a More "Binocular" Way of Thinking about Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parens, Erik

    There is a long-standing debate between people who can seem to be arguing "for" and "against" disability. Those arguing for have often been disability scholars and those arguing against have often been utilitarian philosophers. At least since the mid-2000s, some on both sides have sought to move beyond that debate, but that has proved difficult. Here I seek two small steps forward. One step is critical, and is aimed at we who line up "for" disability. Specifically, I suggest that the phrase "choosing disability" is misleading in at least two ways. First, when someone argues that she should be able to gestate a child who is, e.g., deaf, she does not view deafness as a disability, but as something more like an enhancement. Second, when someone else argues that no one should selectively abort fetuses with traits like deafness, she is not arguing for choosing deafness, but against making a choice based on the presence of a disabling trait. The other step is constructive, and aimed at those lined up on both sides. I suggest that we should adopt a more "binocular" approach to thinking about disability: one which, using the social and medical "lenses" on disability, helps us see it in more depth. If we get better at having a conversation about what disability is, rather than arguing for or against it, we can get better at promoting the flourishing of people with disabilities.

  20. Conditional conservatism and value relevance of financial reporting: A study in view of converging accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Maximiliaan Willem Pierre; Iatridis, George Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between conditional conservatism and value relevance in the EU and US. Specifically, it investigates whether this relationship differs under US GAAP and IFRS compliance. In addition, this study examines the trend in value relevance, conditional conservatism and

  1. Zograscopic Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koenderink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most observers are aware of a heightened “plasticity” of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common “explanations” of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance.

  2. Influence of retinal image shifts and extra-retinal eye movement signals on binocular rivalry alternations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalisvaart, J.P.; Goossens, J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that saccadic eye movements correlate positively with perceptual alternations in binocular rivalry, presumably because the foveal image changes resulting from saccades, rather than the eye movement themselves, cause switches in awareness. Recently, however, we found

  3. Optimization of Stereo Matching in 3D Reconstruction Based on Binocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qiyang

    2018-01-01

    Stereo matching is one of the key steps of 3D reconstruction based on binocular vision. In order to improve the convergence speed and accuracy in 3D reconstruction based on binocular vision, this paper adopts the combination method of polar constraint and ant colony algorithm. By using the line constraint to reduce the search range, an ant colony algorithm is used to optimize the stereo matching feature search function in the proposed search range. Through the establishment of the stereo matching optimization process analysis model of ant colony algorithm, the global optimization solution of stereo matching in 3D reconstruction based on binocular vision system is realized. The simulation results show that by the combining the advantage of polar constraint and ant colony algorithm, the stereo matching range of 3D reconstruction based on binocular vision is simplified, and the convergence speed and accuracy of this stereo matching process are improved.

  4. Prevalence of strabismic binocular anomalies, amblyopia and anisometropia. Rehabilitation Faculty of Shahid Beheshti Medical University

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Akhgary; Mohammad Ghassemi-Broumand; Mohammad Aghazadeh Amiri; Mehdi Tabatabaee Seyed

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Manifest strabismus such as constant and alternative esotropia and exotropia, not only cause cosmetic problem in patients but also induce disorders such as amblyopia. These anomalies can lead to academic failure in students and reduce efficiency in other jobs. Therefore, determining the prevalence of binocular anomalies is important. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of strabismic binocular anomalies, amblyopia and anisometropia in patients examined in optometr...

  5. Problems with balance and binocular visual dysfunction are associated with post-stroke fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jensen Quas, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale, Kirsten Jensen Quas& Morten Arendt Rasmussen (2016): Problems with balance and binocular visual dysfunction are associated with post-stroke fatigue, Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/10749357.2016.1188475......Trine Schow, Thomas William Teasdale, Kirsten Jensen Quas& Morten Arendt Rasmussen (2016): Problems with balance and binocular visual dysfunction are associated with post-stroke fatigue, Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/10749357.2016.1188475...

  6. 360°-View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360°-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The ''360°'' is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360°-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360°-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  7. Taxi drivers' accidents: how binocular vision problems are related to their rate and severity in terms of the number of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, U; Vanasse, C; Dionne, G; Laberge-Nadeau, C

    1997-03-01

    Recent studies do not agree on the possible relationship between medical conditions and traffic safety; most of them do not control for exposure factors. In this study, we estimate the effect of binocular vision problems on taxi drivers' distributions of crashes (frequency). Moreover, given a crash, we estimate the effect of binocular vision problems on the distributions of the number of victims per crash (dead or injured). Our data and models permit the simultaneous consideration of many variables: age, medical condition, exposure factors measured by distance driven and time behind the wheel, qualitative risk factors, other characteristics of the driver, and crash circumstances in the models for the number of victims. Results show that taxi drivers have a large average number of crashes per year, larger for those with binocular vision problems compared with healthy ones, but not more severe in terms of the number of victims. The driver's past record (number of crashes and demerit points in the previous year) is a significant predictor of the number of crashes. Age is associated significantly with the number and the severity of crashes with older drivers having a better record than the youngest group (30 years old or less).

  8. Tratamiento binocular de la ambliopía basado en la realidad virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Cristina Díaz Núñez

    Full Text Available Aunque los tratamientos predominantes de la ambliopía son monoculares, estos tienen poca aceptación y baja efectividad en el restablecimiento de la combinación binocular. Numerosas evidencias apoyan la idea de que la ambliopía es en esencia un problema binocular y que la supresión juega un papel clave. En esta revisión se exponen dos estrategias para el tratamiento binocular de la ambliopía basado en la realidad virtual; la primera con el objetivo primario de mejorar la agudeza visual y la segunda con el propósito de mejorar las funciones binoculares a través de la reducción de la supresión. Este enfoque binocular expone al paciente a condiciones artificiales de visión con estímulos dicópticos en imágenes relacionadas. Los estudios clínicos realizados, tanto en niños como adultos, reportan mejorías de la agudeza visual y la estereopsia en un tiempo muy inferior al requerido por la oclusión. Los resultados clínicos sugieren que un enfoque binocular que combine ambas estrategias puede utilizarse como complemento de los tratamientos clásicos y como alternativa en adultos y niños con historial de tratamientos fracasados o rechazados.

  9. Development and Matching of Binocular Orientation Preference in Mouse V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabi eBhaumik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eye-specific thalamic inputs converge in the primary visual cortex (V1 and form the basis of binocular vision. For normal binocular perceptions, such as depth and stereopsis, binocularly matched orientation preference between the two eyes is required. A critical period of binocular matching of orientation preference in mice during normal development is reported in literature. Using a reaction diffusion model we present the development of RF and orientation selectivity in mouse V1 and investigate the binocular orientation preference matching during the critical period. At the onset of the critical period the preferred orientations of the modeled cells are mostly mismatched in the two eyes and the mismatch decreases and reaches levels reported in juvenile mouse by the end of the critical period. At the end of critical period 39% of cells in binocular zone in our model cortex is orientation selective. In literature around 40% cortical cells are reported as orientation selective in mouse V1. The starting and the closing time for critical period determine the orientation preference alignment between the two eyes and orientation tuning in cortical cells. The absence of near neighbor interaction among cortical cells during the development of thalmo-cortical wiring causes a salt and pepper organization in the orientation preference map in mice. It also results in much lower % of orientation selective cells in mice as compared to ferrets and cats having organized orientation maps with pinwheels.

  10. Bubble behavior characteristics based on virtual binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Xu, Ling-shuang; Zhang, Shang-zhen

    2018-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) behavior characteristics of bubble rising in gas-liquid two-phase flow are of great importance to study bubbly flow mechanism and guide engineering practice. Based on the dual-perspective imaging of virtual binocular stereo vision, the 3D behavior characteristics of bubbles in gas-liquid two-phase flow are studied in detail, which effectively increases the projection information of bubbles to acquire more accurate behavior features. In this paper, the variations of bubble equivalent diameter, volume, velocity and trajectory in the rising process are estimated, and the factors affecting bubble behavior characteristics are analyzed. It is shown that the method is real-time and valid, the equivalent diameter of the rising bubble in the stagnant water is periodically changed, and the crests and troughs in the equivalent diameter curve appear alternately. The bubble behavior characteristics as well as the spiral amplitude are affected by the orifice diameter and the gas volume flow.

  11. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes and binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers of all skill levels are always contemplating their next telescope, and this book points the way to the most suitable instruments. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescopes – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and manufacturers. This revised new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand, and model on today’s market, a truly invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Originally written in 2006, much of the first edition is inevitably now out of date, as equipment advances and manufacturers come and go. This second edition not only updates all the existing sections but adds two new ones: Astro-imaging and Professional-Amateur collaboration. Thanks to the rapid and amazing developments that have been made in digital cameras it is...

  12. Pediatric vision screening using binocular retinal birefringencr scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Deborah S.; Gramatikov, Boris; Guyton, David L.; Hunter, David G.

    2003-07-01

    Amblyopia, a leading cause of vision loss in childhood, is responsive to treatment if detected early in life. Risk factors for amblyopia, such as refractive error and strabismus, may be difficult to identify clinically in young children. Our laboratory has developed retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), in which a small spot of polarized light is scanned in a circle on the retina, and the returning light is measured for changes in polarization caused by the pattern of birefringent fibers that comprise the fovea. Binocular RBS (BRBS) detects the fixation of both eyes simultaneously and thus screens for strabismus, one of the risk factors of amblyopia. We have also developed a technique to automatically detect when the eye is in focus without measuring refractive error. This focus detection system utilizes a bull's eye photodetector optically conjugate to a point fixation source. Reflected light is focused back to the point source by the optical system of the eye, and if the subject focuses on the fixation source, the returning light will be focused on the detector. We have constructed a hand-held prototype combining BRBS and focus detection measurements in one quick (< 0.5 second) and accurate (theoretically detecting +/-1 of misalignment) measurement. This approach has the potential to reliably identify children at risk for amblyopia.

  13. Design of optical system for binocular fundus camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Lou, Shiliang; Xiao, Zhitao; Geng, Lei; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Wen; Liu, Mengjia

    2017-12-01

    A non-mydriasis optical system for binocular fundus camera has been designed in this paper. It can capture two images of the same fundus retinal region from different angles at the same time, and can be used to achieve three-dimensional reconstruction of fundus. It is composed of imaging system and illumination system. In imaging system, Gullstrand Le Grand eye model is used to simulate normal human eye, and Schematic eye model is used to test the influence of ametropia in human eye on imaging quality. Annular aperture and black dot board are added into illumination system, so that the illumination system can eliminate stray light produced by corneal-reflected light and omentoscopic lens. Simulation results show that MTF of each visual field at the cut-off frequency of 90lp/mm is greater than 0.2, system distortion value is -2.7%, field curvature is less than 0.1 mm, radius of Airy disc is 3.25um. This system has a strong ability of chromatic aberration correction and focusing, and can image clearly for human fundus in which the range of diopters is from -10 D to +6 D(1 D = 1 m -1 ).

  14. 76 FR 30294 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane Pilot Compartment View...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite interested people to take part in this rulemaking by sending written... us to acknowledge receipt of your comments on this proposal, include with your comments a self... because of a novel or unusual design feature, special conditions are prescribed under the provisions of...

  15. Conversion of the industrial development institutions of region in conditions of economical crisis: innovation view

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiy Konovalov

    2009-01-01

    In the conditions of the world financial and economical crisis conversion of the regional development institutions seems to be an important task. We suggest creation of the new industrial development institutions that are oriented towards the stimulation of the industrial production along with the increase of public order and infrastructural investments development.

  16. Binocular eye orientation during fixations: Listing's law extended to include eye vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rijn, L J; Van den Berg, A V

    1993-01-01

    Any eye position can be reached from a position called the primary position by rotation about a single axis. Listing's law states that for targets at optical infinity all rotation axes form a plane; the so-called Listing plane. Listing's law is not valid for fixation of nearby targets. To document these deviations of Listing's law we studied binocular eye positions during fixations of point targets in the dark. We tested both symmetric (targets in a sagittal plane) and asymmetric vergence conditions. For upward fixation both eyes showed intorsion relative to the position that would have been taken if each eye followed Listing's law. For downward fixation we found extorsion. The in- or extorsion increased approximately linearly with the vergence angle. The direction of the Listing axis and the turn angle about this axis can be described by rotation vectors. Our observations indicate that for fixation of nearby targets the rotation vectors of the two eyes become different and are no longer located in a single plane. However, we find that it is possible to decomose the rotation vector of each eye into the sum of a symmetric and an anti-symmetric part, each with its own properties. (1) The symmetric part is associated with eye version. This component of the rotation vector is identical for both eyes and lies in Listing's plane. In contrast to the classical form of Listing's law, this part of the rotation vector lies in Listing's plane irrespective of the fixation distance. (2) The anti-symmetric part of the rotation vector is related to eye vergence. This component is of equal magnitude but oppositely directed in each eye. The anti-symmetric part lies in the mid-sagittal plane, also irrespective of fixation distance. For fixation of targets at optical infinity the anti-symmetric part equals zero and the eye positions obey the classical form of Listing's law. Thus, the symmetric and anti-symmetric parts of the rotation vectors are restricted to two perpendicular planes

  17. A Real-Time Range Finding System with Binocular Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bo Lai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To acquire range information for mobile robots, a TMS320DM642 DSP-based range finding system with binocular stereo vision is proposed. Firstly, paired images of the target are captured and a Gaussian filter, as well as improved Sobel kernels, are achieved. Secondly, a feature-based local stereo matching algorithm is performed so that the space location of the target can be determined. Finally, in order to improve the reliability and robustness of the stereo matching algorithm under complex conditions, the confidence filter and the left-right consistency filter are investigated to eliminate the mismatching points. In addition, the range finding algorithm is implemented in the DSP/BIOS operating system to gain real-time control. Experimental results show that the average accuracy of range finding is more than 99% for measuring single-point distances equal to 120cm in the simple scenario and the algorithm takes about 39ms for ranging a time in a complex scenario. The effectivity, as well as the feasibility, of the proposed range finding system are verified.

  18. Economic analysis of sunflower production in the view of orobanche resistance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the use of production factors in 3 different types of sunflower production with respect to orobanche resistance in the agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region which is located at European continent of Turkey. The data used in this research have been obtained through questionnaire technique from 571 agricultural enterprises which were determined by Stratified Random Sampling Method in 2009. It has been reached to the highest yield by 189.30 kg da-1 and the highest gross profit by 37.91 US$ da-1 in the production of sunflower, resistant to orobanche. In the research, it has been determined that the rate of soil testing among the sunflower producers is considerably low and almost the whole of the production has been made under rainfed conditions. As a result of the research, it has been concluded that orobanche resistant sunflower, which has higher water productivity than other cultivars by 367.13 g m/sup 3/, will have a higher proportion in the sunflower cultivation areas in future because of its higher contribution to producer welfare. (author)

  19. A finer view of the conditional galaxy luminosity function and magnitude-gap statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, M.; Mamon, G. A.

    2017-10-01

    The gap between first- and second-ranked galaxy magnitudes in groups is often considered a tracer of their merger histories, which in turn may affect galaxy properties, and also serves to test galaxy luminosity functions (LFs). We remeasure the conditional luminosity function (CLF) of the Main Galaxy Sample of the SDSS in an appropriately cleaned subsample of groups from the Yang catalogue. We find that, at low group masses, our best-fitting CLF has steeper satellite high ends, yet higher ratios of characteristic satellite to central luminosities in comparison with the CLF of Yang et al. The observed fractions of groups with large and small magnitude gaps as well as the Tremaine & Richstone statistics are not compatible with either a single Schechter LF or with a Schechter-like satellite plus lognormal central LF. These gap statistics, which naturally depend on the size of the subsamples, and also on the maximum projected radius, Rmax, for defining the second brightest galaxy, can only be reproduced with two-component CLFs if we allow small gap groups to preferentially have two central galaxies, as expected when groups merge. Finally, we find that the trend of higher gap for higher group velocity dispersion, σv, at a given richness, discovered by Hearin et al., is strongly reduced when we consider σv in bins of richness, and virtually disappears when we use group mass instead of σv. This limits the applicability of gaps in refining cosmographic studies based on cluster counts.

  20. Preferred tone curve characteristics of transparent display under various viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon; Ha, Hyeyoung; Kwak, Youngshin; Kim, Hyosun; Seo, Young-jun; Yang, Byungchoon

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the level of transmission and surround luminance on image quality of transparent display is studied. The images on the OLED transparent display were simulated on LCD monitor by adding background scene to the original images. The psychophysical experiment was carried out on normal and simulated transparent displays under four levels of surround luminance (dark, dim, average and bright) and four different levels of transmission (17, 52, 70 and 87%). Four test images were selected for the psychophysical experiment. Fifteen subjects were participated in this experiment and they were asked to answer the degree of preference of each image for each condition with 7-point Likert-scale. As the result, it is found that the image quality of OLED transparent display deteriorates as the surround luminance increases and the transmittance increases but lowering the monitor gamma can be helpful to increase the image quality. This result suggests that image quality requirement for a transparent display is different from conventional opaque displays.

  1. Important areas of the central binocular visual field for daily functioning in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrett, Daryl R; Latham, Keziah

    2012-03-01

    To determine the areas of the central binocular visual field which correspond best with self-reported vision related activity limitations (VRAL) in individuals with visual impairment using a clinically relevant and accessible technique. One hundred participants with mixed visual impairment undertook binocular threshold visual field testing using a Humphrey 30-2 SITA Fast program. The Activity Inventory (AI) was administered to assess overall, mobility related and reading related self-reported VRAL as part of a face-to-face clinical interview. Different eccentricities of the binocular field (central 5, 5-10, and 10-30°) were compared to self-reported VRAL in bivariate analyses and further explored using multivariate analyses. All areas of the binocular visual field were significantly associated with self-reported VRAL in bivariate analyses, with greater field loss associated with increased VRAL (p visual fields and self-reported VRAL in people with visual impairment. Central binocular fields can be measured using a widely available threshold test in order to understand the likely functional limitations of those with vision loss, particularly in mobility tasks. Self-reported VRAL can be estimated using the regression equations and graphs provided and difficulty levels in specific tasks can be determined. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  2. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Bradley N; Roeber, Urte; O'Shea, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect.

  3. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  4. Do early neural correlates of visual consciousness show the oblique effect? A binocular rivalry and event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeber, Urte; O’Shea, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, –45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings. Participants viewed rival gratings and pressed keys indicating which of the two gratings they perceived, was dominant. Next, we changed one of the gratings to match the grating shown to the other eye, yielding binocular fusion. Participants perceived the rivalry-to-fusion change to the dominant grating and not to the other, suppressed grating. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we found neural correlates of visual consciousness at the P1 for both sets of gratings, as well as at the P1-N1 for oblique gratings, and we found a neural correlate of the oblique effect at the N1, but only for perceived changes. These results show that the P1 is the earliest neural activity associated with visual consciousness and that visual consciousness might be necessary to elicit the oblique effect. PMID:29232704

  5. Cortical microcircuit dynamics mediating Binocular Rivalry: The role of adaptation in inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota eTheodoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry and operates in balance with adaptation in order to explain the observed alternations in perception. In particular, noise-driven transitions and adaptation-driven oscillations define two dynamical regimes and the system operates near its boundary. In order to gain insights into the microcircuit dynamics mediating spontaneous perceptual alternations we used a reduced recurrent attractor-based biophysically realistic spiking network well known for working memory, attention and decision-making, where a spike-frequency adaptation mechanism is implemented to account for perceptual bistability. We, thus, derived a consistently reduced four-variable population rate model using mean-field techniques and tested it on BR data collected from human subjects. Our model accounts for experimental data parameters such as time dominance, coefficient of variation and gamma distribution. In addition, we show that our model also operates on the boundary between noise and adaptation and agrees with Levelt’s second revised and fourth propositions. These results show for the first time that a consistent reduction of a biophysically realistic spiking network of integrate and fire neurons with spike frequency adaptation could account for BR. Moreover, we demonstrate that BR can be explained only through the dynamics of the competing neuronal pools, without taking into account the adaptation of inhibitory interneurons..However, adaptation of interneurons affects the optimal parametric space of the system, by decreasing the overall adaptation necessary for the bifurcation to occur.

  6. Recognition and Matching of Clustered Mature Litchi Fruits Using Binocular Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Color Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and matching of litchi fruits are critical steps for litchi harvesting robots to successfully grasp litchi. However, due to the randomness of litchi growth, such as clustered growth with uncertain number of fruits and random occlusion by leaves, branches and other fruits, the recognition and matching of the fruit become a challenge. Therefore, this study firstly defined mature litchi fruit as three clustered categories. Then an approach for recognition and matching of clustered mature litchi fruit was developed based on litchi color images acquired by binocular charge-coupled device (CCD color cameras. The approach mainly included three steps: (1 calibration of binocular color cameras and litchi image acquisition; (2 segmentation of litchi fruits using four kinds of supervised classifiers, and recognition of the pre-defined categories of clustered litchi fruit using a pixel threshold method; and (3 matching the recognized clustered fruit using a geometric center-based matching method. The experimental results showed that the proposed recognition method could be robust against the influences of varying illumination and occlusion conditions, and precisely recognize clustered litchi fruit. In the tested 432 clustered litchi fruits, the highest and lowest average recognition rates were 94.17% and 92.00% under sunny back-lighting and partial occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and non-occlusion conditions, respectively. From 50 pairs of tested images, the highest and lowest matching success rates were 97.37% and 91.96% under sunny back-lighting and non-occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and partial occlusion conditions, respectively.

  7. An assembly system based on industrial robot with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Xiao, Nanfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an electronic part and component assembly system based on an industrial robot with binocular stereo vision. Firstly, binocular stereo vision with a visual attention mechanism model is used to get quickly the image regions which contain the electronic parts and components. Secondly, a deep neural network is adopted to recognize the features of the electronic parts and components. Thirdly, in order to control the end-effector of the industrial robot to grasp the electronic parts and components, a genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to compute the transition matrix and the inverse kinematics of the industrial robot (end-effector), which plays a key role in bridging the binocular stereo vision and the industrial robot. Finally, the proposed assembly system is tested in LED component assembly experiments, and the results denote that it has high efficiency and good applicability.

  8. Analysis on detection accuracy of binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jia-ju; Yin, Jian-ling; Wu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yu-dan

    2017-11-01

    Low-light level night vision device and thermal infrared imaging binocular photoelectric instrument are used widely. The maladjustment of binocular instrument ocular axises parallelism will cause the observer the symptom such as dizziness, nausea, when use for a long time. Binocular photoelectric equipment digital calibration instrument is developed for detecting ocular axises parallelism. And the quantitative value of optical axis deviation can be quantitatively measured. As a testing instrument, the precision must be much higher than the standard of test instrument. Analyzes the factors that influence the accuracy of detection. Factors exist in each testing process link which affect the precision of the detecting instrument. They can be divided into two categories, one category is factors which directly affect the position of reticle image, the other category is factors which affect the calculation the center of reticle image. And the Synthesize error is calculated out. And further distribute the errors reasonably to ensure the accuracy of calibration instruments.

  9. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    Full Text Available The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  10. Precision Time-series Photometry in the Thermal Infrared with a “Wall-eyed” Pointing Mode at the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Eckhart; Hinz, Phil; Skemer, Andrew; Hill, John; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Vaz, Amali

    2018-01-01

    Time-series photometry taken from ground-based facilities is improved with the use of comparison stars due to the short timescales of atmospheric-induced variability. However, the sky is bright in the thermal infrared (3-5 μm), and the correspondingly small fields of view of available detectors make it highly unusual to have a calibration star in the same field as a science target. Here, we present a new method of obtaining differential photometry by simultaneously imaging a science target and a calibrator star, separated by ≲2 amin, onto a 10 × 10 asec2 field-of-view detector. We do this by taking advantage of the Large Binocular Telescope’s (LBT) unique binocular design to point the two co-mounted telescopes apart and simultaneously obtain both targets in three sets of observations. Results indicate that the achievable scatter in L S -band ({λ }c=3.3 μm) is at the percent level for bright targets and possibly better with heavier sampling and characterization of the systematics.

  11. Visión binocular : diagnóstico y tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Borràs García, M. Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Este libro está dirigido a todos los profesionales del campo de la optometría que quieran profundizar en la visión binocular. También está indicado para los alumnos de tercer curso de Optometría, tanto en asignaturas troncales como optativas. Sus contenidos están divididos en capítulos que pueden ser leídos de forma independiente, aunque es recomendable comprender el presente texto como una unidad. Su estructura abarca desde las disfunciones binoculares más frecuentes al estrabismo, la amblio...

  12. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-09-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics.

  13. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  14. The AirView Study: Comparison of Intubation Conditions and Ease between the Airtraq-AirView and the King Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schoettker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study assessing the quality and speed of intubation between the Airtraq with its new iPhone AirView app and the King Vision in a manikin. The primary endpoint was reduction of time needed for intubation. Secondary endpoints included times necessary for intubation. 30 anaesthetists randomly performed 3 intubations with each device on a difficult airway manikin. Participants had a professional experience of 12 years: 60.0% possessed the Airtraq in their hospital, 46.7% the King Vision, and 20.0% both. Median time difference [IQR] to identify glottis (1.1 [−1.3; 3.9] P=0.019, for tube insertion (2.1 [−2.6; 9.4] P=0.002 and lung ventilation (2.8 [−2.4; 11.5] P=0.001, was shorter with the Airtraq-AirView. Median time for glottis visualization was significantly shorter with the Airtraq-AirView (5.3 [4.0; 8.4] versus 6.4 [4.6; 9.1]. Cormack Lehane before intubation was better with the King Vision (P=0.03; no difference was noted during intubation, for subjective device insertion or quality of epiglottis visualisation. Assessment of tracheal tube insertion was better with the Airtraq-AirView. The Airtraq-AirView allows faster identification of the landmarks and intubation in a difficult airway manikin, while clinical relevance remains to be studied. Anaesthetists assessed the intubation better with the Airtraq-AirView.

  15. Avian binocular vision: It's not just about what birds can see, it's also about what they can't.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke P Tyrrell

    Full Text Available With the exception of primates, most vertebrates have laterally placed eyes. Binocular vision in vertebrates has been implicated in several functions, including depth perception, contrast discrimination, etc. However, the blind area in front of the head that is proximal to the binocular visual field is often neglected. This anterior blind area is important when discussing the evolution of binocular vision because its relative length is inversely correlated with the width of the binocular field. Therefore, species with wider binocular fields also have shorter anterior blind areas and objects along the mid-sagittal plane can be imaged at closer distances. Additionally, the anterior blind area is of functional significance for birds because the beak falls within this blind area. We tested for the first time some specific predictions about the functional role of the anterior blind area in birds controlling for phylogenetic effects. We used published data on visual field configuration in 40 species of birds and measured beak and skull parameters from museum specimens. We found that birds with proportionally longer beaks have longer anterior blind areas and thus narrower binocular fields. This result suggests that the anterior blind area and beak visibility do play a role in shaping binocular fields, and that binocular field width is not solely determined by the need for stereoscopic vision. In visually guided foragers, the ability to see the beak-and how much of the beak can be seen-varies predictably with foraging habits. For example, fish- and insect-eating specialists can see more of their own beak than birds eating immobile food can. But in non-visually guided foragers, there is no consistent relationship between the beak and anterior blind area. We discuss different strategies-wide binocular fields, large eye movements, and long beaks-that minimize the potential negative effects of the anterior blind area. Overall, we argue that there is more to

  16. Diopter Focus of ANVIS Eyepieces Using Monocular and Binocular Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mclean, William

    2002-01-01

    U.S. Army aviators were asked to obtain best resolution using an ophthalmic phoropter with three different focusing techniques, viewing with unaided vision and through the aviator's night vision imaging system (ANVIS...

  17. Binocular self-calibration performed via adaptive genetic algorithm based on laser line imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.; Mejía Alanís, Francisco Carlos

    2016-07-01

    An accurate technique to perform binocular self-calibration by means of an adaptive genetic algorithm based on a laser line is presented. In this calibration, the genetic algorithm computes the vision parameters through simulated binary crossover (SBX). To carry it out, the genetic algorithm constructs an objective function from the binocular geometry of the laser line projection. Then, the SBX minimizes the objective function via chromosomes recombination. In this algorithm, the adaptive procedure determines the search space via line position to obtain the minimum convergence. Thus, the chromosomes of vision parameters provide the minimization. The approach of the proposed adaptive genetic algorithm is to calibrate and recalibrate the binocular setup without references and physical measurements. This procedure leads to improve the traditional genetic algorithms, which calibrate the vision parameters by means of references and an unknown search space. It is because the proposed adaptive algorithm avoids errors produced by the missing of references. Additionally, the three-dimensional vision is carried out based on the laser line position and vision parameters. The contribution of the proposed algorithm is corroborated by an evaluation of accuracy of binocular calibration, which is performed via traditional genetic algorithms.

  18. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population.

  19. Adaptive optics binocular visual simulator to study stereopsis in the presence of aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Enrique J; Prieto, Pedro M; Artal, Pablo

    2010-11-01

    A binocular adaptive optics visual simulator has been devised for the study of stereopsis and of binocular vision in general. The apparatus is capable of manipulating the aberrations of each eye separately while subjects perform visual tests. The correcting device is a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator permitting the control of aberrations in the two eyes of the observer simultaneously in open loop. The apparatus can be operated as an electro-optical binocular phoropter with two micro-displays projecting different scenes to each eye. Stereo-acuity tests (three-needle test and random-dot stereograms) have been programmed for exploring the performance of the instrument. As an example, stereo-acuity has been measured in two subjects in the presence of defocus and/or trefoil, showing a complex relationship between the eye's optical quality and stereopsis. This instrument might serve for a better understanding of the relationship of binocular vision and stereopsis performance and the eye's aberrations.

  20. Visual and binocular status in elementary school children with a reading problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa W; Nandakumar, Krithika; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2017-11-21

    This descriptive study provides a summary of the binocular anomalies seen in elementary school children identified with reading problems. A retrospective chart review of all children identified with reading problems and seen by the University of Waterloo, Optometry Clinic, from September 2012 to June 2013. Files of 121 children (mean age 8.6 years, range 6-14 years) were reviewed. No significant refractive error was found in 81% of children. Five and 8 children were identified as strabismic at distance and near respectively. Phoria test revealed 90% and 65% of patients had normal distance and near phoria. Near point of convergencia (NPC) was <5cm in 68% of children, and 77% had stereoacuity of ≤40seconds of arc. More than 50% of the children had normal fusional vergence ranges except for near positive fusional vergencce (base out) break (46%). Tests for accommodation showed 91% of children were normal for binocular facility, and approximately 70% of children had an expected accuracy of accommodation. Findings indicate that some children with an identified reading problem also present with abnormal binocular test results compared to published normal values. Further investigation should be performed to investigate the relationship between binocular vision function and reading performance. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Image-based and eye-based influences on binocular rivalry have similar spatial profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuit, Sjoerd; Brascamp, Jan; Barendregt, Maurits; van der Smagt, Maarten; te Pas, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when the images presented to the two eyes do not match. Instead of fusing into a stable percept, perception during rivalry alternates between images over time. However, during rivalry, perception can also resemble a patchwork of parts of both eyes' images. Such integration

  2. Modeling Visual Symptoms and Visual Skills to Measure Functional Binocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, M. K.; Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Massof, R. W.

    2016-11-01

    Obtaining a clear image of the world depends on good eye coordination (“binocular vision”). Yet no standard exists by which to determine a threshold for good vs poor binocular vision, as exists for the eye chart and visual acuity. We asked whether data on the signs and symptoms related to binocular vision are sufficiently consistent with children's self-reported visual symptoms to substantiate a construct model of Functional Binocular Vision (FBV), and then whether that model can be used to aggregate clinical and survey observations into a meaningful diagnostic measure. Data on visual symptoms from 1,100 children attending school in Los Angeles were obtained using the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS); and for more than 300 students in that sample, 35 additional measures were taken, including acuity, cover test near and far, near point of convergence, near point of accommodation, accommodative facility, vergence ranges, tracking ability, and oral reading fluency. A preliminary analysis of data from the 15-item, 5-category CISS and 15 clinical variables from 103 grade school students who reported convergence problems (CISS scores of 16 or higher) suggests that the clinical and survey observations will be optimally combined in a multidimensional model.

  3. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity

  4. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity differences and

  5. Human cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception: An fNIRS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Cai

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS was adopted to investigate the cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception for different disparities (from 0.1° to 1.5°. By using a slow event-related paradigm, the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO responses to fused binocular stimuli presented by the random-dot stereogram (RDS were recorded over the whole visual dorsal area. To extract from an HbO curve the characteristics that are correlated with subjective experiences of stereopsis and visual fatigue, we proposed a novel method to fit the time-course HbO curve with various response functions which could reflect various processes of binocular depth perception. Our results indicate that the parietal-occipital cortices are spatially correlated with binocular depth perception and that the process of depth perception includes two steps, associated with generating and sustaining stereovision. Visual fatigue is caused mainly by generating stereovision, while the amplitude of the haemodynamic response corresponding to sustaining stereovision is correlated with stereopsis. Combining statistical parameter analysis and the fitted time-course analysis, fNIRS could be a promising method to study visual fatigue and possibly other multi-process neural bases.

  6. The effect of image position on the Independent Components of natural binocular images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David W; Hibbard, Paul B

    2018-01-11

    Human visual performance degrades substantially as the angular distance from the fovea increases. This decrease in performance is found for both binocular and monocular vision. Although analysis of the statistics of natural images has provided significant insights into human visual processing, little research has focused on the statistical content of binocular images at eccentric angles. We applied Independent Component Analysis to rectangular image patches cut from locations within binocular images corresponding to different degrees of eccentricity. The distribution of components learned from the varying locations was examined to determine how these distributions varied across eccentricity. We found a general trend towards a broader spread of horizontal and vertical position disparity tunings in eccentric regions compared to the fovea, with the horizontal spread more pronounced than the vertical spread. Eccentric locations above the centroid show a strong bias towards far-tuned components, eccentric locations below the centroid show a strong bias towards near-tuned components. These distributions exhibit substantial similarities with physiological measurements in V1, however in common with previous research we also observe important differences, in particular distributions of binocular phase disparity which do not match physiology.

  7. The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Binocular Vision Function in Female University Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-22

    Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.

  8. Refractive error and monocular viewing strengthen the hollow-face illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Harold; Palmisano, Stephen; Matthews, Harold

    2012-01-01

    We measured the strength of the hollow-face illusion--the 'flipping distance' at which perception changes between convex and concave--as a function of a lens-induced 3 dioptre refractive error and monocular/binocular viewing. Refractive error and closing one eye both strengthened the illusion to approximately the same extent. The illusion was weakest viewed binocularly without refractive error and strongest viewed monocularly with it. This suggests binocular cues disambiguate the illusion at greater distances than monocular cues, but that both are disrupted by refractive error. We argue that refractive error leaves the ambiguous low-spatial-frequency shading information critical to the illusion largely unaffected while disrupting other, potentially disambiguating, depth/distance cues.

  9. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha

    To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, pvision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  11. Visible and invisible stimulus parts integrate into global object representations as revealed by combining monocular and binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Mark; Moors, Pieter; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    Our visual system faces the challenging task to construct integrated visual representations from the visual input projected on our retinae. Previous research has provided mixed evidence as to whether visual awareness of the stimulus parts is required for such integration to occur. Here, we address this issue by taking a novel approach in which we combine a monocular rivalry stimulus (i.e., a bistable rotating cylinder) with binocular rivalry. The results of Experiment 1 show that in a rivalry condition, where one half of the cylinder is perceptually suppressed, significantly more perceptual switches occur that are consistent with visual integration of the whole cylinder than occur in a control condition, where only half of the cylinder is presented at a time and the presentation of the two images is physically alternated. In Experiment 2, stimulation in the observer's dominant eye was kept dominant by presenting the half cylinder in this eye at higher contrast and by surrounding it with a flickering context. Results show that the strong convexity bias that was found in a control condition, where no stimulus was presented in the suppressed eye, almost completely disappears when the unseen half is presented in the suppressed eye, indicating that both halves visually integrate and, subsequently, compete for convexity. These findings provide evidence that unseen visual information is biased towards a representation that is congruent with the current visible representation and, hence, that principles of perceptual organization also apply to parts of the visual input that remain unseen by the observer.

  12. Lateral geniculate lamination and the corticogeniculate projection: a potential role in binocular vision in the quadrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, J T

    1995-02-21

    Students of vision have long speculated about the functions of the distinct lamination of the lateral geniculate nucleus and the massive return projection from visual cortex to this thalamic structure. This paper proposes that these features of the visual system reflect, in part at least, its solution to a geometric problem inherent in binocular vision. Points in the visual quadrants are imaged on geometrically non-corresponding retinal points. Two such retinal loci, optically conjugate with a given visual point at one fixation distance or angle, will correspond to no single visual point at other fixation distances or angles. This raises potential problems for visual cortical neurons sensitive to a narrow range of binocular disparities. If these neurons are to function optimally at a variety of fixation distances and angles, their disparity tuning must be variable. It is suggested here that such dynamic disparity tuning is effected by the corticogeniculate projection acting on the segregated ocular representations in the geniculate laminae.

  13. On the contribution of binocular disparity to the long-term memory for natural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Binocular disparity is a fundamental dimension defining the input we receive from the visual world, along with luminance and chromaticity. In a memory task involving images of natural scenes we investigate whether binocular disparity enhances long-term visual memory. We found that forest images studied in the presence of disparity for relatively long times (7s were remembered better as compared to 2D presentation. This enhancement was not evident for other categories of pictures, such as images containing cars and houses, which are mostly identified by the presence of distinctive artifacts rather than by their spatial layout. Evidence from a further experiment indicates that observers do not retain a trace of stereo presentation in long-term memory.

  14. The Role of Binocular Disparity in Rapid Scene and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of binocular disparity to the rapid recognition of scenes and simpler spatial patterns using a paradigm combining backward masked stimulus presentation and short-term match-to-sample recognition. First, we showed that binocular disparity did not contribute significantly to the recognition of briefly presented natural and artificial scenes, even when the availability of monocular cues was reduced. Subsequently, using dense random dot stereograms as stimuli, we showed that observers were in principle able to extract spatial patterns defined only by disparity under brief, masked presentations. Comparing our results with the predictions from a cue-summation model, we showed that combining disparity with luminance did not per se disrupt the processing of disparity. Our results suggest that the rapid recognition of scenes is mediated mostly by a monocular comparison of the images, although we can rely on stereo in fast pattern recognition.

  15. Binocular Rivalry and Attention in Helmet-Mounted Display Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterbottom, Marc D; Patterson, Robert; Pierce, Byron J; Covas, Christin; Rogers, Jason

    2007-01-01

    .... In the present study, we examined whether rivalry suppression could be objectively measured under conditions that simulated a monocular HMD and OTW display, and whether voluntary attention and moving...

  16. The wavelet transform and the suppression theory of binocular vision for stereo image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.D. Jr [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kenyon, R.V. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In this paper a method for compression of stereo images. The proposed scheme is a frequency domain approach based on the suppression theory of binocular vision. By using the information in the frequency domain, complex disparity estimation techniques can be avoided. The wavelet transform is used to obtain a multiresolution analysis of the stereo pair by which the subbands convey the necessary frequency domain information.

  17. Dynamical version--vergence interactions for a binocular implementation of Donders' law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minken, A W; Van Gisbergen, J A

    1996-03-01

    Recent investigations of the three-dimensional (3D) binocular eye positions in near vision have shown that a full characterization of vergence requires incorporation of its torsional component. The latter has a proportional relationship with horizontal vergence and elevation, causing the eyes to have intorsion in near upgaze but extorsion in near downgaze. In this study, we focus on the dynamical implementation of the torsional vergence component in both pure vergence and combined direction-depth binocular eye movements. We report on experiments in five subjects whose eye movements were recorded binocularly with the 3D magnetic search-coil technique. In pure vergence movements at a given elevation, torsional vergence increased with almost the same time course as horizontal vergence. In addition, the dynamic relationships among torsional vergence, horizontal vergence and elevation were close to static results in all subjects. In combined direction-depth movements a similar relationship held for the complete movements, but we could not firmly establish a straight-line relationship during the saccadic portion of the movement. Possible factors determining these responses are discussed. We computed the angular velocity profiles of pure vergence movements to see how tilting of the vergence angular velocity axis relative to Listing's plane generates torsional vergence. It is widely held that both saccadic and vergence movements are controlled by dedicated pulse generators specifying velocity signals. Little thought has been given to the question of how these controllers can be coordinated to yield realistic eye movements in 3D. Our finding that this tilt was close to full-angle, suggests a model in which version and vergence velocity signals are combined before the 3D neural integrator proposed by Tweed and Vilis. The implications of this scheme for the control of binocular eye movements in three dimensions are discussed, along with possible neural correlates.

  18. A quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for different disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghan; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Yun, Lijun; Zhang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Color asymmetry is a common phenomenon in stereoscopic display system, which can cause visual fatigue or visual discomfort. When the color difference between the left and right eyes exceeds a threshold value, named binocular color fusion limit, color rivalry is said to occur. The most important information brought by stereoscopic displays is the depth perception produced by the disparity. As the stereo pair stimuli are presented separately to both eyes with disparities and those two monocular stimuli differ in color but share an iso-luminance polarity, it is possible for stereopsis and color rivalry to coexist. In this paper, we conducted an experiment to measure the color fusion limit for different disparity levels. In particular, it examines how the magnitude and sign of disparity affect the binocular color fusion limit that yields a fused, stable stereoscopic percept. The binocular color fusion limit was measured at five levels of disparities: 0, +/-60, +/-120 arc minutes for a sample color point which was selected from the 1976 CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram. The experimental results showed that fusion limit for the sample point varied with the level and sign of disparity. It was an interesting result that the fusion limit increased as the disparity decreases at crossed disparity direction (sign -), but there is almost no big change at uncrossed disparity direction (sign +). We found that color fusion was more difficult to achieve at the crossed disparity direction than at the uncrossed disparity direction.

  19. Calculation method of CGH for Binocular Eyepiece-Type Electro Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chanyoung; Yoneyama, Takuo; Sakamoto, Yuji; Okuyama, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    We had researched about eyepiece-type electro holography to display 3-D images of larger objects at wider angle. We had enlarged visual field considering depth of object with Fourier optical system using two lenses. In this paper, we extend our system for binocular. In the binocular system, we use two different holograms for each eye. The 3-D image for left eye should be observed like the real object observed using left eye and the same for right eye. So, we propose a method of calculation of computer-generated hologram (CGH) transforming the coordinate system of the model data to make two holograms for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography. The coordinate system of original model data is called the world coordinate system. The left and the right coordinate system are transformed from the world coordinate system. We also propose the method for correcting the installation error that occurs when placing the electronic and optical devices. The installation error is calculated and the model data is corrected using the distance between measured position and setup position of the reconstructed image Optical reconstruction experiments were carried out to verify the proposed method.

  20. Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Ro, Yong Man; Park, Hyun Wook

    2011-04-11

    Human perception becomes difficult in the event of binocular color fusion when the color difference presented for the left and right eyes exceeds a certain threshold value, known as the binocular color fusion limit. This paper discusses the binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors within the color gamut of a conventional LCD 3DTV. We performed experiments to measure the color fusion limit for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. A total of 2480 trials were recorded for a single observer. By analyzing the results, the color fusion limit was quantified by ellipses in the chromaticity diagram. The semi-minor axis of the ellipses ranges from 0.0415 to 0.0923 in terms of the Euclidean distance in the u'v´ chromaticity diagram and the semi-major axis ranges from 0.0640 to 0.1560. These eight ellipses are drawn on the chromaticity diagram. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleh M

    2015-10-01

    In humans, the nasal retina projects to the contralateral hemisphere, whereas the temporal retina projects ipsilaterally. The nasotemporal line that divides the retina into crossed and uncrossed parts coincides with the vertical meridian through the fovea. This normal projection of the retina is severely altered in albinism, in which the nasotemporal line shifted into the temporal retina with temporal retinal fibers cross the midline at the optic chiasm. This study proposes the loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers and shifting of the nasotemporal line temporally in albinism. It is supported by many observations that clearly indicate that loss of binocular vision causes uncrossed retinal fibers to cross the midline. This hypothesis may alert scientists and clinicians to find ways to prevent or minimize the loss of binocular vision that may occur in some diseases such as albinism and early squint. Hopefully, this will minimize the misrouting of temporal fibers and improve vision in such diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A fully convolutional networks (FCN) based image segmentation algorithm in binocular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zourong; Wei, Biao; Feng, Peng; Yu, Pengwei; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an image segmentation algorithm with fully convolutional networks (FCN) in binocular imaging system under various circumstance. Image segmentation is perfectly solved by semantic segmentation. FCN classifies the pixels, so as to achieve the level of image semantic segmentation. Different from the classical convolutional neural networks (CNN), FCN uses convolution layers instead of the fully connected layers. So it can accept image of arbitrary size. In this paper, we combine the convolutional neural network and scale invariant feature matching to solve the problem of visual positioning under different scenarios. All high-resolution images are captured with our calibrated binocular imaging system and several groups of test data are collected to verify this method. The experimental results show that the binocular images are effectively segmented without over-segmentation. With these segmented images, feature matching via SURF method is implemented to obtain regional information for further image processing. The final positioning procedure shows that the results are acceptable in the range of 1.4 1.6 m, the distance error is less than 10mm.

  3. Clinical Outcomes after Binocular Implantation of a New Trifocal Diffractive Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T. A. Kretz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate visual, refractive, and contrast sensitivity outcomes, as well as the incidence of pseudophakic photic phenomena and patient satisfaction after bilateral diffractive trifocal intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Methods. This prospective nonrandomized study included consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery with bilateral implantation of a diffractive trifocal IOL (AT LISA tri 839MP, Carl Zeiss Meditec. Distance, intermediate, and near visual outcomes were evaluated as well as the defocus curve and the refractive outcomes 3 months after surgery. Photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity, patient satisfaction, and halo perception were also evaluated. Results. Seventy-six eyes of 38 patients were included; 90% of eyes showed a spherical equivalent within ±0.50 diopters 3 months after surgery. All patients had a binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity of 0.00 LogMAR or better and a binocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity of 0.10 LogMAR or better, 3 months after surgery. Furthermore, 85% of patients achieved a binocular uncorrected near visual acuity of 0.10 LogMAR or better. Conclusions. Trifocal diffractive IOL implantation seems to provide an effective restoration of visual function for far, intermediate, and near distances, providing high levels of visual quality and patient satisfaction.

  4. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  5. Changes in the functional binocular status of older children and adults with previously untreated infantile esotropia following late surgical realignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony David Neil; Orpen, Jane; Calcutt, Carolyn

    2007-04-01

    Most studies of infantile esotropia concern patients diagnosed in infancy and treated throughout childhood. This prospective study addresses changes in the functional binocular status of older children and adults with previously untreated infantile esotropia, following late surgical realignment. Seventeen patients aged 8 years or more with a history of untreated esotropia occurring within the first 6 months of life were included in this study. All had monocular optokinetic asymmetry, a visual acuity of 20/30 or better in the worse eye, and binocular function assesment preoperatively and postoperatively. All were surgically aligned within 8(Delta) of orthotropia. None had neurologic disease. Preoperatively, all 17 patients demonstrated a monocular response to Bagolini lenses, while postoperatively 15 (88%) of the 17 demonstrated binocular function with Bagolini lenses (in that they could constantly perceive the major part of both arms of the X generated by the Bagolini lenses) and 13/17 (76%) demonstrated an increase in the binocular field. All 17 had no sensory fusion, either preoperatively or postoperatively, when tested with the Worth 4-Dot test or synoptophore, and no stereopsis with the Titmus stereo test. Older children and adults with previously untreated infantile esotropia derive some functional benefits following late surgical realignment. The degree of binocular function may be lower than that achieved in patients aligned before 24 months of age.

  6. The iPod binocular home-based treatment for amblyopia in adults: efficacy and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon; Black, Joanna; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Occlusion therapy for amblyopia is predicated on the idea that amblyopia is primarily a disorder of monocular vision; however, there is growing evidence that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression. Furthermore, we have found that a dichoptic treatment intervention designed to directly target suppression can result in clinically significant improvement in both binocular and monocular visual function in adult patients with amblyopia. The fact that monocular improvement occurs in the absence of any fellow eye occlusion suggests that amblyopia is, in part, due to chronic suppression. Previously the treatment has been administered as a psychophysical task and more recently as a video game that can be played on video goggles or an iPod device equipped with a lenticular screen. The aim of this case-series study of 14 amblyopes (six strabismics, six anisometropes and two mixed) ages 13 to 50 years was to investigate: 1. whether the portable video game treatment is suitable for at-home use and 2. whether an anaglyphic version of the iPod-based video game, which is more convenient for at-home use, has comparable effects to the lenticular version. The dichoptic video game treatment was conducted at home and visual functions assessed before and after treatment. We found that at-home use for 10 to 30 hours restored simultaneous binocular perception in 13 of 14 cases along with significant improvements in acuity (0.11 ± 0.08 logMAR) and stereopsis (0.6 ± 0.5 log units). Furthermore, the anaglyph and lenticular platforms were equally effective. In addition, the iPod devices were able to record a complete and accurate picture of treatment compliance. The home-based dichoptic iPod approach represents a viable treatment for adults with amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  7. Ultraslow Ridges through Binoculars: Teleseismic Earthquake Characteristics Illuminate Accretion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlindwein, V.; Laederach, C.; Korger, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ultraslow spreading ridges with full spreading rates global mid-ocean ridge system, yet 85% of these ridges are still unexplored. Understanding the structure and dynamics of crustal production and the associated hydrothermal systems including their biota has become a major challenge of modern mid-ocean ridge research. The complex interplay between tectonic, magmatic and hydrothermal processes that governs lithospheric accretion at ultraslow-spreading ridges is so poorly investigated because their main representatives, the Arctic ridge system and the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), are situated in remote areas with difficult working conditions. While local seismicity studies with ocean bottom seismometers on slow and fast spreading ridges have greatly contributed to our understanding of active accretion processes, comparable studies are lacking for ultraslow spreading ridges forcing to fall back on studies of larger earthquakes recorded on land. Using teleseismic data from the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre between the years 1976 and 2010, we performed a systematic analysis of the ridge related seismicity (M > 4) of the ultraslow spreading Arctic ridge system and the SWIR. These ridges were divided in 11 sections of uniform seismological, topographic and geological characteristics, totalling a length of 7200 km with the rift axis defined as a multisegment line along the topographic low of the rift valley. Only events within 30 km of the rift axis were included in our study. We found that magmatic and amagmatic accretion sections cannot be distinguished neither by event rate, moment release rate, maximum earthquake magnitude, nor by the b-value. Yet using single link cluster analysis for identification of swarms of 8 or more earthquakes, small clusters of 2-7 earthquakes and single events, we found that sections with amagmatic accretion lack swarms and show consistently a high percentage of single events, while teleseismic swarms occur only in

  8. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  9. Financial – Accounts View on the Governmental Expenses and the Autonomy Administration in the Conditions of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Kočner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of state activities currently raises the need to fund specific public projects in the area of the infrastructure, ecology, or the entire expenditure programs in the field of education, health and social care and culture. Into the accounts methodology of the national and autonomy administration were introduced the transfers which represent prevalent expenses, capital expenditures, grants, subsidies and contributions. From an accounting perspective views there is an important fact from which the transfer passes, respectively whether the transfer is provided by the founder, the transfer by another entity within the public administration, or the transfer goes from an entity outside of the public administration. Watching transfers is important for the subsequent preparation of consolidated financial statements and summary financial statements of the public administration. The aggregate accounts of government administration in 2012 expanded by another group of accounting entities namely the state enterprises, RSR, Eximbanka and other public entities.

  10. Optimalization studies concerning volume reduction and conditioning of radioactive waste in view of storage and disposal (geological disposal into clay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Van De Voorde, N.; Bonne, A.

    1984-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level and medium-level wastes, and simultaneous optimization of the quality of the conditioned end-product is a major challenge in the management of radioactive wastes. Comments will be given on recent achievements in treatment of non-high-level liquid and solid wastes from power reactors and low-level plutonium contaminated wastes. The latter results can contribute to an overall optimization of a radioactive waste management scheme, including the final disposal of the conditioned materials. Some detailed results will be given concerning volume reduction, decontamination factors, degree of immobilization of the contained radioelements, and cost considerations

  11. Usefulness of a large field of view sensor for physicochemical, textural, and yield predictions under industrial goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufacturing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, S; García, V; Ferrandini, E; Carrión, J; Castillo, M; López, M B

    2012-11-01

    The applicability of a light backscatter sensor with a large field of view was tested for on-line monitoring of coagulation and syneresis in a goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured under industrial conditions. Cheesemaking was carried out concurrently in a 12-L pilot vat and a 10,000-L industrial vat following the normal cheesemaking protocol. Cheese moisture, whey fat content, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness were measured during syneresis. The results obtained show that cutting time is best predicted by considering the coagulation ratio at the inflection point and the percentage increase in the ratio during coagulation, with no need for the first derivative. The large field of view reflectance ratio provided good results for the prediction of moisture content, yield, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness of the final cheese. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 5990 - Special Conditions: Learjet Inc., Model LJ-200-1A10 Airplane, Pilot-Compartment View Through...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ..., and the FAA must issue a finding of regulatory adequacy pursuant to Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in... novel or unusual design features: The Model LJ-200-1A10 airplane flight deck design incorporates a...

  13. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Paul Harris, Thomas William Teasdale, Morten Arendt Rasmussen. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):331-41. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161324.......Trine Schow, Paul Harris, Thomas William Teasdale, Morten Arendt Rasmussen. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):331-41. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161324....

  14. Monocular and binocular steady-state flicker VEPs: frequency-response functions to sinusoidal and square-wave luminance modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David S; Hamilton, Ruth; Shahani, Uma; McCulloch, Daphne L

    2011-02-01

    Steady-state VEPs to full-field flicker (FFF) using sinusoidally modulated light were compared with those elicited by square-wave modulated light across a wide range of stimulus frequencies with monocular and binocular FFF stimulation. Binocular and monocular VEPs were elicited in 12 adult volunteers to FFF with two modes of temporal modulation: sinusoidal or square-wave (abrupt onset and offset, 50% duty cycle) at ten temporal frequencies ranging from 2.83 to 58.8 Hz. All stimuli had a mean luminance of 100 cd/m(2) with an 80% modulation depth (20-180 cd/m(2)). Response magnitudes at the stimulus frequency (F1) and at the double and triple harmonics (F2 and F3) were compared. For both sinusoidal and square-wave flicker, the FFF-VEP magnitudes at F1 were maximal for 7.52 Hz flicker. F2 was maximal for 5.29 Hz flicker, and F3 magnitudes are largest for flicker stimulation from 3.75 to 7.52 Hz. Square-wave flicker produced significantly larger F1 and F2 magnitudes for slow flicker rates (up to 5.29 Hz for F1; at 2.83 and 3.75 Hz for F2). The F3 magnitudes were larger overall for square-wave flicker. Binocular FFF-VEP magnitudes are larger than those of monocular FFF-VEPs, and the amount of this binocular enhancement is not dependant on the mode of flicker stimulation (mean binocular: monocular ratio 1.41, 95% CI: 1.2-1.6). Binocular enhancement of F1 for 21.3 Hz flicker was increased to a factor of 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8-3.5). In the healthy adult visual system, FFF-VEP magnitudes can be characterized by the frequency-response functions of F1, F2 and F3. Low-frequency roll-off in the FFF-VEP magnitudes is greater for sinusoidal flicker than for square-wave flicker for rates ≤ 5.29 Hz; magnitudes for higher-frequency flicker are similar for the two types of flicker. Binocular FFF-VEPs are larger overall than those recorded monocularly, and this binocular summation is enhanced at 21.3 Hz in the mid-frequency range.

  15. An exploratory study: prolonged periods of binocular stimulation can provide an effective treatment for childhood amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Pamela J; Simmers, Anita J; Gray, Lyle S; Cleary, Marie

    2012-02-21

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential for treating childhood amblyopia with a binocular stimulus designed to correlate the visual input from both eyes. Eight strabismic, two anisometropic, and four strabismic and anisometropic amblyopes (mean age, 8.5 ± 2.6 years) undertook a dichoptic perceptual learning task for five sessions (each lasting 1 hour) over the course of a week. The training paradigm involved a simple computer game, which required the subject to use both eyes to perform the task. A statistically significant improvement (t(₁₃) = 5.46; P = 0.0001) in the mean visual acuity (VA) of the amblyopic eye (AE) was demonstrated, from 0.51 ± 0.27 logMAR before training to 0.42 ± 0.28 logMAR after training with six subjects gaining 0.1 logMAR or more of improvement. Measurable stereofunction was established for the first time in three subjects with an overall significant mean improvement in stereoacuity after training (t(₁₃) =2.64; P = 0.02). The dichoptic-based perceptual learning therapy employed in the present study improved both the monocular VA of the AE and stereofunction, verifying the feasibility of a binocular approach in the treatment of childhood amblyopia.

  16. How Simultaneous is the Perception of Binocular Depth and Rivalry in Plaid Stimuli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Buckthought

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysical experiments have demonstrated that it is possible to perceive both binocular depth and rivalry in plaids (Buckthought and Wilson 2007, Vision Research 47 2543–2556. In a recent study, we investigated the neural substrates for depth and rivalry processing with these plaid patterns, when either a depth or rivalry task was performed (Buckthought and Mendola 2011, Journal of Vision 11 1–15. However, the extent to which perception of the two stimulus aspects was truly simultaneous remained somewhat unclear. In the present study, we introduced a new task in which subjects were instructed to perform both depth and rivalry tasks concurrently. Subjects were clearly able to perform both tasks at the same time, but with a modest, symmetric drop in performance when compared to either task carried out alone. Subjects were also able to raise performance levels for either task by performing it with a higher priority, with a decline in performance for the other task. The symmetric declines in performance are consistent with the interpretation that the two tasks are equally demanding of attention (Braun and Julesz 1998, Perception & Psychophysics 60 1–23. The results demonstrate the impressive combination of binocular features that supports coincident depth and rivalry in surface perception, within the constraints of presumed orientation and spatial frequency channels.

  17. [Improvement of power and illumination source of the indirect binocular ophthalmoscope designed by Foerster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitritz, M A; Oltrup, T; Umesh Babu, H; Bende, T; Bartz-Schmidt, K U; Foerster, M H

    2013-08-01

    Since 1982, the indirect binocular ophthalmoscope designed by Foerster has been in use in ophthalmology. The option to implement a new illumination technique using a light-emitting diode (LED) and a new power source should be evaluated in terms of technical feasibility and patient safety. The cooling element was redesigned to accommodate the new LED electronics and their components, including an option for a variable brightness control. A more compact rechargeable battery was utilized with variable fixation at the headband or elsewhere. Photometric measurements of light intensity and the operating time were planned. Furthermore, a review of the new lighting technology in terms of EN ISO 15004-2 and EN ISO 10943 was necessary. Technical adjustments to accommodate the LED inside the cooling element could be realised. The power source was a modern rechargeable lithium-ion battery with variable fixation. The luminous intensity of the LED is superior to that of the halogen lamp and the operating time was increased to 520 minutes. The required limits according to DIN EN ISO 15004-2 for ophthalmic devices were met by our measurements. The optimisation of the indirect binocular ophthalmoscope brings improvements in illumination intensity and operating time. A conversion for models already in use is possible. A certified appraisal for compliance with the appropriate standards is the next step. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Lozomieh in Ibn Sina’s Logic and its Relation to Various Kinds of Conditionals in Modern Logic with Analysis and Critique of Some Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajihosseini

    2011-09-01

    Finally, after analyzing and criticizing these views, we want to bring to light the fact that to find the relation between Lozomieh and those of conditionals in modern Logic we have to compare all aspects of the paradigms of ancient logic and Modern logic. In addition, since the author believes that the material implication is absent in ancient logic and ancient logic is similar to relevant logic in many aspects, we have to compare the ancient logic as a paradigm to a kind of relevant logic that is substitution for material implication logic as another paradigm.

  19. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  20. Binocular reflexes in the first 6 months of life: preliminary results of a study of normal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakes, R L; Clothier, C; Wilson, A

    1979-01-01

    The development of the binocular reflexes during the first 6 months of life was studied in 38 normal infants. Preliminary results indicate that the following reflex is well established by 2 months, convergence by 3 months and the corrective fusion reflex by the age of 5 months.

  1. Effects of fabrication requirements on fuel performance in relation to operating conditions. The views of Electricite de France (EDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponticq, M.; Richer, P.; Scribe, G.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the operational constraints relating to fuel behaviour, imperfect knowledge of the behaviour of a defective fuel assembly and, in the near future, the need to adapt reactor power to grid following (load following and remote control), EDF is aiming to reduce the present rate of fuel failure. While the phenomena affecting fuel behaviour have now been listed and analysed, the efforts at reducing their consequences have yet to be completed. This can be achieved, firstly, by reducing or eliminating fabrication defects, which are responsible for failure at the beginning of fuel life, through establishment of a good quality assurance organization and the search for still higher efficiency of quality control and fabrication equipment, and secondly, by developing fabrication techniques minimizing in particular cladding-pellet interactions and the stress corrosion of the cladding, which are responsible for fuel failure as from mid-life. However, the reactor operating conditions likely to apply in the near future may lead, for a given fuel configuration, to a re-evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cladding and UO 2 pellets. (author)

  2. Vessels 6-DOF poses measurement based on key points tracking via binocular camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhengnan; Tao, Limin; Cui, Wei; Lv, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Offshore accurate replenishment technology is the foundation for conducting ocean research for every country. However, it is difficult to keep the security and accuracy of hoisting due to the fact that waves will let vessels generate 6-DOF motions. This paper regards accurate offshore supplying as a background, and takes into consideration that vessel acts as a rigid body to perform algorithm research on the AHC (Active Heaving Compensation) detection system. The binocular camera installed on the hoisting equipment can calculate the 6-DOF pose of vessel via detecting landmarks on the deck. The system can achieve all-weather operations, adopting Shi-Tomasi algorithm to identify and L-K Optical Flow algorithm to track sub-pixel points. Lastly, the scheme has been verified in the 6-DOF motion platform, which indicates that its accuracy meets the requirements of the control experiment in the next step.

  3. Flexible calibration method for line-structured light based on binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Wang, Lianpo; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao; Jin, Yi

    2017-10-01

    A new calibration technique for line-structured light scanning systems is proposed in this study. Compared with existing methods, this technique is more flexible and practical. Complicated operations, precision calibration target and positioning devices are all unnecessary. Only a blank planar board, which is placed at several(at least two) arbitrary orientations, and an additional camera that is calibrated under the global coordinate system are required. Control points are obtained through improved binocular intersection algorithm that avoids corresponding points matching and then used to calculate the light stripe plane through least square fitting. Experiment results indicate that the system calibrated by this technique is able to conduct surface measurement, offering an accuracy superior to 32μm(RMS).

  4. An Active System for Visually-Guided Reaching in 3D across Binocular Fixations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Martinez-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the importance of relative disparity between objects for accurate hand-eye coordination, this paper presents a biological approach inspired by the cortical neural architecture. So, the motor information is coded in egocentric coordinates obtained from the allocentric representation of the space (in terms of disparity generated from the egocentric representation of the visual information (image coordinates. In that way, the different aspects of the visuomotor coordination are integrated: an active vision system, composed of two vergent cameras; a module for the 2D binocular disparity estimation based on a local estimation of phase differences performed through a bank of Gabor filters; and a robotic actuator to perform the corresponding tasks (visually-guided reaching. The approach’s performance is evaluated through experiments on both simulated and real data.

  5. Modelling biological depth perception in binocular vision: the local disparity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungeanu, D; Popa, C; Hotca, S; Macovievici, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to solving the correspondence problem in binocular vision and to computing the local horizontal disparity map using a biologically inspired algorithm. A computer application was developed as a tool for implementing, developing, and testing computational models for stereopsis, and also as a framework for integrating the disparity map with other perspective clues. Two models for stereopsis have been implemented. One of them is biologically inspired (it models the behaviour of simple and complex cells from the striate cortex) and the other is the 'classical' model of David Marr and Tomaso Poggio, implemented in order to have a comparison term for the simulation results. The paper details the results obtained on random-dot stereograms and on pairs of real images.

  6. Methods of building dense multi-view autostereoscopic display and its hardware requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lujun (Laurence); Meng, Yang; Jia, Fangda; Yu, Zhongyuang; Di Chen, Laura; Chen, Michael M.; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Ye; Liu, Yuming; Ye, Han

    2017-10-01

    Based on concept of eye space, we proposed an idea to achieve multi-view autostereoscopic display with densest viewpoints (for largest tolerance) which reaches physical limitation of density. The physical limitation of separation between two neighboring view-points is one eye spacing for largest tolerance in binocular view based display; the display can be achieved by using light-shutter-screen with fast-enough-switching and a circuit hardware called address driving matrix. The idea is applied for both binocular view based and depth map based display. For the former (binocular view), one shutter screen is placed at front of 2D-display screen with address driving matrix and two video streams of left and right eyes; for the latter (not binocular view, a kind of quasi-holography display), two shutter screens are placed at front of 2D-display screen with one 2D video stream and one depth map (depth map can be generated from two video streams of left and right eye or be obtained from a depth camera), in this case, each of all screens (besides each of shutter screens, 2D-display screen also) need separate address driving matrix, and the physical limitation of separation of view-points is further reduced to half of eye spacing for largest tolerance. Current technologies are ready for building the address driving matrix, but not ready yet for the fast- enough-switching, for example, current LCD is not fast enough for this purpose. Therefore, this will bring many challenges and new opportunities for those physicist and engineers who work in area of fast light switch (not only limited in LCD), besides in autostereoscopic display.

  7. Effect of age and pop out distracter on attended field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Leat, Susan J; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the functional field of view (FFOV) of younger and older individuals using the attended field of view (AFOV), a method which allows for eye and head movement. The impact of a pop out distracter and a dual task on the FFOV measure was also investigated. Nine young adult (25±6 years) and 9 older participants (72±4 years) took part in the experiment. The AFOV test involved the binocular detection and localization of a white target (Landolt-C) in a field of 24 white rings (distracters). The further AFOV tests were modified to include the presence of a pop out distracter, a dual task condition, and a combination of the two. Older observers had lower viewing efficiency (log [1/presentation time]) in all conditions (pooled mean across conditions: older: 0.05±0.02; younger: 0.48±0.04) than the younger group. The addition of dual or a pop out distracter did not affect the older group (mean difference ∼104±150ms and ∼124±122ms respectively) but the additional pop out distracter reduced the efficiency of the younger group for targets near fixation (mean difference ∼68±35ms). Better viewing efficiency was observed in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Difficulty in disregarding irrelevant stimuli and thereby resorting to inefficient search strategy is proposed as the reason for the differences. The finding that both older and younger individuals are not affected significantly by the presence of the irrelevant pop out distracter has implications in situations such as driving or hazard avoidance. In such scenarios, search performance is likely not impaired beyond what is found with distracters (visual clutter) in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of the position of the visible sky in determining the sky view factor on micrometeorological and human thermal comfort conditions in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaid, Adeb; Lamit, Hasanuddin Bin; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Rasidi, Mohd Hisyam

    2018-02-01

    Poor daytime and night-time micrometeorological conditions are issues that influence the quality of environmental conditions and can undermine a comfortable human lifestyle. The sky view factor (SVF) is one of the essential physical parameters used to assess the micrometeorological conditions and thermal comfort levels within city streets. The position of the visible sky relative to the path of the sun, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, has not been widely discerned as a parameter that could have an impact on the micrometeorological conditions of urban streets. To investigate this parameter, different urban streets that have a similar SVF value but diverse positions of visible sky were proposed in different street directions intersecting with the path of the sun, namely N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The effects of daytime and night-time micrometeorological variables and human thermal comfort variables on the street were investigated by applying ENVI-met V3.1 Beta software. The results show that the position of the visible sky has a greater influence on the street's meteorological and human thermal comfort conditions than the SVF value. It has the ability to maximise or minimise the mean radiation temperature (Tmrt, °C) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, °C) at street level. However, the visible sky positioned to the zenith in a NE-SW or N-S street direction and to the SW of a NW-SE street direction achieves the best daytime micrometeorological and thermal comfort conditions. Alternatively, the visible sky positioned to the NE for a NW-SE street direction, to the NW and the zenith for a NE-SW street direction and to the zenith for a N-S street direction reduces the night-time air temperature (Ta, °C). Therefore, SVF and the position of the visible sky relative to the sun's trajectory, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, must be considered during urban street planning to better understand the resultant micrometeorological and human thermal

  9. LabVIEW aplicado al diagnóstico de estado en tiempo real de transformadores de potencia; LabVIEW apply to diagnostic that assess the condition in real time of the power transfor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Fernández Padrón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo está dirigido al rediseño del Sistema de Adquisición y Procesamiento de Datos de la Estación para el Diagnóstico de Estado en Tiempo Real del Autotransformador de Potencia No. 2 de 100MVA, de la Subestación Barquisimeto de Venezuela, a partir de controladores embebidos en tiempo real de la familia cRIO de National Instruments y las técnicas de programación que ofrece la plataforma NI LabVIEW, con la finalidad de integrar un sistema único (software-hardware que permita aumentar la calidad en las mediciones, el procesamiento de los datos, la interface hombre-máquina, su capacidad de expansión y reproducibilidad. El mismo puede ser accedido mediante navegadores Web de Internet y transferir datos en tiempo real a través de la red, además es capaz de trabajar autónomo presentando respaldo en comunicación y alimentación de energía eléctrica, logrando un mejor servicio de diagnóstico continuo en dicho autotransformador.  This work is focused on the redesign of the Acquisition System and Processing Data of the Station for the Diagnostic that Assess the Condition in Real Time of the 100MVA Power Autotransformer No. 2 of the Substation Barquisimeto from Venezuela with the embedded controllers in real time of the cRIO technology of the National Instruments and the programming techniques supported by the NI LabVIEW platform with the purpose of integrating an unique system (hardware-software that allows to improve the quality in the measurements, the processing data, the man-machine interface, its expansion capability and reproduction. This system can be obtained by the internet web browser and it can transfer data in real time through the network, it is also able to work autonomous having a back in communicating and electrical energy feeding, getting a better continuous diagnostic service and the autotransformer.

  10. LabVIEW aplicado al diagnóstico de estado en tiempo real de transformadores de potencia LabVIEW apply to diagnostic that assess the condition in real time of the power transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Fernández Padrón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo está dirigido al rediseño del Sistema de Adquisición y Procesamiento de Datos de la Estación para el Diagnóstico de Estado en Tiempo Real del Autotransformador de Potencia No. 2 de 100MVA, de la Subestación Barquisimeto de Venezuela, a partir de controladores embebidos en tiempo real de la familia cRIO de National Instruments y las técnicas de programación que ofrece la plataforma NI LabVIEW, con la finalidad de integrar un sistema único (software-hardware que permita aumentar la calidad en las mediciones, el procesamiento de los datos, la interface hombre-máquina, su capacidad de expansión y reproducibilidad. El mismo puede ser accedido mediante navegadores Web de Internet y transferir datos en tiempo real a través de la red, además es capaz de trabajar autónomo presentando respaldo en comunicación y alimentación de energía eléctrica, logrando un mejor servicio de diagnóstico continuo en dicho autotransformador.This work is focused on the redesign of the Acquisition System and Processing Data of the Station for the Diagnostic that Assess the Condition in Real Time of the 100MVA Power Autotransformer No. 2 of the Substation Barquisimeto from Venezuela with the embedded controllers in real time of the cRIO technology of the National Instruments and the programming techniques supported by the NI LabVIEW platform with the purpose of integrating an unique system (hardware-software that allows to improve the quality in the measurements, the processing data, the man-machine interface, its expansion capability and reproduction. This system can be obtained by the internet web browser and it can transfer data in real time through the network, it is also able to work autonomous having a back in communicating and electrical energy feeding, getting a better continuous diagnostic service and the autotransformer.

  11. Evaluation of binocular function among pre- and early-presbyopes with asthenopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reindel W

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available William Reindel,1 Lening Zhang,1 Joseph Chinn,2 Marjorie Rah1 1Vision Care, Bausch & Lomb Inc, Rochester, NY, 2J Chinn LLC, Lafayette, CO, USA Purpose: Individuals approaching presbyopia may exhibit ocular symptoms as they contend with visual demands of near work, coupled with natural age-related changes in accommodation. Therefore, accommodation and vergence of 30- to 40-year-old, myopic, soft contact lens wearing subjects with symptoms of asthenopia and no history of using multifocal lenses were evaluated.Patients and methods: In this prospective, observational study, 253 subjects with asthenopia were evaluated by 25 qualified practitioners, each at a different clinical site. Subjects were 30–40 years in age, had symptoms of soreness, eyestrain, tired eyes, or headaches with near work, regularly performed 2–3 consecutive hours of near work, and were undiagnosed with presbyopia. Amplitude of accommodation (AC and near point convergence (NPC were measured with a Royal Air Force binocular gauge. Triplicate push up and push down AC and NPC measures were recorded, and average AC values were compared to those calculated using the Hofstetter formula (HF. Results: The average AC push up/push down value was significantly better than the HF prediction for this age range (8.04±3.09 vs 6.23±0.80 D, although 22.5% of subjects had mean AC below their HF value (5.36±0.99 D. The average NPC push up/push down value was 12.0±4.69 cm. The mean binocular AC value using the push up measure was significantly better than the push down measure (8.5±3.4 vs 7.6±3.0 D. The mean NPC value using the push up measure was significantly worse than the push down measure (13.0±5.0 vs 11.0±4.7 cm. The most frequent primary diagnosis was ill-sustained accommodation (54%, followed by accommodative insufficiency (18%, and accommodative infacility (12%. Conclusion: Based upon a standardized assessment of accommodation and vergence, ill-sustained accommodation was the

  12. Age- and stereovision-dependent eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, S.; Suttle, C. M.; Melmoth, D. R.; Conway, M. L.; Sloper, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine factors contributing to eye-hand coordination deficits in children with amblyopia and impaired stereovision. \\ud \\ud Methods: Participants were 55 anisometropic or strabismic children aged 5.0-9.25 years with different degrees of amblyopia and abnormal binocularity along with 28 age-matched visually-normal controls. Pilot data were obtained from 4 additional patients studied longitudinally at different treatment stages. Movements of the preferred hand were recorded using a...

  13. Precision calibration method for binocular vision measurement systems based on arbitrary translations and 3D-connection information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinghao; Jia, Zhenyuan; Liu, Wei; Fan, Chaonan; Xu, Pengtao; Wang, Fuji; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Binocular vision systems play an important role in computer vision, and high-precision system calibration is a necessary and indispensable process. In this paper, an improved calibration method for binocular stereo vision measurement systems based on arbitrary translations and 3D-connection information is proposed. First, a new method for calibrating the intrinsic parameters of binocular vision system based on two translations with an arbitrary angle difference is presented, which reduces the effect of the deviation of the motion actuator on calibration accuracy. This method is simpler and more accurate than existing active-vision calibration methods and can provide a better initial value for the determination of extrinsic parameters. Second, a 3D-connection calibration and optimization method is developed that links the information of the calibration target in different positions, further improving the accuracy of the system calibration. Calibration experiments show that the calibration error can be reduced to 0.09%, outperforming traditional methods for the experiments of this study. (paper)

  14. Visual cortex and auditory cortex activation in early binocularly blind macaques: A BOLD-fMRI study using auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wu, Lingjie; Tang, Zuohua; Sun, Xinghuai; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Weijun; Qian, Wen; Wang, Jie; Jin, Lixin; Zhong, Yufeng; Xiao, Zebin

    2017-04-15

    Cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices of early binocularly blind macaques is not well studied. In this study, four healthy neonatal macaques were assigned to group A (control group) or group B (binocularly blind group). Sixteen months later, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was conducted to examine the activation in the visual and auditory cortices of each macaque while being tested using pure tones as auditory stimuli. The changes in the BOLD response in the visual and auditory cortices of all macaques were compared with immunofluorescence staining findings. Compared with group A, greater BOLD activity was observed in the bilateral visual cortices of group B, and this effect was particularly obvious in the right visual cortex. In addition, more activated volumes were found in the bilateral auditory cortices of group B than of group A, especially in the right auditory cortex. These findings were consistent with the fact that there were more c-Fos-positive cells in the bilateral visual and auditory cortices of group B compared with group A (p visual cortices of binocularly blind macaques can be reorganized to process auditory stimuli after visual deprivation, and this effect is more obvious in the right than the left visual cortex. These results indicate the establishment of cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The implementation of depth measurement and related algorithms based on binocular vision in embedded AM5728

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiwei; Li, Xicai; Shi, Junsheng; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Li, Feiyan

    2018-01-01

    Depth measurement is the most basic measurement in various machine vision, such as automatic driving, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), robot and so on. And it has a wide range of use. With the development of image processing technology and the improvement of hardware miniaturization and processing speed, real-time depth measurement using dual cameras has become a reality. In this paper, an embedded AM5728 and the ordinary low-cost dual camera is used as the hardware platform. The related algorithms of dual camera calibration, image matching and depth calculation have been studied and implemented on the hardware platform, and hardware design and the rationality of the related algorithms of the system are tested. The experimental results show that the system can realize simultaneous acquisition of binocular images, switching of left and right video sources, display of depth image and depth range. For images with a resolution of 640 × 480, the processing speed of the system can be up to 25 fps. The experimental results show that the optimal measurement range of the system is from 0.5 to 1.5 meter, and the relative error of the distance measurement is less than 5%. Compared with the PC, ARM11 and DMCU hardware platforms, the embedded AM5728 hardware is good at meeting real-time depth measurement requirements in ensuring the image resolution.

  16. Early visual responses predict conscious face perception within and between subjects during binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Barnes, Gareth Robert; Overgaard, Morten; Rees, Geraint

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that conscious face perception may be related to neural activity in a large time window around 170-800 msec after stimulus presentation, yet in the majority of these studies changes in conscious experience are confounded with changes in physical stimulation. Using multivariate classification on MEG data recorded when participants reported changes in conscious perception evoked by binocular rivalry between a face and a grating, we showed that only MEG signals in the 120-320 msec time range, peaking at the M170 around 180 msec and the P2m at around 260 msec, reliably predicted conscious experience. Conscious perception could not only be decoded significantly better than chance from the sensors that showed the largest average difference, as previous studies suggest, but also from patterns of activity across groups of occipital sensors that individually were unable to predict perception better than chance. In addition, source space analyses showed that sources in the early and late visual system predicted conscious perception more accurately than frontal and parietal sites, although conscious perception could also be decoded there. Finally, the patterns of neural activity associated with conscious face perception generalized from one participant to another around the times of maximum prediction accuracy. Our work thus demonstrates that the neural correlates of particular conscious contents (here, faces) are highly consistent in time and space within individuals and that these correlates are shared to some extent between individuals.

  17. Why is binocular rivalry uncommon? Discrepant monocular images in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Henry Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available When different images project to corresponding points in the two eyes they can instigate a phenomenon called binocular rivalry (BR, wherein each image seems to intermittently disappear such that only one of the two images is seen at a time. Cautious readers may have noted an important caveat in the opening sentence – this situation can instigate BR, but usually it doesn’t. Unmatched monocular images are frequently encountered in daily life due to either differential occlusions of the two eyes or because of selective obstructions of just one eye, but this does not tend to induce BR. Here I will explore the reasons for this and discuss implications for BR in general. It will be argued that BR is resolved in favour of the instantaneously stronger neural signal, and that this process is driven by an adaptation that enhances the visibility of distant fixated objects over that of more proximate obstructions of an eye. Accordingly, BR would reflect the dynamics of an inherently visual operation that usually deals with real-world constraints.

  18. Innovatively addressing the challenge of maintaining binocular microscopes under Tuberculosis Programme in India - Is this feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Sarabjit; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Prasad, Banaru Muralidhara; Kelamane, Santosha; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh

    2016-01-01

    India is a high TB burden country. The preferred first line diagnostic tool under National TB Programme is sputum smear microscopy through binocular microscopes (BMs) from 13,000 designated microscopy centres across the country. The programme had devised innovative strategy for maintenance of BMs. A study was conducted to look into the operational feasibility of an external agency to provide maintenance services for BMs engaged through newer strategy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan during 2010-2013. A total of 9314 BMs were serviced during the period 2011-2013, of which 1104 (11.8%) had major repairs, 2204 (23.6%) had minor repairs, 1054 (11.3%) were provided emergency breakdown services and 223 (2.4%) were condemned. The bold initiative and newer strategy of the programme to engage agencies for BMs maintenance services is worthwhile and should be continued and could be considered for replication across the country. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective Data-Driven Calibration for a Galvanometric Laser Scanning System Using Binocular Stereo Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Junchao; Zhang, Liyan

    2018-01-12

    A new solution to the problem of galvanometric laser scanning (GLS) system calibration is presented. Under the machine learning framework, we build a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN)to represent the GLS system, which takes the digital control signal at the drives of the GLS system as input and the space vector of the corresponding outgoing laser beam as output. The training data set is obtained with the aid of a moving mechanism and a binocular stereo system. The parameters of the SLFN are efficiently solved in a closed form by using extreme learning machine (ELM). By quantitatively analyzing the regression precision with respective to the number of hidden neurons in the SLFN, we demonstrate that the proper number of hidden neurons can be safely chosen from a broad interval to guarantee good generalization performance. Compared to the traditional model-driven calibration, the proposed calibration method does not need a complex modeling process and is more accurate and stable. As the output of the network is the space vectors of the outgoing laser beams, it costs much less training time and can provide a uniform solution to both laser projection and 3D-reconstruction, in contrast with the existing data-driven calibration method which only works for the laser triangulation problem. Calibration experiment, projection experiment and 3D reconstruction experiment are respectively conducted to test the proposed method, and good results are obtained.

  20. Effective Data-Driven Calibration for a Galvanometric Laser Scanning System Using Binocular Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Tu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution to the problem of galvanometric laser scanning (GLS system calibration is presented. Under the machine learning framework, we build a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN)to represent the GLS system, which takes the digital control signal at the drives of the GLS system as input and the space vector of the corresponding outgoing laser beam as output. The training data set is obtained with the aid of a moving mechanism and a binocular stereo system. The parameters of the SLFN are efficiently solved in a closed form by using extreme learning machine (ELM. By quantitatively analyzing the regression precision with respective to the number of hidden neurons in the SLFN, we demonstrate that the proper number of hidden neurons can be safely chosen from a broad interval to guarantee good generalization performance. Compared to the traditional model-driven calibration, the proposed calibration method does not need a complex modeling process and is more accurate and stable. As the output of the network is the space vectors of the outgoing laser beams, it costs much less training time and can provide a uniform solution to both laser projection and 3D-reconstruction, in contrast with the existing data-driven calibration method which only works for the laser triangulation problem. Calibration experiment, projection experiment and 3D reconstruction experiment are respectively conducted to test the proposed method, and good results are obtained.

  1. The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model

    KAUST Repository

    Webber, Matthew A

    2013-03-12

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA Medialab srl.

  2. Reading a population code: a multi-scale neural model for representing binocular disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeffrey J; Victor, Jonathan D

    2003-02-01

    Although binocular neurons in the primary visual cortex are sensitive to retinal disparity, their activity does not constitute an unambiguous disparity signal. A multi-spatial-scale neural model for disparity computation is developed to examine how population activity might be interpreted to overcome ambiguities at the single neuron level. The model incorporates a front end that encodes disparity by a family of complex cell-like energy units and a second stage that reads the population activity. Disparity is recovered by matching the population response to a set of canonical templates, derived from the mean response to white noise stimuli at a range of disparities. Model predictions are qualitatively consistent with a variety of psychophysical results in the literature, including the effects of spatial frequency on stereoacuity and bias in perceived depths, and the effect of standing disparity on increment thresholds. Model predictions are also consistent with data on qualitative appearance of complex stimuli, including depth averaging, transparency, and corrugation. The model also accounts for the non-linear interaction of disparities in compound grating stimuli. These results show that a template-match approach reduces ambiguities in individual and pooled neuronal responses, and allows for a broader range of percepts, consistent with psychophysics, than other models. Thus, the pattern of neural population activity across spatial scales is a better candidate for the neural correlate of depth perception than the activity of single neurons or the pooled activity of multiple neurons.

  3. NULLING DATA REDUCTION AND ON-SKY PERFORMANCE OF THE LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Skemer, A. J.; Bailey, V.; Downey, E. C.; Durney, O.; Grenz, P.; McMahon, T. J.; Montoya, M.; Spalding, E.; Vaz, A.; Arbo, P.; Brusa, G. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mennesson, B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Millan-Gabet, R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Danchi, W. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hill, J. M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Absil, O. [Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Bailey, H., E-mail: ddefrere@email.arizona.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E, University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2016-06-20

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a versatile instrument designed for high angular resolution and high-contrast infrared imaging (1.5–13 μ m). In this paper, we focus on the mid-infrared (8–13 μ m) nulling mode and present its theory of operation, data reduction, and on-sky performance as of the end of the commissioning phase in 2015 March. With an interferometric baseline of 14.4 m, the LBTI nuller is specifically tuned to resolve the habitable zone of nearby main-sequence stars, where warm exozodiacal dust emission peaks. Measuring the exozodi luminosity function of nearby main-sequence stars is a key milestone to prepare for future exo-Earth direct imaging instruments. Thanks to recent progress in wavefront control and phase stabilization, as well as in data reduction techniques, the LBTI demonstrated in 2015 February a calibrated null accuracy of 0.05% over a 3 hr long observing sequence on the bright nearby A3V star β Leo. This is equivalent to an exozodiacal disk density of 15–30 zodi for a Sun-like star located at 10 pc, depending on the adopted disk model. This result sets a new record for high-contrast mid-infrared interferometric imaging and opens a new window on the study of planetary systems.

  4. Intact binocular function and absent ocular torsion in children with alternating skew on lateral gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, L M; Maria, B L; Briscoe, S T; Shamis, D

    1996-01-01

    A form of skew deviation, called alternating skew on lateral gaze, resembles bilateral superior oblique overaction. Oblique muscle overaction has been recently speculated to result from loss of fusion with subsequent "free-wheeling" of the torsional control mechanisms of the eyes, causing sensory intorsion or extorsion with attendant superior or inferior oblique muscle overaction, respectively. We wanted to investigate whether loss of fusion plays a role in the pathogenesis of alternating skew on lateral gaze. We examined seven consecutive patients with posterior fossa tumors, enrolled in a multi-disciplinary pediatric neuro-oncology program, who displayed alternating skew on lateral gaze. All patients underwent a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. Visual acuities in the study patients ranged from 20/20 to 20/40. Five of the seven patients were orthotropic, and showed 40 sec of arc stereopsis. Three patients showed associated downbeat nystagmus. No ocular torsion was found in any of the five patients who showed normal stereopsis upon inspection of fundus landmarks on indirect ophthalmoscopy. Patients with alternating skew on lateral gaze often have normal binocular vision and stereopsis, and lack ocular intorsion so typical of superior oblique overaction. Alternating skew on lateral gaze is neurologically mediated, with no role for defective fusion in its pathogenesis.

  5. A Comparison of Change Blindness in Real-World and On-Screen Viewing of Museum Artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Attwood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Change blindness is a phenomenon of visual perception that occurs when a stimulus undergoes a change without this being noticed by its observer. To date, the effect has been produced by changing images displayed on screen as well as changing people and objects in an individual’s environment. In this experiment, we combine these two approaches to directly compare the levels of change blindness produced in real-world vs. on-screen viewing of museum artefacts. In the real-world viewing condition, one group of participants viewed a series of pairs of similar but slightly different artefacts across eye saccades, while in the on-screen viewing condition, a second group of participants viewed the same artefacts across camera pans on video captured from a head-mounted camera worn by the first set of participants. We present three main findings. First, that change blindness does occur in a museum setting when similar ancient artefacts are viewed briefly one after another in both real-world and on-screen viewing conditions. We discuss this finding in relation to the notion that visual perceptual performance may be enhanced within museums. Second, we found that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean levels of change blindness produced in real-world and on-screen viewing conditions (real-world 42.62%, on-screen 47.35%, X2 = 1.626, p > 0.05 1 d.f.. We discuss possible implications of these results for understanding change blindness, such as the role of binocular vs. monocular vision and that of head and eye movements, as well as reflecting on the evolution of change detection systems, and the impact of the experimental design itself on our results. Third, we combined the data from both viewing conditions to identify groups of artefacts that were independently associated with high and low levels of change blindness, and show that change detection rates were influenced mainly by bottom-up factors, including the visible area and

  6. A Comparison of Change Blindness in Real-World and On-Screen Viewing of Museum Artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Jonathan E; Kennard, Christopher; Harris, Jim; Humphreys, Glyn; Antoniades, Chrystalina A

    2018-01-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon of visual perception that occurs when a stimulus undergoes a change without this being noticed by its observer. To date, the effect has been produced by changing images displayed on screen as well as changing people and objects in an individual's environment. In this experiment, we combine these two approaches to directly compare the levels of change blindness produced in real-world vs. on-screen viewing of museum artefacts. In the real-world viewing condition, one group of participants viewed a series of pairs of similar but slightly different artefacts across eye saccades, while in the on-screen viewing condition, a second group of participants viewed the same artefacts across camera pans on video captured from a head-mounted camera worn by the first set of participants. We present three main findings. First, that change blindness does occur in a museum setting when similar ancient artefacts are viewed briefly one after another in both real-world and on-screen viewing conditions. We discuss this finding in relation to the notion that visual perceptual performance may be enhanced within museums. Second, we found that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean levels of change blindness produced in real-world and on-screen viewing conditions (real-world 42.62%, on-screen 47.35%, X 2 = 1.626, p > 0.05 1 d.f.). We discuss possible implications of these results for understanding change blindness, such as the role of binocular vs. monocular vision and that of head and eye movements, as well as reflecting on the evolution of change detection systems, and the impact of the experimental design itself on our results. Third, we combined the data from both viewing conditions to identify groups of artefacts that were independently associated with high and low levels of change blindness, and show that change detection rates were influenced mainly by bottom-up factors, including the visible area and contrast of changes

  7. Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Cheung, Rene; Duong, Simon; Paynter, Rosemary; Asper, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates viewing distances and eyestrain symptoms in young adults reading from a smartphone for 60 minutes. A survey related to common asthenopic (eyestrain) symptoms was administered to subjects before and after they read an extract from a novel on a smartphone for 60 minutes. Subjects rated their symptoms on a scale from zero (not at all) to four (extremely). The viewing distance to the smartphone was measured on a photograph taken of the subject every minute. Each subject used the same smartphone and read the same text. Subjects were 18 young adults (mean age: 21.5 ± 3.3 years) with self-reported good health, normal visual acuity and no accommodative or binocular vision disorders. The mean viewing distance while using a smartphone over 60 minutes was 29.2 ± 7.3 cm. The viewing distance was significantly greater during the first, second and fifth 10-minute time periods (30.6 ± 7.2 cm, 29.7 ± 7.3 cm and 28.9 ± 8.5 cm, respectively) than during the final 10-minute time period (27.8 ± 7.7 cm) (Wilcoxon, p = 0.023, 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). The total symptom score was significantly greater post-experiment (score = 8.06) than pre-experiment (score = 3.56) (Wilcoxon, p smartphone use (Wilcoxon, p smartphone for 60 minutes. The viewing distances measured were closer than those previously reported in the literature. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  8. Medical specialists' views on the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on prognosis of, and risk of, hospital admission due to specific medical conditions: results from a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdege, Noreen D; Raistrick, Duncan; Johnson, Graham

    2014-02-01

    To find consensus, or lack thereof, on the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on prognosis and the risk of hospital admissions for a number of alcohol-attributable disorders. A modified two-round Delphi survey utilizing web-based questionnaires to collect quantitative and qualitative data was used. Alcohol treatment experts from cardiology, emergency medicine, gastroenterology and oncology in the United Kingdom were invited to participate. The main outcomes were median impact ratings (on a scale of 1-9) and consensus (unanimous, strong, moderate, weak or no consensus). Of 192 experts invited to participate, 59 completed first questionnaires. The overall retention rate to the second questionnaires was about 51% (30/59). There was strong support that reducing alcohol consumption could result in improvement in prognosis for gastroenterology and emergency medicine patients; but uncertainty on the benefits for cardiology and oncology patients. Overall, the responses from the expert panel did not reflect the assumption that reducing alcohol consumption would result in benefits on hospital admissions for any of the specialties. The specialists viewed the severity of disorders as important when considering the impact of reducing alcohol consumption. The highest impact of treatment for problem drinking in hospitals is considered to be for alcohol-related disorders associated with gastroenterology and emergency medicine. At policy level, if targeted screening for alcohol problems by presenting disease or condition is the strategy of choice, it would be logical to implement screening and easily accessible interventions or addiction specialists within these areas where alcohol treatment is considered as having a high impact. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Computer-enhanced stereoscopic vision in a head-mounted operating binocular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Figl, Michael; Matula, Christian; Hummel, Johann; Hanel, Rudolf; Imhof, Herwig; Wanschitz, Felix; Wagner, Arne; Watzinger, Franz; Bergmann, Helmar

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Varioscope, a commercially available head-mounted operating binocular, we have developed the Varioscope AR, a see through head-mounted display (HMD) for augmented reality visualization that seamlessly fits into the infrastructure of a surgical navigation system. We have assessed the extent to which stereoscopic visualization improves target localization in computer-aided surgery in a phantom study. In order to quantify the depth perception of a user aiming at a given target, we have designed a phantom simulating typical clinical situations in skull base surgery. Sixteen steel spheres were fixed at the base of a bony skull, and several typical craniotomies were applied. After having taken CT scans, the skull was filled with opaque jelly in order to simulate brain tissue. The positions of the spheres were registered using VISIT, a system for computer-aided surgical navigation. Then attempts were made to locate the steel spheres with a bayonet probe through the craniotomies using VISIT and the Varioscope AR as a stereoscopic display device. Localization of targets 4 mm in diameter using stereoscopic vision and additional visual cues indicating target proximity had a success rate (defined as a first-trial hit rate) of 87.5%. Using monoscopic vision and target proximity indication, the success rate was found to be 66.6%. Omission of visual hints on reaching a target yielded a success rate of 79.2% in the stereo case and 56.25% with monoscopic vision. Time requirements for localizing all 16 targets ranged from 7.5 min (stereo, with proximity cues) to 10 min (mono, without proximity cues). Navigation error is primarily governed by the accuracy of registration in the navigation system, whereas the HMD does not appear to influence localization significantly. We conclude that stereo vision is a valuable tool in augmented reality guided interventions. (note)

  10. Distribution of Binocular Vision Anomalies and Refractive Errors in Iranian Children With Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Visual problems in children contribute to learning disorders, which are one of the most influential factors in learning. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of refractive and binocular vision errors in children with learning disorders. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 406 children with learning disorders with a mean age of 8.56 ± 2.4 years were evaluated. Examinations included the determination of refractive errors with an auto-refractometer and static retinoscopy, measurement of visual acuity with a Snellen chart, evaluation of ocular deviation, and measurement of stereopsis, amplitude of accommodation, and near point of convergence. Results Of the 406 participants, 319 (78.6% were emmetropic in the right eye, 14.5% had myopia, and 6.9% had hyperopia according to cycloplegic refraction. Astigmatism was detected in 75 (18.5% children. In our study, 89.9% of the children had no deviation, 1.0% had esophoria, and 6.4% had exophoria . In addition, 2.2% of the children had suppression. The near point of convergence ranged from 3 to 18 cm, with a mean of 10.12 ± 3.274 cm. Moreover, 98.5 and 98.0% of the participants achieved complete vision with the best correction in the right and left eye, respectively. The best corrected visual acuity in the right and left eye was achieved in 98.5 and 98.0% of the children, respectively. Conclusions The pattern of visual impairment in learning-impaired children is not much different from that in normal children; however, because these children may not be able to express themselves clearly, lack of correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment has resulted in a marked defect in recognizing visual disorders in these children. Therefore, gaining knowledge of the prevalence of refractive errors in children with learning disorders can be considered the first step in their treatment.

  11. Image-based and eye-based influences on binocular rivalry have similar spatial profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, Sjoerd; Brascamp, Jan; Barendregt, Maurits; van der Smagt, Maarten; Pas, Susan Te

    2017-10-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when the images presented to the two eyes do not match. Instead of fusing into a stable percept, perception during rivalry alternates between images over time. However, during rivalry, perception can also resemble a patchwork of parts of both eyes' images. Such integration of image parts across eyes is relatively rare compared to integration of image parts presented to the same eye, suggesting that integration across space during rivalry is primarily rooted at the early monocular level of processing. However, recent evidence suggests that rivalry, and potentially also integration across space during rivalry, has its basis at multiple stages of processing, including stages at which monocular signals are minimal. As such, integration and competition at these later stages would be driven more by image-based factors, such as continuity and color than by eye of origin. Because "higher" visual areas also have increasingly larger receptive fields, image-based integration may occur over a larger spatial extent compared to monocular, eye-based integration. We therefore used rival images containing two separate image parts and varied the interimage-part distance (IIPD) to assess the relative contributions of eye of origin and image features to integration across space at increasing IIPDs. Our hypothesis was that the balance between these contributions would shift toward image features as IIPD increased. Instead, results show that the relative contributions of both factors to grouping remain constant as a function of IIPD. This indicates that image-based grouping is subject to similar spatial constraints as monocular, eye-based grouping, suggesting both kinds of grouping rely on similarly sized receptive fields.

  12. A Randomized Trial of a Binocular iPad Game Versus Part-Time Patching in Children Aged 13 to 16 Years With Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manh, Vivian M; Holmes, Jonathan M; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Kraker, Raymond T; Wallace, David K; Kulp, Marjean T; Galvin, Jennifer A; Shah, Birva K; Davis, Patricia L

    2018-02-01

    To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in teenagers with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. One hundred participants aged 13 to iPad game prescribed for 1 hour per day (n = 40) or patching of the fellow eye prescribed for 2 hours per day (n = 60). The main outcome measure was change in amblyopic eye VA from baseline to 16 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye VA improved from baseline by 3.5 letters (2-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-5.7 letters) in the binocular group and by 6.5 letters (2-sided 95% CI: 4.4-8.5 letters) in the patching group. After adjusting for baseline VA, the difference between the binocular and patching groups was -2.7 letters (95% CI: -5.7 to 0.3 letters, P = .082) or 0.5 lines, favoring patching. In the binocular group, treatment adherence data from the iPad device indicated that only 13% of participants completed >75% of prescribed treatment. In teenagers aged 13 to iPad game used in this study was not found to be better than patching, and was possibly worse. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the minimal treatment response to binocular treatment was owing to poor treatment adherence or lack of treatment effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers’ perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers’ snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Design Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers’ snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Setting: Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Subjects Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3–5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child’s snacking in the context of TV viewing. Results TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as ‘time out’, ‘enjoyment’ or ‘quiet.’ Caregivers’ primary reasons for providing snacks included child’s expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture (‘TV table’) specifically for snacking. Conclusions Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers’ snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage ‘snack-free’ TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children’s behaviour without snacks or TV. PMID:26794059

  14. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers' perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-06-01

    Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers' snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3-5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child's snacking in the context of TV viewing. TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as 'time out', 'enjoyment' or 'quiet.' Caregivers' primary reasons for providing snacks included child's expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture ('TV table') specifically for snacking. Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage 'snack-free' TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children's behaviour without snacks or TV.

  15. VISTA Views the Sculptor Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    A spectacular new image of the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) has been taken with the ESO VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile as part of one of its first major observational campaigns. By observing in infrared light VISTA's view is less affected by dust and reveals a myriad of cooler stars as well as a prominent bar of stars across the central region. The VISTA image provides much new information on the history and development of the galaxy. The Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253) lies in the constellation of the same name and is one of the brightest galaxies in the sky. It is prominent enough to be seen with good binoculars and was discovered by Caroline Herschel from England in 1783. NGC 253 is a spiral galaxy that lies about 13 million light-years away. It is the brightest member of a small collection of galaxies called the Sculptor Group, one of the closest such groupings to our own Local Group of galaxies. Part of its visual prominence comes from its status as a starburst galaxy, one in the throes of rapid star formation. NGC 253 is also very dusty, which obscures the view of many parts of the galaxy (eso0902). Seen from Earth, the galaxy is almost edge on, with the spiral arms clearly visible in the outer parts, along with a bright core at its centre. VISTA, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope. After being handed over to ESO at the end of 2009 (eso0949) the telescope was used for two detailed studies of small sections of the sky before it embarked on the much larger surveys that are now in progress. One of these "mini surveys" was a detailed study of NGC 253 and its environment. As VISTA works at infrared wavelengths it can see right through most of the dust that is such a prominent feature of the Sculptor Galaxy when viewed in visible light. Huge numbers of cooler stars that are barely detectable with visible

  16. Comparative study of RetCamRetCam II vs. binocular ophthalmoscopy in a screening program for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Palacios, P; Zarratea, L; Moral, M; de la Cruz-Bértolo, J

    2015-08-01

    To determine the performance of RetCam vs. binocular ophthalmoscopy (BIO) in a screening program for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Observational comparative study with prospective data collection. Examinations with RetCam (n=169) were performed on 83 infants included in a screening program for ROP and stored for analysis at a later stage. An experienced ophthalmologist examined the ocular fundus with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (BIO). The RetCam images were assessed for the presence of ROP, zone, grade, and presence of plus disease. RetCam and BIO data were compared by visually to estimate sensitivity, specificity, positive (VPP) and negative (VPN) predictive values. ROP disease was detected in 108 eyes with BIO, and in 74 with RetCam. Out of 306 eyes examined with RetCam, false negative results were found in 34 eyes, with no false positives. Sensitivity of RetCam exam vs. BIO was 0.68, and specificity was 0.99. Positive predictive value was 0.93 and negative predictive value was 0.85. All 34 ROP cases not detected with RetCam were in zone III or outer zone II. They were all mild and regressed spontaneously. No threshold ROP was missed with RetCam. Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is the reference method for the diagnosis of ROP. RetCam may be used as an alternative for ROP screening. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  18. Influencia del estrés académico en el sistema binocular en universitarios de la UVA

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: El estrés visual, tras trabajo prolongado en cerca, produce modificaciones en el sistema binocular. Esta hipótesis ha sido poco contrastada experimentalmente. El objetivo principal es medir la influencia del estrés académico en estudiantes universitarios de la UVA mediante la medida de la foria. Métodos: Se ha medido la foria en 22 estudiantes, con su corrección habitual, antes y después de un examen, mediante tres métodos: técnica de la varilla de Maddox, técnica de Von Graefe y...

  19. PEPSI: The high-resolution échelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Barnes, S. I.; Bauer, S.-M.; Beckert, E.; Bittner, W.; Bredthauer, R.; Carroll, T. A.; Denker, C.; Dionies, F.; DiVarano, I.; Döscher, D.; Fechner, T.; Feuerstein, D.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Harnisch, G.; Hofmann, A.; Lesser, M.; Paschke, J.; Pankratow, S.; Plank, V.; Plüschke, D.; Popow, E.; Sablowski, D.

    2015-05-01

    PEPSI is the bench-mounted, two-arm, fibre-fed and stabilized Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument for the 2×8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Three spectral resolutions of either 43 000, 120 000 or 270 000 can cover the entire optical/red wavelength range from 383 to 907 nm in three exposures. Two 10.3k×10.3k CCDs with 9-μm pixels and peak quantum efficiencies of 94-96 % record a total of 92 échelle orders. We introduce a new variant of a wave-guide image slicer with 3, 5, and 7 slices and peak efficiencies between 92-96 %. A total of six cross dispersers cover the six wavelength settings of the spectrograph, two of them always simultaneously. These are made of a VPH-grating sandwiched by two prisms. The peak efficiency of the system, including the telescope, is 15 % at 650 nm, and still 11 % and 10 % at 390 nm and 900 nm, respectively. In combination with the 110 m2 light-collecting capability of the LBT, we expect a limiting magnitude of ≈ 20th mag in V in the low-resolution mode. The R = 120 000 mode can also be used with two, dual-beam Stokes IQUV polarimeters. The 270 000-mode is made possible with the 7-slice image slicer and a 100-μm fibre through a projected sky aperture of 0.74 arcsec, comparable to the median seeing of the LBT site. The 43 000-mode with 12-pixel sampling per resolution element is our bad seeing or faint-object mode. Any of the three resolution modes can either be used with sky fibers for simultaneous sky exposures or with light from a stabilized Fabry-Pérot étalon for ultra-precise radial velocities. CCD-image processing is performed with the dedicated data-reduction and analysis package PEPSI-S4S. Its full error propagation through all image-processing steps allows an adaptive selection of parameters by using statistical inferences and robust estimators. A solar feed makes use of PEPSI during day time and a 500-m feed from the 1.8 m VATT can be used when the LBT is busy otherwise. In this paper, we

  20. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-04-06

    Balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction (BVD) are common problems after stroke, however evidence of an effective rehabilitation method are limited. To evaluate the effect of a four-month rehabilitation program for individuals with balance problems and BVD after a stroke. About 40 sessions of 1.5 hours duration over four months with visual therapy and balance rehabilitation, was provided to all 29 participants, aged 18-67 years, in groups of 7-8 individuals. Several measures for BVD, balance, gait, Health Related Quality Of Life (HRQoL) and functional recovery were used at baseline, at the end of training and at a six-month follow up (FU). We found significant improvements in stereopsis, vergence, saccadic movements, burden of binocular visual symptoms, balance and gait speed, fatigue, HRQoL and functional recovery. Moreover, 60% of the participants were in employment at the six-month FU, compared to only 23% before training. All improvements were sustained at the six-month FU. Although a control group is lacking, the evidence suggests that the positive improvement is a result of the combined visual and balance training. The combination of balance and visual training appears to facilitate changes at a multimodal level affecting several functions important in daily life.

  1. Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

  2. The Casual Sky Observer's Guide Stargazing with Binoculars and Small Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    De Laet, Rony

    2012-01-01

    Here is an invaluable guide for those stargazers who are just starting out on their fascinating journey. Don't know what sights to look for? How to locate them? What seasons are best for viewing what stars? All that and more is included in these pages. Plus lots of tips for what equipment to use and good observing techniques. Take this with you to your viewing site, along with your equipment, and you're ready to begin. The universe is there for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  3. Thunderstorm activity in early Earth: same estimations from point of view a role of electric discharges in formation of prebiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serozhkin, Yu.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The structure and the physical parameters of an early Earth atmosphere [1], most likely, played a determining role in formation of conditions for origin of life. The estimation of thunderstorm activity in atmosphere of the early Earth is important for understanding of the real role of electrical discharges during formation of biochemical compounds. The terrestrial lightning a long time are considered as one of components determining a physical state and chemical structure of an atmosphere. Liebig in 1827 has considered a capability of nitrogen fixation at discharges of lightning [2]. Recent investigations (Lamarque et al. 1996) have achieved that production rate of NOx due to lightning at 3·106 ton/year [3]. The efficiency of electric discharges as energy source for synthesis of low molecular weight organic compounds is explained by the several factors. To them concern effect of optical radiation, high temperature, shock waves and that is especially important, pulse character of these effects. The impulse impact is essentially reduced the probability of destruction of the formed compounds. However, for some reasons is not clear the real role of electric discharges in synthesis of biochemical compounds. The discharges used in experiments on synthesis of organic substances, do not remind the discharges observable in a nature. One more aspect of a problem about a role of electric discharges in forming pre-biotic conditions on the Earth is connected with the thunderstorm activity in a modern atmosphere. This activity is connected with the presence in an atmosphere of ice crystals and existing gradient of temperature. To tell something about a degree of thunderstorm activity during the early Earth, i.e. that period, when formed pre-biotic conditions were is very difficult. Astrobiological potential of various discharges First of all the diversity of electric discharges in terrestrial atmosphere (usual lightning, lightning at eruption of volcanoes

  4. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  5. Clear New View of a Classic Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    ESO is releasing a beautiful image of the nearby galaxy Messier 83 taken by the HAWK-I instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The picture shows the galaxy in infrared light and demonstrates the impressive power of the camera to create one of the sharpest and most detailed pictures of Messier 83 ever taken from the ground. The galaxy Messier 83 (eso0825) is located about 15 million light-years away in the constellation of Hydra (the Sea Serpent). It spans over 40 000 light-years, only 40 percent the size of the Milky Way, but in many ways is quite similar to our home galaxy, both in its spiral shape and the presence of a bar of stars across its centre. Messier 83 is famous among astronomers for its many supernovae: vast explosions that end the lives of some stars. Over the last century, six supernovae have been observed in Messier 83 - a record number that is matched by only one other galaxy. Even without supernovae, Messier 83 is one of the brightest nearby galaxies, visible using just binoculars. Messier 83 has been observed in the infrared part of the spectrum using HAWK-I [1], a powerful camera on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). When viewed in infrared light most of the obscuring dust that hides much of Messier 83 becomes transparent. The brightly lit gas around hot young stars in the spiral arms is also less prominent in infrared pictures. As a result much more of the structure of the galaxy and the vast hordes of its constituent stars can be seen. This clear view is important for astronomers looking for clusters of young stars, especially those hidden in dusty regions of the galaxy. Studying such star clusters was one of the main scientific goals of these observations [2]. When compared to earlier images, the acute vision of HAWK-I reveals far more stars within the galaxy. The combination of the huge mirror of the VLT, the large field of view and great sensitivity of the camera, and the superb observing conditions

  6. Effect of a Binocular iPad Game vs Part-time Patching in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years With Amblyopia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan M; Manh, Vivian M; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Beck, Roy W; Birch, Eileen E; Kraker, Raymond T; Crouch, Eric R; Erzurum, S Ayse; Khuddus, Nausheen; Summers, Allison I; Wallace, David K

    2016-12-01

    A binocular approach to treating anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia has recently been advocated. Initial studies have yielded promising results, suggesting that a larger randomized clinical trial is warranted. To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. A multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted in community and institutional practices from September 16, 2014, to August 28, 2015. Participants included 385 children aged 5 years to younger than 13 years with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/200, mean 20/63) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were randomly assigned to either 16 weeks of a binocular iPad game prescribed for 1 hour a day (190 participants; binocular group) or patching of the fellow eye prescribed for 2 hours a day (195 participants; patching group). Study follow-up visits were scheduled at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. A modified intent-to-treat analysis was performed on participants who completed the 16-week trial. Binocular iPad game or patching of the fellow eye. Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 16 weeks. Of the 385 participants, 187 were female (48.6%); mean (SD) age was 8.5 (1.9) years. At 16 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA improved 1.05 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 0.85-1.24 lines) in the binocular group and 1.35 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 1.17-1.54 lines) in the patching group, with an adjusted treatment group difference of 0.31 lines favoring patching (upper limit of the 1-sided 95% CI, 0.53 lines). This upper limit exceeded the prespecified noninferiority limit of 0.5 lines. Only 39 of the 176 participants (22.2%) randomized to the binocular game and with log file data available performed more than 75% of the prescribed treatment (median, 46%; interquartile range, 20%-72%). In younger participants (aged 5 to iPad treatment was not as good as with 2 hours of prescribed daily patching. http

  7. Influence of stereopsis and abnormal binocular vision on ocular and systemic discomfort while watching 3D television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-H; Suh, Y-W; Yun, C; Yoo, E-J; Yeom, J-H; Cho, Y A

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the degree of three-dimensional (3D) perception and ocular and systemic discomfort in patients with abnormal binocular vision (ABV), and their relationship to stereoacuity while watching a 3D television (TV). Patients with strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia older than 9 years were recruited for the ABV group (98 subjects). Normal volunteers were enrolled in the control group (32 subjects). Best-corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, and stereoacuity were measured. After watching 3D TV for 20 min, a survey was conducted to evaluate the degree of 3D perception, and ocular and systemic discomfort while watching 3D TV. One hundred and thirty subjects were enrolled in this study. The ABV group included 49 patients with strabismus, 22 with amblyopia, and 27 with anisometropia. The ABV group showed worse stereoacuity at near and distant fixation (Pwatching 3D TV. However, ocular and systemic discomfort was more closely related to better stereopsis.

  8. Regulating the Access to Awareness: Brain Activity Related to Probe-related and Spontaneous Reversals in Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian A; Mathewson, Kyle E; Tapia, Evelina; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Beck, Diane M

    2017-06-01

    Research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has implicated an assortment of brain regions, ERP components, and network properties associated with visual awareness. Recently, the P3b ERP component has emerged as a leading NCC candidate. However, typical P3b paradigms depend on the detection of some stimulus change, making it difficult to separate brain processes elicited by the stimulus itself from those associated with updates or changes in visual awareness. Here we used binocular rivalry to ask whether the P3b is associated with changes in awareness even in the absence of changes in the object of awareness. We recorded ERPs during a probe-mediated binocular rivalry paradigm in which brief probes were presented over the image in either the suppressed or dominant eye to determine whether the elicited P3b activity is probe or reversal related. We found that the timing of P3b (but not its amplitude) was closely related to the timing of the report of a perceptual change rather than to the onset of the probe. This is consistent with the proposal that P3b indexes updates in conscious awareness, rather than being related to stimulus processing per se. Conversely, the probe-related P1 amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with reversal latency, suggesting that the degree to which the probe is processed increases the likelihood of a fast perceptual reversal. Finally, the response-locked P3b amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with the duration of an intermediate stage between reversals in which parts of both percepts coexist (piecemeal period). Together, the data suggest that the P3b reflects an update in consciousness and that the intensity of that process (as indexed by P3b amplitude) predicts how immediate that update is.

  9. Image registration algorithm for high-voltage electric power live line working robot based on binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengqi; Ren, Zhigang; Yang, Bo; An, Qinghao; Yu, Xiangru; Li, Jinping

    2017-12-01

    In the process of dismounting and assembling the drop switch for the high-voltage electric power live line working (EPL2W) robot, one of the key problems is the precision of positioning for manipulators, gripper and the bolts used to fix drop switch. To solve it, we study the binocular vision system theory of the robot and the characteristic of dismounting and assembling drop switch. We propose a coarse-to-fine image registration algorithm based on image correlation, which can improve the positioning precision of manipulators and bolt significantly. The algorithm performs the following three steps: firstly, the target points are marked respectively in the right and left visions, and then the system judges whether the target point in right vision can satisfy the lowest registration accuracy by using the similarity of target points' backgrounds in right and left visions, this is a typical coarse-to-fine strategy; secondly, the system calculates the epipolar line, and then the regional sequence existing matching points is generated according to neighborhood of epipolar line, the optimal matching image is confirmed by calculating the similarity between template image in left vision and the region in regional sequence according to correlation matching; finally, the precise coordinates of target points in right and left visions are calculated according to the optimal matching image. The experiment results indicate that the positioning accuracy of image coordinate is within 2 pixels, the positioning accuracy in the world coordinate system is within 3 mm, the positioning accuracy of binocular vision satisfies the requirement dismounting and assembling the drop switch.

  10. Binocular neurons in parastriate cortex: interocular 'matching' of receptive field properties, eye dominance and strength of silent suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Romo

    Full Text Available Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18 of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1 component to the mean firing rate (F0 of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios were small (≤ 0.3 and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ≤ 10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ≥ 0.7005. By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ≤ 0.4585. In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells, the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented 'eye-origin specific' segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns, combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision.

  11. Binocular Neurons in Parastriate Cortex: Interocular ‘Matching’ of Receptive Field Properties, Eye Dominance and Strength of Silent Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Dreher, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18) of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1) component to the mean firing rate (F0) of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size) sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios) were small (≤0.3) and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ≤10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ≥0.7005). By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ≤0.4585). In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells), the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented ‘eye-origin specific’ segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns), combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision. PMID:24927276

  12. Energy policy in Germany. An analysis of the eco-political boundary conditions of the electricity market from the view of regulatory policy; Energiepolitik in Deutschland. Eine Analyse der umweltpolitischen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Strommarkt aus Sicht der Ordnungspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeder, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The publication describes an analysis of the eco-political boundary conditions of the electricity market from the view of regulatory policy. In regulatory policy, the state and private actors have defined roles in the economic process, and criteria are also defined for state interferences in the market. Regulatory policy also offers useful categories for assessing measures in economic policy and their interaction. The study starts with the theoretical framework, i.e. a a short outline of market failure theory and the economic reasons for state interferences in the markets. The analytical tool of a means-end value hierarchy is explained, and the criteria used for assessing economic measures are presented. This is followed by an analysis of the eco-political boundary conditions of the electricity market. To begin with, the relevant eco-political standards are presented in detail, including their goals, instruments, and effects. After this, a means-end value hierarchy is established for this catalogue of standards, and the catalogue of standards is analyzed with a view to consistency. The interdependences between eco-policy and energy policy are discussed from the view of regulatory policy, and the findings are summarized. (orig.)

  13. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  14. “Conditions and Rudiments of Behavior from Eynolqozat Hamadani’s Point of View”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH AsadOllahi

    2010-06-01

    Besides these conditions, the Judge of Hamadan believes that path wayfarer should consider the seventy three nations paths as single path and not demand God in the world or the hereafter. Rather, as he gets rid of vanity, he can seek Him inwardly. Since the Rath of demanding is inward not outward.

  15. Experience of the metal condition examination after 200 thousand hours of operation in view of an opportunity of service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagyan, A.; Bakirov, M.; Kamyshnikov, O.; Potapov, V.; Ivanenko, I.; Frolov, I.; Zabruskov, N.

    2002-01-01

    In the report the methods and technologies for non-destructive testing of mechanical properties are considered, used by the VNIIAES for the examination of metal condition of elements after 200 thousand hours of operation and within the Program for Life Extension of the units 3 and 4 of the Novo Voronezh NPP and units 1 and 2 of the Kola NPP. The results of the experimental investigations od metal of piping and components by destructive and specimen-free non-destructive methods with the purpose to assess the variation of physical and mechanical properties of steel during extended period after long-term operation are also discussed. The results of the non-destructive analysis allow to expand essentially the scope of examined elements and to obtain data for the assessment of the technical condition and the residual lifetime of piping and components and the investigated units

  16. Plastic identification based on molecular and elemental information from laser induced breakdown spectra: a comparison of plasma conditions in view of efficient sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Sophie; Perrier, Sébastien; Freyermuth, Pierre; Perrin, Didier; Gallard, Benjamin; Gilon, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    This work is dedicated to a comparison of plasma conditions for the accurate determination of some elements: Br, Cl, Ca, P and Sb, in polymers. The comparison of the plasma conditions to sort plastics according to CN, C2 and element signals was also investigated. The comparison of a helium atmosphere and an air atmosphere led to improved results using helium as a buffer gas. The improvement is obtained in two areas, it increased the detection of halogens (Br, Cl) usually employed as flame retardants. It was also found to significantly improve the discrimination based on simple calculations of C2/He and CN/He ratios. Best conditions were based on a laser emitting at 266 nm, with a low 6 mJ energy focalized on a 50 μm spot and the helium buffer gas. A plot of C2/He against CN/He was efficient to identify the four groups of plastics employed in this study: polystyrene, polypropylene, acrylonitryle-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitryle-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate.

  17. The coming and going of a marl lake: multi-indicator palaeolimnology reveals abrupt ecological change and alternative views of reference conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eWiik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication is the most pressing threat to highly calcareous (marl lakes in Europe. Despite their unique chemistry and biology, comprehensive studies into their unimpacted conditions and eutrophication responses are underrepresented in conservation literature. A multi-indicator palaeolimnological study spanning ca 1260 to 2009 was undertaken at Cunswick Tarn (UK, a small, presently eutrophic marl lake, in order to capture centennial timescales of impact. Specific aims were to 1 establish temporal patterns of change (gradual/abrupt across biological groups, thereby testing theories of resistance of marl lake benthic communities to enrichment, and 2 compare the core record of reference condition with prevailing descriptions of high ecological status. Analyses of sediment calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, pigments, diatoms, testate amoebae, cladocerans, and macrofossils, revealed three abrupt changes in ecosystem structure. The first (1900s, with biomass increases in charophytes and other benthic nutrient-poor indicators, supported ideas of resistance to eutrophication in Chara lakes. The second transition (1930s, from charophyte to angiosperm dominance, occurred alongside reductions in macrophyte cover, increases in eutrophic indicators, and a breakdown in marling, in support of ideas of threshold responses to enrichment. Core P increased consistently into the 1990s when rapid transitions into pelagic shallow lake ecology occurred and Cunswick Tarn became biologically unidentifiable as a marl lake. The moderate total P at which these changes occurred suggests high sensitivity of marl lakes to eutrophication. Further, the early record challenges ideas of correlation between ecological condition, charophyte biomass and sediment Ca. Instead, low benthic production, macrophyte cover, and Ca sedimentation, was inferred. Management measures must focus on reducing external nutrient and sediment loads at early stages of impact in order to preserve marl lakes.

  18. Emotional processes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgeries with extracorporeal circulation in view of selected indicators of the inflammatory condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotek, Włodzimierz; Pielok, Joanna; Cybulski, Marcin; Samborska, Regina

    2015-01-09

    The aim of this study was to describe positive and negative emotions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries with extracorporeal circulation and the correlations between emotions and basic indicators of the inflammatory condition: C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, body temperature, and leukocyte count. Standardized tools were used to select 52 patients (aged 47-63 years, 6 women--11.5% and 46 men--88.5%) without dementia or depression. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to examine positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X1 and X2) was used to examine the anxiety level. The patients underwent CABG surgery according to a common anesthesia protocol and for 5 consecutive days they were observed in the ward, where selected indicators of the inflammatory condition were monitored. A detailed description of the results of examinations of emotions was presented. The patients with low PA-trait level, high NA-trait level, and high anxiety-trait level (STAI X2) exhibited statistically significantly higher body temperatures than the other patients in the postoperative period. The patients with high NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1) had statistically significantly lower CRP levels in the postoperative period than the patients with low NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1). Patients undergoing CABG operations express both positive and negative affects. The changes in the inflammatory markers are expressed mostly by CRP concentration. There exist relationships between the result of tests assessing emotions and the markers of the inflammatory condition.

  19. Conceptualisation of the 'good' self-manager: A qualitative investigation of stakeholder views on the self-management of long-term health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J; Boger, E; Latter, S; Kennedy, A; Jones, F; Foster, C; Demain, S

    2017-03-01

    Healthcare policy in developed countries has, in recent years, promoted self-management among people with long-term conditions. Such policies are underpinned by neoliberal philosophy, as seen in the promotion of greater individual responsibility for health through increased support for self-management. Yet still little is known about how self-management is understood by commissioners of healthcare services, healthcare professionals, people with long-term conditions and family care-givers. The evidence presented here is drawn from a two-year study, which investigated how self-management is conceptualised by these stakeholder groups. Conducted in the UK between 2013 and 2015, this study focused on three exemplar long-term conditions, stroke, diabetes and colorectal cancer, to explore the issue. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were carried out with 174 participants (97 patients, 35 family care-givers, 20 healthcare professionals and 22 commissioners). The data is used to demonstrate how self-management is framed in terms of what it means to be a 'good' self-manager. The 'good' self-manager is an individual who is remoralised; thus taking responsibility for their health; is knowledgeable and uses this to manage risks; and, is 'active' in using information to make informed decisions regarding health and social wellbeing. This paper examines the conceptualisation of the 'good' self-manager. It demonstrates how the remoralised, knowledgeable and active elements are inextricably linked, that is, how action is knowledge applied and how morality underlies all action of the 'good' self-manager. Through unpicking the 'good' self-manager the problems of neoliberalism are also revealed and addressed here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fiabilidad intraexaminador y concordancia de pruebas clínicas de evaluación de la visión binocular

    OpenAIRE

    Antona Peñalba, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enmarca dentro de la línea de investigación sobre evaluación de pruebas optométricas desarrollada por el equipo de investigación de Optometría Infantil, Visión Binocular y Ortóptica del Departamento Óptica II (Optometría y Visión) de la UCM, dirigido por el profesor Barra. El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar la repetibilidad de las pruebas de visión binocular más habitualmente utilizadas dentro del examen optométrico en una población de adultos jóve...

  1. Microsurgical Clipping of an Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Using a Novel Robotic Visualization Tool in Lieu of the Binocular Operating Microscope: Operative Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Daniel R; Reinard, Kevin A; Ajayi, Olaide O; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2018-01-01

    The binocular operating microscope has been the visualization instrument of choice for microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms for many decades. To discuss recent technological advances that have provided novel visualization tools, which may prove to be superior to the binocular operating microscope in many regards. We present an operative video and our operative experience with the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) during the microsurgical clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, the use of this device for the microsurgical clipping of an intracranial aneurysm has never been described in the literature. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a surgical exoscope which avoids many of the ergonomic constraints of the binocular operating microscope, but is associated with a steep learning curve. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a maneuverable surgical exoscope that is positioned with a directional aiming device and a surgeon-controlled foot pedal. While utilizing this device comes with a steep learning curve typical of any new technology, the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) has several advantages over the conventional surgical microscope, which include a relatively unobstructed surgical field, provision of high-definition images, and visualization of difficult angles/trajectories. This device can easily be utilized as a visualization tool for a variety of cranial and spinal procedures in lieu of the binocular operating microscope. We anticipate that this technology will soon become an integral part of the neurosurgeon's armamentarium. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  2. Seasonal behavior and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone, its precursors and chemical conditions over Iran: A view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-04-01

    annual TCO (∼0.59 ± 0.56 DU yr-1) but decreases in minimum annual TCO (∼-0.42 ± 0.60 DU yr-1) caused by an increase in NO2 species and annual CO (∼-0.95 ± 0.41 × 1016 molec./cm2 yr-1) partly resulting from the transport of reduced CO. The time series of the HCHO/NO2 column ratio (a proxy for the chemical conditions) indicated that during the last decade, the cities of Tehran, Ahvaz, and Isfahan exhibited steady chemical conditions while Tabriz and Mashhad exhibited a change from NOx-saturated/mixed to more NOx-sensitive chemical conditions.

  3. Celestial harvest 300-plus showpieces of the heavens for telescope viewing and contemplation

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2012-01-01

    This book describes over 300 celestial wonders that can be viewed with common binoculars and low-power ""backyard"" telescopes incorporating refractors and reflectors.In addition to such showpieces as the Andromeda Galaxy, the largest and brightest of all galaxies after the Milky Way, and the Blue Snowball, one of the autumn sky's outstanding planetary nebulas, over 20 other special objects are listed and characterized, many of which are visible to the unaided eye on a dark, clear night.The sun, moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and other members of the earth's solar system are also describ

  4. A Technique for Binocular Stereo Vision System Calibration by the Nonlinear Optimization and Calibration Points with Accurate Coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Ye, D; Che, R S; Chen, G

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing need for higher accuracy measurement in computer vision, the precision of camera calibration is a more important factor. The objective of stereo camera calibration is to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera. We presented a high-accurate technique to calibrate binocular stereo vision system having been mounted the locations and attitudes, which was realized by combining nonlinear optimization method with accurate calibration points. The calibration points with accurate coordinates, were formed by an infrared LED moved with three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine, which can ensure indeterminacy of measurement is 1/30000. By using bilinear interpolation square-gray weighted centroid location algorithm, the imaging centers of the calibration points can be accurately determined. The accuracy of the calibration is measured in terms of the accuracy in the reconstructing calibration points through triangulation, the mean distance between reconstructing point and given calibration point is 0.039mm. The technique can satisfy the goals of measurement and camera accurate calibration

  5. Zograscopic viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.; Wijntjes, M.; Van Doorn, A.

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates

  6. "Right to recommend, wrong to require"- an empirical and philosophical study of the views among physicians and the general public on smoking cessation as a condition for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Joar; Juth, Niklas; Lynøe, Niels

    2018-01-08

    In many countries, there are health care initiatives to make smokers give up smoking in the peri-operative setting. There is empirical evidence that this may improve some, but not all, operative outcomes. However, it may be feared that some support for such policies stems from ethically questionable opinions, such as paternalism or anti-smoker sentiments. This study aimed at investigating the support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery among Swedish physicians and members of the general public, as well as the reasons provided for this. A random sample of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons (n = 795) as well as members of the general public (n = 485) received a mail questionnaire. It contained a vignette case with a smoking 57-year old male farmer with hip osteoarthritis. The patient had been recommended hip replacement therapy, but told that in order to qualify for surgery he needed to give up smoking four weeks prior to and after surgery. The respondents were asked whether making such qualifying demands is acceptable, and asked to rate their agreement with pre-set arguments for and against this policy. Response rates were 58.2% among physicians and 53.8% among the general public. Of these, 83.9% and 86.6%, respectively, agreed that surgery should be made conditional upon smoking cessation. Reference to the peri-operative risks associated with smoking was the most common argument given. However, there was also strong support for the argument that such a policy is mandated in order to achieve long term health gains. There is strong support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery in Sweden. This support is based on considerations of peri-operative risks as well as the general long term risks of smoking. This study indicates that paternalistic attitudes may inform some of the support for peri-operative smoking cessation policies and that at least some respondents seem to favour a "recommendation strategy" vis-à-vis smoking

  7. Multi-UAV joint target recognizing based on binocular vision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognizing of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on image processing take the advantage of 2D information containing in the image for identifying the target. Compare to single UAV with electrical optical tracking system (EOTS, multi-UAV with EOTS is able to take a group of image focused on the suspected target from multiple view point. Benefit from matching each couple of image in this group, points set constituted by matched feature points implicates the depth of each point. Coordinate of target feature points could be computing from depth of feature points. This depth information makes up a cloud of points and reconstructed an exclusive 3D model to recognizing system. Considering the target recognizing do not require precise target model, the cloud of feature points was regrouped into n subsets and reconstructed to a semi-3D model. Casting these subsets in a Cartesian coordinate and applying these projections in convolutional neural networks (CNN respectively, the integrated output of networks is the improved result of recognizing.

  8. Necessity of Periodic Ophthalmological Examinations in Binocular B Class Driving Licence Holders Over 50 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ali; Öktem, Çağlar; Karabıçak Acer, Ayşe; Kocamış, Özkan; Taşdemir, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether binocular B class driving licence (BBCDL) holders over 50 years old are in compliance with the BBCDL criteria for visual acuity, to determine the age-based prevalence of ophthalmological disorders reducing visual acuity in this group, and to investigate whether periodic ophthalmological examinations are needed in licence holders over 50 years of age. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 451 adults over 50 years old having a BBCDL. The study subjects were categorized into 3 age groups as group 1 (51-60 years), group 2 (61-70 years), and group 3 (over 71 years). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.02±7.27 years; 338 (74.9%) were male and 113 (25.1%) were female. The BBCDL criteria were met by 353 (78.3%) subjects whereas 98 (21.7%) subjects did not meet them. Eighty-four (85.7%) of 98 patients not meeting BBCDL criteria still drove. The mean age of the subjects meeting BBCDL criteria (58.82±6.77 years) was significantly lower than the subjects not meeting them (64.34±7.40 years) (p<0.001). The most common pathologies in the individuals still driving despite not meeting BBCDL criteria were senile cataract (38.5%) and diabetic retinopathy (23.1%) in group 1, senile cataract (55.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (14.9%) in group 2, and senile cataract (63.6%) and senile macular degeneration+senile cataract (18.2%) in group 3. Conclusion: More than a fifth of individuals over 50 years old did not meet the BBCDL criteria, due predominantly to senile cataract, and the majority of these individuals continue to drive. Therefore, we believe that individuals over 50 years old who have a BBCDL should undergo periodic ophthalmological examinations. PMID:27800264

  9. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  10. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  11. Binocular vision, the optic chiasm, and their associations with vertebrate motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Lennart Larsson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ipsilateral retinal projections (IRP in the optic chiasm (OC vary considerably. Most animal groups possess laterally situated eyes and no or few IRP, but, e.g. cats and primates have frontal eyes and high proportions of IRP. The traditional hypothesis that bifocal vision developed to enable predation or to increase perception in restricted light conditions applies mainly to mammals. The eye-forelimb (EF hypothesis presented here suggests that the reception of visual feedback of limb movements in the limb steering cerebral hemisphere was the fundamental mechanism behind the OC evolution. In other words, that evolutionary change in the OC was necessary to preserve hemispheric autonomy. In the majority of vertebrates, motor processing, tactile, proprioceptive, and visual information involved in steering the hand (limb, paw, fin is primarily received only in the contralateral hemisphere, while multisensory information from the ipsilateral limb is minimal. Since the involved motor nuclei, somatosensory areas, and vision neurons are situated in same hemisphere, the neuronal pathways involved will be relatively short, optimizing the size of the brain. That would not have been possible without, evolutionary modifications of IRP. Multiple axon-guidance genes, which determine whether axons will cross the midline or not, have shaped the OC anatomy. Evolutionary change in the OC seems to be key to preserving hemispheric autonomy when the body and eye evolve to fit new ecological niches. The EF hypothesis may explain the low proportion of IRP in birds, reptiles, and most fishes; the relatively high proportions of IRP in limbless vertebrates; high proportions of IRP in arboreal, in contrast to ground-dwelling, marsupials; the lack of IRP in dolphins; abundant IRP in primates and most predatory mammals, and why IRP emanate exclusively from the temporal retina. The EF hypothesis seams applicable to vertebrates in general and hence more parsimonious than

  12. Simple reaction times to cyclopean stimuli reveal that the binocular system is tuned to react faster to near than to far objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Horváth

    Full Text Available Binocular depth perception is an important mechanism to segregate the visual scene for mapping relevant objects in our environment. Convergent evidence from psychophysical and neurophysiological studies have revealed asymmetries between the processing of near (crossed and far (uncrossed binocular disparities. The aim of the present study was to test if near or far objects are processed faster and with higher contrast sensitivity in the visual system. We therefore measured the relationship between binocular disparity and simple reaction time (RT as well as contrast gain based on the contrast-RT function in young healthy adults. RTs were measured to suddenly appearing cyclopean target stimuli, which were checkerboard patterns encoded by depth in dynamic random dot stereograms (DRDS. The DRDS technique allowed us to selectively study the stereoscopic processing system by eliminating all monocular cues. The results showed that disparity and contrast had significant effects on RTs. RTs as a function of disparity followed a U-shaped tuning curve indicating an optimum at around 15 arc min, where RTs were minimal. Surprisingly, the disparity tuning of RT was much less pronounced for far disparities. At the optimal disparity, we measured advantages of about 80 ms and 30 ms for near disparities at low (10% and high (90% contrasts, respectively. High contrast always reduced RTs as well as the disparity dependent differences. Furthermore, RT-based contrast gains were higher for near disparities in the range of disparities where RTs were the shortest. These results show that the sensitivity of the human visual system is biased for near versus far disparities and near stimuli can result in faster motor responses, probably because they bear higher biological relevance.

  13. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  14. Simultaneous Water Vapor and Dry Air Optical Path Length Measurements and Compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrere, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Boehm, M.; Danchi, W. C.; Durney, O.; Ertel, S.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mennesson, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feed forward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current

  15. Imaging with LINC-NIRVANA, the Fizeau interferometer of the Large Binocular Telescope: state of the art and open problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; La Camera, A.; Olivieri, C.; Carbillet, M.

    2011-11-01

    LINC-NIRVANA (LN) is the Fizeau interferometer of the Large Binocular Telescope which consists of two 8.4 m mirrors with a center-to-center distance of 14.4 m, hence providing a maximum path of 22.8 m in the direction of the baseline joining the two centers. LN is a true imager since interference occurs in the focal plane and not in the aperture plane as with essentially all the existing interferometers. However, an LN image is characterized by an anisotropic resolution: that of a 22.8 m mirror in the direction of the baseline and that of a 8.4 m mirror in the orthogonal direction. In order to obtain a unique image with a high and isotropic resolution, several images must be detected with different orientations of the baseline and suitably processed. Therefore, the instrument will routinely require the use of image reconstruction methods for providing astronomical images with unprecedented resolution, in principle ten times the resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope. This review concerns the image reconstruction problem for LN and is based essentially on our work. After a description of the main features of the telescope and of the interferometer, it contains a discussion of the problem and of the approximations introduced in its formulation. In short, it is reduced to multiple-image deconvolution with Poisson data. Similarity with the image reconstruction problem in emission tomography is stressed and utilized for introducing suitable iterative reconstruction methods. These methods are extended to regularized versions of the problem. Efficiency is another important issue because the size of LN images is of the order of 4.2 megapixels; therefore, acceleration methods are also discussed. All methods are tested on synthetic images because, even if the instrument is in an advanced stage of realization, it will be presumably operative in 2014. The algorithms of the proposed image reconstruction methods are implemented in the Software Package AIRY (astronomical image

  16. Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Crabb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers. Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis. On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%. Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could

  17. Updating Recursive XML Views of Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Byron; Cong, Gao; Fan, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the view update problem for XML views published from relational data. We consider XML views defined in terms of mappings directed by possibly recursive DTDs compressed into DAGs and stored in relations. We provide new techniques to efficiently support XML view updates...... specified in terms of XPath expressions with recursion and complex filters. The interaction between XPath recursion and DAG compression of XML views makes the analysis of the XML view update problem rather intriguing. Furthermore, many issues are still open even for relational view updates, and need...... to be explored. In response to these, on the XML side, we revise the notion of side effects and update semantics based on the semantics of XML views, and present effecient algorithms to translate XML updates to relational view updates. On the relational side, we propose a mild condition on SPJ views, and show...

  18. Effectiveness of a Binocular Video Game vs Placebo Video Game for Improving Visual Functions in Older Children, Teenagers, and Adults With Amblyopia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tina Y; Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Chakraborty, Arijit; Dai, Shuan; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kearns, Lisa S; Kowal, Lionel; Lam, Carly S Y; Pang, Peter C K; Parag, Varsha; Pieri, Roberto; Raveendren, Rajkumar Nallour; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Wadham, Angela; Walker, Natalie; Thompson, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Binocular amblyopia treatment using contrast-rebalanced stimuli showed promise in laboratory studies and requires clinical trial investigation in a home-based setting. To compare the effectiveness of a binocular video game with a placebo video game for improving visual functions in older children and adults. The Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia Using Videogames clinical trial was a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Between March 2014 and June 2016, 115 participants 7 years and older with unilateral amblyopia (amblyopic eye visual acuity, 0.30-1.00 logMAR; Snellen equivalent, 20/40-20/200) due to anisometropia, strabismus, or both were recruited. Eligible participants were allocated with equal chance to receive either the active or the placebo video game, with minimization stratified by age group (child, age 7 to 12 years; teenager, age 13 to 17 years; and adult, 18 years and older). Falling-blocks video games played at home on an iPod Touch for 1 hour per day for 6 weeks. The active video game had game elements split between eyes with a dichoptic contrast offset (mean [SD] initial fellow eye contrast, 0.23 [0.14]). The placebo video game presented identical images to both eyes. Change in amblyopic eye visual acuity at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included compliance, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression. Participants and clinicians who measured outcomes were masked to treatment allocation. Of the 115 included participants, 65 (56.5%) were male and 83 (72.2%) were white, and the mean (SD) age at randomization was 21.5 (13.6) years. There were 89 participants (77.4%) who had prior occlusion. The mean (SD) amblyopic eye visual acuity improved 0.06 (0.12) logMAR from baseline in the active group (n = 56) and 0.07 (0.10) logMAR in the placebo group (n = 59). The mean treatment difference between groups, adjusted for baseline visual acuity and age group, was -0.02 logMAR (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.02; P = .25). Compliance with more than 25

  19. Driving with binocular visual field loss? A study on a supervised on-road parcours with simultaneous eye and head tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Kasneci

    Full Text Available Post-chiasmal visual pathway lesions and glaucomatous optic neuropathy cause binocular visual field defects (VFDs that may critically interfere with quality of life and driving licensure. The aims of this study were (i to assess the on-road driving performance of patients suffering from binocular visual field loss using a dual-brake vehicle, and (ii to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. A driving instructor, blinded to the participants' diagnosis, rated the driving performance (passed/failed of ten patients with homonymous visual field defects (HP, including four patients with right (HR and six patients with left homonymous visual field defects (HL, ten glaucoma patients (GP, and twenty age and gender-related ophthalmologically healthy control subjects (C during a 40-minute driving task on a pre-specified public on-road parcours. In order to investigate the subjects' visual exploration ability, eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Two additional cameras were used to monitor the driving scene and record head and shoulder movements. Thus this study is novel as a quantitative assessment of eye movements and an additional evaluation of head and shoulder was performed. Six out of ten HP and four out of ten GP were rated as fit to drive by the driving instructor, despite their binocular visual field loss. Three out of 20 control subjects failed the on-road assessment. The extent of the visual field defect was of minor importance with regard to the driving performance. The site of the homonymous visual field defect (HVFD critically interfered with the driving ability: all failed HP subjects suffered from left homonymous visual field loss (HL due to right hemispheric lesions. Patients who failed the driving assessment had mainly difficulties with lane keeping and gap judgment ability. Patients who passed the test displayed different exploration patterns than those who failed. Patients who passed focused longer on

  20. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  1. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  2. Consistency of Likability to Objects across Views and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Niimi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human object recognition is largely independent of conditions in which objects are viewed, although affective impressions to the objects may be influenced by viewing conditions. To what degree does viewing condition alter our subjective likability to objects? We tested the effects of viewpoint (frontal view and three-quarter view and viewing durations (100, 500, and 1000 msec on the subjective likability to 32 common objects (e.g., vehicles, furniture, stationery. Participants observed the object images on the computer display and rated their likability of the objects by 7-point Likert scale. The viewing conditions affected the likability; the mean rated likability was higher for three-quarter view than for frontal view, and higher for longer duration. However, the object-wise correlations of rated likability were fairly high and significant between the object orientations and among the durations, indicating that the rank order of the objects were largely consistent across the viewing conditions. Our findings suggest that the mechanism for determining likability to visual objects may be composed of two components; one is sensitive to viewing condition and another is robust against viewing condition.

  3. Differentiating aversive conditioning in bistable perception: Avoidance of a percept vs. salience of a stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Sterzer, Philipp

    2018-05-01

    Alternating conscious visual perception of bistable stimuli is influenced by several factors. In order to understand the effect of negative valence, we tested the effect of two types of aversive conditioning on dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Participants received either aversive classical conditioning of the stimuli shown alone between rivalry blocks, or aversive percept conditioning of one of the two possible perceptual choices during rivalry. Both groups showed successful aversive conditioning according to skin conductance responses and affective valence ratings. However, while classical conditioning led to an immediate but short-lived increase in dominance durations of the conditioned stimulus, percept conditioning yielded no significant immediate effect but tended to decrease durations of the conditioned percept during extinction. These results show dissociable effects of value learning on perceptual inference in situations of perceptual conflict, depending on whether learning relates to the decision between conflicting perceptual choices or the sensory stimuli per se. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. QlikView scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This mini book offers information about QlikView scripting written in an easy-to-understand manner, and covers QlikView scripting from basic to advanced features in a compact format.If you are a basic orintermediate developer with some knowledge of QlikView applications and a basic understanding of QlikView scripting and data extraction and manipulation, this book will be great for you. If you are an advanced user, you can also use this book as a reference guide and teaching aid. If you are a QlikView project team member such as a business user, data/ETL professional, project manager, orsystem

  5. Synchronizing XPath Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    . However, the XML data sources are often independent of the data consumers and may change their schemas without notification, invalidating the XML views defined by the data consumers. This requires the view definitions to be updated to reflect the new structure of the data sources, a process termed view......The increasing availability of XML-based data sources, e.g., for publishing data on the WWW, means that more and more applications (data consumers) rely on accessing and using XML data. Typically, the access is achieved by defining views over the XML data, and accessing data through these views...... synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...

  6. The accuracy of linear measurements of maxillary and mandibular edentulous sites in cone-beam computed tomography images with different fields of view and voxel sizes under simulated clinical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Rumpa; Ramesh, Aruna; Pagni, Sarah [Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of varying resolutions of cone-beam computed tomography images on the accuracy of linear measurements of edentulous areas in human cadaver heads. Intact cadaver heads were used to simulate a clinical situation. Fiduciary markers were placed in the edentulous areas of 4 intact embalmed cadaver heads. The heads were scanned with two different CBCT units using a large field of view (13 cm×16 cm) and small field of view (5 cm×8 cm) at varying voxel sizes (0.3 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.16 mm). The ground truth was established with digital caliper measurements. The imaging measurements were then compared with caliper measurements to determine accuracy. The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no statistically significant difference between the medians of the physical measurements obtained with calipers and the medians of the CBCT measurements. A comparison of accuracy among the different imaging protocols revealed no significant differences as determined by the Friedman test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961, indicating excellent reproducibility. Inter-observer variability was determined graphically with a Bland-Altman plot and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman plot indicated very good reproducibility for smaller measurements but larger discrepancies with larger measurements. The CBCT-based linear measurements in the edentulous sites using different voxel sizes and FOVs are accurate compared with the direct caliper measurements of these sites. Higher resolution CBCT images with smaller voxel size did not result in greater accuracy of the linear measurements.

  7. Dynamic registration of an optical see-through HMD into a wide field-of-view rotorcraft flight simulation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viertler, Franz; Hajek, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the challenge of helicopter flight in degraded visual environments, current research considers headmounted displays with 3D-conformal (scene-linked) visual cues as most promising display technology. For pilot-in-theloop simulations with HMDs, a highly accurate registration of the augmented visual system is required. In rotorcraft flight simulators the outside visual cues are usually provided by a dome projection system, since a wide field-of-view (e.g. horizontally > 200° and vertically > 80°) is required, which can hardly be achieved with collimated viewing systems. But optical see-through HMDs do mostly not have an equivalent focus compared to the distance of the pilot's eye-point position to the curved screen, which is also dependant on head motion. Hence, a dynamic vergence correction has been implemented to avoid binocular disparity. In addition, the parallax error induced by even small translational head motions is corrected with a head-tracking system to be adjusted onto the projected screen. For this purpose, two options are presented. The correction can be achieved by rendering the view with yaw and pitch offset angles dependent on the deviating head position from the design eye-point of the spherical projection system. Furthermore, it can be solved by implementing a dynamic eye-point in the multi-channel projection system for the outside visual cues. Both options have been investigated for the integration of a binocular HMD into the Rotorcraft Simulation Environment (ROSIE) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Pros and cons of both possibilities with regard on integration issues and usability in flight simulations will be discussed.

  8. Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valois, J.C. de

    1990-01-01

    Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally. - A quantitative description of diagnostic radiology is given in terms of radiological density (the number of radiological examinations per 1000 inhibitants), consumptions of roentgen film and contrast media. The data concerning examinations were recorded by a yearly inquiry system addressing all Dutch radiologists. The consumption of film and contrast media were derived from the data banks of the industries. In comparing these data with the data for Western Europe, Japan and the United States it is remarkable that diagnostic radiology scores lowest in regard to density, film consumption and use of contrast media. Only in the use of 35 mm cinefilm (coronary angiography) is The Netherlands number 2 on the list preceded by the United States. As a consequence radiation exposure of the population caused by diagnostic radiology is low in The Netherlands. Although the technical condition of the equipment is good due to regular and preventive service the life-span of the radiological equipment is gradually increasing beyond the limits of the normal economic depreciation. Growing arrears are found in the application of new technology: ultrasound, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The substitution of high osmolar contrast media by low osmolar media is also laggin gbehind. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tab

  9. Relationship between Functional Visual Acuity and Useful Field of View in Elderly Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuno Negishi

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the functional visual acuity (FVA and useful field of view (UFOV in elderly drivers and assess the usefulness of the FVA test to screen driving aptitude in elderly drivers.This study included 45 elderly drivers (31 men, 14 women; mean age, 68.1 years and 30 younger drivers (26 men, 4 women; mean age, 34.2 years who drive regularly. All participants underwent measurement of the binocular corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA, binocular corrected distant FVA (CDFVA, and Visual Field with Inhibitory Tasks Elderly Version (VFIT-EV to measure UFOV. The tear function and cognitive status also were evaluated.The CDVA, the CDFVA, cognitive status, and the correct response rate (CAR of the VFIT-EV were significantly worse in the elderly group than in the control group (P = 0.000 for all parameters. The cognitive status was correlated significantly with the CDVA (r = -0.301, P = 0.009, CDFVA (r = -0.402, P = 0.000, and the CAR of the VFIT-EV (r = 0.348, P = 0.002 in all subjects. The results of the tear function tests were not correlated with the CDVA, CDFVA, or VFIT-EV in any subjects. Stepwise regression analysis for all subjects in the elderly and control groups showed that the CDFVA predicted the CAR most significantly among the clinical factors evaluated.The FVA test is a promising method to screen the driving aptitude, including both visual and cognitive functions, in a short time.

  10. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J Ayen

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook containing plenty of easy-to-follow practical recipes with screenshots that will help you in mastering the Drupal Views module. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook is for developers or technically proficient users who are fairly comfortable with the concepts behind websites and the Drupal environment.

  11. Mastering QlikView

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    If you are a business application developer or a system analyst who has learned QlikView and Qlik Sense and now want to take your learning to a higher level, then this book is for you.It is assumed that you are aware of the fundamentals of QlikView and have working knowledge of development and in-memory analytics.

  12. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  13. Design, development, and demonstration of a fully LabVIEW controlled in situ electrochemical Fourier transform infrared setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrochemical interface of nanoparticulate electrocatalysts under reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselberger, Markus; Ashton, Sean J; Wiberg, Gustav K H; Arenz, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction of an in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of nanoparticulate catalysts in situ under controlled mass transport conditions. The presented setup allows the electrochemical interface to be probed in combination with the simultaneous determination of reaction rates. At the same time, the high level of automation allows it to be used as a standard tool in electrocatalysis research. The performance of the setup was demonstrated by probing the oxygen reduction reaction on a platinum black catalyst in sulfuric electrolyte.

  14. A view on EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    1989-11-01

    I am replying to the recent solicitation to provide views on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) to an AGU panel (Eos, October 3, p. 886). My view concerns Landsat. A flashy EOS poster, recently distributed, features six images from space; three of these are from the Landsat satellite. Yet no Landsat-type imaging system is contemplated for EOS. Imaging systems such as HIRIS and HRIS (high-resolution imaging spectrometers) do not give the synoptic view of Landsat and are much too elaborate for simple but invaluable observations of many global- scale processes.

  15. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  16. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  17. Japanese views on ASSET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities

  18. Conditionals in Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trafford James

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several issues with the standard approach to the relationship between conditionals and assertions, particularly when the antecedent of a conditional is (or may be false. One prominent alternative is to say that conditionals do not express propositions, but rather make conditional assertions that may generate categorical assertions of the consequent in certain circumstances. However, this view has consequences that jar with standard interpretations of the relationship between proofs and assertion. Here, I analyse this relationship, and say that, on at least one understanding of proof, conditional assertions may reflect the dynamics of proving, which (sometimes generate categorical assertions. In particular, when we think about the relationship between assertion and proof as rooted in a dialogical approach to both, the distinction between conditional and categorical assertions is quite natural.

  19. Immersive viewing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2006-05-01

    An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

  20. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  1. Clashing world views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines how politics, economics, and an increasing awareness of environmental and societal impacts are affecting the market for new hydroelectric projects. The topics of the article include border conflicts, new opposition, resettlement issues, the problems and benefits of hydroelectric projects, taking action, and a clash of world views

  2. Summary: Two Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W. Harry; Hurst, James C.

    1979-01-01

    Two student services administrators present differing views on the role of consultation in the university community. These authors, speaking from one of the most inclusive levels of the university system, raise a number of issues concerning the pros and cons of intersystem consultation within the university. (Author)

  3. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-08

    Jan 8, 2012 ... Herein, we review recent findings supporting the view that autophagy, one of the major protein degradation systems, is critically involved in Aβ homeostasis and AD pathogenesis, and discuss possible therapeutic strategies targeting autophagic activity in alleviating the Aβ-associated pathogenesis of AD.

  4. VMware view security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Langenhan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to secure your virtual environment.This book is a ""how-to"" for the novice, a ""reference guide"" for the advanced user, and a ""go to"" for the experienced user in all the aspects of VMware View desktop virtualization security.

  5. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the rapidly developing field of study of the transient sky, fast radio transients are perhaps the most exciting objects of scrutiny at present. The SKA, with its wide field-of-view and significant improve- ment in sensitivity over existing facilities, is expected to detect a plethora of fast transients which, in addition to help ...

  6. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between theories of photography and mobile phone footage. In doing so, it asks if theories of photography still apply in a technologically saturated world of imagery. Technology is an increasingly important part of viewing imagery today and enables imagery...

  7. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    cause it corresponds to what our eye or an optical instru- ment sees as brightness. You can develop an intuitive feel for the invariance of surface brightness by carry- ing out the following experiment. Stand at a distance of about a metre from a plain white wall and view it through a cone made of a rolled-up piece of paper, ...

  8. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nevertheless, P1 peptidase in many ways is still a mysterious viral protein. In this review, we would like to offer a comprehensive overview, discussing the proteomic, biochemical and phylogenetic views of the P1 protein. 1. Introduction. The Potyviridae family [named after its type member,. Potato virus Y (PVY)] is the largest ...

  9. Effects of situational conditions on students' views of business ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tamao; Kakuyama, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Yukie

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated undergraduates' responses regarding selected ethical issues facing managers and employees of today's businesses. The focus of the study lies in the influences of two situational variables (organizational roles and prospects) on students' response pattern. Japanese students (306 men and 81 women, M = 20.1 yr., SD = 2.2) imagined that they were managers or operative employees of a middle-sized manufacturing company and that their company had high or low prospects. The response pattern tended to be more ethical for "managers," whereas the response pattern tended to be less ethical for "employees" in a "low prospect" than in a "high prospect" company.

  10. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  11. Children's Views about the Water Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Varda

    1989-01-01

    Israeli children's (kindergarten to grade nine) explanations about the water cycle are described. Reports the children's views about the source of clouds and the mechanism of rainfall. It was concluded that understanding evaporation is a necessary condition for explaining a mechanism of rain containing the ideas of condensation and heaviness. (YP)

  12. Impact of viewing vs. not viewing a real forest on physiological and psychological responses in the same setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Takayama, Norimasa; Murase, Kazutaka; Nishiyama, Norio; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio

    2014-10-20

    We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects' physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years) participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition) vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition). Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP) variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and improved the subjects' Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV) between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV.

  13. Impact of Viewing vs. Not Viewing a Real Forest on Physiological and Psychological Responses in the Same Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects’ physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition. Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2 assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and improved the subjects’ Profile of Mood States (POMS scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV.

  14. Fear conditioning to subliminal fear relevant and non fear relevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Kempnich, Clare; Jee, Sang Hoon; Arnold, Derek H

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that conscious visual awareness is not a prerequisite for human fear learning. For instance, humans can learn to be fearful of subliminal fear relevant images--images depicting stimuli thought to have been fear relevant in our evolutionary context, such as snakes, spiders, and angry human faces. Such stimuli could have a privileged status in relation to manipulations used to suppress usually salient images from awareness, possibly due to the existence of a designated sub-cortical 'fear module'. Here we assess this proposition, and find it wanting. We use binocular masking to suppress awareness of images of snakes and wallabies (particularly cute, non-threatening marsupials). We find that subliminal presentations of both classes of image can induce differential fear conditioning. These data show that learning, as indexed by fear conditioning, is neither contingent on conscious visual awareness nor on subliminal conditional stimuli being fear relevant.

  15. Visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances and lighting conditions after implantation of an aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the visual acuity and patient satisfaction at varied distances under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions in patients bilaterally implanted with aspheric diffractive multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses. In this retrospective-prospective study, 16 patients with a mean age of 66.2±9.2 years (range: 50-81 years) who had undergone bilateral phacoemulsification surgery with implantation of a Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lens (ZMB00) were evaluated. Monocular and binocular uncorrected and distance-corrected visual acuities were measured at distance (20 ft), intermediate (70-80 cm), and near (35-40 cm) under photopic (85 cd/m(2)) and mesopic (3 cd/m(2)) lighting conditions and were compared using the paired t-test. All patients also completed a subjective questionnaire. At a mean follow-up of 9.5±3.9 months, distance, near, and intermediate visual acuity improved significantly from preoperative acuity. Under photopic and mesopic conditions, 93.8% and 62.5% of patients, respectively, had binocular uncorrected intermediate visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 62.5% and 31.3% of patients had binocular uncorrected near visual acuity of 20/20 or better. All patients were satisfied with their overall vision without using glasses and/or contact lenses when compared with before surgery. A total of 87.5% of patients reported no glare and 68.8% of patients reported no halos around lights at night. Tecnis multifocal one-piece intraocular lenses provide good distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity under photopic as well as mesopic lighting conditions. High levels of spectacle independence with low levels of photic phenomenon were achieved, resulting in excellent patient satisfaction.

  16. MISR Views Hurricane Carlotta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    With winds reaching 155 mph, this year's Hurricane Carlotta became the second strongest eastern Pacific June hurricane on record. These images from MISR show the hurricane on June 21, the day of its peak intensity. The pictures are oriented so that the spacecraft's flight path is from left to right; north is at the left.The top image is a color view from MISR's vertical (nadir) camera, showing Carlotta's location in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 500 km south of Puerto Vallarta, Mexico.The middle image is a stereoscopic 'anaglyph' created using MISR's nadir camera plus one of its aftward-viewing cameras, and shows a closer view of the area around the hurricane. Viewing with red/blue glasses (red filter over the left eye) is required to obtain a 3-D stereo effect.Near the center of the storm, the eye is about 25 km in diameter and partially obscured by a thin cloud. About 50 km to the left of the eye, the sharp drop-off from high-level to low-level cloud gives a sense of the vertical extent of the hidden eye wall. The low-level cloud is spiraling counterclockwise into the center of the cyclone. It then rises in the vicinity of the eye wall and emerges with a clockwise rotation at high altitude. Maximum surface winds are found near the eye wall.The bottom stereo image is a zoomed-in view of convective clouds in the hurricane's spiral arms. The arms are breeding grounds for severe thunderstorms, with associated heavy rain and flooding, frequent lightning, and tornadoes. Thunderstorms rise in dramatic fashion to about the same altitude as the high cloud near the hurricane's center, and are made up of individual cells that are typically less than 20 km in diameter. This image shows a number of these cells, some fairly isolated, and others connected together. Their three-dimensional structure is clearly apparent in this stereo view.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The

  17. Multi-view point splatting

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, T; Zhang, Y; Pajarola, R

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental drawback of current stereo and multi-view visualization is the necessity to perform multi pass rendering (one pass for each view) and subsequent image composition + masking for generating multiple stereo views. Thus the rendering time increases in general linearly with the number of views. In this paper we introduce a new method for multi-view splatting based on deferred blending. Our method exploits the programmability of modern graphic processing units (...

  18. Concert Viewing Headphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Atsuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An audiovisual interface equipped with a projector, an inclina-tion sensor, and a distance sensor for zoom control has been developed that enables a user to selectively view and listen to specific performers in a video-taped group performance. Dubbed Concert Viewing Headphones, it has both image and sound processing functions. The image processing extracts the portion of the image indicated by the user and projects it free of distortion on the front and side walls. The sound processing creates imaginary microphones for those performers without one so that the user can hear the sound from any performer. Testing using images and sounds captured using a fisheye-lens camera and 37 lavalier microphones showed that sound locali-zation was fastest when an inverse square function was used for the sound mixing and that the zoom function was useful for locating the desired sound performance.

  19. Hot section viewing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, W.W.

    1984-09-01

    This report covers the development and testing of a prototype combustor viewing system. The system allows one to see and record images from the inside of an operating gas turbine combustor. The program proceeded through planned phases of conceptual design, preliminary testing to resolve problem areas, prototype design and fabrication, and rig testing. Successful tests were completed with the viewing system in the laboratory, in a high pressure combustor rig, and on a Pratt and Whitney PW20307 jet engine. Both film and video recordings were made during the tests. Digital image analysis techniques were used to enhance images and bring out special effects. The use of pulsed laser illumination was also demonstrated as a means for observing liner surfaces in the presence of luminous flame.

  20. Layer 2/3 synapses in monocular and binocular regions of tree shrew visual cortex express mAChR-dependent long-term depression and long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Portia; Norton, Thomas T; McMahon, Lori L

    2008-07-01

    Acetylcholine is an important modulator of synaptic efficacy and is required for learning and memory tasks involving the visual cortex. In rodent visual cortex, activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) induces a persistent long-term depression (LTD) of transmission at synapses recorded in layer 2/3 of acute slices. Although the rodent studies expand our knowledge of how the cholinergic system modulates synaptic function underlying learning and memory, they are not easily extrapolated to more complex visual systems. Here we used tree shrews for their similarities to primates, including a visual cortex with separate, defined regions of monocular and binocular innervation, to determine whether mAChR activation induces long-term plasticity. We find that the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) not only induces long-term plasticity, but the direction of the plasticity depends on the subregion. In the monocular region, CCh application induces LTD of the postsynaptic potential recorded in layer 2/3 that requires activation of m3 mAChRs and a signaling cascade that includes activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. In contrast, layer 2/3 postsynaptic potentials recorded in the binocular region express long-term potentiation (LTP) following CCh application that requires activation of m1 mAChRs and phospholipase C. Our results show that activation of mAChRs induces long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses in tree shrew visual cortex. However, depending on the ocular inputs to that region, variation exists as to the direction of plasticity, as well as to the specific mAChR and signaling mechanisms that are required.

  1. Viewing Age: Lifespan Identity and Television Viewing Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jake

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical perspective on media viewing choices, grounded in social identity theory. Content analysis demonstrates that child, younger adult, and older adult television viewers show a preference for viewing characters of their own age. The experiment demonstrates that young adults' preference for viewing young adult characters exists…

  2. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  3. Infanticide: contrasting views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, M G

    2005-05-01

    The subject of infanticide is met with complex reactions. Paradoxically, the very same society that practices gender selection may also prosecute a mother for killing an infant. The author reviews historical, cultural, and political views on infanticide. Using the case of Andrea Yates, the author illustrates the outcome of an infanticide case in American Judicial System in which a floridly psychotic mother serves a life in prison. This work explores contemporary worldwide experiences of infanticide and investigates culture specific attitudes towards causes, facilitation, and punishment of this tragic cause of infant mortality. The work illustrates the intricate relationship between a society's construction of parenthood and mothering, and its experience of infanticide. Infanticide is deeply embedded in, and responsive to the societies in which it occurs. Causes vary from poverty to stigma, dowry and insanity. The worldwide experience of infant murder reaches from facilitation of gender determination in China and Asia to lethal execution of mothers as perpetrators in the United States. Infanticide must be viewed against the political, cultural, social and legal backgrounds of societies that treat women with disregard. It is a reflection of social and cultural norms governing motherhood, a constant that links these seemingly disparate acts. The overall association of infanticide with crime, postpartum illness, population and sex selection speaks to unjust discrimination against women and children. We as a world society can do a far better job of protecting motherhood.

  4. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  6. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antiinflammatory. Super acid catalysed sequential hydrolysis/cycloisomeri- zation of o-(acetylenic)benzamides under microwave condition: Synthesis, antinociceptive and antiinflamma- tory activity of substituted isocoumarins. 71. Antimalarial. Mannich reaction: A versatile and convenient approach to bioactive skeletons.

  7. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  8. Extended ocular hazard distances associated with intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia remote sensing system, airborne aura laser (Big Sky Variant).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-08-01

    A laser hazard analysis to determine the Extended Ocular Hazard Distances associated with a possible intrabeam aided viewing of the Sandia Remote Sensing System (SRSS) airborne AURA laser (Big Sky Laser Technology) was performed based on the 2000 version of the American National Standard Institute's (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for the Safe Use of Lasers and the 2000 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The AURA lidar system is installed in the instrument pod of a Proteus airframe and is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites. The targets are located at various distances (ranges) from the airborne platform. Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance (NOHD) and maximum ''eye-safe'' dwell times for various operational altitudes associated with unaided intrabeam exposure of ground personnel were determined and presented in a previous SAND report. Although the target areas are controlled and the use of viewing aids are prohibited there is the possibility of the unauthorized use of viewing aids such as binoculars. This aided viewing hazard analysis is supplemental to the previous SAND report for the laser hazard analysis of the airborne AURA.

  9. The view from Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselyov, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the observations of correspondents for the Bulletin (two Russian journalists, one based in Moscow, the other in Kiev) who investigated the status of the Soviet Union's Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. After two years of wrangling and two earlier failed settlements, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk at Massandra in Crimea. On September 3, the leaders announced that Russia would buy out Ukraine's interest in the fleet and lease the port at Sevastopol. The Massandra summit was also supposed to settle Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. Described here are the Kiev-based correspondent's views on the Massandra summit (and its major topics), which was to have been called off by the Russian foreign ministry when Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma resigned

  10. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collagen fibres. The Pd(0) nanoparticles stabilized by collagen fibres as a recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the Stille reaction under aerobic condition. 813 ... Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root bark. 1115. Covalent attachment. Synthesis of dark brown single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  11. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an ionised atom has a freely moving electron which really has a very large number of possibilities. This tilts the balance favouring the ionised condition. This effect is stronger at lower densities. In fact, Boltzmann recognised that the logarithm of this number of states is just what physicists and chemists had long described as ...

  12. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    50 The No-Slip Boundary Condition in Fluid. Mechanics. 1. The Riddle of Fluid Sticking to the Wall in Flow. Sandeep Prabhakara and M D Deshpande. 61 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - 2003. The Gateway for Perfect Health. S M Srideshikan and S K Srivatsa. 71 The Meaning of Integration-I. A K Nandakumaran.

  13. Views from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    aircraft like the high-flying U-2 spy planes for. Weather satellites permitted weather predictions as never before. Satellites were developed in the first ten years of the space program for earth resources and mapping. In this paper and presentation we will observe some of the best views taken in space and from space...of the Earth, and the moon and beyond. We will travel in space with our astronauts. Some of the photographs we will see are famous and others not nearly so. We will discuss some of the history behind the pictures and some of the benefits that have been gained from the views from space.

  14. A journalist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudret, Paul

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the result of five years of experience with the nuclear world in Switzerland (five Swiss nuclear plants) from the point of view of a journalist, who doesn't pretend to know everything; who is neither scientific nor a technical journalist, he is writing for the man in the street, and works for a daily paper i.e. has to work very fast and as close to the reality as possible. Understanding and mutual confidence between the nuclear industry and media is emphasised as essential. 'Nuclear' people are specialists and are warned about the fact that they are dealing with non-specialists, journalists and the public who would like to understand what are the processes that might affect them and do not have a dictionary of technical terminology at hand. It is pointed out that the nuclear industry should speak openly about problems and accept being criticised if they want to restore confidence with the media and with the public

  15. Caries, views and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, D

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes some advances in caries research in the last century. A tremendous body of knowledge about the disease as well as several possibilities for caries prevention and treatment have been obtained. This knowledge is not used by people in developing countries and certain obstacles for implementation of the procedures under such conditions are identified. Research aimed at finding practical means and methods that can help prevent caries and other oral diseases for the majority of the world's population must be intensified.

  16. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Й 2 XbwЗИqУД{xУy gh {x} | ¥hA2hw{y ). (11). In writing the above, we have neglected the contributions coming from the first two generation Yukawa couplings. The parameters gPX {x and gh {x are equal to zero at the high scale, due to the universality condition, but are nonzero at the weak scale due to the differences in RG ...

  17. Panorama completion for street views

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhe; Martin, Ralph Robert; Hu, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers panorama images used for street views. Their viewing angle of 360° causes pixels at the top and bottom to appear stretched and warped. Although current image completion algorithms work well, they cannot be directly used in the presence of such distortions found in panoramas of street views. We thus propose a novel approach to complete such 360° panoramas using optimization-based projection to deal with distortions. Experimental results show that our approach is efficient ...

  18. Impacts of wildlife viewing at Dixville Notch Wildlife Viewing Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith K. Silverberg; Peter J. Pekins; Robert A. Robertson

    2002-01-01

    Dixville Notch Wildlife Viewing Area provided an opportunity to examine the motivations, knowledge level and attitudes of wildlife viewers as well as the response of wildlife to observation and other human caused stimuli at a designated wildlife viewing site. Using integrated social science and biological information allowed recommendations to be made for managing...

  19. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  20. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    Table 1 Seasonal variation in body and kidney weight of adult mountain reedbuck culled at Sterkfontein. Values are ..... This leads to a decrease in nutritional quality of grazing for mountain reedbuck and a loss of condition. .... This would decrease the chances of starvation of those animals left, and allow them to build up ...

  1. What is Stereopsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vishwanath

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available “Stereopsis” refers to the characteristically vivid qualitative impression of 3D structure that is observed when real (or simulated-3D scenes are viewed binocularly. Stereopsis is associated with a compelling perception of solidity or 3-dimensionality, a clear sense of space between objects, and a phenomenal sense of realism. These visual characteristics are conventionally thought to be a result of the different views of an object afforded by binocular vision (disparity or self-motion (motion parallax. However, such visual characteristics can also be obtained under controlled monocular viewing of pictures. One explanation for the impression of monocular stereopsis is based on the notion of cue-coherence/conflict (eg, Ames, 1925. When a picture is viewed with both eyes, binocular cues specify the flat picture surface and are in conflict with the 3-dimentionality implied by the pictorial cues. The elimination of these conflicting cues under monocular viewing putatively causes the enhancement of pictorial depth impression. The cue-coherence/conflict explanation also predicts a greater magnitude of perceived depth relief accompanying the greater impression of stereopsis. I will present an alternative theory that stereopsis is the conscious perception of the precision of the brains estimate of absolute (egocentrically scaled depth. Both qualitative and quantitative empirical results are consistent with this theory. Specifically, they show that (i the same qualitative characteristics of depth impression are reported under binocular viewing of real scenes, stereoscopic images, and controlled monocular viewing of pictures; (ii the impression of stereopsis is measurable and its variation, under different viewing conditions is not consistent with a cue-conflict account; (iii stereopsis can be elicited by manipulating egocentric distance cues when viewing pictures, without altering conflicting binocular cues; and (iv under conditions that elicit

  2. Does laryngoscopic view after intubation predict laryngoscopic view before intubation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Julena; Archer, David; Pytka, Saul; Baghirzada, Leyla; Duttchen, Kaylene

    2016-09-01

    To determine if an endotracheal (ET) tube will distort the laryngeal view obtained with direct laryngoscopy measuring with the modified Cormack-Lehane scale (MCL). Observational single-arm study. The University of Calgary teaching hospitals. Patients between 18 and 86 years of age undergoing elective surgical procedures. A total of 173 patients were enrolled and analyzed. Direct laryngoscopy view obtained before ET intubation and directly after intubation. The MCL scales were described for each view obtained and compared to each other with each patient serving as their own control. The primary objective was a change in the best obtainable view by direct laryngoscopy from an acceptable view (MCLS 1 or 2a) to an unacceptable view (MCLS 2b, 3, or 4) or changing from an unacceptable view (MCLS 2b, 3, or 4) to an acceptable view (MCLS 1 or 2a). The main finding of this study was that the ET tube altered the MCL in 58 (33%) of 173 patients, "worsening" the grade in 30 patients (17.34%) and "improving" the grade in 28 patients (16.18%). We performed a prospective observational study to address the predictive value of postintubation laryngoscopy grade in adults. The presence of the ET tube both increased visualization of the glottis and worsened the view in different subjects. The important outcome was that the presence of the ET tube did in fact change the view obtained of the larynx during direct laryngoscopy. In conclusion, postintubation MCL grades may not be reliable to predict laryngeal grade and should be used with caution in the right clinical context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The emotional and cognitive effect of immersion in film viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.T.; Tan, E.S.; Molenaar, D.

    2010-01-01

    This brief report presents an experiment testing the effect of immersion on emotional responses and cognitive genre categorisation of film viewers. Immersion of a film presentation was varied by presenting an animated movie either in a 3D-viewing condition (low immersive condition) or in a CAVE

  4. CONDITIONED PUNISHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAKE, D F; AZRIN, N H

    1965-09-01

    Responses of pigeons were maintained by a VI schedule of food reinforcement. Conditioned punishment was programmed by having these responses concurrently produce an originally neutral stimulus. The effectiveness of this response-contingent stimulus was maintained by infrequent and prearranged stimulus-shock pairings delivered independently of responses. This conditioned punishment procedure reduced the overall response rate as long as the procedure was in effect. The extent and durability of the reduction was a function of the intensity of the shock that was paired with the stimulus. Analysis of the reduction in the overall response rate revealed: (1) a reduction of responses occurring in the absence of the response-contingent stimulus, which was designated as a "punishing" effect, and (2) a reduction of responses during the response-contingent stimulus, which was designated as a "suppressive" effect.

  5. Analysis of the diffraction effects for a multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional display system based on shutter parallax barriers with full resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Yu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Fangda; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Ye; Liu, Yumin; Ye, Han; Chen, Laurence Lujun

    2017-10-01

    A multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) system is built by using a 2D display screen and a customized parallax-barrier shutter (PBS) screen. The shutter screen is controlled dynamically by address driving matrix circuit and it is placed in front of the display screen at a certain location. The system could achieve densest viewpoints due to its specially optical and geometric design which is based on concept of "eye space". The resolution of 3D imaging is not reduced compared to 2D mode by using limited time division multiplexing technology. The diffraction effects may play an important role in 3D display imaging quality, especially when applied to small screen, such as iPhone screen etc. For small screen, diffraction effects may contribute crosstalk between binocular views, image brightness uniformity etc. Therefore, diffraction effects are analyzed and considered in a one-dimensional shutter screen model of the 3D display, in which the numerical simulation of light from display pixels on display screen through parallax barrier slits to each viewing zone in eye space, is performed. The simulation results provide guidance for criteria screen size over which the impact of diffraction effects are ignorable, and below which diffraction effects must be taken into account. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the corresponding experimental measurements and observation with discussion.

  6. Communications and Development: Two Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Two views on current international communication are presented--that of an American academician, and that of an Indian journalist. John Lent traces the rise of development journalism and development communication from the point of view of those who believe that individual freedom of expression should be treated as an inviolable right. Narinder…

  7. Wildlands management for wildlife viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamsie Cooper; William W. Shaw

    1979-01-01

    Wildlife in general and wildlife viewing in particular play significant roles in enriching the aesthetic experiences of visitors to wildlands. Effective management of wildlife for viewing must be based on human as well as biological information. The integration of the principles and techniques developed for game management with information on the human dimensions of...

  8. Behavioural View of Language Acquisition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Behavioural View of Language Acquisition. Rajeev Sangal. Book Review Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 487-489. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/05/0487-0489 ...

  9. Television viewing and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T N

    2001-08-01

    Children spend a substantial portion of their lives watching television. Investigators have hypothesized that television viewing causes obesity by one or more of three mechanisms: (1) displacement of physical activity, (2) increased calorie consumption while watching or caused by the effects of advertising, and (3) reduced resting metabolism. The relationship between television viewing and obesity has been examined in a relatively large number of cross-sectional epidemiologic studies but few longitudinal studies. Many of these studies have found relatively weak, positive associations, but others have found no associations or mixed results; however, the weak and variable associations found in these studies may be the result of limitations in measurement. Several experimental studies of reducing television viewing recently have been completed. Most of these studies have not tested directly the effects of reducing television viewing behaviors alone, but their results support the suggestion that reducing television viewing may help to reduce the risk for obesity or help promote weight loss in obese children. Finally, one school-based, experimental study was designed specifically to test directly the causal relationship between television viewing behaviors and body fatness. The results of this randomized, controlled trial provide evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness and that reducing television viewing is a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  10. Patinas developed in environmental burial conditions: the Neolithic steles of Reguers de Seró (Lleida, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, Maite; Aulinas, Meritxell; López-Melción, Joan B; Moya-Garra, Andreu

    2010-08-01

    Weathering patinas in rocks are the result of interaction processes between rock surfaces and atmosphere, biosphere and soil. Therefore, their textural and mineral composition is strongly related to environmental and bioactivity conditions. Whereas the development of weathering patinas in atmospheric conditions is well documented (e.g. typical Mediterranean patina), only very few studies focus on their formation in a burial environment. Our study of patinas developed on the tumular structure of Reguers de Seró deals with the knowledge of burial patinas from a textural and mineralogical point of view. The aims of this study include: (1) the characterisation of the rock used in this megalithic monument as well as inferences regarding the origin of the raw material; (2) the evaluation of the patinas developed on the surface of the carved steles; and (3) the discussion of the environmental conditions (atmospheric or burial) that favoured the development of the patinas. Whole rock and related patinas (powdered samples and small single pieces) were carefully sampled in five of the seven Neolithic steles discovered during a municipal excavation. Some whole rock samples from the surrounding outcrops were also collected in order to correlate them with the stone forming the megalith. Samples were analysed macroscopically, using a glass binocular, and microscopically, by means of a polarising light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDAX). The mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction, and a colorimetric analysis was also carried out in all the sampled patinas. The obtained results evidence a strong textural and mineralogical correlation between the whole rock of the megalith and the collected samples of the nearby outcrops; both are classified as calcarenite. A uniformly distributed beige-orange patina (35-100 microm thick) covering the surface of the steles modifies their aspect. A layer of calcite (micrite) with granular texture was

  11. Views on Biotic Nature and the Idea of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łepko, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    The search for balance between humankind's civilisational aspirations and the durable protection of nature is conditioned by contemporaneous views of biotic nature. Of particular importance in this regard are physiocentric and physiological views that may be set against one another. The first of these was presented by Hans Jonas, the second by Lothar Schäfer. This paper does not confine itself to setting one view against the other, but rather sets minimum conditions for cooperation between their promoters in the interests of balance between the aspirations of the present generation and those of future generations. Both views of nature are in their own way conducive to a break with the illusion present in some areas of the modern natural sciences - that nature is a boundless area of are inexhaustible resources.

  12. Joint Integrated Air Defense Systems View (J-IADS-VIEW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Mike

    2006-01-01

    ...) was developed over a two year span. J-IADS-View is an automated computer program that equips the information operations analyst with a tool to create dynamic and animated visual of foreign threat IADS information...

  13. The STAPL pView

    KAUST Repository

    Buss, Antal

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Template Adaptive Parallel Library (STAPL) is a C++ parallel programming library that provides a collection of distributed data structures (pContainers) and parallel algorithms (pAlgorithms) and a generic methodology for extending them to provide customized functionality. STAPL algorithms are written in terms of pViews, which provide a generic access interface to pContainer data by abstracting common data structure concepts. Briefly, pViews allow the same pContainer to present multiple interfaces, e.g., enabling the same pMatrix to be \\'viewed\\' (or used) as a row-major or column-major matrix, or even as a vector. In this paper, we describe the stapl pView concept and its properties. pViews generalize the iterator concept and enable parallelism by providing random access to, and an ADT for, collections of elements. We illustrate how pViews provide support for managing the tradeoff between expressivity and performance and examine the performance overhead incurred when using pViews. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  14. An LBT view of the Andromeda’s satellite galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cusano Felice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on deep (V ∼ 26.5 mag time series observations of four dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs in the Andromeda (M31 complex, namely, And XIX, And XXI, And XXV and And XXVII, that we have observed with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT. We discovered in these galaxies a total of over 200 RR Lyrae stars and 19 Anomalous Cepheids. We also characterised the stellar populations and the spatial distributions of these dSphs.

  15. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Eric D.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computer-based data acquisition and control, the graphical interface program LabVIEW from National Instruments is so ubiquitous that in many ways it has almost become the laboratory standard. To date, there have been approximately fifteen books concerning LabVIEW, but Professor Essick's treatise takes on a completely different tack than all of the previous discussions. In the more standard treatments of the ways and wherefores of LabVIEW such as LabVIEW Graphical Programming: Practical Applications in Instrumentation and Control by Gary W. Johnson (McGraw Hill, NY 1997), the emphasis has been instructing the reader how to program LabVIEW to create a Virtual Instrument (VI) on the computer for interfacing to a particular instruments. LabVIEW is written in ''G'' a graphical programming language developed by National Instruments. In the past the emphasis has been on training the experimenter to learn ''G''. Without going into details here, ''G'' incorporates the usual loops, arithmetic expressions, etc., found in many programming languages, but in an icon (graphical) environment. The net result being that LabVIEW contains all of the standard methods needed for interfacing to instruments, data acquisition, data analysis, graphics, and also methodology to incorporate programs written in other languages into LabVIEW. Historically, according to Professor Essick, he developed a series of experiments for an upper division laboratory course for computer-based instrumentation. His observation was that while many students had the necessary background in computer programming languages, there were students who had virtually no concept about writing a computer program let alone a computer- based interfacing program. Thus the beginnings of a concept for not only teaching computer- based instrumentation techniques, but aiso a method for the beginner to experience writing a com- puter program. Professor Essick saw LabVIEW as the ''perfect environment in which to

  16. Experts views' on Digital Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

  17. "Private Views" Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi

  18. 'Private Views' Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.

  19. A broader view of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.

  20. Passenger flow statistics across the field of view based on the depth map of the double Xtion sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhang-qin; Gu, Guo-hua; Bai, Xiao-feng; Zhao, Tie-kun; Chen, Hai-xin

    2013-08-01

    It introduces a new method to achieve the passenger flow statistics in stereo vision according to the original depth image output by the monocular Xtion sensor, aiming at the problem of algorithm with large amounts of data and realization of single field with dual camera on the basis of stereo vision. Double Xtion sensors are used to expand the range of view angle because of the monocular Xtion sensor's limitations, whose view range is 45°*58° with small transverse view range and can't meet the passenger flow statistics. Due to the characteristics of constant physical space dimensions, use the improved SIFT (Scale Invariant Features Transform) feature algorithm to realize the auto - stereoscopic splice of binocular original depth images. Firstly, the feature points of the reference image (the image to be matched) and the subsequent image (the image to be matched with the reference image) are obtained by SIFT algorithm, getting the location, scale and direction of the feature points and the feature points are described by means of the 128-dimensional vector .Secondly, complete the match of the feature points of the two images to calculate overlapping area, using the nearest neighbor method. Finally, image stitching is completed based on multi-resolution wavelet transform, which contains three-dimensional spatial information of the human body, thus use a method to analysis comprehensively the depth image for field detection and tracking based on the features such as the head shape, the head area the spatial position relation of the human head and shoulder and so on. The experimental results show that this method not only improve the detection accuracy and efficiency, reduce the amount of operation data, so that the system is simple in structure, but also solve many problems of passenger flow statistics based on video stream in the system, accuracy up to 93%, having high and practical application value.

  1. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beomonte Zobel, B.; Tella, S.; Innacoli, M.; D'Archivio, C.; Cardone, G.; Masciocchi, C.; Gallucci, M.; Passariello, R.; Cappa, F.

    1991-01-01

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  2. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  3. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kook [Gwangju Health College, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus.

  4. Evaluation and development of a novel binocular treatment (I-BiT™) system using video clips and interactive games to improve vision in children with amblyopia ('lazy eye'): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Alexander J; Gregson, Richard M; MacKeith, Daisy; Herbison, Nicola; Ash, Isabel M; Cobb, Sue V; Eastgate, Richard M; Hepburn, Trish; Vivian, Anthony; Moore, Diane; Haworth, Stephen M

    2013-05-20

    Amblyopia (lazy eye) affects the vision of approximately 2% of all children. Traditional treatment consists of wearing a patch over their 'good' eye for a number of hours daily, over several months. This treatment is unpopular and compliance is often low. Therefore results can be poor. A novel binocular treatment which uses 3D technology to present specially developed computer games and video footage (I-BiT™) has been studied in a small group of patients and has shown positive results over a short period of time. The system is therefore now being examined in a randomised clinical trial. Seventy-five patients aged between 4 and 8 years with a diagnosis of amblyopia will be randomised to one of three treatments with a ratio of 1:1:1 - I-BiT™ game, non-I-BiT™ game, and I-BiT™ DVD. They will be treated for 30 minutes once weekly for 6 weeks. Their visual acuity will be assessed independently at baseline, mid-treatment (week 3), at the end of treatment (week 6) and 4 weeks after completing treatment (week 10). The primary endpoint will be the change in visual acuity from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints will be additional visual acuity measures, patient acceptability, compliance and the incidence of adverse events. This is the first randomised controlled trial using the I-BiT™ system. The results will determine if the I-BiT™ system is effective in the treatment of amblyopia and will also determine the optimal treatment for future development. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01702727.

  5. Eye–Hand Coordination Skills in Children with and without Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Catherine M.; Melmoth, Dean R.; Finlay, Alison L.; Sloper, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether binocular information provides benefits for programming and guidance of reach-to-grasp movements in normal children and whether these eye–hand coordination skills are impaired in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity. Methods. Reach-to-grasp performance of the preferred hand in binocular versus monocular (dominant or nondominant eye occluded) conditions to different objects (two sizes, three locations, and two to three repetitions) was quantified by using a 3D motion-capture system. The participants were 36 children (age, 5–11 years) and 11 adults who were normally sighted and 21 children (age, 4–8 years) who had strabismus and/or anisometropia. Movement kinematics and error rates were compared for each viewing condition within and between subject groups. Results. The youngest control subjects used a mainly programmed (ballistic) strategy and collided with the objects more often when viewing with only one eye, while older children progressively incorporated visual feedback to guide their reach and, eventually, their grasp, resulting in binocular advantages for both movement components resembling those of adult performance. Amblyopic children were the worst performers under all viewing conditions, even when using the dominant eye. They spent almost twice as long in the final approach to the objects and made many (1.5–3 times) more errors in reach direction and grip positioning than their normal counterparts, these impairments being most marked in those with the poorest binocularity, regardless of the severity or cause of their amblyopia. Conclusions. The importance of binocular vision for eye–hand coordination normally increases with age and use of online movement guidance. Restoring binocularity in children with amblyopia may improve their poor hand action control. PMID:21212188

  6. Eye-hand coordination skills in children with and without amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, Catherine M; Melmoth, Dean R; Finlay, Alison L; Sloper, John J; Grant, Simon

    2011-03-01

    To investigate whether binocular information provides benefits for programming and guidance of reach-to-grasp movements in normal children and whether these eye-hand coordination skills are impaired in children with amblyopia and abnormal binocularity. Reach-to-grasp performance of the preferred hand in binocular versus monocular (dominant or nondominant eye occluded) conditions to different objects (two sizes, three locations, and two to three repetitions) was quantified by using a 3D motion-capture system. The participants were 36 children (age, 5-11 years) and 11 adults who were normally sighted and 21 children (age, 4-8 years) who had strabismus and/or anisometropia. Movement kinematics and error rates were compared for each viewing condition within and between subject groups. The youngest control subjects used a mainly programmed (ballistic) strategy and collided with the objects more often when viewing with only one eye, while older children progressively incorporated visual feedback to guide their reach and, eventually, their grasp, resulting in binocular advantages for both movement components resembling those of adult performance. Amblyopic children were the worst performers under all viewing conditions, even when using the dominant eye. They spent almost twice as long in the final approach to the objects and made many (1.5-3 times) more errors in reach direction and grip positioning than their normal counterparts, these impairments being most marked in those with the poorest binocularity, regardless of the severity or cause of their amblyopia. The importance of binocular vision for eye-hand coordination normally increases with age and use of online movement guidance. Restoring binocularity in children with amblyopia may improve their poor hand action control.

  7. Occlusion-Aware View Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Serdar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract View interpolation is an essential step in content preparation for multiview 3D displays, free-viewpoint video, and multiview image/video compression. It is performed by establishing a correspondence among views, followed by interpolation using the corresponding intensities. However, occlusions pose a significant challenge, especially if few input images are available. In this paper, we identify challenges related to disparity estimation and view interpolation in presence of occlusions. We then propose an occlusion-aware intermediate view interpolation algorithm that uses four input images to handle the disappearing areas. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, all pixels in view to be computed are classified in terms of their visibility in the input images. Then, disparity for each pixel is estimated from different image pairs depending on the computed visibility map. Finally, luminance/color of each pixel is adaptively interpolated from an image pair selected by its visibility label. Extensive experimental results show striking improvements in interpolated image quality over occlusion-unaware interpolation from two images and very significant gains over occlusion-aware spline-based reconstruction from four images, both on synthetic and real images. Although improvements are obvious only in the vicinity of object boundaries, this should be useful in high-quality 3D applications, such as digital 3D cinema and ultra-high resolution multiview autostereoscopic displays, where distortions at depth discontinuities are highly objectionable, especially if they vary with viewpoint change.

  8. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...... meta-analysis of fifteen experiments using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was conducted. As predicted, viewing paintings was correlated with activation in a distributed system including the occipital lobes, temporal lobe structures in the ventral stream involved in object (fusiform...... gyrus) and scene (parahippocampal gyrus) perception, and the anterior insula-a key structure in experience of emotion. In addition, we also observed activation in the posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally-part of the brain's default network. These results suggest that viewing paintings engages not only...

  9. Different views of distance education and how these views affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated stakeholders' views of distance education and their implications on distance teaching and open learning at Zimbabwe Open University. The study used a descriptive survey design and questionnaire instrument. The population of the study was 14700 students, 200 administrative staff and 850 lecturers ...

  10. Students' Views on Contextual Vocabulary Teaching: A Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Bahadir Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…

  11. Effects of viewed violence and aggression: stimulation and catharsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, S A; Taylor, D A

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the catharsis hypothesis involving viewed violence have led to conflicting results. It was suggested that the inconsistencies were due in part to the use of two different types of response measures, aggressive responses and hostile responses. This study involved a direct comparison of the two types of responses under conditions of instigation versus no instigation and aggressive versus neutral film. It was hypothesized that viewing an aggressive film would lead to a decrease in hostile responses (catharsis) and an increase in aggressive responses (stimulation) when compared with a neutral film condition. It was also hypothesized that both stimulation and catharsis effects would be enhanced under instigation conditions. A main effect of instigation was found with subjects in the instigation condition having higher scores than those in the noninstigated condition. A main effect of film was found with subjects having lower scores in the aggressive film condition than in the neutral film condition. A significant Film times Response Outlet interaction was found which offered support for the predicted catharsis effect on the hostility measure. There was no support for the predicted stimulation effect on the aggression measure. The results of the study offer support for the main thesis that in examining the effects of viewed violence, separation of hostile responses and aggressive responses is necessary for full understanding.

  12. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures

  13. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures

  14. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages

  15. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    meta-analysis of fifteen experiments using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was conducted. As predicted, viewing paintings was correlated with activation in a distributed system including the occipital lobes, temporal lobe structures in the ventral stream involved in object (fusiform...... gyrus) and scene (parahippocampal gyrus) perception, and the anterior insula-a key structure in experience of emotion. In addition, we also observed activation in the posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally-part of the brain's default network. These results suggest that viewing paintings engages not only...

  16. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  17. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  18. View

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Thoithi

    0-5 years were mainly accidental. Medicinal drug related poisoning as a result of overdose or allergic reactions were common in children aged. 0-5 years. Commuter cases refer to poisoning cases encountered while travelling, whereby patients presented with sedation and temporal amnesia. This was most likely intentional ...

  19. Hitler's Reich Viewed from 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James E.

    1971-01-01

    Viewed within a context of Orwell's 1984," the author's visit to East Germany, and particularly to the Museum for German History, revealed the efforts of an authoritarian regime to manipulate the thoughts and directions of that society to its own advantage. (JB)

  20. Knowledge management - a programmatic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froats, J.P.S.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation give a programmatic view of knowledge management in the nuclear industry. A knowledge management program must deal with forecasting needs, acquisition, retention, training and supporting elements of culture, process, codification error prevention, information management and networks to reduce exposure

  1. Realistic Visualization of Virtual Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    phenomena captured in the reference photographs, (i.e. the transfer of photographic-realism). An overview of most prominent approaches in realistic virtual view synthesis will be presented and briefly discussed. Applications of proposed methods to visual survey, virtual cinematography, as well as mobile...

  2. Students' Views on the Riots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tom; Stevenson, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting two students views on this summers riots, Tom Young locates the riots as a symptom of 20th century consumerism. Tracing the historical development of public relations and advertising with the rise of one of the 20th century's least known and most influential figures "Eddy Bernays", he asks the question--who's really to blame…

  3. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  4. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  5. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  6. Standard Hip Ventrodorsal Leg Extended View In The Diagnosis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is hereditary developmental condition that involves a lack of conformity between the femoral head and acetabulum. It invariably leads to osteoarthritis. We hereby review the standard hip ventrodorsal leg extended view to be adopted by our Tanzanian veterinarians. Diagnostic radiography is the ...

  7. Evidence for view-invariant face recognition units in unfamiliar face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, David B; Brooks, Joseph L; Johnston, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task. Later, participants attempted to recognize both seen and novel views of the learned faces (recognition phase). Experiment 1 tested participants' recognition of a novel view, a day after learning. Experiment 2 was identical, but tested participants on the same day as learning. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 1, but tested participants on a novel view that was outside the rotation of those views learned. Results revealed a significant advantage, across all experiments, for recognizing a novel view when two views had been learned compared to single view learning. The observed view invariance supports the notion that an FRU representation is established during multi-view face learning under particular learning conditions.

  8. QlikView Server and Publisher

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive guide with a step-by-step approach that enables you to host and manage servers using QlikView Server and QlikView Publisher.If you are a server administrator wanting to learn about how to deploy QlikView Server for server management,analysis and testing, and QlikView Publisher for publishing of business content then this is the perfect book for you. No prior experience with QlikView is expected.

  9. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  10. Three points of view in transport theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben, Panta Pazos [Faculdade de Matematica, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Tilio de Vilhena, M. [Instituto de Matematica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    A lot of efforts in Transport Theory is used to develop numerical methods or hybrid numerical-analytical techniques. We present in this work three points of view about transport problems. First the C0 semigroup approach, in which the free transport operator {psi} {yields} {mu} {nabla} generates an strongly continuous semigroup. The operators operator {psi} {yields} {sigma}t and operator {psi} {yields} {integral} {nabla} k(x,{mu},{mu}') {psi}(x,{mu}') d{mu}' are bounded operators, and by perturbation the transport operator {psi} {yields} {mu} {nabla} {psi} + {sigma}t {psi} - K {psi} also generates an strongly continuous semigroup. To prove the convergence of the approximations of a numerical methods to the exact solution we use the approximation theorem of C0 semi-groups in canonical form. In other way, the discrete schemes theory is employed in searching the rate of convergence of numerical techniques in transport theory. For 1D dependent of time transport problem and two-dimensional steady state problem we summarize some estimates, incorporating different boundary conditions. Finally we give a survey about the dynamical behavior of the SN approximations. In order to give a unified approach, some results illustrates the equivalence of the three points of views for the case of the steady-state transport problem for slab geometry. (author)

  11. Three points of view in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, Panta Pazos; Tilio de Vilhena, M.

    2001-01-01

    A lot of efforts in Transport Theory is used to develop numerical methods or hybrid numerical-analytical techniques. We present in this work three points of view about transport problems. First the C0 semigroup approach, in which the free transport operator ψ → μ ∇ generates an strongly continuous semigroup. The operators operator ψ → σt and operator ψ → ∫ ∇ k(x,μ,μ' ψ(x,μ') dμ' are bounded operators, and by perturbation the transport operator ψ → μ ∇ ψ + σt ψ - K ψ also generates an strongly continuous semigroup. To prove the convergence of the approximations of a numerical methods to the exact solution we use the approximation theorem of C0 semi-groups in canonical form. In other way, the discrete schemes theory is employed in searching the rate of convergence of numerical techniques in transport theory. For 1D dependent of time transport problem and two-dimensional steady state problem we summarize some estimates, incorporating different boundary conditions. Finally we give a survey about the dynamical behavior of the SN approximations. In order to give a unified approach, some results illustrates the equivalence of the three points of views for the case of the steady-state transport problem for slab geometry. (author)

  12. Views of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  13. For current viewing resistor loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory R [Tijeras, NM; Hass, Jay B [Lee's Summit, MO

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  14. A Russian View on Landpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Many of these seem innocuous or improbable—but it must be remembered that they will be interpreted in Mos- cow in accordance with a Russian view of the...money, weapons, and political protec- tion in the United Nations (UN). In Ukraine, Mos- cow startled the world by moving mass amounts of its land forces...complete information picture of the battlefield is formed for the appropriate commanders in real time, as the command and con- trol cycle is

  15. The SPHERE View of Betelgeuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, O.; Schmid, H.-M.; Carbillet, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Abe, L.; Mouillet, D.

    2013-05-01

    SPHERE, the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument for the VLT is optimized towards reaching the highest contrast in a limited field of view and at short distances from the central star, thanks to an extreme AO system. SPHERE is very well suited to study the close environment of Betelgeuse, and has a strong potential for detecting the ejection activity around this key red supergiant.

  16. A view from both sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, John D B

    2011-07-01

    This letter to the editor is from one of the key figures in caries management by risk assessment. Dr. Featherstone brings a unique perspective to the access issue. He grew up in New Zealand and experienced care under the dental therapist provider model. His letter is included here because it complements the other articles by providing his views on CAMBRA in the context of addressing barriers to care.

  17. QlikView-raportointisovelluksen luominen

    OpenAIRE

    Mella, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on rakentaa raportointisovellus kohdeorganisaatiolle. Tuloksena syntynyt sovellus tulee olemaan organisaation asiantuntijoiden jatkuvassa käytössä. Sovellus nopeuttaa huomattavasti asiantuntijoiden tiedonkeruuta tarvitsemistaan asioista. Opinnäytetyöni toimeksiantaja käyttää QlikView-raportointisovellusta Business Intelligence raportointityökalunaan. Raportointisovellusta lähdettiin tekemään eri tavalla kuin olisi tarkoitus. Riskejä oli paljo...

  18. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  19. Binocular vision: defining the historical directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Wade, Nicholas J; Lillakas, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Ever since Kepler described the image-forming properties of the eye (400 years ago) there has been a widespread belief, which remains to this day, that an object seen with one eye is always seen where it is. Predictions made by Ptolemy in the first century, Alhazen in the eleventh, and Wells in the eighteenth, and supported by Towne, Hering, and LeConte in the nineteenth century, however, are contrary to this claimed veridicality. We discuss how among eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British researchers, particularly Porterfield, Brewster, and Wheatstone, the erroneous idea continued and also why observations made by Wells were neither understood nor appreciated. Finally, we discuss recent data, obtained with a new method, that further support Wells's predictions and which show that a distinction between headcentric and relative direction tasks is needed to appreciate the predictions.

  20. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  1. Document delivery services contrasting views

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Design and maintain document delivery services that are ideal for academic patrons! In Document Delivery Services: Contrasting Views, you'll visit four university library systems to discover the considerations and challenges each library faced in bringing document delivery to its clientele. This book examines the questions about document delivery that are most pressing in the profession of library science. Despite their own unique experiences, you'll find common practices among all four?including planning, implementation of service, and evaluation of either user satisfaction and/or vendor per

  2. Actuality and fake tense in conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mackay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Iatridou (2000 and Katrin Schulz (2014 defend accounts of the past tense in subjunctive conditionals according to which the past tense has a modal reading that excludes the world of utterance or some set of epistemically possible worlds. I argue here that these views give an unsatisfactory treatment of certain subjunctive conditionals that contain embedded indicative clauses pertaining to the actual world. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.8.12 BibTeX info

  3. APPRAISING THE CONDITIONS OF UNIVERSAL MORALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hub of our discussion of the conditions of universal morality is predicated upon the fact that the argument that a society's social life can only be measured by the peculiarities of its ... The call for a context-bound conception of morality has lost much of its hold in view of the interlocking network of our contemporary life.

  4. Conditional Inference and Advanced Mathematical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Many mathematicians and curriculum bodies have argued in favour of the theory of formal discipline: that studying advanced mathematics develops one's ability to reason logically. In this paper we explore this view by directly comparing the inferences drawn from abstract conditional statements by advanced mathematics students and well-educated arts…

  5. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Malabre, M.

    1961-01-01

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [fr

  6. MPS views on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This article features the different views of Parliament members concerning the need in the reduction of population growth for development sustenance. Population growth would lead to environmental degradation, malnutrition, diseases, and high incidence of poverty. Furthermore, social problems arise like teenage pregnancies, and abuse of young girls. Suggestions on curtailing this problem as suggested by some of the parliament members includes educating people on issues of migration, family planning and reproductive health. Other members suggested on family planning legislation, like in the case of China where population explosion exists. Further, members thought that advocacy for population control such as condom usage targeting to couples having large families should be catered. However, this was denounced by some members as a failure and should not be sanctioned at large family couples but rather to husband with several wives. Finally, a compromised view was directed on population management with poverty alleviation involving the provision of amenities such as water, electricity, good roads, potable water, and income generating activities.

  7. Alice Views Jupiter and Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This graphic illustrates the pointing and shows the data from one of many observations made by the New Horizons Alice ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) instrument during the Pluto-bound spacecraft's recent encounter with Jupiter. The red lines in the graphic show the scale, orientation, and position of the combined 'box and slot' field of view of the Alice UVS during this observation. The positions of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io, the torus of ionized gas from Io, and Jupiter are shown relative to the Alice field of view. Like a prism, the spectrometer separates light from these targets into its constituent wavelengths. Io's volcanoes produce an extremely tenuous atmosphere made up primarily of sulfur dioxide gas, which, in the harsh plasma environment at Io, breaks down into its component sulfur and oxygen atoms. Alice observed the auroral glow from these atoms in Io's atmosphere and their ionized counterparts in the Io torus. Io's dayside is deliberately overexposed to bring out faint details in the plumes and on the moon's night side. The continuing eruption of the volcano Tvashtar, at the 1 o'clock position, produces an enormous plume roughly 330 kilometers (200 miles) high, which is illuminated both by sunlight and 'Jupiter light.'

  8. Data Model as an Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    for architecture documentation geared towards information systems prescribe a data view [Garland 2003], data architecture view [ TOGAF 2007], or...entity-relationship diagrams. The Open Group Architecture Framework ( TOGAF ) suggests entity-relationship dia- grams to illustrate the Information...Systems Architecture – Data Architecture views [ TOGAF 2007]. The ―4+1‖ View Model of Software Architecture indicates that entity-relationship dia

  9. Características estruturais maculares de olhos de pré-escolares nascidos prematuros: análise por tomografia de coerência óptica e oftalmoscopia binocular indireta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a estrutura retiniana da mácula e fóvea entre prematuros com retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP estágios II e III pós-tratamento, com ROP estágios II e III regredida espontaneamente e sem ROP, através de exames de tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT e da oftalmoscopia binocular indireta (OBI. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal, observacional e não cego. Foram incluídas crianças prematuras nascidas entre 06/1992 e 06/2006 e examinadas entre 06/2009 e 12/2010; idade gestacional menor ou igual a 32 semanas e peso ao nascer menor ou igual a 1.599 g; com mínimo de três consultas durante o período de seleção; sem retinopatia da prematuridade ou com diagnóstico de ROP estágios II ou III em pelo menos um dos olhos com regressão espontânea ou após tratamento; máximo de seis meses de idade cronológica para o primeiro exame no serviço; idade cronológica mínima de quatro anos no período da reavaliação. Foram excluídas crianças prematuras que não compareceram ou que não tinham condições clínicas para a realização dos exames de reavaliação. Os prematuros foram divididos em três grupos: G1- com ROP pós-tratamento; G2- com ROP pós-regressão espontânea; e G3- sem ROP. Os exames realizados foram OBI e OCT. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro prematuros (48 olhos apresentaram os critérios exigidos para a pesquisa, com idade média cronológica entre 5 e 6 anos. À OBI, houve diferença estatística significativa para a presença de alterações na retina dos prematuros do grupo G1. No entanto estas alterações corresponderam às lesões cicatriciais deixadas pelo tratamento da ROP, sem comprometimento visível da região macular. À OCT houve diferença estatística significativa para a maior espessura foveal para os prematuros do grupo G1. Considerando-se o olho esquerdo, não houve diferença estatística significativa relacionada à espessura da fóvea entre G1 e G3. Não houve diferença entre os tr

  10. A Photographic View of Cumulative Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows a concrete and easy recognizable view of a cumulative distribution function(cdf). Photograph views of the search tabs on dictionaries are used to increase students' understanding and facility with the concept of a cumulative distribution function. Projects for student investigations are also given. This motivation and view helps…

  11. Learning QlikView data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Pover, Karl

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to start developing charts from your data.Learning QlikView Data Visualization is for anybody interested in performing powerful data analysis and crafting insightful data visualization, independent of any previous knowledge of QlikView. Experience with spreadsheet software will help you understand QlikView functions.

  12. Views of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses views of Martin Luther King, Jr., including concepts of human rights, related counseling approaches, and ethics. Claims King's views provide helpful insights for counselors and clients. Concludes King invited individuals to view challenging life situations as moral opportunities. (Author/ABL)

  13. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  14. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  15. THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FAIR VIEW AND THE PRUDENCE IN ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Isai; Simona Anca Cozma

    2015-01-01

    In the accounts of Romania, the principle of true and fair view and the prudence principle are in a relationship of mutual conditioning. True and fair view has its origins in Anglo-Saxon accounting, the British, and English translation of the expression is "true and fair view". In the context of Romania's national, a first reference to the concept of true and fair view a we identify in the root Accounting Law No 82/1991 which lays down that objective accounting- ensuring accurate image, clear...

  16. Generalized Rainich conditions, generalized stress-energy conditions, and the Hawking-Ellis classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín–Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2017-11-01

    The (generalized) Rainich conditions are algebraic conditions which are polynomial in the (mixed-component) stress-energy tensor. As such they are logically distinct from the usual classical energy conditions (NEC, WEC, SEC, DEC), and logically distinct from the usual Hawking-Ellis (Segré-Plebański) classification of stress-energy tensors (type I, type II, type III, type IV). There will of course be significant inter-connections between these classification schemes, which we explore in the current article. Overall, we shall argue that it is best to view the (generalized) Rainich conditions as a refinement of the classical energy conditions and the usual Hawking-Ellis classification.

  17. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  19. Scientists' views about communication objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John C; Dudo, Anthony; Yuan, Shupei

    2017-08-01

    This study looks at how United States-based academic scientists from five professional scientific societies think about eight different communication objectives. The degree to which scientists say they would prioritize these objectives in the context of face-to-face public engagement is statistically predicted using the scientists' attitudes, normative beliefs, and efficacy beliefs, as well as demographics and past communication activity, training, and past thinking about the objectives. The data allow for questions about the degree to which such variables consistently predict views about objectives. The research is placed in the context of assessing factors that communication trainers might seek to reshape if they wanted get scientists to consider choosing specific communication objectives.

  20. Opposing views on contraceptives presented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article presents two opposing views on the importance of artificial contraceptives. It is noted that in the April 19 issue of the Manila Bulletin, Ms. Ethel Soliven wrote in her column that the position of the Catholic Church on artificial contraceptives is standing in the way of success of the Philippine family planning campaign. To this effect, Sister Mary Pilar Versoza of the Religious of the Good Shepherd, sent a letter of rebuttal saying that the church has never been remiss in emphasizing the true meaning of sexual act, love and relationship, marriage, and family responsibilities. Sister Pilar contended that ligation and condoms do not solve husbands¿ selfishness. In response, Soliven argued in another issue of the Manila Bulletin that she believes in the need to provide access to artificial contraceptives. Soliven asserted that destitute couples who cannot provide their families with even the barest necessities of life should be provided with the means with which to prevent unwanted pregnancies.

  1. Existing Condition of Plankton in the Water Body of Muria NPP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norma-Afiati; Yarianto-S-Budi-Susilo; Mauritz-L- Tobing; Heni-Susiati

    2007-01-01

    NPP development project is predicted have a potential impact to the water ecosystem. The source of impact is the activities at the both construction and operation stage. The scale of impact will be depending on the existing condition compared to the environmental condition changes after the project activity. Plankton is the organisms that have the significant role in terms of food chain and they are sensitive to the environmental change. Phytoplankton is the food producer in the water ecosystem; meanwhile zooplankton is the first level of consumer. The method used in this work was random sampling. Plankton sampling was using plankton net. Identification for micro-organism used microscope, while for larger organism used binocular. Calculation of abundance and species diversity index used Shannon formula. The result showed that in the vicinity of Ujung Lemahabang Site was found about 23 species of phytoplankton; number of marine phytoplankton was more than that of the fresh water ecosystem, trend of zooplankton population follows phytoplankton trend. (author)

  2. A duality view of spectral methods for dimensionality reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lin; Sun, Jun; Boyd, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    We present a unified duality view of several recently emerged spectral methods for nonlinear dimensionality reduction, including Isomap, locally linear embedding, Laplacian eigenmaps, and maximum variance unfolding. We discuss the duality theory for the maximum variance unfolding problem, and show that other methods are directly related to either its primal formulation or its dual formulation, or can be interpreted from the optimality conditions. This duality framework reveals close connectio...

  3. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  4. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  5. Conditional Belief Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    using conditional belief operators, examining three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be...unconditionally certain of her beliefs . Second, echo, according to which the unconditional beliefs implied by the condition must be held given the...condition. Third, determination, which says that the conditional beliefs are the unconditional beliefs that are conditionally certain. Echo implies that

  6. An integrative view of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, David

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation. Although informative studies have been performed with cultured adipocytes, an integrative approach to the regulation of abdominal adipose tissue involves feedback from autocrine and paracrine effectors secreted by adipocytes, the immune system, and blood flow through adipose tissue. Numerous adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines feed back to other bodily systems to regulate both energy balance and immune function. Studies of the interactions of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, as well as psychophysiological considerations of reward circuitry in the central nervous system, have shown a general adaptation to starvation that is opposed to those strategies being proposed for the prevention and treatment of obesity, ie, food restriction and increased physical activity. The obesogenic environment of highly palatable foods with hidden fats and sugars can promote metabolic syndrome and obesity, whereas fruit and vegetables with antiinflammatory phytochemicals can counteract metabolic syndrome. Therefore, a plant-based diet and the seamless integration of increased physical activity and social support to alter modern diets and lifestyles hold out the greatest hope for the solution of the obesity epidemic. Both public health and medical nutrition approaches can benefit from this integrative view of obesity.

  7. Career development: graduate nurse views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Muthulakshmi, Paulpandi; Happell, Brenda; Hunt, Glenn E

    2013-09-01

    To explore recent Singapore nursing graduates' experience of and views about their career development and progress. The recruitment and retention of an adequate number of registered nurses is a continuing workforce issue in Singapore and other major cities. Survey of recent nursing graduates. Recent nursing graduates from the Bachelor programme (n = 147) were sent an individual survey; a response rate of 54% was achieved. Findings show that nurses rated their self-concept in a positive manner and were most satisfied (moderately to very) with helping patients and providing effective care, and the level of patient involvement. They were least satisfied (moderately to only a little) with prestige among the general medical community and the general public, hours of work, lifestyle factors and research opportunities. The following four factors were identified as significant impediments to career development; lack of support in the work place; perceived insufficient clinical career development opportunities; excessive work hours; and limited access to merit-based places in further education. Suggestions made to overcome perceived career development barriers are as follows: broad multifactorial healthcare system changes; decreased and more flexible working hours; and fairer access to further clinical and higher education. Results highlight the value clinical nurses place on having access to career development opportunities, merit-based further education and work place supports. These factors also have the potential to influence patient care and impact on the retention of nurses in their present job and satisfaction with their nursing career. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  9. School violence: an insider view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shelley A; Fisher, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    To discover what teachers perceive to be contributing factors to violence in schools. Open-ended questions were asked of a convenience sample of teachers ( = 396) during an in-service education program on school violence. The teachers were in a semi-rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Answers were analyzed using content analysis; all responses were reviewed and important themes were extracted. Identified themes were then placed into suitable categories and studied to determine relationships. Of the surveys analyzed ( = 239), 13 themes were identified. The three categories which then identified probable causes of school violence were (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of support, and (3) inadequate safety measures. Nurses can use the results of this study in multiple ways. One is to help parents understand their role in preventing school violence. Because violence in the home and violence in the media seem to foster violent acting-out behavior, nurses can teach parents about these correlations and seek solutions such as the elimination of family violence, and monitoring television viewing and video games. Nursing assessments of school-aged children and their families can include these elements. School nurses in particular can use these study results as an opportunity to develop interventions for students, teachers, and families that stress knowledge building about impulse control, anger management, appropriate parenting, and early intervention for at-risk children.

  10. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  11. Biodiversities and habitabilities : a biologist view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    If life were to again take the path it followed billion years ago, nobody can certify that it would take the same path, leading to the same species, the same types of cells, the same organisation. This implies that if life exists - or existed - elsewhere, benefiting from the same initial planetary conditions, it most likely does would not have the same history, or would not have followed the same itinerary. Thus, how can we possibly recognize and/or identify something new, probably completely new that we are unable to conceive and/or to conceptualize? From a materialistic point of view, there is no frontier between what is alive and what is not; this is a basic question for the biology community, mainly via the question of viruses and viroids. It is thus very ambiguous to define the meaning of biomarkers, and even more to search for life elsewhere based strictly on the observations of what we know occurs on Earth. Just as what is 'pathological' in biology provides us with an insight on what is 'normal', the space that lies at the border between the living and the non-living will maybe allow us to envisage other forms of life (that we cannot imagine to-day).

  12. Our views on transmission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellford, W.H.; Sutley, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss the need for predictable and fair access to transmission facilities in order to ensure competitive generation of power. They propose that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission should regulate transmission to prevent a utility from gaining a competitive advantage in electricity generation markets, the incorporation of transmission access into every bidding program under state jurisdiction, and requirement of transmission rates, terms and conditions for all in-state utilities be included in the request for proposal

  13. Paralysis: Secondary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5pm ET. 1-800-539-7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Health > Secondary conditions Secondary conditions Secondary conditions refer ...

  14. A Human View Model for Socio-Technical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A.; Tolk, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Human View was developed as an additional architectural viewpoint to focus on the human part of a system. The Human View can be used to collect and organize data in order to understand how human operators interact and impact the other elements of a system. This framework can also be used to develop a model to describe how humans interact with each other in network enabled systems. These socio-technical interactions form the foundation of the emerging area of Human Interoperability. Human Interoperability strives to understand the relationships required between human operators that impact collaboration across networked environments, including the effect of belonging to different organizations. By applying organizational relationship concepts from network theory to the Human View elements, and aligning these relationships with a model developed to identify layers of coalition interoperability, the conditions for different levels for Human Interoperability for network enabled systems can be identified. These requirements can then be captured in the Human View products to improve the overall network enabled system.

  15. An assessment of obese and non obese girls' metabolic rate during television viewing, reading, and resting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Theodore V; Klesges, Lisa M; Debon, Margaret; Klesges, Robert C; Shelton, Mary Lee

    2006-05-01

    While childhood obesity has been linked to television (TV) viewing, specific mechanisms are not well understood. Obesity related to TV viewing might plausibly be related to decreased physical activity, increased food intake, reductions in metabolic rate, or combinations of these. The current investigation sought to ascertain the metabolic effects of quiet rest, listening to a story, watching a passive TV program, and watching an active TV show. Counter-balanced conditions were presented to 90 pre-pubertal girls ranging in body mass index from underweight to obese. In addition, effects between resting energy expenditure (REE) and race, body mass index, skinfold measures, physical activity, pubertal stage and average hours spent viewing TV were explored. Results indicated no significant differences in metabolic rate between weight groups nor between activity conditions (story listening and TV viewing) and rest conditions. A significant dose-response relationship was found in which REE decreased as average weekly hours of TV viewing increased, after adjusting for body mass index and puberty stage. Additionally, later stages of pubertal development compared to earlier stages were related to higher levels of REE. Results of this study suggest that metabolic rate alone cannot account for the consistently observed relationship between television viewing and obesity. Future studies should focus on energy intake, physical inactivity, or combinations of these with metabolic rate in seeking specific mechanisms responsible for television viewing related to obesity.

  16. Hubble's Sharpest View Of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The sharpest view of Mars ever taken from Earth was obtained by the recently refurbished NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This stunning portrait was taken with the HST Wide Field Planetary Camera-2 (WFPC2) on March 10, 1997, just before Mars opposition, when the red planet made one of its closest passes to the Earth (about 60 million miles or 100 million km).At this distance, a single picture element (pixel) in WFPC2's Planetary Camera spans 13 miles (22 km) on the Martian surface.The Martian north pole is at the top (near the center of the bright polar cap) and East is to the right. The center of the disk is at about 23 degrees north latitude, and the central longitude is near 305 degrees.This view of Mars was taken on the last day of Martian spring in the northern hemisphere (just before summer solstice). It clearly shows familiar bright and dark markings known to astronomers for more than a century. The annual north polar carbon dioxide frost (dry ice) cap is rapidly sublimating (evaporating from solid to gas), revealing the much smaller permanent water ice cap, along with a few nearby detached regions of surface frost. The receding polar cap also reveals the dark, circular sea of sand dunes that surrounds the north pole (Olympia Planitia).Other prominent features in this hemisphere include Syrtis Major Planitia, the large dark feature seen just below the center of the disk. The giant impact basin Hellas (near the bottom of the disk) is shrouded in bright water ice clouds. Water ice clouds also cover several great volcanos in the Elysium region near the eastern edge of the planet (right). A diffuse water ice haze covers much of the Martian equatorial region as well.The WFPC2 was used to monitor dust storm activity to support the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Missions, which are currently en route to Mars. Airborne dust is most easily seen in WFPC2's red and near-infrared images. Hubble's 'weather report' from these images in invaluable for

  17. CRISM Views Phobos and Deimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    These two images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show Mars' two small moons, Phobos and Deimos, as seen from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's low orbit around Mars. Both images were taken while the spacecraft was over Mars' night side, with the spacecraft turned off its normal nadir-viewing geometry to glimpse the moons. The image of Phobos, shown at the top, was taken at 0119 UTC on October 23 (9:19 p.m. EDT on Oct. 22), and shows features as small as 400 meters (1,320 feet) across. The image of Deimos, shown at the bottom, was taken at 2016 UTC (12:16 p.m. EDT) on June 7, 2007, and shows features as small as 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) across. Both CRISM images were taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and are displayed at twice the size in the original data for viewing purposes. Phobos and Deimos are about 21 and 12 kilometers (13.0 and 7.5 miles) in diameter and orbit Mars with periods of 7 hours, 39.2 minutes and 1 day, 6 hours, 17.9 minutes respectively. Because Phobos orbits Mars in a shorter time than Mars' 24 hour, 37.4-minute rotational period, to an observer on Mars' surface it would appear to rise in the west and set in the east. From Mars' surface, Phobos appears about one-third the diameter of the Moon from Earth, whereas Deimos appears as a bright star. The moons were discovered in 1877 by the astronomer Asaph Hall, and as satellites of a planet named for the Roman god of war, they were named for Greek mythological figures that personify fear and terror. The first spacecraft measurements of Phobos and Deimos, from the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter spacecraft, showed that both moons have dark surfaces reflecting only 5 to 7% of the sunlight that falls on them. The first reconstruction of the moons' spectrum of reflected sunlight was a difficult compilation from three different instruments, and appeared to show a flat, grayish spectrum resembling carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Carbonaceous

  18. The Power of Traditional Design Techniques: The Effects of Viewing a Japanese Garden on Individuals With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Seiko; Gianfagia, Thomas J; Munafo, John P; Fujii, Eijiro; Shen, Xuting; Sun, Minkai; Shi, Bertram Emil; Liu, Congcong; Hamano, Hiroshi; Herrup, Karl

    2017-07-01

    This study is to examine how viewing a Japanese garden affects Japanese patients with dementia. In a previous study, authors explored the effect on individuals with Alzheimer's disease of viewing an indoor Japanese garden at a nursing home in the United States and reported that viewing the garden significantly reduced the heart rate, evoked short-term and long-term memories, and improved behavioral symptoms. However, it was unclear whether these effects were caused by the design of Japanese garden or unfamiliarity of the design to Caucasians. We constructed a Japanese garden on the rooftop of a hospital in Japan and assessed with a total of 25 subjects on the following categories: (1) eye movement, (2) heart rate, and (3) behavior under four different conditions: (a) open view of the site before construction of the Japanese garden (the control space), (b) open view of the Japanese garden, (c) view of the Japanese garden through closed door, and (d) view of Japanese garden through closed door with the chrysanthemum scent. Findings/Results: Viewers' eyes scanned larger area while viewing the Japanese garden, and viewing the Japanese garden significantly reduced heart rate and improved behavioral symptoms than the control space. We also found that the effect of viewing the same Japanese garden differed across three conditions: the view through an open door, a closed door, and a closed door with added scent.

  19. Light Pollution: The Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    al.), an overview of the work on radio frequency protection of sites (Cohen et al.) and the excellent introduction to the topic from the Chilean point of view (Daud). Related topics in the book are light pollution education, aircraft contrails, space advertising (with an added document provided by the relevant UN commission), and an experiment on involving the population of an entire country in measuring sky brightness, by using the internet and the media. The text is aimed at professionals from a wide range of disciplines related to lighting and its effects on the night-time environment in the broadest sense of the word. Lay persons interested in this emerging multi-disciplinary field can also find much of interest in this book. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1174-1

  20. MISR Views the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.'MISR', as it turns out, is the

  1. [The demographer's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias De Blois, J

    1993-03-01

    Although the predictable consequence of the acceleration of world population growth were foreseen 40 years ago, the need for population education did not become obvious until much later. Only in the 1960s did a number of countries become aware of changes in population dynamics and their implications for the quality of life and for socioeconomic development goals. Population phenomena and their implications are almost as poorly understood by most persons today as they were when the first population policies were announced. Population education has been viewed as a means of achieving a better understanding of population phenomena. It is believed that acquiring knowledge of population phenomena will promote responsible decision making on questions related to population problems. The early preoccupation in population education with fertility and family planning aroused considerable resistance. There is still strong resistance to including population dynamics and their implications in educational programs. But the most exclusive interest in family planning as a means of reducing the population explosion has broadened in response to a number of events including recognition of family planning as a human right, studies of the effects of high fertility on maternal-child health and education, the mortality decline in developing countries, and the strong increase in migratory movements resulting from urbanization and other causes. The university teaching of demography has become important only recently, and population education at the elementary and secondary level is more recent still. Each educational system must decide for itself the best bode of integrating demographic themes into the different disciplines. The principal demographic themes that should be incorporated will generally fit into existing programs of study. Because of the dynamic nature of demographic phenomena, the content of population education should be reviewed periodically with the assistance of a

  2. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  3. Programming Arduino with LabVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    If you already have some experience with LabVIEW and want to apply your skills to control physical objects and make measurements using the Arduino sensor, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Arduino and LabVIEW is essential to fully understand the projects detailed in this book.

  4. Lecturers' Views on Ghana's Undergraduate Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the views of 6 university lecturers on Ghana's undergraduate mathematics education. These views were expressed during a mathematics workshop sensitization program on the "contribution of undergraduate mathematics education to the Ghanaian economy." The data consisting of open-ended questions followed by…

  5. Young people’s own museum views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drotner, Kirsten; Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Mortensen, Christian Hviid

    2017-01-01

    Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning-making practi......Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning......-making practices adds theoretical and empirical depth to existing research and practice, we apply semantic categorization, speech-act theory, and cognitive linguistics as analytical tools. Our results demonstrate that respondents’ most prevalent semantic categories are ‘exciting,’ ‘educative,’ and ‘boring.......’ Their responses fall into two main types: assertive speech acts providing factual descriptions and expressive speech acts providing more evaluative judgments. In general, young Danes make sense of museums along three different routes. One group wants museums that expand and challenge prior perceptions...

  6. Television Viewing and Public Perceptions of Attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines theoretical and methodological controversies identified with the cultivation explanation of the way television shapes perceptions of social reality. Finds that content-specific viewing is a more reliable predictor than total viewing or select viewer sociodemographic variables of the public's tendency to perceive attorneys in the same way…

  7. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  8. Students' Views of Learning in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund-Myrskog, Gunilla

    1997-01-01

    Conceptions of learning and approaches to learning within vocational education were studied with 30 Finnish students of automotive mechanics. About half the students took a quantitative view of learning and favored a surface approach. Encouraging a qualitative view of learning and deeper approaches in vocational education is discussed. (SLD)

  9. Consumer Views: Importance of Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on the importance of fuel economy amongst other vehicle attributes and views on which alternative fuel types would be the best and worst replacements for gasoline.

  10. Modeling traceability of concerns in architectural views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Hofmann, C.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Software architecture modeling includes the description of different views that represent the architectural concerns from different stakeholder perspectives. In case of evolution of the software system the related architectural views need to be adapted accordingly. For this it is necessary that the

  11. Situating Human Sexual Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Conditioning is often thought of as a basic, automatic learning process that has limited applicability to higher-level human behavior. In addition, conditioning is seen as separable from, and even secondary to, "innate" processes. These ideas involve some misconceptions. The aim of this article is to provide a clearer, more refined sense of human sexual conditioning. After providing some background information and reviewing what is known from laboratory conditioning studies, human sexual conditioning is compared to sexual conditioning in nonhumans, to "innate" sexual responding, and to other types of human learning processes. Recommendations for moving forward in human sexual conditioning research are included.

  12. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. LabVIEW 8 student edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    For courses in Measurement and Instrumentation, Electrical Engineering lab, and Physics and Chemistry lab. This revised printing has been updated to include new LabVIEW 8.2 Student Edition. National Instruments' LabVIEW is the defacto industry standard for test, measurement, and automation software solutions. With the Student Edition of LabVIEW, students can design graphical programming solutions to their classroom problems and laboratory experiments with software that delivers the graphical programming capabilites of the LabVIEW professional version. . The Student Edition is also compatible with all National Instruments data acquisition and instrument control hardware. Note: The LabVIEW Student Edition is available to students, faculty, and staff for personal educational use only. It is not intended for research, institutional, or commercial use. For more information about these licensing options, please visit the National Instruments website at (http:www.ni.com/academic/)

  14. Cross-view gait recognition using joint Bayesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Sun, Shouqian; Chen, Xiaoyu; Min, Xin

    2017-07-01

    Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people by walking. To further improve the recognition performance under cross-view condition, we propose Joint Bayesian to model the view variance. We evaluated our prosed method with the largest population (OULP) dataset which makes our result reliable in a statically way. As a result, we confirmed our proposed method significantly outperformed state-of-the-art approaches for both identification and verification tasks. Finally, sensitivity analysis on the number of training subjects was conducted, we find Joint Bayesian could achieve competitive results even with a small subset of training subjects (100 subjects). For further comparison, experimental results, learning models, and test codes are available.

  15. Invitation to View Method with Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk BUYRUKOĞLU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxpayers and tax administrators sometimes may experience tax dispute. These disputes may arise from the taxpayers as well as from the tax administrators. In resolving tax disputes, tax administrators and tax payers are the first, usually administratively, solution. Because while the tax revenues of the state are possible entered into the state treasury, the taxpayers will benefit from the advantages of administrative solutions. The state and taxpayer herein will be the winner. Invitation to view is one of the administrative remedies for tax disputes. With this practice taxpayers who have caused tax evasion penalty are invited by tax administrators to make a declaration on the condition that the tax examination of the tax disputes is not started and the dispatch process has not been done to the discretion comission. In this study, advantages and disadvantages will be addressed after the definition, legal support, purpose, scope and mechanism of Invitation to view.

  16. Large-Scale Data for Multiple-View Stereopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Vogiatzis, George

    2016-01-01

    The seminal multiple-view stereo benchmark evaluations from Middlebury and by Strecha et al. have played a major role in propelling the development of multi-view stereopsis (MVS) methodology. The somewhat small size and variability of these data sets, however, limit their scope and the conclusions...... that can be derived from them. To facilitate further development within MVS, we here present a new and varied data set consisting of 80 scenes, seen from 49 or 64 accurate camera positions. This is accompanied by accurate structured light scans for reference and evaluation. In addition all images are taken...... under seven different lighting conditions. As a benchmark and to validate the use of our data set for obtaining reasonable and statistically significant findings about MVS, we have applied the three state-of-the-art MVS algorithms by Campbell et al., Furukawa et al., and Tola et al. to the data set...

  17. Influence of storage conditions on the physical and release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of storage conditions on physical and release properties of lipophilic-based piroxicam suppositories with a view to determining the most desirable conditions for their storage. Piroxicam 20 mg suppositories were prepared by fusion method using cocoa butter, Witepsol H15® and Witepsol ...

  18. THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FAIR VIEW AND THE PRUDENCE IN ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the accounts of Romania, the principle of true and fair view and the prudence principle are in a relationship of mutual conditioning. True and fair view has its origins in Anglo-Saxon accounting, the British, and English translation of the expression is "true and fair view". In the context of Romania's national, a first reference to the concept of true and fair view a we identify in the root Accounting Law No 82/1991 which lays down that objective accounting- ensuring accurate image, clear, and complete heritage of the financial situation and the results. Prudence is to be found in sincerity (in the direction of the present in the financial statements facts which might influence the recipient information and should serve the concept of true and fair view.

  19. Views of college students on plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Mohmand, Humayun; Ahmad, Nabila

    2013-06-01

    Various studies have been conducted in many countries to determine the perception/awareness about plastic surgery. The present study assessed the views of college students about plastic surgery. A questionnaire consisted of nine questions regarding the basic knowledge about plastic surgery was randomly distributed among college students. The students were given 20 minutes to fill out the forms. A total of 250 male and 250 female college students were randomly included in the study. The mean age of the male students was 21.1 years as compared to 20.7 years of female students. The top five conditions named were related to hair (89.8%) followed by face scars (88%). The most common procedure named by the students was liposuction (88.2%) followed by hair transplantation. 80.2% of the students opted not to be a plastic surgeon if given an opportunity to select the profession. 33.8% of the students had seen some kinds of plastic surgery operation. Only 5.6% of the students (3.4% male and 2.2% female) had seen some kinds of plastic surgery procedure. 68% of male students and 48% of female students wished to have a plastic surgery procedure sometime in their lives. Majority of the students (88%) got the information from the internet. The second most common source was magazines (85.2%). Majority of the students (53.4%) had an idea of an invisible scar as a result of having a plastic surgery procedure. Only 22% thought to have no scar. Late Michael Jackson was at the top of the list of celebrities having a plastic surgery procedure (97.8%) followed by Nawaz Shariff (92.4%). Despite the rapid growth of plastic surgery in the last two decades, a large portion of population remains unaware of the spatiality. It is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about the plastic surgery.

  20. Views of College Students on Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Mohmand, Humayun; Ahmad, Nabila

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Various studies have been conducted in many countries to determine the perception/awareness about plastic surgery. The present study assessed the views of college students about plastic surgery. METHODS A questionnaire consisted of nine questions regarding the basic knowledge about plastic surgery was randomly distributed among college students. The students were given 20 minutes to fill out the forms. RESULTS A total of 250 male and 250 female college students were randomly included in the study. The mean age of the male students was 21.1 years as compared to 20.7 years of female students. The top five conditions named were related to hair (89.8%) followed by face scars (88%). The most common procedure named by the students was liposuction (88.2%) followed by hair transplantation. 80.2% of the students opted not to be a plastic surgeon if given an opportunity to select the profession. 33.8% of the students had seen some kinds of plastic surgery operation. Only 5.6% of the students (3.4% male and 2.2% female) had seen some kinds of plastic surgery procedure. 68% of male students and 48% of female students wished to have a plastic surgery procedure sometime in their lives. Majority of the students (88%) got the information from the internet. The second most common source was magazines (85.2%). Majority of the students (53.4%) had an idea of an invisible scar as a result of having a plastic surgery procedure. Only 22% thought to have no scar. Late Michael Jackson was at the top of the list of celebrities having a plastic surgery procedure (97.8%) followed by Nawaz Shariff (92.4%). CONCLUSION Despite the rapid growth of plastic surgery in the last two decades, a large portion of population remains unaware of the spatiality. It is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about the plastic surgery. PMID:25489513

  1. The activity view of inner speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eMartínez-Manrique

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We distinguish two general approaches to inner speech (IS –the ‘format’ and the ‘activity’ views–, and defend the activity view. The format view grounds the utility of IS on features of the representational format of language, and is related to the thesis that the proper function of IS is to make conscious thinking possible. IS appears typically as a product constituted by representations of phonological features. The view also has implications for the idea that passivity phenomena in cognition may be misattributed IS. The activity view sees IS as a speaking activity that does not have a proper function in cognition. It simply inherits the array of functions of outer speech. We argue that it is methodologically advisable to start from this variety of uses, which suggests commonalities between internal and external activities. The format view has several problems; it has to deny unsymbolized thinking; it cannot easily explain how IS makes thoughts available to consciousness, and it cannot explain those uses of IS where its format features apparently play no role. The activity view not only lacks these problems but also has explanatory advantages: construing IS as an activity allows it to be integrally constituted by its content; the view is able to construe unsymbolized thinking as part of a continuum of phenomena that exploit the same mechanisms, and it offers a simple explanation for the variety of uses of IS.

  2. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  3. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-04

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  4. Effects of a fragmented view of one's partner on interpersonal coordination in dance

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, D.D.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of a mirror-mediated, partial view of one’s dance partner on interpersonal coordination in dance duets. Fourteen participant pairs (dyads) were asked to perform a reflectionally-symmetric 8-segment dance-relevant arm movement sequence in two visual conditions: with one dancer facing the mirror and providing a partial view on the dance partner, or both dancers facing back to back with, for both dancers, no view on one’s partner. During an eight-count b...

  5. [Current views of nutritional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozheva, A V; Kaganov, B S

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in the Research Institute of Nutrition showed that dietary patterns of the Russian population are on the whole at variance with the balanced feeding formula largely due to excessive consumption of animal fat, insufficient consumption of proteins, vitamins, micro- and macroelements, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fibers. It is estimated that over 70% of total lethality in this country is due to diseases directly related to improper feeding (the so-called alimentary-dependent diseases), cardiovascular disorders, some neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, etc. Dietary therapy adjusted to specific pathogenetic features, clinical picture, stage of the disease, character of metabolic disorders in individual patients is an important factor having versatile beneficial effects on the patient's health, correcting metabolic problems, and improving quality of life. Decree No 330 of August 5, 2003 "On measures to improve nutritional therapy in medical institutions of the Russian Federation" introduced a new nomenclature of standard diets based on chemical composition of separate foods and the previously used system of numbered diets. Modern dietary therapy includes not only standard and special diets but also specific products to be used in concrete clinical conditions, enteral and parenteral nutrition, biologically active food additives, etc.

  6. Trust-based collective view prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Tiejian; Xu, Guandong; Zhou, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Collective view prediction is to judge the opinions of an active web user based on unknown elements by referring to the collective mind of the whole community. Content-based recommendation and collaborative filtering are two mainstream collective view prediction techniques. They generate predictions by analyzing the text features of the target object or the similarity of users' past behaviors. Still, these techniques are vulnerable to the artificially-injected noise data, because they are not able to judge the reliability and credibility of the information sources. Trust-based Collective View

  7. Implementing VMware Horizon View 5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Ventresco, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial covering all components of the View Horizon suite in detail, to ensure that you can utilize all features of the platform, and discover all of the possible ways that it can be used within your own environment.If you are a newcomer in system administration, and you wish to implement a small to midsized Horizon View environment, then this book is for you. It will also benefit individuals who wish to administrate and manage Horizon View more efficiently or are studying for the VCP5-DT.

  8. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  9. Road condition reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the findings of the road condition reporting project where the feasibility of live reporting of the road : conditions with an Android camera and computer vision algorithms was tested. An app was developed that can collect videos...

  10. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions What's in this article? Flatfeet Toe Walking ...

  11. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    Language allows us to operate more efficiently in the world. By hearing about others’ experiences, we are able to orient toward things that could be beneficial to us, and avoid hazards. This sharing of experiences is particularly prominent in the social realm. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, ...... to the influence of gossip, an effect of negative social information was measured at 100 ms. after stimulus onset....

  12. Monetary Conditions Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Èihák; Tomáš Holub

    2000-01-01

    Monetary Conditions IndicatorsMartin CIHAK ? International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C.Tomas HOLUB ? Czech National Bank; Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, PragueThe article provides an overview of foreign-language (non-Czech) literature on monetary conditions indices. The authors also discuss the issues involved in the construction of a monetary conditions index for the Czech Republic. They argue that if a monetary conditions index is to have any use for practical monetary p...

  13. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. In this paper the PARISM model is used to simulate a rectangular room with most of the absorption located in the ceiling. This room configuration is typical for classroom conditions. The simulations...... measures which are important for evaluation of the acoustics in classrooms....

  14. Television viewing time in Hong Kong adult population: associations with body mass index and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao Jie; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is increasing dramatically in the Asia-Pacific region particularly China. The population of Hong Kong was exposed to modernization far earlier than the rest of China, reflecting conditions that are likely to be replicated as other Chinese cities undergo rapid change. This study examined the relationship between television viewing and obesity in a Hong Kong sample. Information about the relationship between a key sedentary behavior, TV viewing, and obesity, and its moderation by demographic characteristics may identify sectors of the population at highest risk for excess weight. Data were from Hong Kong Family and Health Information Trends Survey (2009-2010), a population-based survey on the public's use of media for health information and family communication by telephone interviews with 3,016 Hong Kong adults (age ≥ 18 years). TV viewing time, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and other lifestyle variables were analyzed. Viewing time was longer in women, increased with age but decreased with education level and vigorous physical activity (all Ptelevision viewing time was observed. TV viewing time positively associated with BMI and obesity. The TV viewing--BMI associations were strongest in women and young adults, suggesting vulnerable groups to target for obesity prevention by decreasing TV viewing.

  15. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH (TWO POINTS OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents two alternative points of view on the relationship of health malfunctions after the Chernobyl accident with radiation effect or with the factors of non-radiation nature (social, stress, nutrition peculiarities, etc.. An analysis of literature data and results of author’s own research of radiosensitive indicators of immunity condition, having essential value for the immediate and long term consequences of radiation effect was done. Possible correlation between health malfunctions of the population living in the regions, contaminated by the radionuclides, and combined effect of radiation and factors of non-radiation nature is shown.

  16. Aerial view of the works at PGC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Aerial view of the works at PGC : in the foreground, the prefabrication of the concrete slabs. In the background, on the left the storage of the spoil, on the right the extraction tower mounted on PGC.

  17. ARC Code TI: BigView

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BigView allows for interactive panning and zooming of images of arbitrary size on desktop PCs running linux. Additionally, it can work in a multi-screen environment...

  18. The Byzantine View of Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Nicol

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignorance of others and pride in themselves dominated Byzantine thought about the west, but some held more positive views, whether pragmatic in the face of events or romantic upon discovery of western writings.

  19. Selecting materialized views in a data warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Chi; Liu, Daxin

    2003-01-01

    A Data Warehouse contains lots of materialized views over the data provided by the distributed heterogeneous databases for the purpose of efficiently implementing decision-support or OLAP queries. It is important to select the right view to materialize that answer a given set of queries. In this paper, we have addressed and designed algorithm to select a set of views to materialize in order to answer the most queries under the constraint of a given space. The algorithm presented in this paper aim at making out a minimum set of views, by which we can directly respond to as many as possible user"s query requests. We use experiments to demonstrate our approach. The results show that our algorithm works better. We implemented our algorithms and a performance study of the algorithm shows that the proposed algorithm gives a less complexity and higher speeds and feasible expandability.

  20. Oblique angled view for coracoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R P; Vicks, B

    1983-01-01

    In cases of shoulder injury when clinical signs suggest a possible coracoid fracture, a 20 degree posterior oblique film with 20 degrees of cephalad angulation has been shown to demonstrate coracoid fractures when other views have been inconclusive.

  1. Oblique angled view for coracoid fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, R.P.; Vicks, B.

    1983-02-01

    In cases of shoulder injury when clinical signs suggest a possible coracoid fracture, a 20 degree posterior oblique film with 20 degrees of cephalad angulation has been shown to demonstrate coracoid fractures when other views have been inconclusive.

  2. Mormon and Jewish views of the afterlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Portner, Jodi; Sierra, Duvan

    2004-12-01

    In their responses to a questionnaire, undergraduates, 60 Mormons, viewed the afterlife as less pleasant than did the 37 Jews, while the Jews were more concerned with sin and judgment and more often believed in reincarnation.

  3. Undertaking midwifery studies: commencing students' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina

    2011-10-01

    to explore the motivations and beliefs of commencing midwifery students against a background of high course demand and high student attrition. a qualitative analysis of student reflective essays. Melbourne, Australia. all commencing midwifery students, in 2008, were invited to participate (n = 41). three primary motivations for choosing midwifery were identified, including: notions of altruism (wanting to help), a fascination with pregnancy and birth, and a view of midwifery as a personally satisfying career. Bachelor of Midwifery programmes attract students with idealised views about midwifery practice. Such views may lead to student disillusionment, tensions with educators and clinicians, and higher rates of student attrition. Students need greater support to examine their views about midwifery practice. More meaningful support may assist the students' successful socialisation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Physics 2000: a personal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. J.

    1997-03-01

    The author expresses his personal views of how Physics for A-level should develop towards the year 2000. These cover: the historical treatment of core topics, syllabus structure and the relevance of practical physics.

  5. Different Views of Software Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Pandey; Rashmi Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Agent modelling in software engineering is a relatively young area, and there are, as yet, no standard methodologies, development tools, or software architectures. Although our work is emphasized on to represent the agent specifications using different views, they are not oriented for software engineering in terms of providing a modeling notation that directly supports software development. There are, however, some software frameworks using different views of software agents, that are beginni...

  6. Instant VMware view virtualization how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Geddam, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks.This is a Packt Instant How-to guide, which provides concise and clear recipes for getting started with setting up the VDI in different environments.Instant VMware View 5 Virtualization How-to is for architects, solution providers, consultants, engineers, and anyone planning to design and implement a solution based on VMware View 5.

  7. A balanced view of development as freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Tungodden, Bertil

    2001-01-01

    Amartya Sen, in his most recent book Development as Freedom, argues that expansion of human freedom should both be viewed as the primary end and the principle means of development. This paper provides an overview and a critical scrutiny of the Senian perspective from the point of view of an economist. First, I discuss to what extent Sen's normative theory of development justifies a particular focus on inequality and poverty. Second, I look at Sen's perspective on democratic reasoning as the c...

  8. Children's food consumption during television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Donna M; Killen, Joel D; Wang, Yun; Varady, Ann; Robinson, Thomas N

    2004-06-01

    Television viewing is associated with childhood obesity. Eating during viewing and eating highly advertised foods are 2 of the hypothesized mechanisms through which television is thought to affect children's weight. Our objectives were to describe the amounts and types of foods that children consume while watching television, compare those types with the types consumed at other times of the day, and examine the associations between children's body mass index (BMI) and the amounts and types of foods consumed during television viewing. Data were collected from 2 samples. The first sample consisted of ethnically diverse third-grade children, and the second consisted predominantly of Latino fifth-grade children. Three nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls were collected from each child. For each eating episode reported, children were asked whether they had been watching television. Height and weight were measured by using standard methods and were used to calculate BMI. On weekdays and weekend days, 17-18% and approximately 26% of total daily energy, respectively, were consumed during television viewing in the 2 samples. Although the fat content of the foods consumed during television viewing did not differ significantly from that of the foods consumed with the television off, less soda, fast food, fruit, and vegetables were consumed with the television on. The amount of food consumed during television viewing was not associated with children's BMI, but in the third-grade sample, the fat content of foods consumed during television viewing was associated with BMI. A significant proportion of children's daily energy intake is consumed during television viewing, and the consumption of high-fat foods on weekends may be associated with BMI in younger children.

  9. VMware Horizon View 6 desktop virtualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ventresco, Jason

    2014-01-01

    If you want a more detailed explanation concerning the implementation of several different core features of VMware Horizon View, this is the book for you. Whether you are new to VMware Horizon View or an existing user, this book will provide you with the knowledge you need to successfully deploy several core features and get introduced to the latest features of version 6.0 as well.

  10. Employers’ View on Problems Related to Workforce Skills and Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimplová Lenka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study is to reveal employers’ views on problems related to workforce human capital (skills and qualification. Where do employers themselves view the core of difficulties with ensuring adequately skilled workforce? Do they assign them to technological and organizational changes (a functional concept of job-specific human capital obsolescence, or do they see these problems as a result of other circumstances, such as macro-structural conditions or institutional settings? To answer these questions selected employers in mechanical engineering and information technology sectors in the Czech Republic were interviewed. The results show that the employers see the problems: 1 on the side of workforce – insufficient abilities and skills, exaggerated demands and low motivation; 2 as inadequate capacities and capabilities of the organization itself; 3 at macro-level as institutional shortcomings in the initial educational system and social benefits system. The problems related to workforce skills and qualification cannot be, thus, interpreted only in the functionalist view as job-specific human capital obsolescence, but the formulation of the problems is significantly affected by the institutional framework.

  11. Views of xerostomia among health care professionals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folke, Solgun; Fridlund, Bengt; Paulsson, Gun

    2009-03-01

    To explore and describe views of xerostomia among health care professionals. Xerostomia (dry mouth) is caused by changes in quality and quantity of saliva due to poor health, certain drugs and radiation therapy. It is a common symptom, particularly among older people and has devastating consequences with regard to oral health and general well-being. Data were obtained and categorised by interviewing 16 health care professionals. Qualitative content analysis was chosen as the method of analysis. Qualitative. The latent content was formulated into a theme: xerostomia is a well-known problem, yet there is inadequate management of patients with xerostomia. The findings identified three categories expressing the manifest content: awareness of xerostomia, indifferent attitude and insufficient support. Although xerostomia was recognised as commonly occurring, it was considered to be an underestimated and an ignored problem. Proper attention to conditions of xerostomia and subsequent patient management were viewed as fragmentary and inadequate. Additional qualitative studies among patients with xerostomia would be desirable to gain further understanding of the problems with xerostomia, its professional recognition and management. A holistic view, positive professional attitudes and enhanced knowledge of xerostomia seem essential to augment collaboration among health care professionals and to improve compassion for and support of patients with xerostomia.

  12. Collaborative fuzzy clustering from multiple weighted views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yizhang; Chung, Fu-Lai; Wang, Shitong; Deng, Zhaohong; Wang, Jun; Qian, Pengjiang

    2015-04-01

    Clustering with multiview data is becoming a hot topic in data mining, pattern recognition, and machine learning. In order to realize an effective multiview clustering, two issues must be addressed, namely, how to combine the clustering result from each view and how to identify the importance of each view. In this paper, based on a newly proposed objective function which explicitly incorporates two penalty terms, a basic multiview fuzzy clustering algorithm, called collaborative fuzzy c-means (Co-FCM), is firstly proposed. It is then extended into its weighted view version, called weighted view collaborative fuzzy c-means (WV-Co-FCM), by identifying the importance of each view. The WV-Co-FCM algorithm indeed tackles the above two issues simultaneously. Its relationship with the latest multiview fuzzy clustering algorithm Collaborative Fuzzy K-Means (Co-FKM) is also revealed. Extensive experimental results on various multiview datasets indicate that the proposed WV-Co-FCM algorithm outperforms or is at least comparable to the existing state-of-the-art multitask and multiview clustering algorithms and the importance of different views of the datasets can be effectively identified.

  13. LabVIEW Support at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2009, due to the CERN restructuring, LabVIEW support moved from the IT to the EN department, joining the Industrial Controls and Electronics Group (ICE). LabVIEW support has been merged with the Measurement, Test and Analysis (MTA) section which, using LabVIEW, has developed most of the measurement systems to qualify the LHC magnets and components over the past 10 years. The post mortem analysis for the LHC hardware commissioning has also been fully implemented using LabVIEW, customised into a framework, called RADE, for CERN needs. The MTA section has started with a proactive approach sharing its tools and experience with the CERN LabVIEW community. Its framework (RADE) for CERN integrated application development has been made available to the users. Courses on RADE have been integrated into the standard National Instruments training program at CERN. RADE and LabVIEW support were merged together in 2010 on a single email address:labview.support@cern.ch For more information please...

  14. ViewDEX: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Baath, Magnus; Maansson, Lars Gunnar; Svensson, Sune; Haakansson, Markus

    2016-01-01

    ViewDEX (Viewer for Digital Evaluation of X-ray images) is an image viewer and task manager suitable for research and optimisation tasks in medical imaging. The software has undergone continuous development during more than a decade and has during this time period been used in numerous studies. ViewDEX is DICOM compatible, and the features of the interface (tasks, image handling and functionality) are general and flexible. The set-up of a study is determined by altering properties in a text-editable file, enabling easy and flexible configuration. ViewDEX is developed in Java and can run from any disc area connected to a computer. It is free to use for non-commercial purposes and can be downloaded from http://www.vgregion.se/sas/viewdex. The purposes of the present article are to give a short overview of the development of ViewDEX and to describe recent updates of the software. In addition, a description on how to configure a viewing session in ViewDEX is provided. (authors)

  15. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  16. Semi-Supervised Multi-View Ensemble Learning Based On Extracting Cross-View Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZALL, R.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Correlated information between different views incorporate useful for learning in multi view data. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA plays important role to extract these information. However, CCA only extracts the correlated information between paired data and cannot preserve correlated information between within-class samples. In this paper, we propose a two-view semi-supervised learning method called semi-supervised random correlation ensemble base on spectral clustering (SS_RCE. SS_RCE uses a multi-view method based on spectral clustering which takes advantage of discriminative information in multiple views to estimate labeling information of unlabeled samples. In order to enhance discriminative power of CCA features, we incorporate the labeling information of both unlabeled and labeled samples into CCA. Then, we use random correlation between within-class samples from cross view to extract diverse correlated features for training component classifiers. Furthermore, we extend a general model namely SSMV_RCE to construct ensemble method to tackle semi-supervised learning in the presence of multiple views. Finally, we compare the proposed methods with existing multi-view feature extraction methods using multi-view semi-supervised ensembles. Experimental results on various multi-view data sets are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. Two Views of Liberty, Occidental and Oriental(?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by the late Bruno Leoni, was originally presented at a special meeting of the Mont Pèlerin Society (Tokyo, Sept. 5–10, 1966, and was originally published in the Italian journal Il Politico in 1966. The paper displays Leoni’s fondness for Chinese culture, and is essentially a defense of the unity of mankind. Westerners are often of the belief that the Occidental, or Western, individual freedom-based view of liberty is distinct from the Oriental (Eastern view of liberty. Leoni challenges this perspective. Mill believed that disregard for custom was what made the West both free and different from the rest of the world, while the Oriental approach is more backward and based on blind respect for customs. However, custom has often been invoked both in the East and in the West to oppose and limit the power of tyrants, and to defend or to secure civil or political liberty. Mill argued that disregard of custom accounts for novelty, novelty for diversity of character and culture, and the latter for freedom and progress, but there was an unsurpassed diversity of character and culture when Oriental and Occidental people were put together under the rule of the Roman emperors. Furthermore, the “Orient” was not monotonous, dull, and homogeneous, as Mill presumed; to the contrary, Europe cannot show in any period of its history a variety of races, languages, cultures, philosophies and religions even slightly comparable to those of India or China. In fact, Buddha and Confucius were both concerned mainly with individual freedom. Confucius’s theory of society, in particular, was very individualistic; he clearly formulated for the first time in recorded history that principle of “reciprocity,” the “golden rule” for any liberal society. He maintained that the very fundamental principle for a happy society is “Not doing to others what one does not wish them do to one’s self.” Confucius shared, along with the greatest masters of

  18. Valence Specific Laterality Effects in Free Viewing Conditions: The Role of Expectancy and Gender of Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D.; Brandaro, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has looked at whether the expectancy of an emotion can account for subsequent valence specific laterality effects of prosodic emotion, though no research has examined this effect for facial emotion. In the study here (n = 58), we investigated this issue using two tasks; an emotional face perception task and a novel word task that…

  19. Memory Recall after Learning by Doing and Learning by Viewing: Boundary Conditions of an Enactment Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C Steffens

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to common sense, things one has done are remembered better than things done by others that one has observed. On first sight, findings concerning memory for actions appear in line with that preconception: Performed actions (subject-performed tasks appear to be remembered particularly well, and better than observed actions (experimenter-performed tasks. A closer look, however, reveals important exceptions regarding this enactment effect. The aim of the present paper is critically evaluating the literature that compares memory for performed and observed tasks. In recognition memory, an enactment effect has regularly been observed. In free recall, however, findings depended on the experimental design: When performed and observed actions were intermixed, an enactment effect was typically found. In contrast, in designs where actions were either all performed or all observed, this was rarely the case. We discuss underlying memory processes, potential moderator variables, open questions, and implications.

  20. Aiming at a far target under different viewing conditions: Visual control in basketball jump shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; van de Langenberg, R.W.; Hutter, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    Most research on visual search in aiming at far targets assumes preprogrammed motor control implying that relevant visual information is detected prior to the final shooting or throwing movements. Eye movement data indirectly support this claim for stationary tasks. Using the basketball jump shot as