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Sample records for binocular viewing conditions

  1. Differences of accommodative responses between two eyes under binocular viewing condition mediated by polarizing glasses

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    Rui-Qing Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes under 3 different polarized viewing conditions. METHODS:Fifteen volunteers with emmetrope were recruited into this study(aged 18~38, 6 males and 9 females. Three different viewing conditions were set up by using polarizing glasses and liquid crystal display:(1right eye could see the visual target on the screen, but left eye cannot see it;(2left eye could see the visual target on the screen, but right eye cannot see it;(3both eyes could see the target. Accommodative responses were measured by infrared auto-refractor when fixating at the target at 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33m under the above 3 viewing conditions. The differences of accommodative responses under different viewing conditions were compared by using variance analysis of repeated measuring and t test. RESULTS:Significant differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes were found under condition(1and(2at all the fixating distance. The accommodative responses in used eyes which can see the visual target were higher than in non-used eyes which cannot see the visual target(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Ciliary muscles in the used eyes were more relatively tonic than non-used eyes under binocular open viewing condition. The imbalance of accommodative responses between two eyes may be one of the risk factors resulting into the occurrence of myopia.

  2. Quantitative visual fields under binocular viewing conditions in primary and consecutive divergent strabismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, M. V.; Simonsz, H. J.; van Minderhout, E. M.; Mulder, P. G.; de Jong, P. T.

    1999-01-01

    Although there have been a number of studies on the size of the suppression scotoma in divergent strabismus, there have been no reports on the full extent (i.e. size as well as depth) of this scotoma. Binocular static perimetry was used to measure suppression scotomas in five patients with primary

  3. Viewing geometry determines the contribution of binocular vision to the online control of grasping.

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    Keefe, Bruce D; Watt, Simon J

    2017-12-01

    Binocular vision is often assumed to make a specific, critical contribution to online visual control of grasping by providing precise information about the separation between digits and object. This account overlooks the 'viewing geometry' typically encountered in grasping, however. Separation of hand and object is rarely aligned precisely with the line of sight (the visual depth dimension), and analysis of the raw signals suggests that, for most other viewing angles, binocular feedback is less precise than monocular feedback. Thus, online grasp control relying selectively on binocular feedback would not be robust to natural changes in viewing geometry. Alternatively, sensory integration theory suggests that different signals contribute according to their relative precision, in which case the role of binocular feedback should depend on viewing geometry, rather than being 'hard-wired'. We manipulated viewing geometry, and assessed the role of binocular feedback by measuring the effects on grasping of occluding one eye at movement onset. Loss of binocular feedback resulted in a significantly less extended final slow-movement phase when hand and object were separated primarily in the frontoparallel plane (where binocular information is relatively imprecise), compared to when they were separated primarily along the line of sight (where binocular information is relatively precise). Consistent with sensory integration theory, this suggests the role of binocular (and monocular) vision in online grasp control is not a fixed, 'architectural' property of the visuo-motor system, but arises instead from the interaction of viewer and situation, allowing robust online control across natural variations in viewing geometry.

  4. The research of binocular vision ranging system based on LabVIEW

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    Li, Shikuan; Yang, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the study of the principle of binocular parallax ranging, a binocular vision ranging system is designed and built. The stereo matching algorithm is realized by LabVIEW software. The camera calibration and distance measurement are completed. The error analysis shows that the system fast, effective, can be used in the corresponding industrial occasions.

  5. Binocular summation and other forms of non-dominant eye contribution in individuals with strabismic amblyopia during habitual viewing.

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    Brendan T Barrett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults with amblyopia ('lazy eye', long-standing strabismus (ocular misalignment or both typically do not experience visual symptoms because the signal from weaker eye is given less weight than the signal from its fellow. Here we examine the contribution of the weaker eye of individuals with strabismus and amblyopia with both eyes open and with the deviating eye in its anomalous motor position. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The task consisted of a blue-on-yellow detection task along a horizontal line across the central 50 degrees of the visual field. We compare the results obtained in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia with ten visual normals. At each field location in each participant, we examined how the sensitivity exhibited under binocular conditions compared with sensitivity from four predictions, (i a model of binocular summation, (ii the average of the monocular sensitivities, (iii dominant-eye sensitivity or (iv non-dominant-eye sensitivity. The proportion of field locations for which the binocular summation model provided the best description of binocular sensitivity was similar in normals (50.6% and amblyopes (48.2%. Average monocular sensitivity matched binocular sensitivity in 14.1% of amblyopes' field locations compared to 8.8% of normals'. Dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 27.1% of field locations in amblyopes but 21.2% in normals. Non-dominant-eye sensitivity explained sensitivity at 10.6% of field locations in amblyopes but 19.4% in normals. Binocular summation provided the best description of the sensitivity profile in 6/10 amblyopes compared to 7/10 of normals. In three amblyopes, dominant-eye sensitivity most closely reflected binocular sensitivity (compared to two normals and in the remaining amblyope, binocular sensitivity approximated to an average of the monocular sensitivities. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a strong positive contribution in habitual viewing from the non-dominant eye in

  6. Binocular astronomy

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    Tonkin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Binoculars have, for many, long been regarded as an “entry level” observational tool, and relatively few have used them as a serious observing instrument. This is changing! Many people appreciate the relative comfort of two-eyed observing, but those who use binoculars come to realize that they offer more than comfort. The view of the stars is more aesthetically pleasing and therefore binocular observers tend to observe more frequently and for longer periods. Binocular Astronomy, 2nd Edition, extends its coverage of small and medium binoculars to large and giant (i.e., up to 300mm aperture) binoculars and also binoviewers, which brings the work into the realm of serious observing instruments. Additionally, it goes far deeper into the varying optical characteristics of binoculars, giving newcomers and advanced astronomers the information needed to make informed choices on purchasing a pair. It also covers relevant aspects of the physiology of binocular (as in “both eyes”) observation. The first edition ...

  7. P3-4: Binocular Visual Acuity in Exotropia

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    Heekyung Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate binocular interaction of visual acuity in patients with intermittent exotropia and its relationship with accommodative responses during binocular vision. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with intermittent exotropia of 8 years or older were included. Binocular visual acuity (BVA and monocular visual acuity (MVA were measured in sequence. Accommodative responses of both eyes were measured using the WAM-5500 autorefractor/keratometer (GrandSeiko, Fukuyama, Japan during binocular and monocular viewing conditions at 6 m. Accommodative responses during binocular vision were calculated using the difference between the refractive errors of binocular and monocular vision. Main outcome measures: Binocular interactions of visual acuity were categorized as binocular summation, equivalency, or inhibition. The prevalence of the 3 patterns of binocular interaction was investigated. Accommodative responses were correlated with differences between BVA and better MVA. Results: Most patients (41 patients, 61.2% showed binocular equivalency. Binocular inhibition and summation were noted in 6 (9.0% and 20 (29.9% patients, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between binocular interaction and accommodative responses during binocular vision (p < .001. Accommodative responses significantly correlated with the angle of exodeviation at distance (p = .002. Conclusions: In patients with intermittent exotropia, binocular inhibition is associated with increased accommodation and a larger angle of exodeviation, suggesting that accommodative convergence is a mechanism that maintains ocular alignment. Thus, BVA inhibition may be attributed to diminishing fusional control in patients with intermittent exotropia.

  8. Corneal Transplantation in Disease Affecting Only One Eye: Does It Make a Difference to Habitual Binocular Viewing?

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    Praveen K Bandela

    Full Text Available Clarity of the transplanted tissue and restoration of visual acuity are the two primary metrics for evaluating the success of corneal transplantation. Participation of the transplanted eye in habitual binocular viewing is seldom evaluated post-operatively. In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye may remain functionally inactive during binocular viewing due to its suboptimal visual acuity and poor image quality, vis-à-vis the healthy fellow eye.This study prospectively quantified the contribution of the transplanted eye towards habitual binocular viewing in 25 cases with unilateral transplants [40 yrs (IQR: 32-42 yrs and 25 age-matched controls [30 yrs (25-37 yrs]. Binocular functions including visual field extent, high-contrast logMAR acuity, suppression threshold and stereoacuity were assessed using standard psychophysical paradigms. Optical quality of all eyes was determined from wavefront aberrometry measurements. Binocular visual field expanded by a median 21% (IQR: 18-29% compared to the monocular field of cases and controls (p = 0.63. Binocular logMAR acuity [0.0 (0.0-0.0] almost always followed the fellow eye's acuity [0.00 (0.00 --0.02] (r = 0.82, independent of the transplanted eye's acuity [0.34 (0.2-0.5] (r = 0.04. Suppression threshold and stereoacuity were poorer in cases [30.1% (13.5-44.3%; 620.8 arc sec (370.3-988.2 arc sec] than in controls [79% (63.5-100%; 16.3 arc sec (10.6-25.5 arc sec] (p<0.001. Higher-order wavefront aberrations of the transplanted eye [0.34 μ (0.21-0.51 μ] were higher than the fellow eye [0.07 μ (0.05-0.11 μ] (p<0.001 and their reduction with RGP contact lenses [0.09 μ (0.08-0.12 μ] significantly improved the suppression threshold [65% (50-72%] and stereoacuity [56.6 arc sec (47.7-181.6 arc sec] (p<0.001.In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye does participate in gross binocular viewing but offers limited support to fine levels of binocularity. Improvement in the transplanted

  9. Restoration of binocular vision in amblyopia.

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    Hess, R F; Mansouri, B; Thompson, B

    2011-09-01

    To develop a treatment for amblyopia based on re-establishing binocular vision. A novel procedure is outlined for measuring and reducing the extent to which the fixing eye suppresses the fellow amblyopic eye in adults with amblyopia. We hypothesize that suppression renders a structurally binocular system, functionally monocular. We demonstrate that strabismic amblyopes can combine information normally between their eyes under viewing conditions where suppression is reduced by presenting stimuli of different contrast to each eye. Furthermore we show that prolonged periods of binocular combination leads to a strengthening of binocular vision in strabismic amblyopes and eventual combination of binocular information under natural viewing conditions (stimuli of the same contrast in each eye). Concomitant improvement in monocular acuity of the amblyopic eye occurs with this reduction in suppression and strengthening of binocular fusion. Additionally, stereoscopic function was established in the majority of patients tested. We have implemented this approach on a headmounted device as well as on a handheld iPod. This provides the basis for a new treatment of amblyopia, one that is purely binocular and aimed at reducing suppression as a first step.

  10. Depth of Monocular Elements in a Binocular Scene: The Conditions for da Vinci Stereopsis

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    Cook, Michael; Gillam, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative depth based on binocular resolution of visibility constraints is demonstrated in a novel stereogram representing an object, visible to 1 eye only, and seen through an aperture or camouflaged against a background. The monocular region in the display is attached to the binocular region, so that the stereogram represents an object which…

  11. Latent binocular function in amblyopia.

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    Chadnova, Eva; Reynaud, Alexandre; Clavagnier, Simon; Hess, Robert F

    2017-11-01

    Recently, psychophysical studies have shown that humans with amblyopia do have binocular function that is not normally revealed due to dominant suppressive interactions under normal viewing conditions. Here we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) combined with dichoptic visual stimulation to investigate the underlying binocular function in humans with amblyopia for stimuli that, because of their temporal properties, would be expected to bypass suppressive effects and to reveal any underlying binocular function. We recorded contrast response functions in visual cortical area V1 of amblyopes and normal observers using a steady state visually evoked responses (SSVER) protocol. We used stimuli that were frequency-tagged at 4Hz and 6Hz that allowed identification of the responses from each eye and were of a sufficiently high temporal frequency (>3Hz) to bypass suppression. To characterize binocular function, we compared dichoptic masking between the two eyes in normal and amblyopic participants as well as interocular phase differences in the two groups. We observed that the primary visual cortex responds less to the stimulation of the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. The pattern of interaction in the amblyopic visual system however was not significantly different between the amblyopic and fellow eyes. However, the amblyopic suppressive interactions were lower than those observed in the binocular system of our normal observers. Furthermore, we identified an interocular processing delay of approximately 20ms in our amblyopic group. To conclude, when suppression is greatly reduced, such as the case with our stimulation above 3Hz, the amblyopic visual system exhibits a lack of binocular interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of the near response under natural viewing conditions with an open-view sensor

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    Chirre, Emmanuel; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the temporal dynamics of the near response (accommodation, convergence and pupil constriction) in healthy subjects when accommodation was performed under natural binocular and monocular viewing conditions. A binocular open-view multi-sensor based on an invisible infrared Hartmann-Shack sensor was used for non-invasive measurements of both eyes simultaneously in real time at 25Hz. Response times for each process under different conditions were measured. The accommodative responses for binocular vision were faster than for monocular conditions. When one eye was blocked, accommodation and convergence were triggered simultaneously and synchronized, despite the fact that no retinal disparity was available. We found that upon the onset of the near target, the unblocked eye rapidly changes its line of sight to fix it on the stimulus while the blocked eye moves in the same direction, producing the equivalent to a saccade, but then converges to the (blocked) target in synchrony with accommodation. This open-view instrument could be further used for additional experiments with other tasks and conditions. PMID:26504666

  13. Measurement of suprathreshold binocular interactions in amblyopia.

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    Mansouri, B; Thompson, B; Hess, R F

    2008-12-01

    It has been established that in amblyopia, information from the amblyopic eye (AME) is not combined with that from the fellow fixing eye (FFE) under conditions of binocular viewing. However, recent evidence suggests that mechanisms that combine information between the eyes are intact in amblyopia. The lack of binocular function is most likely due to the imbalanced inputs from the two eyes under binocular conditions [Baker, D. H., Meese, T. S., Mansouri, B., & Hess, R. F. (2007b). Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 48(11), 5332-5338]. We have measured the extent to which the information presented to each eye needs to differ for binocular combination to occur and in doing so we quantify the influence of interocular suppression. We quantify these suppressive effects for suprathreshold processing of global stimuli for both motion and spatial tasks. The results confirm the general importance of these suppressive effects in rendering the structurally binocular visual system of a strabismic amblyope, functionally monocular.

  14. Monocular perceptual learning of contrast detection facilitates binocular combination in adults with anisometropic amblyopia.

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    Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Liu, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2016-02-01

    Perceptual learning in contrast detection improves monocular visual function in adults with anisometropic amblyopia; however, its effect on binocular combination remains unknown. Given that the amblyopic visual system suffers from pronounced binocular functional loss, it is important to address how the amblyopic visual system responds to such training strategies under binocular viewing conditions. Anisometropic amblyopes (n = 13) were asked to complete two psychophysical supra-threshold binocular summation tasks: (1) binocular phase combination and (2) dichoptic global motion coherence before and after monocular training to investigate this question. We showed that these participants benefited from monocular training in terms of binocular combination. More importantly, the improvements observed with the area under log CSF (AULCSF) were found to be correlated with the improvements in binocular phase combination.

  15. Monocular perceptual learning of contrast detection facilitates binocular combination in adults with anisometropic amblyopia

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    Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Liu, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning in contrast detection improves monocular visual function in adults with anisometropic amblyopia; however, its effect on binocular combination remains unknown. Given that the amblyopic visual system suffers from pronounced binocular functional loss, it is important to address how the amblyopic visual system responds to such training strategies under binocular viewing conditions. Anisometropic amblyopes (n?=?13) were asked to complete two psychophysical supra-threshold binoc...

  16. Emotion and Interhemispheric Interactions in Binocular Rivalry

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    K L Ritchie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that fear-related stimuli presented in peripheral vision are preferentially processed over stimuli depicting other emotions. Furthermore, emotional content can influence dominance duration in binocular rivalry, with the period of dominance for an emotional image (e.g. a fearful face being significantly longer than a neutral image (e.g. a neutral face or a house. Experiment 1 of the current study combined these two ideas to investigate the role of emotion in binocular rivalry with face/house pairs viewed in the periphery. The results showed that faces were perceived as more dominant than houses, and fearful faces more so than neutral faces, even when viewed in the periphery. Experiment 2 extended this paradigm to present a rival pair in the periphery in each hemifield, with each eye either viewing the same stimulus in each location (traditional condition, or a different stimulus in each location (Diaz-Caneja condition. The results showed that the two pairs tended to rival in synchrony only in the traditional condition. Taken together, the results show that face dominance and emotion dominance in binocular rivalry persist in the periphery, and that interhemispheric interactions in binocular rivalry depend on an eye- as opposed to an object-based mechanism.

  17. A binocular approach to treating amblyopia: antisuppression therapy.

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    Hess, Robert F; Mansouri, Behzad; Thompson, Benjamin

    2010-09-01

    We developed a binocular treatment for amblyopia based on antisuppression therapy. A novel procedure is outlined for measuring the extent to which the fixing eye suppresses the fellow amblyopic eye. We hypothesize that suppression renders a structurally binocular system, functionally monocular. We demonstrate using three strabismic amblyopes that information can be combined normally between their eyes under viewing conditions where suppression is reduced. Also, we show that prolonged periods of viewing (under the artificial conditions of stimuli of different contrast in each eye) during which information from the two eyes is combined leads to a strengthening of binocular vision in such cases and eventual combination of binocular information under natural viewing conditions (stimuli of the same contrast in each eye). Concomitant improvement in monocular acuity of the amblyopic eye occurs with this reduction in suppression and strengthening of binocular fusion. Furthermore, in each of the three cases, stereoscopic function is established. This provides the basis for a new treatment of amblyopia, one that is purely binocular and aimed at reducing suppression as a first step.

  18. Binocular eye movement control and motion perception: what is being tracked?

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    van der Steen, Johannes; Dits, Joyce

    2012-10-19

    We investigated under what conditions humans can make independent slow phase eye movements. The ability to make independent movements of the two eyes generally is attributed to few specialized lateral eyed animal species, for example chameleons. In our study, we showed that humans also can move the eyes in different directions. To maintain binocular retinal correspondence independent slow phase movements of each eye are produced. We used the scleral search coil method to measure binocular eye movements in response to dichoptically viewed visual stimuli oscillating in orthogonal direction. Correlated stimuli led to orthogonal slow eye movements, while the binocularly perceived motion was the vector sum of the motion presented to each eye. The importance of binocular fusion on independency of the movements of the two eyes was investigated with anti-correlated stimuli. The perceived global motion pattern of anti-correlated dichoptic stimuli was perceived as an oblique oscillatory motion, as well as resulted in a conjugate oblique motion of the eyes. We propose that the ability to make independent slow phase eye movements in humans is used to maintain binocular retinal correspondence. Eye-of-origin and binocular information are used during the processing of binocular visual information, and it is decided at an early stage whether binocular or monocular motion information and independent slow phase eye movements of each eye are produced during binocular tracking.

  19. A McCollough Effect Generated at Binocular Site

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    Qiujie Weng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Following exposures to alternating gratings with unique combination of orientation and colors, an achromatic grating would appear tinted with its perceived color contingent on the grating's orientation. This orientation-contingent color after effect is called the McCollough effect. The lack of interocular transfer of the McCollough effect suggests that the McCollough effect is primarily established in monocular channels. Here we explored the possibility that the McCollough effect can be induced at a binocular site. During adaptation, a red vertical grating and a green horizontal grating are dichoptically presented to the two eyes. In the ‘binocular rivalry’ condition, these two gratings were constantly presented throughout the adaptation duration and subjects experienced the rivalry between the two gratings. In the ‘physical alternation’ condition, the two dichoptic gratings physically alternated during adaptation, perceptually similar to binocular rivalry. Interestingly, following dichoptic adaptation either in the rivalry condition or in the physical alternation condition, a binocularly viewed achromatic test grating appeared colored depending on its orientation: a vertical grating appeared greenish and a horizontal grating pinkish. In other words, we observed a McCollough effect following dichoptic adaptation, which can only be explained by a binocular site of orientation-contingent color adaptation.

  20. Rebalancing binocular vision in amblyopia.

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    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2014-03-01

    Humans with amblyopia have an asymmetry in binocular vision: neural signals from the amblyopic eye are suppressed in the cortex by the fellow eye. The purpose of this study was to develop new models and methods for rebalancing this asymmetric binocular vision by manipulating the contrast and luminance in the two eyes. We measured the perceived phase of a cyclopean sinewave by asking normal and amblyopic observers to indicate the apparent location (phase) of the dark trough in the horizontal cyclopean sine wave relative to a black horizontal reference line, and used the same stimuli to measure perceived contrast by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to one eye. We varied both the relative contrast and luminance of the two eyes' inputs, in order to rebalance the asymmetric binocular vision. Amblyopic binocular vision becomes more and more asymmetric the higher the stimulus contrast or spatial frequency. Reanalysing our previous data, we found that, at a given spatial frequency, the binocular asymmetry could be described by a log-linear formula with two parameters, one for the maximum asymmetry and one for the rate at which the binocular system becomes asymmetric as the contrast increases. Our new data demonstrates that reducing the dominant eye's mean luminance reduces its suppression of the non-dominant eye, and therefore rebalances the asymmetric binocular vision. While the binocular asymmetry in amblyopic vision can be rebalanced by manipulating the relative contrast or luminance of the two eyes at a given spatial frequency and contrast, it is very difficult or even impossible to rebalance the asymmetry for all visual conditions. Nonetheless, wearing a neutral density filter before the dominant eye (or increasing the mean luminance in the non-dominant eye) may be more beneficial than the traditional method of patching the dominant eye for treating amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The

  1. A new binocular approach to the treatment of amblyopia in adults well beyond the critical period of visual development.

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    Hess, R F; Mansouri, B; Thompson, B

    2010-01-01

    The present treatments for amblyopia are predominantly monocular aiming to improve the vision in the amblyopic eye through either patching of the fellow fixing eye or visual training of the amblyopic eye. This approach is problematic, not least of which because it rarely results in establishment of binocular function. Recently it has shown that amblyopes possess binocular cortical mechanisms for both threshold and suprathreshold stimuli. We outline a novel procedure for measuring the extent to which the fixing eye suppresses the fellow amblyopic eye, rendering what is a structurally binocular system, functionally monocular. Here we show that prolonged periods of viewing (under the artificial conditions of stimuli of different contrast in each eye) during which information from the two eyes is combined leads to a strengthening of binocular vision in strabismic amblyopes and eventual combination of binocular information under natural viewing conditions (stimuli of the same contrast in each eye). Concomitant improvement in monocular acuity of the amblyopic eye occurs with this reduction in suppression and strengthening of binocular fusion. Furthermore, in a majority of patients tested, stereoscopic function is established. This provides the basis for a new treatment of amblyopia, one that is purely binocular and aimed at reducing suppression as a first step.

  2. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision.

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    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2013-12-01

    To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Interocular acuity differences and binocular summation ratios were compared between groups. Crowding ratios were calculated by dividing the single Landolt C decimal acuity with the crowded Landolt C decimal acuity mono- and binocularly. A linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the contribution of 5 predictors to the monocular and binocular crowding ratio: nystagmus amplitude, nystagmus frequency, strabismus, astigmatism, and anisometropia. Crowding ratios were higher under mono- and binocular viewing conditions for children with infantile nystagmus syndrome than for children with normal vision. Children with albinism showed higher crowding ratios in their poorer eye and under binocular viewing conditions than children with normal vision. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome showed larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision (0.1 logMAR in our clinical groups and 0.0 logMAR in children with normal vision). Binocular summation ratios did not differ between groups. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude predicted the crowding ratio in the poorer eye (p = 0.015 and p = 0.005, respectively). The crowding ratio in the better eye showed a marginally significant relation with nystagmus frequency and depth of anisometropia (p = 0.082 and p = 0.070, respectively). The binocular crowding ratio was not predicted by any of the variables. Children with albinism and children with infantile nystagmus syndrome show larger interocular acuity differences than children with normal vision. Strabismus and nystagmus amplitude are significant predictors of the crowding ratio in the poorer eye.

  3. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

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    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  4. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

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    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  5. Binocular rivalry produced by temporal frequency differences

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    David eAlais

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binocular rivalry occurs when each eye views images that are markedly different. Rather than seeing a binocular fusion of the two, each image is seen exclusively in a stochastic alternation of the monocular images. Here we examine whether temporal frequency differences will trigger binocular rivalry by presenting two random dot arrays that are spatially matched but which modulate temporally at two different rates and contained no net translation. We found that a perceptual alternation between the two temporal frequencies did indeed occur, provided the frequencies were sufficiently different, indicating that temporal information can produce binocular rivalry in the absence of spatial conflict. This finding is discussed with regard to the dependence of rivalry on conflict between spatial and temporal channels.

  6. [Binocular coordination during reading].

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    Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

    1992-01-01

    Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

  7. Viewing the Constellations with Binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Kambic, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    A guide to practical astronomy. It introduces the reader to some basic (and some not-so-basic) astronomical concepts, and discusses the stars and their evolution, the planets, nebulae, and distant galaxies

  8. Improved Binocular Outcomes Following Binocular Treatment for Childhood Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Jost, Reed M; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Dao, Lori; Beauchamp, Cynthia L; Leffler, Joel N; Birch, Eileen E

    2018-03-01

    Childhood amblyopia can be treated with binocular games or movies that rebalance contrast between the eyes, which is thought to reduce depth of interocular suppression so the child can experience binocular vision. While visual acuity gains have been reported following binocular treatment, studies rarely report gains in binocular outcomes (i.e., stereoacuity, suppression) in amblyopic children. Here, we evaluated binocular outcomes in children who had received binocular treatment for childhood amblyopia. Data for amblyopic children enrolled in two ongoing studies were pooled. The sample included 41 amblyopic children (6 strabismic, 21 anisometropic, 14 combined; age 4-10 years; ≤4 prism diopters [PD]) who received binocular treatment (20 game, 21 movies; prescribed 9-10 hours treatment). Amblyopic eye visual acuity and binocular outcomes (Randot Preschool Stereoacuity, extent of suppression, and depth of suppression) were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye visual acuity (P suppression (P = 0.003) were reduced from baseline at the 2-week visit (87% game adherence, 100% movie adherence). Depth of suppression was reduced more in children aged suppression was correlated with a larger depth of suppression reduction at 2 weeks (P = 0.001). After 2 weeks, binocular treatment in amblyopic children improved visual acuity and binocular outcomes, reducing the extent and depth of suppression and improving stereoacuity. Binocular treatments that rebalance contrast to overcome suppression are a promising additional option for treating amblyopia.

  9. First Peruvian binoculars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Guillermo; Gonzales, Franco; Pérez S., Carlos

    2017-11-01

    In Peru, as in almost all Latin America, precision optical industry is almost null. One reason is the scarcity of human and technological resources. But, a few years ago, a masters and diploma university program in optical engineering was started in our university: Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú1 (PUCP) in Lima. Also, an optical shop on precision optics was implemented. Some students were trained at CIO in Leon, Mexico. In order to motivate optical business startups in Peru we planned to show some possibilities of optical devices fabrication trough doing prototypes. So, we started doing a small reflective telescope for moon observation2, 3, where mirror and ocular polishing and opto-mechanics had priority. Aluminum evaporation was included. Now, we do a new step developing a binocular, as we know, it never was made before in Peru. This work includes the binocular geometric optics and opto-mechanical designs, the ocular manufacturing, and the binocular characterization of an 8x35 binocular for amateur observation.

  10. The effect of Bangerter filters on binocular function in observers with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Deng, Daming; Yuan, Junpeng; Chan, Lily; Hess, Robert F; Yu, Minbin

    2014-10-28

    We assessed whether partial occlusion of the nonamblyopic eye with Bangerter filters can immediately reduce suppression and promote binocular summation of contrast in observers with amblyopia. In Experiment 1, suppression was measured for 22 observers (mean age, 20 years; range, 14-32 years; 10 females) with strabismic or anisometropic amblyopia and 10 controls using our previously established "balance point" protocol. Measurements were made at baseline and with 0.6-, 0.4-, and 0.2-strength Bangerter filters placed over the nonamblyopic/dominant eye. In Experiment 2, psychophysical measurements of contrast sensitivity were made under binocular and monocular viewing conditions for 25 observers with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age, 17 years; range, 11-28 years; 14 females) and 22 controls (mean age, 24 years; range, 22-27; 12 female). Measurements were made at baseline, and with 0.4- and 0.2-strength Bangerter filters placed over the nonamblyopic/dominant eye. Binocular summation ratios (BSRs) were calculated at baseline and with Bangerter filters in place. Experiment 1: Bangerter filters reduced suppression in observers with amblyopia and induced suppression in controls (P = 0.025). The 0.2-strength filter eliminated suppression in observers with amblyopia and this was not a visual acuity effect. Experiment 2: Bangerter filters were able to induce normal levels of binocular contrast summation in the group of observers with anisometropic amblyopia for a stimulus with a spatial frequency of 3 cycles per degree (cpd, P = 0.006). The filters reduced binocular summation in controls. Bangerter filters can immediately reduce suppression and promote binocular summation for mid/low spatial frequencies in observers with amblyopia. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Anthony D; Christiansen, Jens H; Shevell, Steven K

    2014-04-17

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz).

  12. Amblyopia and binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E

    2013-03-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual loss in children, affecting 1.3%-3.6% of children. Current treatments are effective in reducing the visual acuity deficit but many amblyopic individuals are left with residual visual acuity deficits, ocular motor abnormalities, deficient fine motor skills, and risk for recurrent amblyopia. Using a combination of psychophysical, electrophysiological, imaging, risk factor analysis, and fine motor skill assessment, the primary role of binocular dysfunction in the genesis of amblyopia and the constellation of visual and motor deficits that accompany the visual acuity deficit has been identified. These findings motivated us to evaluate a new, binocular approach to amblyopia treatment with the goals of reducing or eliminating residual and recurrent amblyopia and of improving the deficient ocular motor function and fine motor skills that accompany amblyopia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective Evaluation of Visual Fatigue Using Binocular Fusion Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masakazu; Morimoto, Takeshi; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takao; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Miyagawa, Suguru; Hirohara, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Saika, Makoto; Fujikado, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated whether an individual's visual fatigue can be evaluated objectively and quantitatively from their ability to maintain binocular fusion. Binocular fusion maintenance (BFM) was measured using a custom-made binocular open-view Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer equipped with liquid crystal shutters, wherein eye movements and wavefront aberrations were measured simultaneously. Transmittance in the liquid crystal shutter in front of the subject's nondominant eye was reduced linearly, and BFM was determined from the transmittance at the point when binocular fusion was broken and vergence eye movement was induced. In total, 40 healthy subjects underwent the BFM test and completed a questionnaire regarding subjective symptoms before and after a visual task lasting 30 minutes. BFM was significantly reduced after the visual task ( P eye symptom score (adjusted R 2 = 0.752, P devices, such as head-mount display, objectively.

  14. The large binocular telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  15. Effects of Different Viewing Conditions on Radiographic Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahkameh Moshfeghi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimum viewing conditions facilitate identification of radiographic details and decrease the need for retakes, patients’ costs and radiation dose. This study sought to evaluate the effects of different viewing conditions on radiographic interpretation.Materials and Methods: This diagnostic study was performed by evaluating radiograph of a 7mm-thick aluminum block, in which 10 holes with 2mm diameters were randomly drilled with depths ranging from 0.05 mm to 0.50mm. The radiograph was viewed by four oral radiologists independently under four viewing conditions, including a white light viewing light box in a lit room, yellow light viewing light box in a lit room, white light viewing light box in a dark room and yellow light viewing light box in a dark room. Number of circular shadows observed on the film was recorded. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA.Results: The mean number of detected circular shadows was 6.75, 7.5, 7.25 and 7.75 in white light viewing light box in a lit room, white light viewing light box in a dark room, yellow light viewing light box in a lit room and yellow light viewing light box in a dark room, respectively. Although the surrounding illumination had statistically significant effect on the radiographic details (P≤0.03, the light color of the viewing light box had no significant effect on visibility of the radiographic details.Conclusion: White and yellow light of the viewing light box had no significant effect on visibility of the radiographic details but more information was obtained in a dark room.

  16. Visual comfort of binocular and 3D displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.

    2004-01-01

    Imperfections in binocular image pairs can cause serious viewing discomfort. For example, in stereo vision systems eye strain is caused by unintentional mismatches between the left and right eye images (stereo imperfections). Head-mounted displays can induce eye strain due to optical misalignments.

  17. Refractive and binocular vision status of optometry students, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the refractive and non-strabismic binocular vision status of Optometry students in University of Cape Coast, Ghana and to establish any associations between these conditions. A cross sectional study of 105 Optometry students were taken through a comprehensive optometric examination to investigate the ...

  18. Modeling the convergence accommodation of stereo vision for binocular endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanqian; Li, Jinhua; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Shuxin

    2018-02-01

    The stereo laparoscope is an important tool for achieving depth perception in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A dynamic convergence accommodation algorithm is proposed to improve the viewing experience and achieve accurate depth perception. Based on the principle of the human vision system, a positional kinematic model of the binocular view system is established. The imaging plane pair is rectified to ensure that the two rectified virtual optical axes intersect at the fixation target to provide immersive depth perception. Stereo disparity was simulated with the roll and pitch movements of the binocular system. The chessboard test and the endoscopic peg transfer task were performed, and the results demonstrated the improved disparity distribution and robustness of the proposed convergence accommodation method with respect to the position of the fixation target. This method offers a new solution for effective depth perception with the stereo laparoscopes used in robot-assisted MIS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Decoding conjunctions of direction-of-motion and binocular disparity from human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Kiley J; Clifford, Colin W G

    2012-05-01

    Motion and binocular disparity are two features in our environment that share a common correspondence problem. Decades of psychophysical research dedicated to understanding stereopsis suggest that these features interact early in human visual processing to disambiguate depth. Single-unit recordings in the monkey also provide evidence for the joint encoding of motion and disparity across much of the dorsal visual stream. Here, we used functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis to examine where in the human brain conjunctions of motion and disparity are encoded. Subjects sequentially viewed two stimuli that could be distinguished only by their conjunctions of motion and disparity. Specifically, each stimulus contained the same feature information (leftward and rightward motion and crossed and uncrossed disparity) but differed exclusively in the way these features were paired. Our results revealed that a linear classifier could accurately decode which stimulus a subject was viewing based on voxel activation patterns throughout the dorsal visual areas and as early as V2. This decoding success was conditional on some voxels being individually sensitive to the unique conjunctions comprising each stimulus, thus a classifier could not rely on independent information about motion and binocular disparity to distinguish these conjunctions. This study expands on evidence that disparity and motion interact at many levels of human visual processing, particularly within the dorsal stream. It also lends support to the idea that stereopsis is subserved by early mechanisms also tuned to direction of motion.

  20. Is there any evidence for the validity of diagnostic criteria used for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cacho-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scientific literature reveals differences between authors according to diagnostic criteria for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions. Diagnostic accuracy studies show that there is only certain evidence for accommodative conditions. For binocular anomalies there is only evidence about a validated questionnaire for convergence insufficiency with no data of diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Hasler, Felix; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-12-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are simultaneously presented to each eye. During continual viewing of this stimulus, the observer will experience repeated switches between visual awareness of the two images. Previous studies have suggested that a slow rate of perceptual switching may be associated with clinical and drug-induced psychosis. The objective of the study was to explore the proposed relationship between binocular rivalry switch rate and subjective changes in psychological state associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. This study used psilocybin, the hallucinogen found naturally in Psilocybe mushrooms that had previously been found to induce psychosis-like symptoms via the 5-HT2A receptor. The effects of psilocybin (215 microg/kg) were considered alone and after pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg) in ten healthy human subjects. Psilocybin significantly reduced the rate of binocular rivalry switching and increased the proportion of transitional/mixed percept experience. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked the majority of psilocybin's "positive" psychosis-like hallucinogenic symptoms. However, ketanserin had no influence on either the psilocybin-induced slowing of binocular rivalry or the drug's "negative-type symptoms" associated with reduced arousal and vigilance. Together, these findings link changes in binocular rivalry switching rate to subjective levels of arousal and attention. In addition, it suggests that psilocybin's effect on binocular rivalry is unlikely to be mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor.

  2. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  3. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  4. Standard Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the amount of binocular disparity that is induced by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens, canopies, HUD combining glasses, visors, or goggles. This test method may be applied to parts of any size, shape, or thickness, individually or in combination, so as to determine the contribution of each transparent part to the overall binocular disparity present in the total “viewing system” being used by a human operator. 1.2 This test method represents one of several techniques that are available for measuring binocular disparity, but is the only technique that yields a quantitative figure of merit that can be related to operator visual performance. 1.3 This test method employs apparatus currently being used in the measurement of optical angular deviation under Method F 801. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not con...

  5. Does partial occlusion promote normal binocular function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Ding, Zhaofeng; Chan, Lily Y L; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Deng, Daming; Hess, Robert F

    2012-10-03

    There is growing evidence that abnormal binocular interactions play a key role in the amblyopia syndrome and represent a viable target for treatment interventions. In this context the use of partial occlusion using optical devices such as Bangerter filters as an alternative to complete occlusion is of particular interest. The aims of this study were to understand why Bangerter filters do not result in improved binocular outcomes compared to complete occlusion, and to compare the effects of Bangerter filters, optical blur and neutral density (ND) filters on normal binocular function. The effects of four strengths of Bangerter filters (0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2) on letter and vernier acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression were measured in 21 observers with normal vision. In a subset of 14 observers, the partial occlusion effects of Bangerter filters, ND filters and plus lenses on stereopsis and interocular suppression were compared. Bangerter filters did not have graded effect on vision and induced significant disruption to binocular function. This disruption was greater than that of monocular defocus but weaker than that of ND filters. The effect of the Bangerter filters on stereopsis was more pronounced than their effect on monocular acuity, and the induced monocular acuity deficits did not predict the induced deficits in stereopsis. Bangerter filters appear to be particularly disruptive to binocular function. Other interventions, such as optical defocus and those employing computer generated dichoptic stimulus presentation, may be more appropriate than partial occlusion for targeting binocular function during amblyopia treatment.

  6. [Binocular fusion method for prevention of myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G D

    1989-03-01

    When looking at a far object with two eyes, relaxation of convergence and accommodation occurred and accompanied by binocular fusion. Using this phenomenon a method of binocular fusion of targets was designed, that is the distance between two targets are just the same as the distance between two visual lines, while looking at a far object. During the images of the targets are fused, the accommodation and convergence are relaxed concomitantly; thus a result of correction of pseudomyopia and prevention of myopia is achieved. By means of binocular fusion, the eye muscle exercises were conducted and resulted in not only the far point further but also the near point closer. The skiascopic examination carried out at the same time of binocular fusion showed that the degrees of relaxed accommodation was 97.9% that of looking at an object in far distance. The above results indicated that the binocular fusion method had excellent effect on the prevention of myopia. This method is simple and feasible, conforms to the visual physiology, and thus can be widely adopted.

  7. Bilateral symmetry in vision and influence of ocular surgical procedures on binocular vision: A topical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Arba Mosquera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of bilateral symmetry in enhancing binocular visual ability in human eyes, and further explore how efficiently bilateral symmetry is preserved in different ocular surgical procedures. The inclusion criterion for this review was strict relevance to the clinical questions under research. Enantiomorphism has been reported in lower order aberrations, higher order aberrations and cone directionality. When contrast differs in the two eyes, binocular acuity is better than monocular acuity of the eye that receives higher contrast. Anisometropia has an uncommon occurrence in large populations. Anisometropia seen in infancy and childhood is transitory and of little consequence for the visual acuity. Binocular summation of contrast signals declines with age, independent of inter-ocular differences. The symmetric associations between the right and left eye could be explained by the symmetry in pupil offset and visual axis which is always nasal in both eyes. Binocular summation mitigates poor visual performance under low luminance conditions and strong inter-ocular disparity detrimentally affects binocular summation. Considerable symmetry of response exists in fellow eyes of patients undergoing myopic PRK and LASIK, however the method to determine whether or not symmetry is maintained consist of comparing individual terms in a variety of ad hoc ways both before and after the refractive surgery, ignoring the fact that retinal image quality for any individual is based on the sum of all terms. The analysis of bilateral symmetry should be related to the patients’ binocular vision status. The role of aberrations in monocular and binocular vision needs further investigation.

  8. Crossmodal Semantic Constraints on Visual Perception of Binocular Rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chuan Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Environments typically convey contextual information via several different sensory modalities. Here, we report a study designed to investigate the crossmodal semantic modulation of visual perception using the binocular rivalry paradigm. The participants viewed a dichoptic figure consisting of a bird and a car presented to each eye, while also listening to either a bird singing or car engine revving. Participants' dominant percepts were modulated by the presentation of a soundtrack associated with either bird or car, as compared to the presentation of a soundtrack irrelevant to both visual figures (tableware clattering together in a restaurant. No such crossmodal semantic effect was observed when the participants maintained an abstract semantic cue in memory. We then further demonstrate that crossmodal semantic modulation can be dissociated from the effects of high-level attentional control over the dichoptic figures and of low-level luminance contrast of the figures. In sum, we demonstrate a novel crossmodal effect in terms of crossmodal semantic congruency on binocular rivalry. This effect can be considered a perceptual grouping or contextual constraint on human visual awareness through mid-level crossmodal excitatory connections embedded in the multisensory semantic network.

  9. Calibration of Binocular Vision Sensors Based on Unknown-Sized Elliptical Stripe Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS depend on a high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult and costly to manufacture and. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed. With known intrinsic parameters, the proposed method adopts the elliptical stripes located on the parallel planes as a medium to calibrate BSVS online. In comparison with the common calibration methods, the proposed method avoids utilizing high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points. Therefore, the proposed method is not only easy to implement but is a realistic method for the calibration of BSVS with optical filter. Changing the size of elliptical curves projected on the target solves the difficulty of applying the proposed method in different fields of view and distances. Simulative and physical experiments are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. When the field of view is approximately 400 mm × 300 mm, the proposed method can reach a calibration accuracy of 0.03 mm, which is comparable with that of Zhang’s method.

  10. Binocular Therapy for Childhood Amblyopia Improves Vision Without Breaking Interocular Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Manuela; Tailor, Vijay K; Anderson, Elaine J; Bex, Peter J; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret; Dakin, Steven C

    2017-06-01

    Amblyopia is a common developmental visual impairment characterized by a substantial difference in acuity between the two eyes. Current monocular treatments, which promote use of the affected eye by occluding or blurring the fellow eye, improve acuity, but are hindered by poor compliance. Recently developed binocular treatments can produce rapid gains in visual function, thought to be as a result of reduced interocular suppression. We set out to develop an effective home-based binocular treatment system for amblyopia that would engage high levels of compliance but that would also allow us to assess the role of suppression in children's response to binocular treatment. Balanced binocular viewing therapy (BBV) involves daily viewing of dichoptic movies (with "visibility" matched across the two eyes) and gameplay (to monitor compliance and suppression). Twenty-two children (3-11 years) with anisometropic (n = 7; group 1) and strabismic or combined mechanism amblyopia (group 2; n = 6 and 9, respectively) completed the study. Groups 1 and 2 were treated for a maximum of 8 or 24 weeks, respectively. The treatment elicited high levels of compliance (on average, 89.4% ± 24.2% of daily dose in 68.23% ± 12.2% of days on treatment) and led to a mean improvement in acuity of 0.27 logMAR (SD 0.22) for the amblyopic eye. Importantly, acuity gains were not correlated with a reduction in suppression. BBV is a binocular treatment for amblyopia that can be self-administered at home (with remote monitoring), producing rapid and substantial benefits that cannot be solely mediated by a reduction in interocular suppression.

  11. A Novel Approach to Calibrating Multifunctional Binocular Stereovision Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, T; Zhu, J G; Wu, B; Ye, S H

    2006-01-01

    We present a novel multifunctional binocular stereovision sensor for various threedimensional (3D) inspection tasks. It not only avoids the so-called correspondence problem of passive stereo vision, but also possesses the uniform mathematical model. We also propose a novel approach to estimating all the sensor parameters with free-position planar reference object. In this technique, the planar pattern can be moved freely by hand. All the camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters with coefficient of lens radial and tangential distortion are estimated, and sensor parameters are calibrated based on the 3D measurement model and optimized with the feature point constraint algorithm using the same views in the camera calibration stage. The proposed approach greatly reduces the cost of the calibration equipment, and it is flexible and practical for the vision measurement. It shows that this method has high precision by experiment, and the sensor measured relative error of space length excels 0.3%

  12. Method used to test the imaging consistency of binocular camera's left-right optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiying; Wang, Hu; Liu, Jie; Xue, Yaoke; Yang, Shaodong; Zhao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    To binocular camera, the consistency of optical parameters of the left and the right optical system is an important factor that will influence the overall imaging consistency. In conventional testing procedure of optical system, there lacks specifications suitable for evaluating imaging consistency. In this paper, considering the special requirements of binocular optical imaging system, a method used to measure the imaging consistency of binocular camera is presented. Based on this method, a measurement system which is composed of an integrating sphere, a rotary table and a CMOS camera has been established. First, let the left and the right optical system capture images in normal exposure time under the same condition. Second, a contour image is obtained based on the multiple threshold segmentation result and the boundary is determined using the slope of contour lines near the pseudo-contour line. Third, the constraint of gray level based on the corresponding coordinates of left-right images is established and the imaging consistency could be evaluated through standard deviation σ of the imaging grayscale difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system. The experiments demonstrate that the method is suitable for carrying out the imaging consistency testing for binocular camera. When the standard deviation 3σ distribution of imaging gray difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system of the binocular camera does not exceed 5%, it is believed that the design requirements have been achieved. This method could be used effectively and paves the way for the imaging consistency testing of the binocular camera.

  13. Binocular contrast-gain control for natural scenes: Image structure and phase alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Dai, Yu-Ming

    2018-05-01

    In the context of natural scenes, we applied the pattern-masking paradigm to investigate how image structure and phase alignment affect contrast-gain control in binocular vision. We measured the discrimination thresholds of bandpass-filtered natural-scene images (targets) under various types of pedestals. Our first experiment had four pedestal types: bandpass-filtered pedestals, unfiltered pedestals, notch-filtered pedestals (which enabled removal of the spatial frequency), and misaligned pedestals (which involved rotation of unfiltered pedestals). Our second experiment featured six types of pedestals: bandpass-filtered, unfiltered, and notch-filtered pedestals, and the corresponding phase-scrambled pedestals. The thresholds were compared for monocular, binocular, and dichoptic viewing configurations. The bandpass-filtered pedestal and unfiltered pedestals showed classic dipper shapes; the dipper shapes of the notch-filtered, misaligned, and phase-scrambled pedestals were weak. We adopted a two-stage binocular contrast-gain control model to describe our results. We deduced that the phase-alignment information influenced the contrast-gain control mechanism before the binocular summation stage and that the phase-alignment information and structural misalignment information caused relatively strong divisive inhibition in the monocular and interocular suppression stages. When the pedestals were phase-scrambled, the elimination of the interocular suppression processing was the most convincing explanation of the results. Thus, our results indicated that both phase-alignment information and similar image structures cause strong interocular suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Naturalistic depth perception and binocular vision

    OpenAIRE

    Maiello, G.

    2017-01-01

    Humans continuously move both their eyes to redirect their foveae to objects at new depths. To correctly execute these complex combinations of saccades, vergence eye movements and accommodation changes, the visual system makes use of multiple sources of depth information, including binocular disparity and defocus. Furthermore, during development, both fine-tuning of oculomotor control as well as correct eye growth are likely driven by complex interactions between eye movements, accommodation,...

  15. On the functional order of binocular rivalry and blind spot filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng S; Brascamp, Jan W; Liu, Taosheng

    2017-07-01

    Binocular rivalry is an important phenomenon for understanding the mechanisms of visual awareness. Here we assessed the functional locus of binocular rivalry relative to blind spot filling-in, which is thought to transpire in V1, thus providing a reference point for assessing the locus of rivalry. We conducted two experiments to explore the functional order of binocular rivalry and blind spot filling-in. Experiment 1 examined if the information filled-in at the blind spot can engage in rivalry with a physical stimulus at the corresponding location in the fellow eye. Participants' perceptual reports showed no difference between this condition and a condition where filling-in was precluded by presenting the same stimuli away from the blind spot, suggesting that the rivalry process is not influenced by any filling-in that might occur. In Experiment 2, we presented the fellow eye's stimulus directly in rivalry with the 'inducer' stimulus that surrounds the blind spot, and compared it with two control conditions away from the blind spot: one involving a ring physically identical to the inducer, and one involving a disc that resembled the filled-in percept. Perceptual reports in the blind spot condition resembled those in the 'ring' condition, more than those in the latter, 'disc' condition, indicating that a perceptually suppressed inducer does not engender filling-in. Thus, our behavioral data suggest binocular rivalry functionally precedes blind spot filling-in. We conjecture that the neural substrate of binocular rivalry suppression includes processing stages at or before V1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Binocular functions in amblyopia and strabismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaya, S; Sato, M; Tsuzuki, K; Takara, T; Hiraiwa, S; Ota, K; Arai, M; Yoshida, M; Miyake, Y; Terasaki, H; Horiguchi, M; Hirano, K; Hirose, H; Uno, Y; Suzuki, Y; Iwata, M; Takai, Y; Maeda, M; Hisano, S; Kawakita, T; Omura, T; Ota, Y; Kondo, N; Takashi, A; Kawakami, O

    1997-12-01

    Regarding the changing trends in the concept, definition, etiological classification, and criteria for diagnosis of amblyopia, we reviewed a total of 4,693 cases of amblyopia seen during the past 37 years. The amblyopia was divided into four types: strabismic, anisometropic, ametropic, and form vision deprivative. There was a definite trend for the incidence to decrease and for the diagnosis to be made during earlier age in recent years. Although favorable recovery of visual acuity is obtained after treatment of amblyopia and strabismus, there are difficulties in obtaining good binocular functions in early-onset amblyopia and strabismus. This feature was evaluated in regard to motion perception asymmetry (MPA) and binocular depth from motion (DFM). Many cases of early-onset amblyopia and strabismus showed no disparity stereopsis, or position stereopsis, in spite of the presence of DFM. The MPA appeared to be closely related to early-onset esotropia regardless of age, while it disappeared and motion perception became symmetric 4 to 5 months after birth in normal infants. The DFM seemed to play an important role in maintaining good motor alignment for several years after surgery. I developed a checkerboard pattern stimulator in 1978. This method proved to be useful in developing binocular functions and motor alignment by applying simultaneous bifoveolar stimulation and anti-suppression. Extensive exposure to the stimulation was essential for therapeutic success.

  17. Early Studies of Binocular and Binaural Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Wade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the eyes work together to determine the direction of objects provided the impetus for examining integration of signals from the ears to locate sounds. However, the advantages of having two eyes were recorded long before those for two ears were appreciated. In part, this reflects the marked differences in how we can compare perception with one or two organs. It is easier to close one eye and examine monocular vision than to “close” one ear and study monaural hearing. Moreover, we can move our eyes either in the same or in opposite directions, but humans have no equivalent means of moving the ears in unison. Studies of binocular single vision can be traced back over two thousand years and they were implicitly concerned with visual directions from each eye. The location of any point in visual or auditory space can be described by specifying its direction and distance, from the vantage point of an observer. From the late 18th century experiments indicated that binocular direction involved an eye movement component and experimental studies of binaural direction commenced slightly later. However, these early binocular and binaural experiments were not incorporated into theoretical accounts until almost a century later. The early history of research on visual direction with two eyes is contrasted to that on auditory direction with two ears.

  18. Moving toward queue operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle L.; Summers, Doug; Astier, Joseph; Suarez Sola, Igor; Veillet, Christian; Power, Jennifer; Cardwell, Andrew; Walsh, Shane

    2016-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO), a joint scientific venture between the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft (LBTB), University of Arizona, Ohio State University (OSU), and the Research Corporation, is one of the newest additions to the world's collection of large optical/infrared ground-based telescopes. With its unique, twin 8.4m mirror design providing a 22.8 meter interferometric baseline and the collecting area of an 11.8m telescope, LBT has a window of opportunity to exploit its singular status as the "first" of the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Prompted by urgency to maximize scientific output during this favorable interval, LBTO recently re-evaluated its operations model and developed a new strategy that augments classical observing with queue. Aided by trained observatory staff, queue mode will allow for flexible, multi-instrument observing responsive to site conditions. Our plan is to implement a staged rollout that will provide many of the benefits of queue observing sooner rather than later - with more bells and whistles coming in future stages. In this paper, we outline LBTO's new scientific model, focusing specifically on our "lean" resourcing and development, reuse and adaptation of existing software, challenges presented from our one-of-a-kind binocular operations, and lessons learned. We also outline further stages of development and our ultimate goals for queue.

  19. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

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    Maarten W. A. Wijntjes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter. By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  20. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijntjes, Maarten W A

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we compared three viewing modes: monocular blur, synoptic viewing, and free viewing (using a placebo synopter). By designing a physical embodiment that was indistinguishable for the three experimental conditions, we kept observers naïve with respect to the differences between them; 197 observers participated in an experiment where the three viewing modes were compared by performing a rating task. Results indicate that synoptic viewing causes the largest plastic effect. Monocular blur scores lower than synoptic viewing but is still rated significantly higher than the baseline conditions. The results strengthen the idea that synoptic viewing is not due to a placebo effect. Furthermore, monocular blur has been verified for the first time as a way of experiencing the plastic effect, although the effect is smaller than synoptic viewing. We discuss the results with respect to the theoretical basis for the plastic effect. We show that current theories are not described with sufficient details to explain the differences we found.

  1. Effect of pictorial depth cues, binocular disparity cues and motion parallax depth cues on lightness perception in three-dimensional virtual scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiteru Kitazaki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface lightness perception is affected by scene interpretation. There is some experimental evidence that perceived lightness under bi-ocular viewing conditions is different from perceived lightness in actual scenes but there are also reports that viewing conditions have little or no effect on perceived color. We investigated how mixes of depth cues affect perception of lightness in three-dimensional rendered scenes containing strong gradients of illumination in depth.Observers viewed a virtual room (4 m width x 5 m height x 17.5 m depth with checkerboard walls and floor. In four conditions, the room was presented with or without binocular disparity (BD depth cues and with or without motion parallax (MP depth cues. In all conditions, observers were asked to adjust the luminance of a comparison surface to match the lightness of test surfaces placed at seven different depths (8.5-17.5 m in the scene. We estimated lightness versus depth profiles in all four depth cue conditions. Even when observers had only pictorial depth cues (no MP, no BD, they partially but significantly discounted the illumination gradient in judging lightness. Adding either MP or BD led to significantly greater discounting and both cues together produced the greatest discounting. The effects of MP and BD were approximately additive. BD had greater influence at near distances than far.These results suggest the surface lightness perception is modulated by three-dimensional perception/interpretation using pictorial, binocular-disparity, and motion-parallax cues additively. We propose a two-stage (2D and 3D processing model for lightness perception.

  2. Contrast masking in strabismic amblyopia: attenuation, noise, interocular suppression and binocular summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel H; Meese, Tim S; Hess, Robert F

    2008-07-01

    To investigate amblyopic contrast vision at threshold and above we performed pedestal-masking (contrast discrimination) experiments with a group of eight strabismic amblyopes using horizontal sinusoidal gratings (mainly 3c/deg) in monocular, binocular and dichoptic configurations balanced across eye (i.e. five conditions). With some exceptions in some observers, the four main results were as follows. (1) For the monocular and dichoptic conditions, sensitivity was less in the amblyopic eye than in the good eye at all mask contrasts. (2) Binocular and monocular dipper functions superimposed in the good eye. (3) Monocular masking functions had a normal dipper shape in the good eye, but facilitation was diminished in the amblyopic eye. (4) A less consistent result was normal facilitation in dichoptic masking when testing the good eye, but a loss of this when testing the amblyopic eye. This pattern of amblyopic results was replicated in a normal observer by placing a neutral density filter in front of one eye. The two-stage model of binocular contrast gain control [Meese, T.S., Georgeson, M.A. & Baker, D.H. (2006). Binocular contrast vision at and above threshold. Journal of Vision 6, 1224-1243.] was 'lesioned' in several ways to assess the form of the amblyopic deficit. The most successful model involves attenuation of signal and an increase in noise in the amblyopic eye, and intact stages of interocular suppression and binocular summation. This implies a behavioural influence from monocular noise in the amblyopic visual system as well as in normal observers with an ND filter over one eye.

  3. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel García-Muñoz

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3 were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies.

  4. Combining Motion-Induced Blindness with Binocular Rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jaworska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion-induced blindness (MIB and binocular rivalry (BR are examples of multistable phenomena in which our perception varies despite constant retinal input. It has been suggested that both phenomena are related and share a common underlying mechanism. We tried to determine whether experimental manipulations of the target dot and the mask systematically affect MIB and BR in an experimental paradigm that can elicit both phenomena. Eighteen observers fixated the center of a split-screen stereo display that consisted of a distracter mask and a superimposed target dot with different colour (isoluminant Red/Green in corresponding peripheral areas of the left and right eye. Observers reported perceived colour and disappearance of the target dot by pressing and releasing corresponding keys. In a within-subjects design the mask was presented in rivalry or not—with orthogonal drift in the left and right eye or with the same drift in both eyes. In control conditions the mask remained stationary. In addition, the size of the target dot was varied (small, medium, and large. Our results suggest that MIB measured by normalized frequency and duration of target disappearance and BR measured by normalized frequency and duration of colour reversals of the target were both affected by motion in the mask. Surprisingly, binocular rivalry in the mask had only a small effect on BR of the target and virtually no effect on MIB. The overall pattern of normalized MIB and BR measures, however, differed across experimental conditions. In conclusion, the results show some degree of dissociation between MIB and BR. Further analyses will inform whether or not the two phenomena occur independently of each other.

  5. The reproducibility of binocular pattern reversal visual evoked potentials: a single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellow, Tessa B; Liasis, Alki; Lyons, Ruth; Thompson, Dorothy A

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the within-participant variability over time of both amplitude and peak latency measures of pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). As a large number of factors are known to contribute to the variability of the pVEPs (such as fixation instability and drowsiness), testing was conducted in controlled conditions with two co-operative participants. PVEPs were recorded during 24 sessions, over an eight-week period using the same equipment and recording settings. The participants viewed a plasma monitor binocularly from a distance of 1 meter. High contrast (97%), black and white checks of side subtense 50', 25', and 12.5' pattern reversed 3/s in a 28 degree test field. The different sized checks were presented in a pseudo-random order. Three runs, each of 100 trials, were acquired to each stimulus from an active electrode placed at Oz referred to aFz. The amplitude of N80-P100 and the latency of P100 were measured. P100 amplitude and latency were stable across sessions and did not depend upon the order of check size presentation. As expected, variation in amplitude was greater than peak latency. The coefficients of variation for different check sizes and participants were 9-14% for pVEP amplitude, but only 1-2% for P100 latency.

  6. Binocular Vision in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godts, Daisy; Moorkens, Greta; Mathysen, Danny G P

    2016-01-01

    To compare binocular vision measurements between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) patients and healthy controls. Forty-one CFS patients referred by the Reference Centre for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome of the Antwerp University Hospital and forty-one healthy volunteers, matched for age and gender, underwent a complete orthoptic examination. Data of visual acuity, eye position, fusion amplitude, stereopsis, ocular motility, convergence, and accommodation were compared between both groups. Patients with CFS showed highly significant smaller fusion amplitudes (P convergence capacity (P accommodation range (P convergence and accommodation should be routinely examined. CFS patients will benefit from reading glasses either with or without prism correction in an earlier stage compared to their healthy peers. Convergence exercises may be beneficial for CFS patients, despite the fact that they might be very tiring. Further research will be necessary to draw conclusions about the efficacy of treatment, especially regarding convergence exercises. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study evaluating binocular vision in CFS patients. © 2016 Board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System, American Orthoptic Journal, Volume 66, 2016, ISSN 0065-955X, E-ISSN 1553-4448.

  7. Binocular treatment of amblyopia using videogames (BRAVO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Lam, Carly S Y; Dai, Shuan; Gao, Tina Y; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kowal, Lionel; Parag, Varsha; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Walker, Natalie; Wadham, Angela; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-10-18

    Amblyopia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is characterised by visual impairment in one eye and compromised binocular visual function. Existing evidence-based treatments for children include patching the nonamblyopic eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Currently there are no widely accepted treatments available for adults with amblyopia. The aim of this trial is to assess the efficacy of a new binocular, videogame-based treatment for amblyopia in older children and adults. We hypothesise that binocular treatment will significantly improve amblyopic eye visual acuity relative to placebo treatment. The BRAVO study is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre trial to assess the effectiveness of a novel videogame-based binocular treatment for amblyopia. One hundred and eight participants aged 7 years or older with anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia (defined as ≥0.2 LogMAR interocular visual acuity difference, ≥0.3 LogMAR amblyopic eye visual acuity and no ocular disease) will be recruited via ophthalmologists, optometrists, clinical record searches and public advertisements at five sites in New Zealand, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia. Eligible participants will be randomised by computer in a 1:1 ratio, with stratification by age group: 7-12, 13-17 and 18 years and older. Participants will be randomised to receive 6 weeks of active or placebo home-based binocular treatment. Treatment will be in the form of a modified interactive falling-blocks game, implemented on a 5th generation iPod touch device viewed through red/green anaglyphic glasses. Participants and those assessing outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is the change in best-corrected distance visual acuity in the amblyopic eye from baseline to 6 weeks post randomisation. Secondary outcomes include distance and near visual acuity, stereopsis, interocular suppression, angle of strabismus (where applicable) measured at

  8. Fisiologia da visão binocular Physiology of binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A visão binocular de seres humanos resulta da superposição quase completa dos campos visuais de cada olho, o que suscita discriminação perceptual de localizações espaciais de objetos relativamente ao observador (localização egocêntrica bem mais fina (estereopsia, mas isso ocorre em, apenas, uma faixa muito estreita (o horóptero. Aquém e além dela, acham-se presentes diplopia e confusão, sendo necessária supressão fisiológica (cortical para evitá-las. Analisa-se a geometria do horóptero e suas implicações fisiológicas (o desvio de Hillebrand, a partição de Kundt, a área de Panum, assim como aspectos clínicos da visão binocular normal (percepção simultânea, fusão, visão estereoscópica e de adaptações a seus estados afetados (supressão patológica, ambliopia, correspondência visual anômala.The binocular vision of human beings is given by the almost complete superimposition of the monocular visual fields, which allows a finer perceptual discrimination of the egocentric localization of objects in space (stereopsis but only within a very narrow band (the horopter. Before and beyond it, diplopia and confusion are present, so that a physiologic (cortical suppression is necessary to avoid them to become conscious. The geometry of the horopter and its physiologic implications (Hillebrand's deviation, Kundt's partition, Panum's area, stereoscopic vision are analyzed, as well as some clinical aspects of the normal binocular vision (simultaneous perception, fusion, stereoscopic vision and of adaptations to abnormal states (pathologic suppression, amblyopia, abnormal retinal correspondence.

  9. Spatial-frequency dependent binocular imbalance in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, MiYoung; Wiecek, Emily; Dakin, Steven C; Bex, Peter J

    2015-11-25

    While amblyopia involves both binocular imbalance and deficits in processing high spatial frequency information, little is known about the spatial-frequency dependence of binocular imbalance. Here we examined binocular imbalance as a function of spatial frequency in amblyopia using a novel computer-based method. Binocular imbalance at four spatial frequencies was measured with a novel dichoptic letter chart in individuals with amblyopia, or normal vision. Our dichoptic letter chart was composed of band-pass filtered letters arranged in a layout similar to the ETDRS acuity chart. A different chart was presented to each eye of the observer via stereo-shutter glasses. The relative contrast of the corresponding letter in each eye was adjusted by a computer staircase to determine a binocular Balance Point at which the observer reports the letter presented to either eye with equal probability. Amblyopes showed pronounced binocular imbalance across all spatial frequencies, with greater imbalance at high compared to low spatial frequencies (an average increase of 19%, p imbalance may be useful for diagnosing amblyopia and as an outcome measure for recovery of binocular vision following therapy.

  10. Relating binocular and monocular vision in strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ritwick; Conner, Ian P; Odom, J V; Schwartz, Terry L; Mendola, Janine D

    2006-06-01

    To examine deficits in monocular and binocular vision in adults with amblyopia and to test the following 2 hypotheses: (1) Regardless of clinical subtype, the degree of impairment in binocular integration predicts the pattern of monocular acuity deficits. (2) Subjects who lack binocular integration exhibit the most severe interocular suppression. Seven subjects with anisometropia, 6 subjects with strabismus, and 7 control subjects were tested. Monocular tests included Snellen acuity, grating acuity, Vernier acuity, and contrast sensitivity. Binocular tests included Titmus stereo test, binocular motion integration, and dichoptic contrast masking. As expected, both groups showed deficits in monocular acuity, with subjects with strabismus showing greater deficits in Vernier acuity. Both amblyopic groups were then characterized according to the degree of residual stereoacuity and binocular motion integration ability, and 67% of subjects with strabismus compared with 29% of subjects with anisometropia were classified as having "nonbinocular" vision according to our criterion. For this nonbinocular group, Vernier acuity is most impaired. In addition, the nonbinocular group showed the most dichoptic contrast masking of the amblyopic eye and the least dichoptic contrast masking of the fellow eye. The degree of residual binocularity and interocular suppression predicts monocular acuity and may be a significant etiological mechanism of vision loss.

  11. Assessing Attention Deficit by Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan Antonio; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Ortiz-Guerra, Juan Jairo; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Medina-Peña, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether the frequency and duration of the periods of suppression of a percept in a binocular rivalry (BR) task can be used to distinguish between participants with ADHD and controls. A total of 122 participants (6-15 years) were assigned to three groups: ADHD-Combined (ADHD-C), ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and controls. They each performed a BR task and two measures were recorded: alternation rate and duration of exclusive dominance periods. ADHD-C group presented fewer alternations and showed greater variability than did the control group; results for the ADHD-I group being intermediate between the two. The duration of dominance periods showed a differential profile: In control group, it remained stable over time, whereas in the clinical groups, it decreased logarithmically as the task progressed. The differences between groups in relation to the BR indicators can be attributed to the activity of involuntary inhibition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. The Effects of Involvement, Message Appeal, and Viewing Conditions on Memory and Evaluation of TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Glen; Thorson, Esther

    A study tested an information processing model that incorporates the concepts of episodic and semantic memory. The model was designed to provide for the concurrent study of three advertising and communication variables: product involvement, message appeal, and distraction in viewing conditions. Among the five hypotheses being tested were that…

  13. Evaluative Processing of Food Images: A Conditional Role for Viewing in Preference Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Wolf

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggested a role of gaze in preference formation, not merely as an expression of preference, but also as a causal influence. According to the gaze cascade hypothesis, the longer subjects look at an item, the more likely they are to develop a preference for it. However, to date the connection between viewing and liking has been investigated predominately with self-paced viewing conditions in which the subjects were required to select certain items from simultaneously presented stimuli on the basis of perceived visual attractiveness. Such conditions might promote a default, but non-mandatory connection between viewing and liking. To explore whether the connection is separable, we examined the evaluative processing of single naturalistic food images in a 2 × 2 design, conducted completely within subjects, in which we varied both the type of exposure (self-paced versus time-controlled and the type of evaluation (non-exclusive versus exclusive. In the self-paced exclusive evaluation, longer viewing was associated with a higher likelihood of a positive evaluation. However, in the self-paced non-exclusive evaluation, the trend reversed such that longer viewing durations were associated with lesser ratings. Furthermore, in the time-controlled tasks, both with non-exclusive and exclusive evaluation, there was no significant relationship between the viewing duration and the evaluation. The overall pattern of results was consistent for viewing times measured in terms of exposure duration (i.e., the duration of stimulus presentation on the screen and in terms of actual gaze duration (i.e., the amount of time the subject effectively gazed at the stimulus on the screen. The data indicated that viewing does not intrinsically lead to a higher evaluation when evaluating single food images; instead, the relationship between viewing duration and evaluation depends on the type of task. We suggest that self-determination of exposure duration may

  14. Perception of contextual size illusions by honeybees in restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Scarlett R; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Garcia, Jair E; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Dyer, Adrian G

    2017-11-29

    How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears to vary dramatically among vertebrate species, and even populations, but this may depend on whether the viewing distance is restricted. We tested whether honeybees perceive contextual size illusions, and whether errors in perception of size differed under restricted and unrestricted viewing conditions. When the viewing distance was unrestricted, there was an effect of context on size perception and thus, similar to humans, honeybees perceived contrast size illusions. However, when the viewing distance was restricted, bees were able to judge absolute size accurately and did not succumb to visual illusions, despite differing contextual information. Our results show that accurate size perception depends on viewing conditions, and thus may explain the wide variation in previously reported findings across species. These results provide insight into the evolution of visual mechanisms across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, and suggest convergent evolution of a visual processing solution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. An iPod treatment of amblyopia: an updated binocular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, B; Black, J M; Machara, G; Zhang, P; Bobier, W R; Cooperstock, J

    2012-02-15

    We describe the successful translation of computerized and space-consuming laboratory equipment for the treatment of suppression to a small handheld iPod device (Apple iPod; Apple Inc., Cupertino, California). A portable and easily obtainable Apple iPod display, using current video technology offers an ideal solution for the clinical treatment of suppression. The following is a description of the iPod device and illustrates how a video game has been adapted to provide the appropriate stimulation to implement our recent antisuppression treatment protocol. One to 2 hours per day of video game playing under controlled conditions for 1 to 3 weeks can improve acuity and restore binocular function, including stereopsis in adults, well beyond the age at which traditional patching is used. This handheld platform provides a convenient and effective platform for implementing the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia in the clinic, home, or elsewhere. American Optometric Association.

  16. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes & binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today's market.

  17. Amblyopia and the binocular approach to its therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    There is growing evidence that abnormal binocular interactions play a key role in amblyopia. In particular, stronger suppression of the amblyopic eye has been associated with poorer amblyopic eye visual acuity and a new therapy has been described that directly targets binocular function and has been found to improve both monocular and binocular vision in adults and children with amblyopia. Furthermore, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques that alter excitation and inhibition within the visual cortex have been shown to improve vision in the amblyopic eye. The aim of this review is to summarize this previous work and interpret the therapeutic effects of binocular therapy and non-invasive brain stimulation in the context of three potential neural mechanisms; active inhibition of signals from the amblyopic eye, attenuation of information from the amblyopic eye and metaplasticity of synaptic long term potentiation and long term depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Binocular Rivalry in a Competitive Neural Network with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We study binocular rivalry in a competitive neural network with synaptic depression. In particular, we consider two coupled hypercolums within primary visual cortex (V1), representing orientation selective cells responding to either left or right

  19. Binocular vision in amblyopia: structure, suppression and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin; Baker, Daniel H

    2014-03-01

    The amblyopic visual system was once considered to be structurally monocular. However, it now evident that the capacity for binocular vision is present in many observers with amblyopia. This has led to new techniques for quantifying suppression that have provided insights into the relationship between suppression and the monocular and binocular visual deficits experienced by amblyopes. Furthermore, new treatments are emerging that directly target suppressive interactions within the visual cortex and, on the basis of initial data, appear to improve both binocular and monocular visual function, even in adults with amblyopia. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies that have investigated the structure, measurement and treatment of binocular vision in observers with strabismic, anisometropic and mixed amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2014 The College of Optometrists.

  20. A binocular iPad treatment for amblyopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S L; Jost, R M; Morale, S E; Stager, D R; Dao, L; Stager, D; Birch, E E

    2014-10-01

    Monocular amblyopia treatment (patching or penalization) does not always result in 6/6 vision and amblyopia often recurs. As amblyopia arises from abnormal binocular visual experience, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel home-based binocular amblyopia treatment. Children (4-12 y) wore anaglyphic glasses to play binocular games on an iPad platform for 4 h/w for 4 weeks. The first 25 children were assigned to sham games and then 50 children to binocular games. Children in the binocular group had the option of participating for an additional 4 weeks. Compliance was monitored with calendars and tracking fellow eye contrast settings. About half of the children in each group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Best-corrected visual acuity, suppression, and stereoacuity were measured at baseline, at the 4- and 8-week outcome visits, and 3 months after cessation of treatment. Mean (±SE) visual acuity improved in the binocular group from 0.47±0.03 logMAR at baseline to 0.39±0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (P<0.001); there was no significant change for the sham group. The effect of binocular games on visual acuity did not differ for children who were patched vs those who were not. The median stereoacuity remained unchanged in both groups. An additional 4 weeks of treatment did not yield additional visual acuity improvement. Visual acuity improvements were maintained for 3 months after the cessation of treatment. Binocular iPad treatment rapidly improved visual acuity, and visual acuity was stable for at least 3 months following the cessation of treatment.

  1. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Olivier; Frankó, Edit

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia). Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently ...

  2. Binocular vision in amblyopia : structure, suppression and plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin; Baker, Daniel Hart

    2014-01-01

    The amblyopic visual system was once considered to be structurally monocular. However, it now evident that the capacity for binocular vision is present in many observers with amblyopia. This has led to new techniques for quantifying suppression that have provided insights into the relationship between suppression and the monocular and binocular visual deficits experienced by amblyopes. Furthermore, new treatments are emerging that directly target suppressive interactions within the visual cor...

  3. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Olivier; Frankó, Edit

    2014-01-01

    Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia). Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence shows that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterize the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  4. Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular vision: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is a cerebral visual impairment considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia. Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular vision using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence show that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D vision from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the impaired binocular vision in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterise the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them.

  5. Binocular optical axis parallelism detection precision analysis based on Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Bingqi

    2018-02-01

    According to the working principle of the binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument, and in view of all components of the instrument, the various factors affect the system precision is analyzed, and then precision analysis model is established. Based on the error distribution, Monte Carlo method is used to analyze the relationship between the comprehensive error and the change of the center coordinate of the circle target image. The method can further guide the error distribution, optimize control the factors which have greater influence on the comprehensive error, and improve the measurement accuracy of the optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument.

  6. Adaptive strategies of remote systems operators exposed to perturbed camera-viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Manahan, Meera K.; Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Legendre, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary investigation of the use of perturbed visual feedback during the performance of simulated space-based remote manipulation tasks. The primary objective of this NASA evaluation was to determine to what extent operators exhibit adaptive strategies which allow them to perform these specific types of remote manipulation tasks more efficiently while exposed to perturbed visual feedback. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to establish a set of preliminary guidelines for enhancing remote manipulation performance and reducing the adverse effects. These objectives were accomplished by studying the remote manipulator performance of test subjects exposed to various perturbed camera-viewing conditions while performing a simulated space-based remote manipulation task. Statistical analysis of performance and subjective data revealed that remote manipulation performance was adversely affected by the use of perturbed visual feedback and performance tended to improve with successive trials in most perturbed viewing conditions.

  7. Reward modulates perception in binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-14

    Our perception does not provide us with an exact imprint of the outside world, but is continuously adapted to our internal expectations, task sets, and behavioral goals. Although effects of reward-or value in general-on perception therefore seem likely, how valuation modulates perception and how such modulation relates to attention is largely unknown. We probed effects of reward on perception by using a binocular-rivalry paradigm. Distinct gratings drifting in opposite directions were presented to each observer's eyes. To objectify their subjective perceptual experience, the optokinetic nystagmus was used as measure of current perceptual dominance. In a first experiment, one of the percepts was either rewarded or attended. We found that reward and attention similarly biased perception. In a second experiment, observers performed an attentionally demanding task either on the rewarded stimulus, the other stimulus, or both. We found that-on top of an attentional effect on perception-at each level of attentional load, reward still modulated perception by increasing the dominance of the rewarded percept. Similarly, penalizing one percept increased dominance of the other at each level of attentional load. In turn, rewarding-and similarly nonpunishing-a percept yielded performance benefits that are typically associated with selective attention. In conclusion, our data show that value modulates perception in a similar way as the volitional deployment of attention, even though the relative effect of value is largely unaffected by an attention task. © 2015 ARVO.

  8. More superimposition for contrast-modulated than luminance-modulated stimuli during binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerswetat, Jan; Formankiewicz, Monika A; Waugh, Sarah J

    2018-01-01

    Luminance-modulated noise (LM) and contrast-modulated noise (CM) gratings were presented with interocularly correlated, uncorrelated and anti-correlated binary noise to investigate their contributions to mixed percepts, specifically piecemeal and superimposition, during binocular rivalry. Stimuli were sine-wave gratings of 2 c/deg presented within 2 deg circular apertures. The LM stimulus contrast was 0.1 and the CM stimulus modulation depth was 1.0, equating to approximately 5 and 7 times detection threshold, respectively. Twelve 45 s trials, per noise configuration, were carried out. Fifteen participants with normal vision indicated via button presses whether an exclusive, piecemeal or superimposed percept was seen. For all noise conditions LM stimuli generated more exclusive visibility, and lower proportions of superimposition. CM stimuli led to greater proportions and longer periods of superimposition. For both stimulus types, correlated interocular noise generated more superimposition than did anti- or uncorrelated interocular noise. No significant effect of stimulus type (LM vs CM) or noise configuration (correlated, uncorrelated, anti-correlated) on piecemeal perception was found. Exclusive visibility was greater in proportion, and perceptual changes more numerous, during binocular rivalry for CM stimuli when interocular noise was not correlated. This suggests that mutual inhibition, initiated by non-correlated noise CM gratings, occurs between neurons processing luminance noise (first-order component), as well as those processing gratings (second-order component). Therefore, first- and second-order components can contribute to overall binocular rivalry responses. We suggest the addition of a new well to the current energy landscape model for binocular rivalry that takes superimposition into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceptual Relearning of Binocular Fusion and Stereoacuity After Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Schmidt, Lena; Reinhart, Stefan; Adams, Michaela; Garbacenkaite, Ruta; Leonhardt, Eva; Kuhn, Caroline; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-06-01

    Brain lesions may disturb binocular fusion and stereopsis, leading to blurred vision, diplopia, and reduced binocular depth perception for which no evaluated treatment is currently available. Objective The study evaluated the effects of a novel binocular vision treatment designed to improve convergent fusional amplitude and stereoacuity in patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods Patients (20 in all: 11 with stroke, 9 with TBI) were tested in fusional convergence, stereoacuity, near/far visual acuity, accommodation, and subjective binocular reading time until diplopia emerged at 6 different time points. All participants were treated in a single subject baseline design, with 3 baseline assessments before treatment (pretherapy), an assessment immediately after a 6-week treatment period (posttherapy), and 2 follow-up tests 3 and 6 months after treatment. Patients received a novel fusion and dichoptic training using 3 different devices to slowly increase fusional and disparity angles. Results At pretherapy, the stroke and TBI groups showed severe impairments in convergent fusional range, stereoacuity, subjective reading duration, and partially in accommodation (only TBI group). After treatment, both groups showed considerable improvements in all these variables as well as slightly increased near visual acuity. No significant changes were observed during the pretherapy and follow-up periods, ruling out spontaneous recovery and demonstrating long-term stability of binocular treatment effects. Conclusions This proof-of-principle study indicates a substantial treatment-induced plasticity of the lesioned brain in the relearning of binocular fusion and stereovision, thus providing new, effective rehabilitation strategies to treat binocular vision deficits resulting from permanent visual cortical damage. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Real-time markerless Augmented Reality for Remote Handling system in bad viewing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaei, Z.; Hahto, A.; Mattila, J.; Siuko, M.; Semeraro, L.

    2011-01-01

    Remote Handling (RH) in harsh environments usually has to tackle the lack of sufficient visual feedback for the human operator due to the limited number of on-site cameras, the not optimized position of the cameras, the poor viewing angles, occlusion, failure, etc. Augmented Reality (AR) enables the user to perceive virtual computer-generated objects in a real scene. The most common goals usually include visibility enhancement and provision of extra information, such as positional data of various objects. The proposed AR system first recognizes and locates the markerless object by using a template based matching algorithm, and then augments the virtual model on top of the recognized item. The tracking algorithm is exploited for locating the object in a continuous sequence of frames. Conceptually, the template is found by computing the similarity between the template and the image frame, for all the relevant template poses (rotation and translation). As a case study, AR interface was displaying measured orientation and transformation of the Water Hydraulic Manipulator (WHMAN) Divertor preloading tool, in near real-time tracking. The bad viewing condition implies on the case when the view angle is such that the interesting features of the object are not in the field of view. The method in this paper was validated in concrete operational context at DTP2. The developed method proved to deliver robust positional and orientation information while augmenting and tracking the moving tool object.

  11. 360⁰ -View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360⁰-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The “360⁰” is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360⁰-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360⁰-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  12. Temporal Integration of Auditory Stimulation and Binocular Disparity Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zannoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies using visual objects defined by luminance have reported that the auditory event must be presented 30 to 40 ms after the visual stimulus to perceive audiovisual synchrony. In the present study, we used visual objects defined only by their binocular disparity. We measured the optimal latency between visual and auditory stimuli for the perception of synchrony using a method introduced by Moutoussis & Zeki (1997. Visual stimuli were defined either by luminance and disparity or by disparity only. They moved either back and forth between 6 and 12 arcmin or from left to right at a constant disparity of 9 arcmin. This visual modulation was presented together with an amplitude-modulated 500 Hz tone. Both modulations were sinusoidal (frequency: 0.7 Hz. We found no difference between 2D and 3D motion for luminance stimuli: a 40 ms auditory lag was necessary for perceived synchrony. Surprisingly, even though stereopsis is often thought to be slow, we found a similar optimal latency in the disparity 3D motion condition (55 ms. However, when participants had to judge simultaneity for disparity 2D motion stimuli, it led to larger latencies (170 ms, suggesting that stereo motion detectors are poorly suited to track 2D motion.

  13. Analysis of scene distortions in stereoscopic images due to the variation of the ideal viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, Alberto; Villa, Dario

    2011-03-01

    Recently stereoscopy has increased a lot its popularity and various technologies are spreading in theaters and homes allowing observation of stereoscopic images and movies, becoming affordable even for home users. However there are some golden rules that users should follow to ensure a better enjoyment of stereoscopic images, first of all the viewing condition should not be too different from the ideal ones, which were assumed during the production process. To allow the user to perceive stereo depth instead of a flat image, two different views of the same scene are shown to the subject, one is seen just through his left eye and the other just through the right one; the vision process is making the work of merging the two images in a virtual three-dimensional scene, giving to the user the perception of depth. The two images presented to the user were created, either from image synthesis or from more traditional techniques, following the rules of perspective. These rules need some boundary conditions to be explicit, such as eye separation, field of view, parallax distance, viewer position and orientation. In this paper we are interested in studying how the variation of the viewer position and orientation from the ideal ones expressed as specified parameters in the image creation process, is affecting the correctness of the reconstruction of the three-dimensional virtual scene.

  14. A gaze-contingent display to study contrast sensitivity under natural viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Michael; Bex, Peter J.

    2011-03-01

    Contrast sensitivity has been extensively studied over the last decades and there are well-established models of early vision that were derived by presenting the visual system with synthetic stimuli such as sine-wave gratings near threshold contrasts. Natural scenes, however, contain a much wider distribution of orientations, spatial frequencies, and both luminance and contrast values. Furthermore, humans typically move their eyes two to three times per second under natural viewing conditions, but most laboratory experiments require subjects to maintain central fixation. We here describe a gaze-contingent display capable of performing real-time contrast modulations of video in retinal coordinates, thus allowing us to study contrast sensitivity when dynamically viewing dynamic scenes. Our system is based on a Laplacian pyramid for each frame that efficiently represents individual frequency bands. Each output pixel is then computed as a locally weighted sum of pyramid levels to introduce local contrast changes as a function of gaze. Our GPU implementation achieves real-time performance with more than 100 fps on high-resolution video (1920 by 1080 pixels) and a synthesis latency of only 1.5ms. Psychophysical data show that contrast sensitivity is greatly decreased in natural videos and under dynamic viewing conditions. Synthetic stimuli therefore only poorly characterize natural vision.

  15. Binocular function in patients with pseudophakic monovision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Misae; Shimizu, Kimiya; Niida, Takahiro; Amano, Rie; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between ocular deviation and stereopsis and fusion in patients who had pseudophakic monovision surgery. Department of Ophthalmology, Kitasato University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan. Retrospective comparative case series. Patients had surgical monovision correction with monofocal intraocular lens placement followed by routine postoperative examinations. The alternate prism cover test was used to measure motor alignment. Sensory tests for binocularity included sensory fusion determinations using the Worth 4-dot test, near stereopsis test, and fusion amplitude measured with a prism bar. Patients with monovision were categorized as having small-angle exophoria (≤10.0 prism diopters [Δ]) or moderate-angle exophoria (>10.0 Δ). This study comprised 60 patients with a mean age of 70.2 years ± 7.7 (SD). The difference in the mean stereopsis values between patients with small-angle exophoria and patients with moderate-angle exophoria was statistically significant (P<.001). In the moderate-angle exophoria group, 10 patients (62.5%) developed intermittent exotropia after surgery; however, no serious ocular deviation problems were observed. The fusion amplitudes in patients with pseudophakic monovision were approximately similar to normal values. Patients with moderate-angle exophoria were more likely to fail the Worth 4-dot test than those with small-angle exophoria. In patients with pseudophakic monovision having a near exophoria angle of more than 10.0 Δ, the possibility of changes in ocular deviation and stereopsis after surgery is a concern. Moreover, the application of monovision in patients with a previous moderate-angle exophoria should be carefully considered. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation. (paper)

  17. A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang

    2015-09-01

    Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.

  18. New insights into amblyopia: binocular therapy and noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Thompson, Benjamin

    2013-02-01

    The current approach to the treatment of amblyopia is problematic for a number of reasons. First, it promotes recovery of monocular vision but because it is not designed to promote binocularity, its binocular outcomes often are disappointing. Second, compliance is poor and variable. Third, the effectiveness of the treatment is thought to decrease with increasing age. We discuss 2 new approaches aimed at recovering visual function in adults with amblyopia. The first is a binocular approach to amblyopia treatment that is showing promise in initial clinical studies. The second is still in development and involves the use of well-established noninvasive brain stimulation techniques to temporarily alter the balance of excitation and inhibition in the visual cortex. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The sensitivity of schlieren systems for viewing ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanstead, P.D.

    1976-01-01

    A novel set of simplifying assumptions makes computer prediction of schlieren sensitivity possible economically. Predictions correlate with experimental and published figures. Other means of improving sensitivity are given. A compact schlieren system giving binocular stereoscopic viewing is described

  20. Binocular iPad treatment for amblyopia in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E; Li, Simone L; Jost, Reed M; Morale, Sarah E; De La Cruz, Angie; Stager, David; Dao, Lori; Stager, David R

    2015-02-01

    Recent experimental evidence supports a role for binocular visual experience in the treatment of amblyopia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated binocular visual experience with dichoptic iPad games could effectively treat amblyopia in preschool children. A total of 50 consecutive amblyopic preschool children 3-6.9 years of age were assigned to play sham iPad games (first 5 children) or binocular iPad games (n = 45) for at least 4 hours per week for 4 weeks. Thirty (67%) children in the binocular iPad group and 4 (80%) in the sham iPad group were also treated with patching at a different time of day. Visual acuity and stereoacuity were assessed at baseline, at 4 weeks, and at 3 months after the cessation of game play. The sham iPad group had no significant improvement in visual acuity (t4 = 0.34, P = 0.75). In the binocular iPad group, mean visual acuity (plus or minus standard error) improved from 0.43 ± 0.03 at baseline to 0.34 ± 0.03 logMAR at 4 weeks (n = 45; paired t44 = 4.93; P iPad games for ≥8 hours (≥50% compliance) had significantly more visual acuity improvement than children who played 0-4 hours (t43 = 4.21, P = 0.0001). Repeated binocular experience, provided by dichoptic iPad game play, was more effective than sham iPad game play as a treatment for amblyopia in preschool children. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Zograscopic viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan; Wijntjes, Maarten; van Doorn, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The "zograscope" is a "visual aid" (commonly known as "optical machine" in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates the physiological cues (binocular disparity, vergence, accommodation, movement parallax, and image blur) that might indicate the flatness of the picture surface. The spatial structure of pictorial space is due to the remaining pictorial cues. As a consequence, many (or perhaps most) observers are aware of a heightened "plasticity" of the pictorial content for zograscopic as compared with natural viewing. We discuss the optics of the zograscope in some detail. Such an analysis is not available in the literature, whereas common "explanations" of the apparatus are evidently nonsensical. We constructed a zograscope, using modern parts, and present psychophysical data on its performance.

  2. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntjes, M.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim

  3. Distribution of light in the human retina under natural viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Jorge C.

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness inAmerica. The fact that AMD wreaks most of the damage in the center of the retina raises the question of whether light, integrated over long periods, is more concentrated in the macula. A method, based on eye-tracking, was developed to measure the distribution of light in the retina under natural viewing conditions. The hypothesis was that integrated over time, retinal illumination peaked in the macula. Additionally a possible relationship between age and retinal illumination was investigated. The eye tracker superimposed the subject's gaze position on a video recorded by a scene camera. Five informed subjects were employed in feasibility tests, and 58 naive subjects participated in 5 phases. In phase 1 the subjects viewed a gray-scale image. In phase 2, they observed a sequence of photographic images. In phase 3 they viewed a video. In phase 4, they worked on a computer; in phase 5, the subjects walked around freely. The informed subjects were instructed to gaze at bright objects in the field of view and then at dark objects. Naive subjects were allowed to gaze freely for all phases. Using the subject's gaze coordinates, and the video provided by the scene camera, the cumulative light distribution on the retina was calculated for ˜15° around the fovea. As expected for control subjects, cumulative retinal light distributions peaked and dipped in the fovea when they gazed at bright or dark objects respectively. The light distribution maps obtained from the naive subjects presented a tendency to peak in the macula for phases 1, 2, and 3, a consistent tendency in phase 4 and a variable tendency in phase 5. The feasibility of using an eye-tracker system to measure the distribution of light in the retina was demonstrated, thus helping to understand the role played by light exposure in the etiology of AMD. Results showed that a tendency for light to peak in the macula is a characteristic of some

  4. Parts-based stereoscopic image assessment by learning binocular manifold color visual properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyong; Yu, Mei; Luo, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-11-01

    Existing stereoscopic image quality assessment (SIQA) methods are mostly based on the luminance information, in which color information is not sufficiently considered. Actually, color is part of the important factors that affect human visual perception, and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and manifold learning are in line with human visual perception. We propose an SIQA method based on learning binocular manifold color visual properties. To be more specific, in the training phase, a feature detector is created based on NMF with manifold regularization by considering color information, which not only allows parts-based manifold representation of an image, but also manifests localized color visual properties. In the quality estimation phase, visually important regions are selected by considering different human visual attention, and feature vectors are extracted by using the feature detector. Then the feature similarity index is calculated and the parts-based manifold color feature energy (PMCFE) for each view is defined based on the color feature vectors. The final quality score is obtained by considering a binocular combination based on PMCFE. The experimental results on LIVE I and LIVE Π 3-D IQA databases demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve much higher consistency with subjective evaluations than the state-of-the-art SIQA methods.

  5. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. Binocular vision in a virtual world: visual deficits following the wearing of a head-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon-Williams, M; Wann, J P; Rushton, S

    1993-10-01

    The short-term effects on binocular stability of wearing a conventional head-mounted display (HMD) to explore a virtual reality environment were examined. Twenty adult subjects (aged 19-29 years) wore a commercially available HMD for 10 min while cycling around a computer generated 3-D world. The twin screen presentations were set to suit the average interpupillary distance of our subject population, to mimic the conditions of public access virtual reality systems. Subjects were examined before and after exposure to the HMD and there were clear signs of induced binocular stress for a number of the subjects. The implications of introducing such HMDs into the workplace and entertainment environments are discussed.

  7. The disparate histories of binocular vision and binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2018-01-01

    Vision and hearing are dependent on disparities of spatial patterns received by two eyes and on time and intensity differences to two ears. However, the experiences of a single world have masked attention to these disparities. While eyes and ears are paired, there has not been parity in the attention directed to their functioning. Phenomena involving binocular vision were commented upon since antiquity whereas those about binaural hearing are much more recent. This history is compared with respect to the experimental manipulations of dichoptic and dichotic stimuli and the instruments used to stimulate the paired organs. Binocular color mixing led to studies of binaural hearing and direction and distance in visual localization were analyzed before those for auditory localization. Experimental investigations began in the nineteenth century with the invention of instruments like the stereoscope and pseudoscope, soon to be followed by their binaural equivalents, the stethophone and pseudophone.

  8. Binocular depth processing in the ventral visual pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    One of the most powerful forms of depth perception capitalizes on the small relative displacements, or binocular disparities, in the images projected onto each eye. The brain employs these disparities to facilitate various computations, including sensori-motor transformations (reaching, grasping), scene segmentation and object recognition. In accordance with these different functions, disparity activates a large number of regions in the brain of both humans and monkeys. Here, we review how di...

  9. Ways of Viewing Pictorial Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Maarten W. A. Wijntjes

    2017-01-01

    The plastic effect is historically used to denote various forms of stereopsis. The vivid impression of depth often associated with binocular stereopsis can also be achieved in other ways, for example, using a synopter. Accounts of this go back over a hundred years. These ways of viewing all aim to diminish sensorial evidence that the picture is physically flat. Although various viewing modes have been proposed in the literature, their effects have never been compared. In the current study, we...

  10. Binocular Rivalry in a Competitive Neural Network with Synaptic Depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2010-01-01

    We study binocular rivalry in a competitive neural network with synaptic depression. In particular, we consider two coupled hypercolums within primary visual cortex (V1), representing orientation selective cells responding to either left or right eye inputs. Coupling between hypercolumns is dominated by inhibition, especially for neurons with dissimilar orientation preferences. Within hypercolumns, recurrent connectivity is excitatory for similar orientations and inhibitory for different orientations. All synaptic connections are modifiable by local synaptic depression. When the hypercolumns are driven by orthogonal oriented stimuli, it is possible to induce oscillations that are representative of binocular rivalry. We first analyze the occurrence of oscillations in a space-clamped version of the model using a fast-slow analys is, taking advantage of the fact that depression evolves much slower than population activity. We th en analyze the onset of oscillations in the full spatially extended system by carrying out a piecewise smooth stability analysis of single (winner-take-all) and double (fusion) bumps within the network. Although our stability analysis takes into account only instabilities associated with real eigenvalues, it identifies points of instability that are consistent with what is found numerically. In particular, we show that, in regions of parameter space where double bumps are unstable and no single bumps exist, binocular rivalry can arise as a slow alternation between either population supporting a bump. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  12. Is there any evidence for the validity of diagnostic criteria used for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho-Martínez, Pilar; García-Muñoz, Ángel; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the diagnostic criteria used in the scientific literature published in the past 25 years for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions and to explore if the epidemiological analysis of diagnostic validity has been used to propose which clinical criteria should be used for diagnostic purposes. We carried out a systematic review of papers on accommodative and non-strabic binocular disorders published from 1986 to 2012 analysing the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS databases. We admitted original articles about diagnosis of these anomalies in any population. We identified 839 articles and 12 studies were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. The review shows a wide range of clinical signs and cut-off points between authors. Only 3 studies (regarding accommodative anomalies) assessed diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs. Their results suggest using the accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility for diagnosing accommodative insufficiency and a high positive relative accommodation for accommodative excess. The remaining 9 articles did not analyze diagnostic accuracy, assessing a diagnosis with the criteria the authors considered. We also found differences between studies in the way of considering patients' symptomatology. 3 studies of 12 analyzed, performed a validation of a symptom survey used for convergence insufficiency. Scientific literature reveals differences between authors according to diagnostic criteria for accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions. Diagnostic accuracy studies show that there is only certain evidence for accommodative conditions. For binocular anomalies there is only evidence about a validated questionnaire for convergence insufficiency with no data of diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Binocular Symmetry/Asymmetry of Scleral Redness as a Cue for Sadness, Healthiness, and Attractiveness in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Provine

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Among primates, only humans have the white sclerae that provide the ground necessary to display their own color and that of the overlying conjunctiva. Scleral color, primarily redness, provides cues of socially and biologically significant information about an individual. The present study examines the effect of the asymmetry of binocular scleral redness on perceived sadness, healthiness, and attractiveness by contrasting ratings of images of individuals who had one, both, or neither sclera reddened by digital editing. Building upon previous research, this study further defines the details of the scleral color display and contributes to the more general issue of facial and body symmetry, predictors of phenotypic condition and genotypic quality that are of interest to evolutionary theorists. Individuals with binocular and monocular redness were rated as sadder, less healthy, and less attractive than those with untinted control sclerae, with ratings corresponding to the degree of redness or whiteness. Bilaterally symmetrical (binocular scleral redness or whiteness provided anchorage points for ratings, with ratings for bilaterally asymmetrical (monocular redness or whiteness falling between them; there was no unique effect of asymmetry.

  14. Monocular zones in stereoscopic scenes: A useful source of information for human binocular vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie M.

    2010-02-01

    When an object is closer to an observer than the background, the small differences between right and left eye views are interpreted by the human brain as depth. This basic ability of the human visual system, called stereopsis, lies at the core of all binocular three-dimensional (3-D) perception and related technological display development. To achieve stereopsis, it is traditionally assumed that corresponding locations in the right and left eye's views must first be matched, then the relative differences between right and left eye locations are used to calculate depth. But this is not the whole story. At every object-background boundary, there are regions of the background that only one eye can see because, in the other eye's view, the foreground object occludes that region of background. Such monocular zones do not have a corresponding match in the other eye's view and can thus cause problems for depth extraction algorithms. In this paper I will discuss evidence, from our knowledge of human visual perception, illustrating that monocular zones do not pose problems for our human visual systems, rather, our visual systems can extract depth from such zones. I review the relevant human perception literature in this area, and show some recent data aimed at quantifying the perception of depth from monocular zones. The paper finishes with a discussion of the potential importance of considering monocular zones, for stereo display technology and depth compression algorithms.

  15. Recent developments for the Large Binocular Telescope Guiding Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, T.; De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Lesser, M.; Leibold, T.; Miller, D.; Meeks, R.; Hahn, T.; Storm, J.; Sargent, T.; Summers, D.; Hill, J.; Kraus, J.; Hooper, S.; Fisher, D.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has eight Acquisition, Guiding, and wavefront Sensing Units (AGw units). They provide guiding and wavefront sensing capability at eight different locations at both direct and bent Gregorian focal stations. Recent additions of focal stations for PEPSI and MODS instruments doubled the number of focal stations in use including respective motion, camera controller server computers, and software infrastructure communicating with Guiding Control Subsystem (GCS). This paper describes the improvements made to the LBT GCS and explains how these changes have led to better maintainability and contributed to increased reliability. This paper also discusses the current GCS status and reviews potential upgrades to further improve its performance.

  16. Doctors' views of working conditions in rural hospitals in the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management support impact negatively on doctors' views of working in district hospitals. Unless these ... and skills gap of district hospital practitioners in .... or tertiary hospitals, were highly regarded as a means of updating skills. Practical hands-on training was preferred to lectures. Lack of time, need for locums, remoteness.

  17. Two eyes, one vision: binocular motion perception in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, M.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human vision is the fact that it is binocular, i.e. that we have two eyes. As a result, the brain nearly always receives two slightly different images of the same visual scene. Yet, we only perceive a single image and thus our brain has to actively combine the binocular visual

  18. The future of binocular rivalry research: reaching through a window on consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van Ee, Raymond; Miller, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Binocular rivalry is often considered an experimental window on the neural processes of consciousness. We propose three distinct approaches to exploit this window. First, one may look through the window, using binocular rivalry as a passive tool to dissociate unaltered sensory input from wavering

  19. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  20. Remote landslide mapping using a laser rangefinder binocular and GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santangelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested a high-quality laser rangefinder binocular coupled with a GPS receiver connected to a Tablet PC running dedicated software to help recognize and map in the field recent rainfall-induced landslides. The system was tested in the period between March and April 2010, in the Monte Castello di Vibio area, Umbria, Central Italy. To test the equipment, we measured thirteen slope failures that were mapped previously during a visual reconnaissance field campaign conducted in February and March 2010. For reference, four slope failures were also mapped by walking the GPS receiver along the landslide perimeter. Comparison of the different mappings revealed that the geographical information obtained remotely for each landslide by the rangefinder binocular and GPS was comparable to the information obtained by walking the GPS around the landslide perimeter, and was superior to the information obtained through the visual reconnaissance mapping. Although our tests were not exhaustive, we maintain that the system is effective to map recent rainfall induced landslides in the field, and we foresee the possibility of using the same (or similar system to map landslides, and other geomorphological features, in other areas.

  1. A new form of rapid binocular plasticity in adult with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurological disorder of binocular vision affecting up to 3% of the population resulting from a disrupted period of early visual development. Recently, it has been shown that vision can be partially restored by intensive monocular or dichoptic training (4-6 weeks). This can occur even in adults owing to a residual degree of brain plasticity initiated by repetitive and successive sensory stimulation. Here we show that the binocular imbalance that characterizes amblyopia can be reduced by occluding the amblyopic eye with a translucent patch for as little as 2.5 hours, suggesting a degree of rapid binocular plasticity in adults resulting from a lack of sensory stimulation. The integrated binocular benefit is larger in our amblyopic group than in our normal control group. We propose that this rapid improvement in function, as a result of reduced sensory stimulation, represents a new form of plasticity operating at a binocular site.

  2. Conditional conservatism and value relevance of financial reporting: A study in view of converging accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Maximiliaan Willem Pierre; Iatridis, George Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between conditional conservatism and value relevance in the EU and US. Specifically, it investigates whether this relationship differs under US GAAP and IFRS compliance. In addition, this study examines the trend in value relevance, conditional conservatism and

  3. Reinforcement of perceptual inference: reward and punishment alter conscious visual perception during binocular rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor eWilbertz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception is an inferential process, which becomes immediately evident when sensory information is conflicting or ambiguous and thus allows for more than one perceptual interpretation. Thinking the idea of perception as inference through to the end results in a blurring of boundaries between perception and action selection, as perceptual inference implies the construction of a percept as an active process. Here we therefore wondered whether perception shares a key characteristic of action selection, namely that it is shaped by reinforcement learning. In two behavioral experiments, we used binocular rivalry to examine whether perceptual inference can be influenced by the association of perceptual outcomes with reward or punishment, respectively, in analogy to instrumental conditioning. Binocular rivalry was evoked by two orthogonal grating stimuli presented to the two eyes, resulting in perceptual alternations between the two gratings. Perception was tracked indirectly and objectively through a target detection task, which allowed us to preclude potential reporting biases. Monetary rewards or punishments were given repeatedly during perception of only one of the two rivalling stimuli. We found an increase in dominance durations for the percept associated with reward, relative to the non-rewarded percept. In contrast, punishment led to an increase of the non-punished compared to a relative decrease of the punished percept. Our results show that perception shares key characteristics with action selection, in that it is influenced by reward and punishment in opposite directions, thus narrowing the gap between the conceptually separated domains of perception and action selection. We conclude that perceptual inference is an adaptive process that is shaped by its consequences.

  4. 360°-View of Quantum Theory and Ab Initio Simulation at Extreme Conditions: 2014 Sanibel Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Sanibel Symposium 2014 was held February 16-21, 2014, at the King and Prince, St. Simons Island, GA. It was successful in bringing condensed-matter physicists and quantum chemists together productively to drive the emergence of those specialties. The Symposium had a significant role in preparing a whole generation of quantum theorists. The 54th Sanibel meeting looked to the future in two ways. We had 360°-View sessions to honor the exceptional contributions of Rodney Bartlett (70), Bill Butler (70), Yngve Öhrn (80), Fritz Schaefer (70), and Malcolm Stocks (70). The work of these five has greatly impacted several generations of quantum chemists and condensed matter physicists. The ''360°'' is the sum of their ages. More significantly, it symbolizes a panoramic view of critical developments and accomplishments in theoretical and computational chemistry and physics oriented toward the future. Thus, two of the eight 360°-View sessions focused specifically on younger scientists. The 360°-View program was the major component of the 2014 Sanibel meeting. Another four sessions included a sub-symposium on ab initio Simulations at Extreme Conditions, with focus on getting past the barriers of present-day Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics by advances in finite-temperature density functional theory, orbital-free DFT, and new all-numerical approaches.

  5. Uniocular and binocular fields of rotation measures: Octopus versus Goldmann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Hanif, Sahira

    2011-06-01

    To compare the range of ocular rotations measured by Octopus versus Goldmann perimetry. Forty subjects (20 controls and 20 patients with impaired ocular movements) were prospectively recruited, age range 21-83 years. Range of uniocular rotations was measured in six vectors corresponding to extraocular muscle actions: 0°, 67°, 141°, 180°, 216°, 293°. Fields of binocular single vision were assessed at 30° intervals. Vector measurements were utilised to calculate an area score for the field of uniocular rotations or binocular field of single vision. Two test speeds were used for Octopus testing: 3°/ and 10°/second. Test duration was two thirds quicker for Octopus 10°/second than for 3°/second stimulus speed, and slightly quicker for Goldmann. Mean area for control subjects for uniocular field was 7910.45 degrees(2) for Goldmann, 7032.14 for Octopus 3°/second and 7840.66 for Octopus 10°/second. Mean area for patient subjects of right uniocular field was 8567.21 degrees(2) for Goldmann, 5906.72 for Octopus 3°/second and 8806.44 for Octopus 10°/second. Mean area for left uniocular field was 8137.49 degrees(2) for Goldmann, 8127.9 for Octopus 3°/second and 8950.54 for Octopus 10°/second. Range of measured rotation was significantly larger for Octopus 10°/second speed. Our results suggest that the Octopus perimeter is an acceptable alternative method of assessment for uniocular ductions and binocular field of single vision. Speed of stimulus significantly alters test duration for Octopus perimetry. Comparisons of results from both perimeters show that quantitative measurements differ, although qualitatively the results are similar. Differences per mean vectors were less than 5° (within clinically accepted variances) for both controls and patients when comparing Goldmann to Octopus 10°/second speed. However, differences were almost 10° for the patient group when comparing Goldmann to Octopus 3°/second speed. Thus, speed of stimulus must be considered

  6. Contrast-balanced binocular treatment in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa M; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Dai, Shuan; Black, Joanna; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-11-28

    Children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataract have been excluded from much of the emerging research into amblyopia treatment. An investigation was conducted to determine whether contrast-balanced binocular treatment - a strategy currently being explored for children with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia - may be effective in children with deprivation amblyopia. An unmasked, case-series design intended to assess proof of principle was employed. Eighteen children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts (early bilateral n = 7, early unilateral n = 7, developmental n = 4), as well as 10 children with anisometropic (n = 8) or mixed anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia (n = 2) were prescribed one hour a day of treatment over a six-week period. Supervised treatment was available. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, global motion perception and interocular suppression were measured pre- and post-treatment. Visual acuity improvements occurred in the anisometropic/strabismic group (0.15 ± 0.05 logMAR, p = 0.014), but contrast sensitivity did not change. As a group, children with deprivation amblyopia had a smaller but statistically significant improvement in weaker eye visual acuity (0.09 ± 0.03 logMAR, p = 0.004), as well a significant improvement in weaker eye contrast sensitivity (p = 0.004). Subgroup analysis suggested that the children with early bilateral deprivation had the largest improvements, while children with early unilateral cataract did not improve. Interestingly, binocular contrast sensitivity also improved in children with early bilateral deprivation. Global motion perception improved for both subgroups with early visual deprivation, as well as children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. Interocular suppression improved for all subgroups except children with early unilateral deprivation. These data suggest that supervised contrast-balanced binocular

  7. A thermodynamic view of tracer plume evolution: Complete mixing condition evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constain A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of most controversial issues of modern tracer theory is the “complete mixing condition” because of its importance in evolution of hazardous solutes in natural flows. This condition named also as “Mixing length” measures the distance from pouring point when tracer particles have spread uniformly on cross section of stream. The point is that until now there is no rational, complete and easy to use formula to calculate it. Rather, this condition is evaluated mostly by means of empirical relationships; among them Ruthven's is one of current usage. Also there are statistical methods that applied by software packages allow to characterize this condition. However a new focus on this issue is important, because is necessary to tie together, generality, easiness and accuracy. This paper puts on discussion a thermodynamics method to understand when a tracer is in this remarkable condition. Herein it is developed the conditions when this method may be applied. It is shown also how the resulting formula is convergent with Ruthven's equation. An experimental demonstration is presented.

  8. A review on self-healing in reinforced concrete structures in view of serving conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, H.; Ye, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, different mechanisms of self-healing, i.e. self-healing based on adhesive agents, self-healing based on bacteria, self-healing based on autogenous self-healing were described. Their required conditions were summarized. The previous investigations showed that all mechanisms of

  9. Contextual Cueing Effect in Spatial Layout Defined by Binocular Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Zhuang, Qian; Ma, Jie; Tu, Shen; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Hong-jin

    2017-01-01

    Repeated visual context induces higher search efficiency, revealing a contextual cueing effect, which depends on the association between the target and its visual context. In this study, participants performed a visual search task where search items were presented with depth information defined by binocular disparity. When the 3-dimensional (3D) configurations were repeated over blocks, the contextual cueing effect was obtained (Experiment 1). When depth information was in chaos over repeated configurations, visual search was not facilitated and the contextual cueing effect largely crippled (Experiment 2). However, when we made the search items within a tiny random displacement in the 2-dimentional (2D) plane but maintained the depth information constant, the contextual cueing was preserved (Experiment 3). We concluded that the contextual cueing effect was robust in the context provided by 3D space with stereoscopic information, and more importantly, the visual system prioritized stereoscopic information in learning of spatial information when depth information was available. PMID:28912739

  10. Natural Tendency towards Beauty in Humans: Evidence from Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce; Xia, Tiansheng; Qin, Kaixin; Mo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Although human preference for beauty is common and compelling in daily life, it remains unknown whether such preference is essentially subserved by social cognitive demands or natural tendency towards beauty encoded in the human mind intrinsically. Here we demonstrate experimentally that humans automatically exhibit preference for visual and moral beauty without explicit cognitive efforts. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we identified enhanced gender-independent perceptual dominance for physically attractive persons, and the results suggested universal preference for visual beauty based on perceivable forms. Moreover, we also identified perceptual dominance enhancement for characters associated with virtuous descriptions after controlling for facial attractiveness and vigilance-related attention effects, which suggested a similar implicit preference for moral beauty conveyed in prosocial behaviours. Our findings show that behavioural preference for beauty is driven by an inherent natural tendency towards beauty in humans rather than explicit social cognitive processes.

  11. Binocular diplopia in a tertiary hospital: Aetiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Fuentes, D; Gómez de Liaño, P; Ordóñez, M A

    2017-12-01

    To study the causes, diagnosis and treatment in a case series of binocular diplopia. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients seen in the Diplopia Unit of a tertiary centre during a one-year period. Diplopia was classified as: acute≤1 month since onset; subacute (1-6 months); and chronic (>6 months). Resolution of diplopia was classified as: spontaneous if it disappeared without treatment, partial if the course was intermittent, and non-spontaneous if treatment was required. It was considered a good outcome when diplopia disappeared completely (with or without treatment), or when diplopia was intermittent without significantly affecting the quality of life. A total of 60 cases were included. The mean age was 58.65 years (60% female). An acute or subacute presentation was observed in 60% of the patients. The mean onset of diplopia was 82.97 weeks. The most frequent aetiology was ischaemic (45%). The most frequent diagnosis was sixth nerve palsy (38.3%), followed by decompensated strabismus (30%). Neuroimaging showed structural lesions in 17.7% of the patients. There was a spontaneous resolution in 28.3% of the cases, and there was a good outcome with disappearance of the diplopia in 53.3% at the end of the study. The most frequent causes of binocular diplopia were cranial nerve palsies, especially the sixth cranial nerve, followed by decompensated strabismus. Structural lesions in imaging tests were more than expected. Only one third of patients had a spontaneous resolution, and half of them did not have a good outcome despite of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Origins of strabismus and loss of binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Quoc, Emmanuel; Milleret, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Strabismus is a frequent ocular disorder that develops early in life in humans. As a general rule, it is characterized by a misalignment of the visual axes which most often appears during the critical period of visual development. However other characteristics of strabismus may vary greatly among subjects, for example, being convergent or divergent, horizontal or vertical, with variable angles of deviation. Binocular vision may also vary greatly. Our main goal here is to develop the idea that such “polymorphy” reflects a wide variety in the possible origins of strabismus. We propose that strabismus must be considered as possibly resulting from abnormal genetic and/or acquired factors, anatomical and/or functional abnormalities, in the sensory and/or the motor systems, both peripherally and/or in the brain itself. We shall particularly develop the possible “central” origins of strabismus. Indeed, we are convinced that it is time now to open this “black box” in order to move forward. All of this will be developed on the basis of both presently available data in literature (including most recent data) and our own experience. Both data in biology and medicine will be referred to. Our conclusions will hopefully help ophthalmologists to better understand strabismus and to develop new therapeutic strategies in the future. Presently, physicians eliminate or limit the negative effects of such pathology both on the development of the visual system and visual perception through the use of optical correction and, in some cases, extraocular muscle surgery. To better circumscribe the problem of the origins of strabismus, including at a cerebral level, may improve its management, in particular with respect to binocular vision, through innovating tools by treating the pathology at the source. PMID:25309358

  13. Health Conditions Prior to Imprisonment and the Impact of Prison on Health: Views of Detained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Joana; Maia, Ângela; Teixeira, Filipa

    2016-05-01

    Detained women have certain health conditions prior to incarceration and these conditions can improve, worsen, or remain the same in prison, depending on the prisoner's background, the characteristics of the prison, and the arrest experience. This study investigated the health of detained women and the influence of incarceration from their perspective. Three focus groups were conducted among 15 inmates, and data were analyzed according to thematic analysis procedures. Detainer's health backgrounds varied with regard to their level of health concerns, contact with health services, and health behaviors. A positive influence of incarceration was described by patients with chronic illness, patients with drug addiction, and victims of interpersonal violence. Among women with mental illnesses or those without previous health problems, reports do not reveal benefits of imprisonment for mental health. These data emphasize the importance of specialized health care and the need to invest in mental health care in corrective institutions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. On the influence of fusion reactor conditions on optical properties of metallic plasma-viewing mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsenya, V.S.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Konovalov, V.G.; Ruzhitskij, V.V.; Shapoval, A.N.; Orlinskij, D.V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of imitation experiments concerning the effects of fusion reactor conditions on the properties of mirrors made of stainless steel, copper and beryllium. The neutron irradiation was imitated using MeV energy range ions. To imitate the effects of charge exchange atoms (CXA) bombardment, keV energy range D + and He + ions were used. From the data obtained it was concluded that not only the reflectivity but also the resistance to CXA sputtering have to be taken into account when choosing the materials for the first mirrors of a fusion reactor. (orig.)

  15. Design of a Binocular Pupil and Gaze Point Detection System Utilizing High Definition Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Durna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel binocular pupil and gaze detection system utilizing a remote full high definition (full HD camera and employing LabVIEW. LabVIEW is inherently parallel and has fewer time-consuming algorithms. Many eye tracker applications are monocular and use low resolution cameras due to real-time image processing difficulties. We utilized the computer’s direct access memory channel for rapid data transmission and processed full HD images with LabVIEW. Full HD images make easier determinations of center coordinates/sizes of pupil and corneal reflection. We modified the camera so that the camera sensor passed only infrared (IR images. Glints were taken as reference points for region of interest (ROI area selection of the eye region in the face image. A morphologic filter was applied for erosion of noise, and a weighted average technique was used for center detection. To test system accuracy with 11 participants, we produced a visual stimulus set up to analyze each eye’s movement. Nonlinear mapping function was utilized for gaze estimation. Pupil size, pupil position, glint position and gaze point coordinates were obtained with free natural head movements in our system. This system also works at 2046 × 1086 resolution at 40 frames per second. It is assumed that 280 frames per second for 640 × 480 pixel images is the case. Experimental results show that the average gaze detection error for 11 participants was 0.76° for the left eye, 0.89° for right eye and 0.83° for the mean of two eyes.

  16. An obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Jia, J.; Li, L.

    In this paper we present an implementation of an obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation The fisheye lenses can improve image acquisition efficiency and handle minimal clearance recovery problem because they provide a large field of view However the fisheye lens introduces significant distortion in the image and this will make it much more difficult to find a one-to-one correspondence In addition we have to improve the system accuracy and efficiency for robot navigation To compute dense depth maps accurately in real time the following five key issues are considered 1 using lookup tables for a tradeoff between time and space in fisheye distortion correction and correspondence matching 2 using an improved incremental calculation scheme for algorithmic optimization 3 multimedia instruction set MMX implementation 4 consistency check to remove wrong stereo matching problems suffering from occlusions or mismatches 5 constraints of the recovery space To realize obstacle detection robustly we use the following three steps 1 extracting the ground plane parameters using Randomized Hough Transform 2 filtering the ground and background 3 locating the obstacles by using connected region detection Experimental results show the system can run at 3 2fps in 2 0GHz PC with 640X480 pixels

  17. Precise positioning method for multi-process connecting based on binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ding, Lichao; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xiao; Wang, Ling; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace, the demand for metal coating parts such as antenna reflector, eddy-current sensor and signal transmitter, etc. is more and more urgent. Such parts with varied feature dimensions, complex three-dimensional structures, and high geometric accuracy are generally fabricated by the combination of different manufacturing technology. However, it is difficult to ensure the machining precision because of the connection error between different processing methods. Therefore, a precise positioning method is proposed based on binocular micro stereo vision in this paper. Firstly, a novel and efficient camera calibration method for stereoscopic microscope is presented to solve the problems of narrow view field, small depth of focus and too many nonlinear distortions. Secondly, the extraction algorithms for law curve and free curve are given, and the spatial position relationship between the micro vision system and the machining system is determined accurately. Thirdly, a precise positioning system based on micro stereovision is set up and then embedded in a CNC machining experiment platform. Finally, the verification experiment of the positioning accuracy is conducted and the experimental results indicated that the average errors of the proposed method in the X and Y directions are 2.250 μm and 1.777 μm, respectively.

  18. Economic analysis of sunflower production in the view of orobanche resistance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the use of production factors in 3 different types of sunflower production with respect to orobanche resistance in the agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region which is located at European continent of Turkey. The data used in this research have been obtained through questionnaire technique from 571 agricultural enterprises which were determined by Stratified Random Sampling Method in 2009. It has been reached to the highest yield by 189.30 kg da-1 and the highest gross profit by 37.91 US$ da-1 in the production of sunflower, resistant to orobanche. In the research, it has been determined that the rate of soil testing among the sunflower producers is considerably low and almost the whole of the production has been made under rainfed conditions. As a result of the research, it has been concluded that orobanche resistant sunflower, which has higher water productivity than other cultivars by 367.13 g m/sup 3/, will have a higher proportion in the sunflower cultivation areas in future because of its higher contribution to producer welfare. (author)

  19. A new form of rapid binocular plasticity in adult with amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiawei; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurological disorder of binocular vision affecting up to 3% of the population resulting from a disrupted period of early visual development. Recently, it has been shown that vision can be partially restored by intensive monocular or dichoptic training (4?6 weeks). This can occur even in adults owing to a residual degree of brain plasticity initiated by repetitive and successive sensory stimulation. Here we show that the binocular imbalance that characterizes amblyopia can be r...

  20. Binocular treatment of amblyopia using videogames (BRAVO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Cindy X.; Babu, Raiju J.; Black, Joanna M.; Bobier, William R.; Lam, Carly S. Y.; Dai, Shuan; Gao, Tina Y.; Hess, Robert F.; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kowal, Lionel; Parag, Varsha; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Walker, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that is characterised by visual impairment in one eye and compromised binocular visual function. Existing evidence-based treatments for children include patching the nonamblyopic eye to encourage use of the amblyopic eye. Currently there are no widely accepted treatments available for adults with amblyopia. The aim of this trial is to assess the efficacy of a new binocular, videogame-based treatment for amblyopia in older ...

  1. Tratamiento binocular de la ambliopía basado en la realidad virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Cristina Díaz Núñez

    Full Text Available Aunque los tratamientos predominantes de la ambliopía son monoculares, estos tienen poca aceptación y baja efectividad en el restablecimiento de la combinación binocular. Numerosas evidencias apoyan la idea de que la ambliopía es en esencia un problema binocular y que la supresión juega un papel clave. En esta revisión se exponen dos estrategias para el tratamiento binocular de la ambliopía basado en la realidad virtual; la primera con el objetivo primario de mejorar la agudeza visual y la segunda con el propósito de mejorar las funciones binoculares a través de la reducción de la supresión. Este enfoque binocular expone al paciente a condiciones artificiales de visión con estímulos dicópticos en imágenes relacionadas. Los estudios clínicos realizados, tanto en niños como adultos, reportan mejorías de la agudeza visual y la estereopsia en un tiempo muy inferior al requerido por la oclusión. Los resultados clínicos sugieren que un enfoque binocular que combine ambas estrategias puede utilizarse como complemento de los tratamientos clásicos y como alternativa en adultos y niños con historial de tratamientos fracasados o rechazados.

  2. Development and matching of binocular orientation preference in mouse V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Basabi; Shah, Nishal P

    2014-01-01

    Eye-specific thalamic inputs converge in the primary visual cortex (V1) and form the basis of binocular vision. For normal binocular perceptions, such as depth and stereopsis, binocularly matched orientation preference between the two eyes is required. A critical period of binocular matching of orientation preference in mice during normal development is reported in literature. Using a reaction diffusion model we present the development of RF and orientation selectivity in mouse V1 and investigate the binocular orientation preference matching during the critical period. At the onset of the critical period the preferred orientations of the modeled cells are mostly mismatched in the two eyes and the mismatch decreases and reaches levels reported in juvenile mouse by the end of the critical period. At the end of critical period 39% of cells in binocular zone in our model cortex is orientation selective. In literature around 40% cortical cells are reported as orientation selective in mouse V1. The starting and the closing time for critical period determine the orientation preference alignment between the two eyes and orientation tuning in cortical cells. The absence of near neighbor interaction among cortical cells during the development of thalamo-cortical wiring causes a salt and pepper organization in the orientation preference map in mice. It also results in much lower % of orientation selective cells in mice as compared to ferrets and cats having organized orientation maps with pinwheels.

  3. Association between fine motor skills and binocular visual function in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Alramis, Fatimah; Christian, Lisa W

    2017-12-01

    Performance of fine motor skills (FMS) assessed by a clinical test battery has been associated with reading achievement in school-age children. However, the nature of this association remains to be established. The aim of this study was to assess FMS in children with reading difficulties using two experimental tasks, and to determine if performance is associated with reduced binocular function. We hypothesized that in comparison to an age- and sex-matched control group, children identified with reading difficulties will perform worse only on a motor task that has been shown to rely on binocular input. To test this hypothesis, motor performance was assessed using two tasks: bead-threading and peg-board in 19 children who were reading below expected grade and age-level. Binocular vision assessment included tests for stereoacuity, fusional vergence, amplitude of accommodation, and accommodative facility. In comparison to the control group, children with reading difficulties performed significantly worse on the bead-threading task. In contrast, performance on the peg-board task was similar in both groups. Accommodative facility was the only measure of binocular function significantly associated with motor performance. Findings from our exploratory study suggest that normal binocular vision may provide an important sensory input for the optimal development of FMS and reading. Given the small sample size tested in the current study, further investigation to assess the contribution of binocular vision to the development and performance of FMS and reading is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Matching of Binocular Orientation Preference in Mouse V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabi eBhaumik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eye-specific thalamic inputs converge in the primary visual cortex (V1 and form the basis of binocular vision. For normal binocular perceptions, such as depth and stereopsis, binocularly matched orientation preference between the two eyes is required. A critical period of binocular matching of orientation preference in mice during normal development is reported in literature. Using a reaction diffusion model we present the development of RF and orientation selectivity in mouse V1 and investigate the binocular orientation preference matching during the critical period. At the onset of the critical period the preferred orientations of the modeled cells are mostly mismatched in the two eyes and the mismatch decreases and reaches levels reported in juvenile mouse by the end of the critical period. At the end of critical period 39% of cells in binocular zone in our model cortex is orientation selective. In literature around 40% cortical cells are reported as orientation selective in mouse V1. The starting and the closing time for critical period determine the orientation preference alignment between the two eyes and orientation tuning in cortical cells. The absence of near neighbor interaction among cortical cells during the development of thalmo-cortical wiring causes a salt and pepper organization in the orientation preference map in mice. It also results in much lower % of orientation selective cells in mice as compared to ferrets and cats having organized orientation maps with pinwheels.

  5. An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Mark

    2012-09-01

    An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is presented. Optical instrumentation includes the Large Binocular Camera (LBC), a pair of wide-field (27' x 27') mosaic CCD imagers at the prime focus, and the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS), a pair of dual-beam blue-red optimized long-slit spectrographs mounted at the left and right direct F/15 Gregorian foci incorporating multiple slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy over a 6' field and spectral resolutions of up to 2000. Infrared instrumentation includes the LBT Near-IR Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral Field Unit for Extragalactic Research (LUCI), a modular near-infrared (0.9-2.5 μm) imager and spectrograph pair mounted at the left and right front bent F/15 Gregorian foci and designed for seeing-limited (FOV: 4' × 4') imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and multiobject spectroscopy utilizing cooled slit masks and diffraction limited (FOV: 0'.5 × 0'.5) imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. Strategic instruments under development that can utilize the full 23-m baseline of the LBT include an interferometric cryogenic beam combiner with near-infrared and thermal-infrared instruments for Fizeau imaging and nulling interferometry (LBTI) and an optical bench near-infrared beam combiner utilizing multi-conjugate adaptive optics for high angular resolution and sensitivity (LINC-NIRVANA). LBTI is currently undergoing commissioning on the LBT and utilizing the installed adaptive secondary mirrors in both single- sided and two-sided beam combination modes. In addition, a fiber-fed bench spectrograph (PEPSI) capable of ultra high resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry (R = 40,000-300,000) will be available as a principal investigator instrument. Over the past four years the LBC pair, LUCI1, and MODS1 have been commissioned and are now scheduled for routine partner science observations. The delivery of both LUCI2 and MODS2 is anticipated before the end of 2012. The

  6. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  7. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions – Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions. PMID:26717509

  8. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    Full Text Available The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  9. A buyer's and user's guide to astronomical telescopes and binoculars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers of all skill levels are always contemplating their next telescope, and this book points the way to the most suitable instruments. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescopes – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and manufacturers. This revised new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand, and model on today’s market, a truly invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Originally written in 2006, much of the first edition is inevitably now out of date, as equipment advances and manufacturers come and go. This second edition not only updates all the existing sections but adds two new ones: Astro-imaging and Professional-Amateur collaboration. Thanks to the rapid and amazing developments that have been made in digital cameras it is...

  10. Binocular depth processing in the ventral visual pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2016-06-19

    One of the most powerful forms of depth perception capitalizes on the small relative displacements, or binocular disparities, in the images projected onto each eye. The brain employs these disparities to facilitate various computations, including sensori-motor transformations (reaching, grasping), scene segmentation and object recognition. In accordance with these different functions, disparity activates a large number of regions in the brain of both humans and monkeys. Here, we review how disparity processing evolves along different regions of the ventral visual pathway of macaques, emphasizing research based on both correlational and causal techniques. We will discuss the progression in the ventral pathway from a basic absolute disparity representation to a more complex three-dimensional shape code. We will show that, in the course of this evolution, the underlying neuronal activity becomes progressively more bound to the global perceptual experience. We argue that these observations most probably extend beyond disparity processing per se, and pertain to object processing in the ventral pathway in general. We conclude by posing some important unresolved questions whose answers may significantly advance the field, and broaden its scope.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Synchronization of binocular motion parameters optoelectronic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingfei; Ye, Dong; Che, Rensheng; Chen, Gang

    2008-10-01

    The synchronization between high-speed digital cameras and computers is very important for the binocular vision system based on light-weighted passive IR reflective markers and IR LED array PCB board, which is often used to measure the 3-D motion parameters of a rocket motor. In order to solve this problem, a comparison on the existing approaches to camera synchronization in the published literature was conducted. The advantages and disadvantages of the currently used methods were illustrated and their suitable applications were discussed. A new method, which uses self-made hardware resetting camera and software triggering image acquisition board, is provided. The self-made hardware is used to send TTL signal to two image acquisition boards one time per second. The TTL signal is used to reset two cameras and two image acquisition boards as PRIN signal, and then two image acquisition boards send same EXSYNC signal to two cameras. In this way, two cameras can be synchronized to exposure and capture images in the mean time. The test results indicated that the new approach designed in this paper can meet the demand of image acquisition at a speed of 200f/s, whose synchronization accuracy is up to micro second.

  12. An ancient explanation of presbyopia based on binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Presbyopia, understood as the age-related loss of ability to clearly see near objects, was known to ancient Greeks. However, few references to it can be found in ancient manuscripts. A relevant discussion on presbyopia appears in a book called Symposiacs written by Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus around 100 A.C. In this work, Plutarch provided four explanations of presbyopia, associated with different theories of vision. One of the explanations is particularly interesting as it is based on a binocular theory of vision. In this theory, vision is produced when visual rays, emanating from the eyes, form visual cones that impinge on the objects to be seen. Visual rays coming from old people's eyes, it was supposed, are weaker than those from younger people's eyes; so the theory, to be logically coherent, implies that this effect is compensated by the increase in light intensity due to the overlapping, at a certain distance, of the visual cones coming from both eyes. Thus, it benefits the reader to move the reading text further away from the eyes in order to increase the fusion area of both visual cones. The historical hypothesis taking into consideration that the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the source of Plutarch's explanation of the theory is discussed. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Early laser operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmer, Gustavo; Lefebvre, Michael; Christou, Julian; Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Ziegleder, Julian; Borelli, José L.; Gässler, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    ARGOS is the GLAO (Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics) Rayleigh-based LGS (Laser Guide Star) facility for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO). It is dedicated for observations with LUCI1 and LUCI2, LBTO's pair of NIR imagers and multi-object spectrographs. The system projects three laser beams from the back of each of the two secondary mirror units, which create two constellations circumscribed on circles of 2 arcmin radius with 120 degree spacing. Each of the six Nd:YAG lasers provides a beam of green (532nm) pulses at a rate of 10kHz with a power of 14W to 18W. We achieved first on-sky propagation on the night of November 5, 2013, and commissioning of the full system will take place during 2014. We present the initial results of laser operations at the observatory, including safety procedures and the required coordination with external agencies (FAA, Space Command, and Military Airspace Manager). We also describe our operational procedures and report on our experiences with aircraft spotters. Future plans for safer and more efficient aircraft monitoring and detection are discussed.

  14. EXO-ZODI MODELING FOR THE LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Panić, Olja; Shannon, Andrew [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bailey, Vanessa; Defrère, Denis; Hinz, Philip M.; Rieke, George H.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Su, Katherine Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bryden, Geoffrey; Mennesson, Bertrand; Morales, Farisa; Serabyn, Eugene [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Danchi, William C.; Roberge, Aki; Stapelfeldt, Karl R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Haniff, Chris [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Lebreton, Jérémy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Millan-Gabet, Rafael [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    Habitable zone dust levels are a key unknown that must be understood to ensure the success of future space missions to image Earth analogs around nearby stars. Current detection limits are several orders of magnitude above the level of the solar system's zodiacal cloud, so characterization of the brightness distribution of exo-zodi down to much fainter levels is needed. To this end, the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) will detect thermal emission from habitable zone exo-zodi a few times brighter than solar system levels. Here we present a modeling framework for interpreting LBTI observations, which yields dust levels from detections and upper limits that are then converted into predictions and upper limits for the scattered light surface brightness. We apply this model to the HOSTS survey sample of nearby stars; assuming a null depth uncertainty of 10{sup –4} the LBTI will be sensitive to dust a few times above the solar system level around Sun-like stars, and to even lower dust levels for more massive stars.

  15. Bubble behavior characteristics based on virtual binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Xu, Ling-shuang; Zhang, Shang-zhen

    2018-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) behavior characteristics of bubble rising in gas-liquid two-phase flow are of great importance to study bubbly flow mechanism and guide engineering practice. Based on the dual-perspective imaging of virtual binocular stereo vision, the 3D behavior characteristics of bubbles in gas-liquid two-phase flow are studied in detail, which effectively increases the projection information of bubbles to acquire more accurate behavior features. In this paper, the variations of bubble equivalent diameter, volume, velocity and trajectory in the rising process are estimated, and the factors affecting bubble behavior characteristics are analyzed. It is shown that the method is real-time and valid, the equivalent diameter of the rising bubble in the stagnant water is periodically changed, and the crests and troughs in the equivalent diameter curve appear alternately. The bubble behavior characteristics as well as the spiral amplitude are affected by the orifice diameter and the gas volume flow.

  16. Effect of Visual Angle on the Head Movement Caused by Changing Binocular Disparity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Maekawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that vertical binocular disparity has no or little effect on the perception of visual direction (Banks et al., 2002. On the other hand, our previous study has reported that a continuous change of vertical disparity causes an involuntary sway of the head (Maekawa et al., 2009. We predict that the difference between those results attributes to the dissociation between the processes for perception and action in the brain. The aim of this study is to investigate in more details the condition that influences the process of disparity information. The present experiment particularly varied the visual angle of stimulus presentation and measured the head movement and body sway caused by changing vertical disparity. Results showed that the head movement was greater as the visual angle of the stimulus was smaller. It has been reported that stimulus of only small visual angle affect depth perception (Erklens et al., 1995. Thus, our result suggests that perception and action produced by vertical disparity are consistent as far as the effect of the stimulus size is concerned.

  17. Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Vijay; Bossi, Manuela; Bunce, Catey; Greenwood, John A; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2015-08-11

    to enrolment, participants were to have undergone a cycloplegic refraction and comprehensive ophthalmic examination including fundal examination. In addition, participants had to have completed a period of optical treatment, if indicated, and BCVA in the amblyopic eye had to remain unchanged on two consecutive assessments despite reportedly good compliance with glasses wearing. Participants were not to have received any treatment other than optical treatment prior to enrolment. We planned to include any type of binocular viewing intervention; these could be delivered on different devices including computer monitors viewed with LCD shutter glasses or hand-held screens including mobile phone screens with lenticular prism overlay. Control groups were to have received standard amblyopia treatment; this could include occlusion or pharmacological blurring of the better-seeing eye. We planned to include full-time (all waking hours) and part-time (between 1 and 12 hours a day) occlusion regimens. We planned to use standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We had planned to meta-analyse the primary outcome, that is mean distance BCVA in the amblyopic eye at 12 months after the cessation of treatment. We could identify no RCTs in this subject area. Further research is required to allow decisions about implementation of binocular treatments for amblyopia in clinical practice. Currently there are no clinical trials offering standardised evidence of the safety and effectiveness of binocular treatments, but results from non-controlled cohort studies are encouraging. Future research should be conducted in the form of RCTs, using acknowledged methods of visual acuity and stereoacuity assessment with known reproducibility. Other important outcome measures include outcomes reported by users, compliance with treatment, and recurrence of amblyopia after cessation of treatment.

  18. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  19. Binocular Fusion and Invariant Category Learning due to Predictive Remapping during Scanning of a Depthful Scene with Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object’s surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations.

  20. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC) may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations. PMID:25642198

  1. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying concepts about how multiple cortical areas in the What and Where cortical streams interact to coordinate processes of 3D boundary and surface perception, spatial attention, invariant object category learning, predictive remapping, eye movement control, and learned coordinate transformations. The model explains data from single neuron and psychophysical studies of covert visual attention shifts prior to eye movements. The model further clarifies how perceptual, attentional, and cognitive interactions among multiple brain regions (LGN, V1, V2, V3A, V4, MT, MST, PPC, LIP, ITp, ITa, SC) may accomplish predictive remapping as part of the process whereby view-invariant object categories are learned. These results build upon earlier neural models of 3D vision and figure-ground separation and the learning of invariant object categories as the eyes freely scan a scene. A key process concerns how an object's surface representation generates a form-fitting distribution of spatial attention, or attentional shroud, in parietal cortex that helps maintain the stability of multiple perceptual and cognitive processes. Predictive eye movement signals maintain the stability of the shroud, as well as of binocularly fused perceptual boundaries and surface representations.

  2. Perceptual relearning of binocular fusion after hypoxic brain damage: four controlled single-case treatment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Schmidt, Lena; Kuhn, Caroline; Summ, Miriam; Adams, Michaela; Garbacenkaite, Ruta; Leonhardt, Eva; Reinhart, Stefan; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxic brain damage is characterized by widespread, diffuse-disseminated brain lesions, which may cause severe disturbances in binocular vision, leading to diplopia and loss of stereopsis, for which no evaluated treatment is currently available. The study evaluated the effects of a novel binocular vision treatment designed to improve binocular fusion and stereopsis as well as to reduce diplopia in patients with cerebral hypoxia. Four patients with severely reduced convergent fusion, stereopsis, and reading duration due to hypoxic brain damage were treated in a single-subject baseline design, with three baseline assessments before treatment to control for spontaneous recovery (pretherapy), an assessment immediately after a treatment period of 6 weeks (posttherapy), and two follow-up tests 3 and 6 months after treatment to assess stability of improvements. Patients received a novel fusion and dichoptic training using 3 different devices designed to slowly increase fusional and disparity angle. After the treatment, all 4 patients improved significantly in binocular fusion, subjective reading duration until diplopia emerged, and 2 of 4 patients improved significantly in local stereopsis. No significant changes were observed during the pretherapy baseline period and the follow-up period, thus ruling out spontaneous recovery and demonstrating long-term stability of treatment effects. This proof-of-principle study indicates a substantial treatment-induced plasticity after hypoxia in the relearning of binocular vision and offers a viable treatment option. Moreover, it provides new hope and direction for the development of effective rehabilitation strategies to treat neurovisual deficits resulting from hypoxic brain damage.

  3. Recognition and Matching of Clustered Mature Litchi Fruits Using Binocular Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Color Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and matching of litchi fruits are critical steps for litchi harvesting robots to successfully grasp litchi. However, due to the randomness of litchi growth, such as clustered growth with uncertain number of fruits and random occlusion by leaves, branches and other fruits, the recognition and matching of the fruit become a challenge. Therefore, this study firstly defined mature litchi fruit as three clustered categories. Then an approach for recognition and matching of clustered mature litchi fruit was developed based on litchi color images acquired by binocular charge-coupled device (CCD color cameras. The approach mainly included three steps: (1 calibration of binocular color cameras and litchi image acquisition; (2 segmentation of litchi fruits using four kinds of supervised classifiers, and recognition of the pre-defined categories of clustered litchi fruit using a pixel threshold method; and (3 matching the recognized clustered fruit using a geometric center-based matching method. The experimental results showed that the proposed recognition method could be robust against the influences of varying illumination and occlusion conditions, and precisely recognize clustered litchi fruit. In the tested 432 clustered litchi fruits, the highest and lowest average recognition rates were 94.17% and 92.00% under sunny back-lighting and partial occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and non-occlusion conditions, respectively. From 50 pairs of tested images, the highest and lowest matching success rates were 97.37% and 91.96% under sunny back-lighting and non-occlusion, and sunny front-lighting and partial occlusion conditions, respectively.

  4. Cortical microcircuit dynamics mediating Binocular Rivalry: The role of adaptation in inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota eTheodoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry and operates in balance with adaptation in order to explain the observed alternations in perception. In particular, noise-driven transitions and adaptation-driven oscillations define two dynamical regimes and the system operates near its boundary. In order to gain insights into the microcircuit dynamics mediating spontaneous perceptual alternations we used a reduced recurrent attractor-based biophysically realistic spiking network well known for working memory, attention and decision-making, where a spike-frequency adaptation mechanism is implemented to account for perceptual bistability. We, thus, derived a consistently reduced four-variable population rate model using mean-field techniques and tested it on BR data collected from human subjects. Our model accounts for experimental data parameters such as time dominance, coefficient of variation and gamma distribution. In addition, we show that our model also operates on the boundary between noise and adaptation and agrees with Levelt’s second revised and fourth propositions. These results show for the first time that a consistent reduction of a biophysically realistic spiking network of integrate and fire neurons with spike frequency adaptation could account for BR. Moreover, we demonstrate that BR can be explained only through the dynamics of the competing neuronal pools, without taking into account the adaptation of inhibitory interneurons..However, adaptation of interneurons affects the optimal parametric space of the system, by decreasing the overall adaptation necessary for the bifurcation to occur.

  5. Analysis on detection accuracy of binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jia-ju; Yin, Jian-ling; Wu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Jie; Chen, Yu-dan

    2017-11-01

    Low-light level night vision device and thermal infrared imaging binocular photoelectric instrument are used widely. The maladjustment of binocular instrument ocular axises parallelism will cause the observer the symptom such as dizziness, nausea, when use for a long time. Binocular photoelectric equipment digital calibration instrument is developed for detecting ocular axises parallelism. And the quantitative value of optical axis deviation can be quantitatively measured. As a testing instrument, the precision must be much higher than the standard of test instrument. Analyzes the factors that influence the accuracy of detection. Factors exist in each testing process link which affect the precision of the detecting instrument. They can be divided into two categories, one category is factors which directly affect the position of reticle image, the other category is factors which affect the calculation the center of reticle image. And the Synthesize error is calculated out. And further distribute the errors reasonably to ensure the accuracy of calibration instruments.

  6. An assembly system based on industrial robot with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Xiao, Nanfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an electronic part and component assembly system based on an industrial robot with binocular stereo vision. Firstly, binocular stereo vision with a visual attention mechanism model is used to get quickly the image regions which contain the electronic parts and components. Secondly, a deep neural network is adopted to recognize the features of the electronic parts and components. Thirdly, in order to control the end-effector of the industrial robot to grasp the electronic parts and components, a genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to compute the transition matrix and the inverse kinematics of the industrial robot (end-effector), which plays a key role in bridging the binocular stereo vision and the industrial robot. Finally, the proposed assembly system is tested in LED component assembly experiments, and the results denote that it has high efficiency and good applicability.

  7. Research on three-dimensional reconstruction method based on binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlin; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Minjun

    2018-03-01

    As the hot and difficult issue in computer vision, binocular stereo vision is an important form of computer vision,which has a broad application prospects in many computer vision fields,such as aerial mapping,vision navigation,motion analysis and industrial inspection etc.In this paper, a research is done into binocular stereo camera calibration, image feature extraction and stereo matching. In the binocular stereo camera calibration module, the internal parameters of a single camera are obtained by using the checkerboard lattice of zhang zhengyou the field of image feature extraction and stereo matching, adopted the SURF operator in the local feature operator and the SGBM algorithm in the global matching algorithm are used respectively, and the performance are compared. After completed the feature points matching, we can build the corresponding between matching points and the 3D object points using the camera parameters which are calibrated, which means the 3D information.

  8. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Shah, Prerana; Ramani, Krishna Kumar; Ramanujan, Lalitha

    To report the frequency of binocular vision (BV) anomalies in children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and to assess the efficacy of vision therapy (VT) in children with a non-strabismic binocular vision anomaly (NSBVA). The study was carried out at a centre for learning disability (LD). Comprehensive eye examination and binocular vision assessment was carried out for 94 children (mean (SD) age: 15 (2.2) years) diagnosed with specific learning disorder. BV assessment was done for children with best corrected visual acuity of ≥6/9 - N6, cooperative for examination and free from any ocular pathology. For children with a diagnosis of NSBVA (n=46), 24 children were randomized to VT and no intervention was provided to the other 22 children who served as experimental controls. At the end of 10 sessions of vision therapy, BV assessment was performed for both the intervention and non-intervention groups. Binocular vision anomalies were found in 59 children (62.8%) among which 22% (n=13) had strabismic binocular vision anomalies (SBVA) and 78% (n=46) had a NSBVA. Accommodative infacility (AIF) was the commonest of the NSBVA and found in 67%, followed by convergence insufficiency (CI) in 25%. Post-vision therapy, the intervention group showed significant improvement in all the BV parameters (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05) except negative fusional vergence. Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Visión binocular : diagnóstico y tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Borràs García, M. Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Este libro está dirigido a todos los profesionales del campo de la optometría que quieran profundizar en la visión binocular. También está indicado para los alumnos de tercer curso de Optometría, tanto en asignaturas troncales como optativas. Sus contenidos están divididos en capítulos que pueden ser leídos de forma independiente, aunque es recomendable comprender el presente texto como una unidad. Su estructura abarca desde las disfunciones binoculares más frecuentes al estrabismo, la amblio...

  10. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  11. Avian binocular vision: It's not just about what birds can see, it's also about what they can't.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke P Tyrrell

    Full Text Available With the exception of primates, most vertebrates have laterally placed eyes. Binocular vision in vertebrates has been implicated in several functions, including depth perception, contrast discrimination, etc. However, the blind area in front of the head that is proximal to the binocular visual field is often neglected. This anterior blind area is important when discussing the evolution of binocular vision because its relative length is inversely correlated with the width of the binocular field. Therefore, species with wider binocular fields also have shorter anterior blind areas and objects along the mid-sagittal plane can be imaged at closer distances. Additionally, the anterior blind area is of functional significance for birds because the beak falls within this blind area. We tested for the first time some specific predictions about the functional role of the anterior blind area in birds controlling for phylogenetic effects. We used published data on visual field configuration in 40 species of birds and measured beak and skull parameters from museum specimens. We found that birds with proportionally longer beaks have longer anterior blind areas and thus narrower binocular fields. This result suggests that the anterior blind area and beak visibility do play a role in shaping binocular fields, and that binocular field width is not solely determined by the need for stereoscopic vision. In visually guided foragers, the ability to see the beak-and how much of the beak can be seen-varies predictably with foraging habits. For example, fish- and insect-eating specialists can see more of their own beak than birds eating immobile food can. But in non-visually guided foragers, there is no consistent relationship between the beak and anterior blind area. We discuss different strategies-wide binocular fields, large eye movements, and long beaks-that minimize the potential negative effects of the anterior blind area. Overall, we argue that there is more to

  12. Prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in Tamil Nadu: report 2 of BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; George, Ronnie; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Population-based studies on the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in ethnic Indians are more than two decades old. Based on indigenous normative data, the BAND (Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data) study aims to report the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision among school children in rural and urban Tamil Nadu. This population-based, cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in the rural and urban population of Tamil Nadu. In four schools, two each in rural and urban arms, 920 children in the age range of seven to 17 years were included in the study. Comprehensive binocular vision assessment was done for all children including evaluation of vergence and accommodative systems. In the first phase of the study, normative data of parameters of binocular vision were assessed followed by prevalence estimates of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision. The mean and standard deviation of the age of the sample were 12.7 ± 2.7 years. The prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in the urban and rural arms was found to be 31.5 and 29.6 per cent, respectively. Convergence insufficiency was the most prevalent (16.5 and 17.6 per cent in the urban and rural arms, respectively) among all the types of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision. There was no gender predilection and no statistically significant differences were observed between the rural and urban arms in the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision (Z-test, p > 0.05). The prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision was found to be higher in the 13 to 17 years age group (36.2 per cent) compared to seven to 12 years (25.1 per cent) (Z-test, p < 0.05). Non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies are highly prevalent among school children and the prevalence increases with age. With increasing near visual demands in the higher

  13. Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with specific learning disorders have a high frequency of binocular vision disorders and vision therapy plays a significant role in improving the BV parameters. Children with SLD should be screened for BV anomalies as it could potentially be an added hindrance to the reading difficulty in this special population.

  14. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity differences and

  15. Monocular and binocular development in children with albinism, infantile nystagmus syndrome, and normal vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background/aims: To compare interocular acuity differences, crowding ratios, and binocular summation ratios in 4- to 8-year-old children with albinism (n = 16), children with infantile nystagmus syndrome (n = 10), and children with normal vision (n = 72). Methods: Interocular acuity

  16. The combined influence of binocular disparity and shading on pictorial shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorschot, P. C A; Kappers, A. M L; Koenderink, Jan J.

    The combined influence of binocular disparity and shading on pictorial shape was studied. Stimuli were several pairs of stereo photographs of real objects. The stereo base was 0, 7, or 14 cm, and the location of the light source was varied over three positions (one from about the viewpoint of the

  17. Visual and binocular status in elementary school children with a reading problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa W; Nandakumar, Krithika; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2017-11-21

    This descriptive study provides a summary of the binocular anomalies seen in elementary school children identified with reading problems. A retrospective chart review of all children identified with reading problems and seen by the University of Waterloo, Optometry Clinic, from September 2012 to June 2013. Files of 121 children (mean age 8.6 years, range 6-14 years) were reviewed. No significant refractive error was found in 81% of children. Five and 8 children were identified as strabismic at distance and near respectively. Phoria test revealed 90% and 65% of patients had normal distance and near phoria. Near point of convergencia (NPC) was <5cm in 68% of children, and 77% had stereoacuity of ≤40seconds of arc. More than 50% of the children had normal fusional vergence ranges except for near positive fusional vergencce (base out) break (46%). Tests for accommodation showed 91% of children were normal for binocular facility, and approximately 70% of children had an expected accuracy of accommodation. Findings indicate that some children with an identified reading problem also present with abnormal binocular test results compared to published normal values. Further investigation should be performed to investigate the relationship between binocular vision function and reading performance. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Human cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception: An fNIRS study.

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    Tingting Cai

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS was adopted to investigate the cortical neural correlates of visual fatigue during binocular depth perception for different disparities (from 0.1° to 1.5°. By using a slow event-related paradigm, the oxyhaemoglobin (HbO responses to fused binocular stimuli presented by the random-dot stereogram (RDS were recorded over the whole visual dorsal area. To extract from an HbO curve the characteristics that are correlated with subjective experiences of stereopsis and visual fatigue, we proposed a novel method to fit the time-course HbO curve with various response functions which could reflect various processes of binocular depth perception. Our results indicate that the parietal-occipital cortices are spatially correlated with binocular depth perception and that the process of depth perception includes two steps, associated with generating and sustaining stereovision. Visual fatigue is caused mainly by generating stereovision, while the amplitude of the haemodynamic response corresponding to sustaining stereovision is correlated with stereopsis. Combining statistical parameter analysis and the fitted time-course analysis, fNIRS could be a promising method to study visual fatigue and possibly other multi-process neural bases.

  19. Touch interacts with vision during binocular rivalry with a tight orientation tuning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lunghi

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration is a common feature of the mammalian brain that allows it to deal more efficiently with the ambiguity of sensory input by combining complementary signals from several sensory sources. Growing evidence suggests that multisensory interactions can occur as early as primary sensory cortices. Here we present incompatible visual signals (orthogonal gratings to each eye to create visual competition between monocular inputs in primary visual cortex where binocular combination would normally take place. The incompatibility prevents binocular fusion and triggers an ambiguous perceptual response in which the two images are perceived one at a time in an irregular alternation. One key function of multisensory integration is to minimize perceptual ambiguity by exploiting cross-sensory congruence. We show that a haptic signal matching one of the visual alternatives helps disambiguate visual perception during binocular rivalry by both prolonging the dominance period of the congruent visual stimulus and by shortening its suppression period. Importantly, this interaction is strictly tuned for orientation, with a mismatch as small as 7.5° between visual and haptic orientations sufficient to annul the interaction. These results indicate important conclusions: first, that vision and touch interact at early levels of visual processing where interocular conflicts are first detected and orientation tunings are narrow, and second, that haptic input can influence visual signals outside of visual awareness, bringing a stimulus made invisible by binocular rivalry suppression back to awareness sooner than would occur without congruent haptic input.

  20. The effect of image position on the Independent Components of natural binocular images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David W; Hibbard, Paul B

    2018-01-11

    Human visual performance degrades substantially as the angular distance from the fovea increases. This decrease in performance is found for both binocular and monocular vision. Although analysis of the statistics of natural images has provided significant insights into human visual processing, little research has focused on the statistical content of binocular images at eccentric angles. We applied Independent Component Analysis to rectangular image patches cut from locations within binocular images corresponding to different degrees of eccentricity. The distribution of components learned from the varying locations was examined to determine how these distributions varied across eccentricity. We found a general trend towards a broader spread of horizontal and vertical position disparity tunings in eccentric regions compared to the fovea, with the horizontal spread more pronounced than the vertical spread. Eccentric locations above the centroid show a strong bias towards far-tuned components, eccentric locations below the centroid show a strong bias towards near-tuned components. These distributions exhibit substantial similarities with physiological measurements in V1, however in common with previous research we also observe important differences, in particular distributions of binocular phase disparity which do not match physiology.

  1. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  2. Binocular iPad Game vs Patching for Treatment of Amblyopia in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Jost, Reed M; Dao, Lori; Beauchamp, Cynthia L; Leffler, Joel N; Birch, Eileen E

    2016-12-01

    Fellow eye patching has long been the standard treatment for amblyopia, but it does not always restore 20/20 vision or teach the eyes to work together. Amblyopia can be treated with binocular games that rebalance contrast between the eyes so that a child may overcome suppression. However, it is unclear whether binocular treatment is comparable to patching in treating amblyopia. To assess the effectiveness of a binocular iPad (Apple Inc) adventure game as amblyopia treatment and compare this binocular treatment with patching, the current standard of care. This investigation was a randomized clinical trial with a crossover design at a nonprofit eye research institute. Between February 20, 2015, and January 4, 2016, a total of 28 patients were enrolled in the study, with 14 randomized to binocular game treatment and 14 to patching treatment. Binocular game and patching as amblyopia treatments. The primary outcome was change in amblyopic eye best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at the 2-week visit. Secondary outcomes were change in stereoacuity and suppression at the 2-week visit and change in BCVA at the 4-week visit. Among 28 children, the mean (SD) age at baseline was 6.7 (1.4) years (age range, 4.6-9.5 years), and 7 (25%) were female. At baseline, the mean (SD) amblyopic eye BCVA was 0.48 (0.14) logMAR (approximately 20/63; range, 0.3-0.8 logMAR [20/40 to 20/125]), with 14 children randomized to the binocular game and 14 to patching for 2 weeks. At the 2-week visit, improvement in amblyopic eye BCVA was greater with the binocular game compared with patching, with a mean (SD) improvement of 0.15 (0.08) logMAR (mean [SD], 1.5 [0.8] lines) vs 0.07 (0.08) logMAR (mean [SD], 0.7 [0.8] line; P = .02) after 2 weeks of treatment. These improvements from baseline were significant for the binocular game (mean [SD] improvement, 1.5 [0.8] lines; P suppression improved from baseline at the 2-week visit for the binocular game (mean [SD], 4.82 [2.82] vs 3.24 [2.87]; P

  3. An Analysis Of American Social Condition In THE Middle Of 20Th Century Viewed In Harper Lee’s Novel To Kill A Mockingbird

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Dix Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul The Analysis of American Social Condition in the Middle of Twentieth Century Viewed in Harper Lee’s Novel To Kill A Mockingbird. Yaitu suatu analisis mengenai kondisi sosial masyarakat di Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan abad 20 yang terlihat dalam novel To Kill A Mockingbird karya dari Harper Lee. Dalam analisis ini, penulis menggunakan pendekatan historis mengenai sejarah Amerika pada pertengahan abad keduapuluh. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif ...

  4. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  5. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  6. The influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry: Perception and neural representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Wook; Shevell, Steven K.

    2008-01-01

    The predominance of rivalrous targets is affected by surrounding context when stimuli rival in orientation, motion or color. This study investigated the influence of chromatic context on binocular color rivalry. The predominance of rivalrous chromatic targets was measured in various surrounding contexts. The first experiment showed that a chromatic surround's influence was stronger when the surround was uniform or a grating with luminance contrast (chromatic/black grating) compared to an equiluminant grating (chromatic/white). The second experiment revealed virtually no effect of the orientation of the surrounding chromatic context, using chromatically rivalrous vertical gratings. These results are consistent with a chromatic representation of the context by a non-oriented, chromatically selective and spatially antagonistic receptive field. Neither a double-opponent receptive field nor a receptive field without spatial antagonism accounts for the influence of context on binocular color rivalry. PMID:18331750

  7. Research on detection method of UAV obstruction based on binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Lei, Xusheng; Sui, Zhehao

    2018-04-01

    For the autonomous obstacle positioning and ranging in the process of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) flight, a system based on binocular vision is constructed. A three-stage image preprocessing method is proposed to solve the problem of the noise and brightness difference in the actual captured image. The distance of the nearest obstacle is calculated by using the disparity map that generated by binocular vision. Then the contour of the obstacle is extracted by post-processing of the disparity map, and a color-based adaptive parameter adjustment algorithm is designed to extract contours of obstacle automatically. Finally, the safety distance measurement and obstacle positioning during the UAV flight process are achieved. Based on a series of tests, the error of distance measurement can keep within 2.24% of the measuring range from 5 m to 20 m.

  8. On the contribution of binocular disparity to the long-term memory for natural scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Binocular disparity is a fundamental dimension defining the input we receive from the visual world, along with luminance and chromaticity. In a memory task involving images of natural scenes we investigate whether binocular disparity enhances long-term visual memory. We found that forest images studied in the presence of disparity for relatively long times (7s were remembered better as compared to 2D presentation. This enhancement was not evident for other categories of pictures, such as images containing cars and houses, which are mostly identified by the presence of distinctive artifacts rather than by their spatial layout. Evidence from a further experiment indicates that observers do not retain a trace of stereo presentation in long-term memory.

  9. The Role of Binocular Disparity in Rapid Scene and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Valsecchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the contribution of binocular disparity to the rapid recognition of scenes and simpler spatial patterns using a paradigm combining backward masked stimulus presentation and short-term match-to-sample recognition. First, we showed that binocular disparity did not contribute significantly to the recognition of briefly presented natural and artificial scenes, even when the availability of monocular cues was reduced. Subsequently, using dense random dot stereograms as stimuli, we showed that observers were in principle able to extract spatial patterns defined only by disparity under brief, masked presentations. Comparing our results with the predictions from a cue-summation model, we showed that combining disparity with luminance did not per se disrupt the processing of disparity. Our results suggest that the rapid recognition of scenes is mediated mostly by a monocular comparison of the images, although we can rely on stereo in fast pattern recognition.

  10. A novel apparatus for testing binocular function using the 'CyberDome' three-dimensional hemispherical visual display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, T; Ishikawa, H; Shimizu, K; Kawamura, R; Nakayama, H; Sawada, K

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality has recently been highlighted as a promising medium for visual presentation and entertainment. A novel apparatus for testing binocular visual function using a hemispherical visual display system, 'CyberDome', has been developed and tested. Subjects comprised 40 volunteers (mean age, 21.63 years) with corrected visual acuity of -0.08 (LogMAR) or better, and stereoacuity better than 100 s of arc on the Titmus stereo test. Subjects were able to experience visual perception like being surrounded by visual images, a feature of the 'CyberDome' hemispherical visual display system. Visual images to the right and left eyes were projected and superimposed on the dome screen, allowing test images to be seen independently by each eye using polarizing glasses. The hemispherical visual display was 1.4 m in diameter. Three test parameters were evaluated: simultaneous perception (subjective angle of strabismus), motor fusion amplitude (convergence and divergence), and stereopsis (binocular disparity at 1260, 840, and 420 s of arc). Testing was performed in volunteer subjects with normal binocular vision, and results were compared with those using a major amblyoscope. Subjective angle of strabismus and motor fusion amplitude showed a significant correlation between our test and the major amblyoscope. All subjects could perceive the stereoscopic target with a binocular disparity of 480 s of arc. Our novel apparatus using the CyberDome, a hemispherical visual display system, was able to quantitatively evaluate binocular function. This apparatus offers clinical promise in the evaluation of binocular function.

  11. A special role for binocular visual input during development and as a component of occlusion therapy for treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    To review work on animal models of deprivation amblyopia that points to a special role for binocular visual input in the development of spatial vision and as a component of occlusion (patching) therapy for amblyopia. The studies reviewed employ behavioural methods to measure the effects of various early experiential manipulations on the development of the visual acuity of the two eyes. Short periods of concordant binocular input, if continuous, can offset much longer daily periods of monocular deprivation to allow the development of normal visual acuity in both eyes. It appears that the visual system does not weigh all visual input equally in terms of its ability to impact on the development of vision but instead places greater weight on concordant binocular exposure. Experimental models of patching therapy for amblyopia imposed on animals in which amblyopia had been induced by a prior period of early monocular deprivation, indicate that the benefits of patching therapy may be only temporary and decline rapidly after patching is discontinued. However, when combined with critical amounts of binocular visual input each day, the benefits of patching can be both heightened and made permanent. Taken together with demonstrations of retained binocular connections in the visual cortex of monocularly deprived animals, a strong argument is made for inclusion of specific training of stereoscopic vision for part of the daily periods of binocular exposure that should be incorporated as part of any patching protocol for amblyopia.

  12. The wavelet transform and the suppression theory of binocular vision for stereo image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.D. Jr [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kenyon, R.V. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In this paper a method for compression of stereo images. The proposed scheme is a frequency domain approach based on the suppression theory of binocular vision. By using the information in the frequency domain, complex disparity estimation techniques can be avoided. The wavelet transform is used to obtain a multiresolution analysis of the stereo pair by which the subbands convey the necessary frequency domain information.

  13. Vision in avian emberizid foragers: maximizing both binocular vision and fronto-lateral visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Bret A; Pita, Diana; Tyrrell, Luke P; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Avian species vary in their visual system configuration, but previous studies have often compared single visual traits between two to three distantly related species. However, birds use different visual dimensions that cannot be maximized simultaneously to meet different perceptual demands, potentially leading to trade-offs between visual traits. We studied the degree of inter-specific variation in multiple visual traits related to foraging and anti-predator behaviors in nine species of closely related emberizid sparrows, controlling for phylogenetic effects. Emberizid sparrows maximize binocular vision, even seeing their bill tips in some eye positions, which may enhance the detection of prey and facilitate food handling. Sparrows have a single retinal center of acute vision (i.e. fovea) projecting fronto-laterally (but not into the binocular field). The foveal projection close to the edge of the binocular field may shorten the time to gather and process both monocular and binocular visual information from the foraging substrate. Contrary to previous work, we found that species with larger visual fields had higher visual acuity, which may compensate for larger blind spots (i.e. pectens) above the center of acute vision, enhancing predator detection. Finally, species with a steeper change in ganglion cell density across the retina had higher eye movement amplitude, probably due to a more pronounced reduction in visual resolution away from the fovea, which would need to be moved around more frequently. The visual configuration of emberizid passive prey foragers is substantially different from that of previously studied avian groups (e.g. sit-and-wait and tactile foragers). © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Binocular Vision-Based Position and Pose of Hand Detection and Tracking in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Chen; Wenjun, Hou; Qing, Sheng

    After the study of image segmentation, CamShift target tracking algorithm and stereo vision model of space, an improved algorithm based of Frames Difference and a new space point positioning model were proposed, a binocular visual motion tracking system was constructed to verify the improved algorithm and the new model. The problem of the spatial location and pose of the hand detection and tracking have been solved.

  15. Binocular Rivalry and Attention in Helmet-Mounted Display Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterbottom, Marc D; Patterson, Robert; Pierce, Byron J; Covas, Christin; Rogers, Jason

    2007-01-01

    .... In the present study, we examined whether rivalry suppression could be objectively measured under conditions that simulated a monocular HMD and OTW display, and whether voluntary attention and moving...

  16. Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Ro, Yong Man; Park, Hyun Wook

    2011-04-11

    Human perception becomes difficult in the event of binocular color fusion when the color difference presented for the left and right eyes exceeds a certain threshold value, known as the binocular color fusion limit. This paper discusses the binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors within the color gamut of a conventional LCD 3DTV. We performed experiments to measure the color fusion limit for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. A total of 2480 trials were recorded for a single observer. By analyzing the results, the color fusion limit was quantified by ellipses in the chromaticity diagram. The semi-minor axis of the ellipses ranges from 0.0415 to 0.0923 in terms of the Euclidean distance in the u'v´ chromaticity diagram and the semi-major axis ranges from 0.0640 to 0.1560. These eight ellipses are drawn on the chromaticity diagram. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. A quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for different disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaiqing; Shi, Junsheng; Tai, Yonghan; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Yun, Lijun; Zhang, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Color asymmetry is a common phenomenon in stereoscopic display system, which can cause visual fatigue or visual discomfort. When the color difference between the left and right eyes exceeds a threshold value, named binocular color fusion limit, color rivalry is said to occur. The most important information brought by stereoscopic displays is the depth perception produced by the disparity. As the stereo pair stimuli are presented separately to both eyes with disparities and those two monocular stimuli differ in color but share an iso-luminance polarity, it is possible for stereopsis and color rivalry to coexist. In this paper, we conducted an experiment to measure the color fusion limit for different disparity levels. In particular, it examines how the magnitude and sign of disparity affect the binocular color fusion limit that yields a fused, stable stereoscopic percept. The binocular color fusion limit was measured at five levels of disparities: 0, +/-60, +/-120 arc minutes for a sample color point which was selected from the 1976 CIE u'v' chromaticity diagram. The experimental results showed that fusion limit for the sample point varied with the level and sign of disparity. It was an interesting result that the fusion limit increased as the disparity decreases at crossed disparity direction (sign -), but there is almost no big change at uncrossed disparity direction (sign +). We found that color fusion was more difficult to achieve at the crossed disparity direction than at the uncrossed disparity direction.

  18. Ecomorphology of orbit orientation and the adaptive significance of binocular vision in primates and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesy, Christopher P

    2008-01-01

    Primates are characterized by forward-facing, or convergent, orbits and associated binocular field overlap. Hypotheses explaining the adaptive significance of these traits often relate to ecological factors, such as arboreality, nocturnal visual predation, or saltatory locomotion in a complex nocturnal, arboreal environment. This study re-examines the ecological factors that are associated with high orbit convergence in mammals. Orbit orientation data were collected for 321 extant taxa from sixteen orders of metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian mammals. These taxa were coded for activity pattern, degree of faunivory, and substrate preference. Results demonstrate that nocturnal and cathemeral mammals have significantly more convergent orbits than diurnal taxa, both within and across orders. Faunivorous eutherians (both nocturnal and diurnal) have higher mean orbit convergence than opportunistically foraging or non-faunivorous taxa. However, substrate preference is not associated with higher orbit convergence and, by extension, greater binocular visual field overlap. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mammalian predators evolved higher orbit convergence, binocular vision, and stereopsis to counter camouflage in prey inhabiting a nocturnal environment. Strepsirhine primates have a range of orbit convergence values similar to nocturnal or cathemeral predatory non-primate mammals. These data are entirely consistent with the nocturnal visual predation hypothesis of primate origins. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleh M

    2015-10-01

    In humans, the nasal retina projects to the contralateral hemisphere, whereas the temporal retina projects ipsilaterally. The nasotemporal line that divides the retina into crossed and uncrossed parts coincides with the vertical meridian through the fovea. This normal projection of the retina is severely altered in albinism, in which the nasotemporal line shifted into the temporal retina with temporal retinal fibers cross the midline at the optic chiasm. This study proposes the loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers and shifting of the nasotemporal line temporally in albinism. It is supported by many observations that clearly indicate that loss of binocular vision causes uncrossed retinal fibers to cross the midline. This hypothesis may alert scientists and clinicians to find ways to prevent or minimize the loss of binocular vision that may occur in some diseases such as albinism and early squint. Hopefully, this will minimize the misrouting of temporal fibers and improve vision in such diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculation method of CGH for Binocular Eyepiece-Type Electro Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chanyoung; Yoneyama, Takuo; Sakamoto, Yuji; Okuyama, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    We had researched about eyepiece-type electro holography to display 3-D images of larger objects at wider angle. We had enlarged visual field considering depth of object with Fourier optical system using two lenses. In this paper, we extend our system for binocular. In the binocular system, we use two different holograms for each eye. The 3-D image for left eye should be observed like the real object observed using left eye and the same for right eye. So, we propose a method of calculation of computer-generated hologram (CGH) transforming the coordinate system of the model data to make two holograms for binocular eyepiece-type electro holography. The coordinate system of original model data is called the world coordinate system. The left and the right coordinate system are transformed from the world coordinate system. We also propose the method for correcting the installation error that occurs when placing the electronic and optical devices. The installation error is calculated and the model data is corrected using the distance between measured position and setup position of the reconstructed image Optical reconstruction experiments were carried out to verify the proposed method.

  1. Action Control: Independent Effects of Memory and Monocular Viewing on Reaching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, D.A.; Robertson, C.; Heath, M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perceptual networks in the ventral visual pathway are necessary for action control when targets are viewed with only one eye, or when the target must be stored in memory. We tested whether memory-linked (i.e., open-loop versus memory-guided actions) and monocular-linked effects (i.e., binocular versus monocular actions) on…

  2. Financial – Accounts View on the Governmental Expenses and the Autonomy Administration in the Conditions of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Kočner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of state activities currently raises the need to fund specific public projects in the area of the infrastructure, ecology, or the entire expenditure programs in the field of education, health and social care and culture. Into the accounts methodology of the national and autonomy administration were introduced the transfers which represent prevalent expenses, capital expenditures, grants, subsidies and contributions. From an accounting perspective views there is an important fact from which the transfer passes, respectively whether the transfer is provided by the founder, the transfer by another entity within the public administration, or the transfer goes from an entity outside of the public administration. Watching transfers is important for the subsequent preparation of consolidated financial statements and summary financial statements of the public administration. The aggregate accounts of government administration in 2012 expanded by another group of accounting entities namely the state enterprises, RSR, Eximbanka and other public entities.

  3. Optimalization studies concerning volume reduction and conditioning of radioactive waste in view of storage and disposal (geological disposal into clay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Van De Voorde, N.; Bonne, A.

    1984-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level and medium-level wastes, and simultaneous optimization of the quality of the conditioned end-product is a major challenge in the management of radioactive wastes. Comments will be given on recent achievements in treatment of non-high-level liquid and solid wastes from power reactors and low-level plutonium contaminated wastes. The latter results can contribute to an overall optimization of a radioactive waste management scheme, including the final disposal of the conditioned materials. Some detailed results will be given concerning volume reduction, decontamination factors, degree of immobilization of the contained radioelements, and cost considerations

  4. 77 FR 5990 - Special Conditions: Learjet Inc., Model LJ-200-1A10 Airplane, Pilot-Compartment View Through...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ..., and the FAA must issue a finding of regulatory adequacy pursuant to Sec. 611 of Public Law 92-574, the ``Noise Control Act of 1972.'' The FAA issues special conditions, as defined in 14 CFR 11.19, in... novel or unusual design features: The Model LJ-200-1A10 airplane flight deck design incorporates a...

  5. A Chinese View on the Cultural Conditionality of Logic and Epistemology: Zhang Dongsun’s Intercultural Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rošker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the fact that comprehension, analysis and transmission of reality are based on diversely structured socio-political contexts as well as on different categorical and essential postulates, offers a prospect of enrichment. Thus, this article presents an analysis and interpretation of one of the first Chinese theoreticians, working in the field of intercultural methodology. Although Zhang Dongsun (1886–1973 can be considered as one of the leading Chinese philosophers of the 20th Century, his criticism of Sinicized Marxist ideologies marked him as a political dissident and he was consequently consigned to oblivion for several decades; only recently has his work been rediscovered by a number of younger Chinese theorists, who have shown a growing interest in his ideas. Although he is still relatively unknown in the West, Zhang definitely deserves to be recognized for his contributions to Chinese and comparative philosophy. The present article focuses on his extraordinary ability to introduce Western thought in a way which was compatible with the specific methodology of traditional Chinese thought. According to such presumptions, culture is viewed as an entity composed of a number of specific discourses and relations. The article shows how the interweaving and interdependence of these discourses form different cultural backgrounds, which manifest themselves in the specific, culturally determined structures of language and logic. It also explains the role of traditional elements in his cultural epistemology.

  6. Disambiguation of Necker cube rotation by monocular and binocular depth cues: relative effectiveness for establishing long-term bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sarah J; Backus, Benjamin T; Jain, Anshul

    2011-05-11

    The apparent direction of rotation of perceptually bistable wire-frame (Necker) cubes can be conditioned to depend on retinal location by interleaving their presentation with cubes that are disambiguated by depth cues (Haijiang, Saunders, Stone, & Backus, 2006; Harrison & Backus, 2010a). The long-term nature of the learned bias is demonstrated by resistance to counter-conditioning on a consecutive day. In previous work, either binocular disparity and occlusion, or a combination of monocular depth cues that included occlusion, internal occlusion, haze, and depth-from-shading, were used to control the rotation direction of disambiguated cubes. Here, we test the relative effectiveness of these two sets of depth cues in establishing the retinal location bias. Both cue sets were highly effective in establishing a perceptual bias on Day 1 as measured by the perceived rotation direction of ambiguous cubes. The effect of counter-conditioning on Day 2, on perceptual outcome for ambiguous cubes, was independent of whether the cue set was the same or different as Day 1. This invariance suggests that a common neural population instantiates the bias for rotation direction, regardless of the cue set used. However, in a further experiment where only disambiguated cubes were presented on Day 1, perceptual outcome of ambiguous cubes during Day 2 counter-conditioning showed that the monocular-only cue set was in fact more effective than disparity-plus-occlusion for causing long-term learning of the bias. These results can be reconciled if the conditioning effect of Day 1 ambiguous trials in the first experiment is taken into account (Harrison & Backus, 2010b). We suggest that monocular disambiguation leads to stronger bias either because it more strongly activates a single neural population that is necessary for perceiving rotation, or because ambiguous stimuli engage cortical areas that are also engaged by monocularly disambiguated stimuli but not by disparity-disambiguated stimuli

  7. Cross-sectional survey of older patients' views regarding multidisciplinary care for chronic conditions in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Andrew; Magee, Christopher; Pearson, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The ageing population and increasing prevalence of chronic illness have contributed to the need for significant primary care reform, including increased use of multidisciplinary care and task substitution. This cross-sectional study explores conditions under which older patients would accept having health professionals other than their general practitioner (GP) involved in their care for chronic disease management (CDM). Ten practices were randomly sampled from a contiguous major city and inner regional area. Questionnaires were distributed to consecutive patients aged 60 years and over in each practice. Agency theory was used to inform analyses. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Wald's test, growth modelling and linear regression, controlling for the clustered design. The response rate was 53% (n=272). Most respondents (79%) had at least one chronic health condition. Respondents were more comfortable with GP than with practice nurse management in the CDM scenario (Wald's test=105.49, P<0.001). Comfort with practice nurse CDM was positively associated with increased contact with their GP at the time of the visit (β=0.41, P<0.001), negatively associated with the number of the respondent's chronic conditions (β=-0.13, P=0.030) and not associated with the frequency of other health professional visits. Agency theory suggests that patients employ continuity of care to optimise factors important in CDM: information symmetry and goal alignment. Our findings are consistent with the theory and lend support to ensuring that interpersonal continuity of care is not lost in health care reform. Further research exploring patients' acceptance of differing systems of care is required.

  8. Managing the demands of the preregistration mental health nursing programme: The views of students with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramluggun, Pras; Lacy, Mary; Cadle, Martha; Anjoyeb, Mahmood

    2018-05-30

    An increasing number of students with a pre-existing mental health condition are enrolling on preregistration mental health nursing programmes. The challenges faced by these students in managing the demands of the programme have not been fully explored. Mental health and well-being is an integral part of providing a healthy university in which students can flourish. The purpose of the study was to explore how students with an underlying mental health issue manage the demands of the mental health nursing programme. The outcomes of the study are aimed at informing inclusive teaching and learning and current student support provision. Ethics approval was given. Students from two universities in South East England who met the criterion of having a pre-existing mental health condition when enrolling on the mental health preregistration nursing programme were invited to take part. Nine students took part in the study. Using an interpretative descriptive design, 1:1 face-to-face, audio-taped, semistructured interviews were undertaken. The data were analysed using a framework approach, and this revealed four main themes: timing of disclosure; managing lived experience in learning environments; students' coping mechanisms, and experience of support. Recommendations for practice was that approved education institutes (AEIs) should ensure they have a robust, inclusive practice by implementing strategies to develop these students' resilience, and enhance their learning and the current support provisions. This will ensure the barriers to disclosing their mental health conditions are recognized and minimized to enable these students to fully contribute to their own learning and teaching experience. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. Monocular and binocular visual impairment in the UK Biobank study: prevalence, associations and diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Martin; Farragher, Tracey M; Shickle, Darren

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of, associations with and diagnoses leading to mild visual impairment or worse (logMAR >0.3) in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study. Prevalence estimates for monocular and binocular visual impairment were determined for the UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Associations with socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables were investigated for cases with visual impairment and matched controls, using multinomial logistic regression models. Self-reported eye history and image grading results were used to identify the primary diagnoses leading to visual impairment for a sample of 25% of cases. For the 65 033 UK Biobank participants, aged 40-69 years and with fundus images, 6682 (10.3%) and 1677 (2.6%) had mild visual impairment or worse in one or both eyes, respectively. Increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity were independently associated with both monocular and binocular visual impairment. No primary diagnosis for the recorded level of visual impairment could be identified for 49.8% of eyes. The most common identifiable diagnoses leading to visual impairment were cataract, amblyopia, uncorrected refractive error and vitreoretinal interface abnormalities. The prevalence of visual impairment in the UK Biobank study cohort is lower than for population-based studies from other industrialised countries. Monocular and binocular visual impairment are associated with increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity. The UK Biobank dataset does not allow confident identification of the causes of visual impairment, and the results may not be applicable to the wider UK population.

  10. Short-term saccadic adaptation in the macaque monkey: a binocular mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements are rapid transfers of gaze between objects of interest. Their duration is too short for the visual system to be able to follow their progress in time. Adaptive mechanisms constantly recalibrate the saccadic responses by detecting how close the landings are to the selected targets. The double-step saccadic paradigm is a common method to simulate alterations in saccadic gain. While the subject is responding to a first target shift, a second shift is introduced in the middle of this movement, which masks it from visual detection. The error in landing introduced by the second shift is interpreted by the brain as an error in the programming of the initial response, with gradual gain changes aimed at compensating the apparent sensorimotor mismatch. A second shift applied dichoptically to only one eye introduces disconjugate landing errors between the two eyes. A monocular adaptive system would independently modify only the gain of the eye exposed to the second shift in order to reestablish binocular alignment. Our results support a binocular mechanism. A version-based saccadic adaptive process detects postsaccadic version errors and generates compensatory conjugate gain alterations. A vergence-based saccadic adaptive process detects postsaccadic disparity errors and generates corrective nonvisual disparity signals that are sent to the vergence system to regain binocularity. This results in striking dynamical similarities between visually driven combined saccade-vergence gaze transfers, where the disparity is given by the visual targets, and the double-step adaptive disconjugate responses, where an adaptive disparity signal is generated internally by the saccadic system. PMID:23076111

  11. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sippel

    Full Text Available Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP, and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item. Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p < 0.001. Furthermore, patients who passed the task showed a significantly higher number of glances towards the visual field defect (VFD area than patients who failed (t-test, p < 0.05. According to these results, glaucoma patients with defects in the binocular visual field display on average longer search times in a naturalistic supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  12. Monocular and binocular visual impairment in the UK Biobank study: prevalence, associations and diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Tracey M; Shickle, Darren

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of, associations with and diagnoses leading to mild visual impairment or worse (logMAR >0.3) in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study. Methods and analysis Prevalence estimates for monocular and binocular visual impairment were determined for the UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Associations with socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables were investigated for cases with visual impairment and matched controls, using multinomial logistic regression models. Self-reported eye history and image grading results were used to identify the primary diagnoses leading to visual impairment for a sample of 25% of cases. Results For the 65 033 UK Biobank participants, aged 40–69 years and with fundus images, 6682 (10.3%) and 1677 (2.6%) had mild visual impairment or worse in one or both eyes, respectively. Increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity were independently associated with both monocular and binocular visual impairment. No primary diagnosis for the recorded level of visual impairment could be identified for 49.8% of eyes. The most common identifiable diagnoses leading to visual impairment were cataract, amblyopia, uncorrected refractive error and vitreoretinal interface abnormalities. Conclusions The prevalence of visual impairment in the UK Biobank study cohort is lower than for population-based studies from other industrialised countries. Monocular and binocular visual impairment are associated with increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity. The UK Biobank dataset does not allow confident identification of the causes of visual impairment, and the results may not be applicable to the wider UK population. PMID:29657974

  13. The iPod binocular home-based treatment for amblyopia in adults: efficacy and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F; Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon; Black, Joanna; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Occlusion therapy for amblyopia is predicated on the idea that amblyopia is primarily a disorder of monocular vision; however, there is growing evidence that patients with amblyopia have a structurally intact binocular visual system that is rendered functionally monocular due to suppression. Furthermore, we have found that a dichoptic treatment intervention designed to directly target suppression can result in clinically significant improvement in both binocular and monocular visual function in adult patients with amblyopia. The fact that monocular improvement occurs in the absence of any fellow eye occlusion suggests that amblyopia is, in part, due to chronic suppression. Previously the treatment has been administered as a psychophysical task and more recently as a video game that can be played on video goggles or an iPod device equipped with a lenticular screen. The aim of this case-series study of 14 amblyopes (six strabismics, six anisometropes and two mixed) ages 13 to 50 years was to investigate: 1. whether the portable video game treatment is suitable for at-home use and 2. whether an anaglyphic version of the iPod-based video game, which is more convenient for at-home use, has comparable effects to the lenticular version. The dichoptic video game treatment was conducted at home and visual functions assessed before and after treatment. We found that at-home use for 10 to 30 hours restored simultaneous binocular perception in 13 of 14 cases along with significant improvements in acuity (0.11 ± 0.08 logMAR) and stereopsis (0.6 ± 0.5 log units). Furthermore, the anaglyph and lenticular platforms were equally effective. In addition, the iPod devices were able to record a complete and accurate picture of treatment compliance. The home-based dichoptic iPod approach represents a viable treatment for adults with amblyopia. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  14. Effects of fabrication requirements on fuel performance in relation to operating conditions. The views of Electricite de France (EDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponticq, M.; Richer, P.; Scribe, G.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the operational constraints relating to fuel behaviour, imperfect knowledge of the behaviour of a defective fuel assembly and, in the near future, the need to adapt reactor power to grid following (load following and remote control), EDF is aiming to reduce the present rate of fuel failure. While the phenomena affecting fuel behaviour have now been listed and analysed, the efforts at reducing their consequences have yet to be completed. This can be achieved, firstly, by reducing or eliminating fabrication defects, which are responsible for failure at the beginning of fuel life, through establishment of a good quality assurance organization and the search for still higher efficiency of quality control and fabrication equipment, and secondly, by developing fabrication techniques minimizing in particular cladding-pellet interactions and the stress corrosion of the cladding, which are responsible for fuel failure as from mid-life. However, the reactor operating conditions likely to apply in the near future may lead, for a given fuel configuration, to a re-evaluation of the fabrication parameters of cladding and UO 2 pellets. (author)

  15. Do we really know the prevalence of accomodative and nonstrabismic binocular dysfunctions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cacho-Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: There is a lack of proper epidemiological studies about the prevalence of accommodative and nonstrabismic binocular anomalies. Studies reviewed examine consecutive or selected patients in clinical settings and schools but in any case they are randomized and representative of their populations with no data for general population. The wide discrepancies in prevalence figures are due to both sample population and the lack of uniformity in diagnostic criteria so that it makes difficult to compile results. Biases and limitations of reports determine that prevalence rates offered are only estimations from selected populations.

  16. Importância da visão binocular no desempenho da leitura em crianças

    OpenAIRE

    Lança, Carla Costa

    2012-01-01

    Objectivos do estudo: 1) identificar os movimentos oculares envolvidos na leitura e (2) descrever a influência das anomalias da visão binocular no desempenho da leitura em crianças. Metodologia: estudo descritivo baseado numa revisão de literatura. Foi efetuada uma pesquisa de referências publicadas até 2011, acessíveis através da PubMed, da Science Direct e de outras fontes adicionais. Os seguintes termos foram utilizados na pesquisa: binocular vision AND reading; ocular mo...

  17. How Simultaneous is the Perception of Binocular Depth and Rivalry in Plaid Stimuli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Buckthought

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysical experiments have demonstrated that it is possible to perceive both binocular depth and rivalry in plaids (Buckthought and Wilson 2007, Vision Research 47 2543–2556. In a recent study, we investigated the neural substrates for depth and rivalry processing with these plaid patterns, when either a depth or rivalry task was performed (Buckthought and Mendola 2011, Journal of Vision 11 1–15. However, the extent to which perception of the two stimulus aspects was truly simultaneous remained somewhat unclear. In the present study, we introduced a new task in which subjects were instructed to perform both depth and rivalry tasks concurrently. Subjects were clearly able to perform both tasks at the same time, but with a modest, symmetric drop in performance when compared to either task carried out alone. Subjects were also able to raise performance levels for either task by performing it with a higher priority, with a decline in performance for the other task. The symmetric declines in performance are consistent with the interpretation that the two tasks are equally demanding of attention (Braun and Julesz 1998, Perception & Psychophysics 60 1–23. The results demonstrate the impressive combination of binocular features that supports coincident depth and rivalry in surface perception, within the constraints of presumed orientation and spatial frequency channels.

  18. Measurement of the geometric parameters of power contact wire based on binocular stereovision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Ya-feng; Meng, Fei

    2010-10-01

    In the electrified railway power supply system, electric locomotive obtains power from the catenary's wire through the pantograph. Under the action of the pantograph, combined with various factors such as vibration, touch current, relative sliding speed, load, etc, the contact wire will produce mechanical wear and electrical wear. Thus, in electrified railway construction and daily operations, the geometric parameters such as line height, pull value, the width of wear surface must be under real-timely and non-contact detection. On the one hand, the safe operation of electric railways will be guaranteed; on the other hand, the wire endurance will be extended, and operating costs reduced. Based on the characteristics of the worn wires' image signal, the binocular stereo vision technology was applied for measurement of contact wire geometry parameters, a mathematical model of measurement of geometric parameters was derived, and the boundaries of the wound wire abrasion-point value were extracted by means of sub-pixel edge detection method based on the LOG operator with the least-squares fitting, thus measurements of the wire geometry parameters were realized. Principles were demonstrated through simulation experiments, and the experimental results show that the detection methods presented in this paper for measuring the accuracy, efficiency and convenience, etc. are close to or superior to the traditional measurements, which has laid a good foundation for the measurement system of geometric parameters for the contact wire of the development of binocular vision.

  19. An exploratory study: prolonged periods of binocular stimulation can provide an effective treatment for childhood amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Pamela J; Simmers, Anita J; Gray, Lyle S; Cleary, Marie

    2012-02-21

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential for treating childhood amblyopia with a binocular stimulus designed to correlate the visual input from both eyes. Eight strabismic, two anisometropic, and four strabismic and anisometropic amblyopes (mean age, 8.5 ± 2.6 years) undertook a dichoptic perceptual learning task for five sessions (each lasting 1 hour) over the course of a week. The training paradigm involved a simple computer game, which required the subject to use both eyes to perform the task. A statistically significant improvement (t(₁₃) = 5.46; P = 0.0001) in the mean visual acuity (VA) of the amblyopic eye (AE) was demonstrated, from 0.51 ± 0.27 logMAR before training to 0.42 ± 0.28 logMAR after training with six subjects gaining 0.1 logMAR or more of improvement. Measurable stereofunction was established for the first time in three subjects with an overall significant mean improvement in stereoacuity after training (t(₁₃) =2.64; P = 0.02). The dichoptic-based perceptual learning therapy employed in the present study improved both the monocular VA of the AE and stereofunction, verifying the feasibility of a binocular approach in the treatment of childhood amblyopia.

  20. Research on key technology of yacht positioning based on binocular parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zengzhi

    2016-10-01

    Yacht has become a fashionable way for entertainment. However, to obtain the precise location of a yacht docked at a port has become one of the concerns of a yacht manager. To deal with this issue, we adopt a positioning method based on the principle of binocular parallax and background difference in this paper. Binocular parallax uses cameras to get multi-dimensional perspective of the yacht based on geometric principle of imaging. In order to simplify the yacht localization problem, we install LED light indicator as the key point on a yacht. And let it flash at a certain frequency during day time and night time. After getting the distance between the LED and the cameras, locating the yacht is easy. Compared with other traditional positioning methods, this method is simpler and easier to implement. In this paper, we study the yacht positioning method using the LED indicator. Simulation experiment is done for a yacht model in the distance of 3 meters. The experimental result shows that our method is feasible and easy to implement with a small 15% positioning error.

  1. A new computerized diagnostic algorithm for quantitative evaluation of binocular misalignment in patients with strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, In Young; Kang, Ho Chul; Yang, Hee Kyung; Yoon, Chang Ki; Hwang, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2012-10-01

    Accurate measurement of binocular misalignment between both eyes is important for proper preoperative management, surgical planning, and postoperative evaluation of patients with strabismus. In this study, we proposed a new computerized diagnostic algorithm that can calculate the angle of binocular eye misalignment photographically by using a dedicated three-dimensional eye model mimicking the structure of the natural human eye. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, eight healthy volunteers and eight individuals with strabismus were recruited in this study, the horizontal deviation angle, vertical deviation angle, and angle of eye misalignment were calculated and the angular differences between the healthy and the strabismus groups were evaluated using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and the Pearson correlation test. The experimental results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the healthy and strabismus groups (p = 0.015 0.05). The measurements of the two methods were highly correlated (r = 0.969, p human eye to diagnose non-invasively the severity of strabismus.

  2. Sensor assembly method using silicon interposer with trenches for three-dimensional binocular range sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Arima, Yutaka

    2018-04-01

    To easily assemble a three-dimensional binocular range sensor, we devised an alignment method for two image sensors using a silicon interposer with trenches. The trenches were formed using deep reactive ion etching (RIE) equipment. We produced a three-dimensional (3D) range sensor using the method and experimentally confirmed that sufficient alignment accuracy was realized. It was confirmed that the alignment accuracy of the two image sensors when using the proposed method is more than twice that of the alignment assembly method on a conventional board. In addition, as a result of evaluating the deterioration of the detection performance caused by the alignment accuracy, it was confirmed that the vertical deviation between the corresponding pixels in the two image sensors is substantially proportional to the decrease in detection performance. Therefore, we confirmed that the proposed method can realize more than twice the detection performance of the conventional method. Through these evaluations, the effectiveness of the 3D binocular range sensor aligned by the silicon interposer with the trenches was confirmed.

  3. Research and Development of Target Recognition and Location Crawling Platform based on Binocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Lei, Zhu; Yuan, Zhang; Gao, Zhenqing

    2018-03-01

    The application of visual recognition technology in industrial robot crawling and placing operation is one of the key tasks in the field of robot research. In order to improve the efficiency and intelligence of the material sorting in the production line, especially to realize the sorting of the scattered items, the robot target recognition and positioning crawling platform based on binocular vision is researched and developed. The images were collected by binocular camera, and the images were pretreated. Harris operator was used to identify the corners of the images. The Canny operator was used to identify the images. Hough-chain code recognition was used to identify the images. The target image in the image, obtain the coordinates of each vertex of the image, calculate the spatial position and posture of the target item, and determine the information needed to capture the movement and transmit it to the robot control crawling operation. Finally, In this paper, we use this method to experiment the wrapping problem in the express sorting process The experimental results show that the platform can effectively solve the problem of sorting of loose parts, so as to achieve the purpose of efficient and intelligent sorting.

  4. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Katrin; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  5. Full-reference quality assessment of stereoscopic images by learning binocular receptive field properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Li, Kemeng; Lin, Weisi; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Dai, Qionghai

    2015-10-01

    Quality assessment of 3D images encounters more challenges than its 2D counterparts. Directly applying 2D image quality metrics is not the solution. In this paper, we propose a new full-reference quality assessment for stereoscopic images by learning binocular receptive field properties to be more in line with human visual perception. To be more specific, in the training phase, we learn a multiscale dictionary from the training database, so that the latent structure of images can be represented as a set of basis vectors. In the quality estimation phase, we compute sparse feature similarity index based on the estimated sparse coefficient vectors by considering their phase difference and amplitude difference, and compute global luminance similarity index by considering luminance changes. The final quality score is obtained by incorporating binocular combination based on sparse energy and sparse complexity. Experimental results on five public 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency with subjective assessment.

  6. Effect of the position of the visible sky in determining the sky view factor on micrometeorological and human thermal comfort conditions in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaid, Adeb; Lamit, Hasanuddin Bin; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Rasidi, Mohd Hisyam

    2018-02-01

    Poor daytime and night-time micrometeorological conditions are issues that influence the quality of environmental conditions and can undermine a comfortable human lifestyle. The sky view factor (SVF) is one of the essential physical parameters used to assess the micrometeorological conditions and thermal comfort levels within city streets. The position of the visible sky relative to the path of the sun, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, has not been widely discerned as a parameter that could have an impact on the micrometeorological conditions of urban streets. To investigate this parameter, different urban streets that have a similar SVF value but diverse positions of visible sky were proposed in different street directions intersecting with the path of the sun, namely N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The effects of daytime and night-time micrometeorological variables and human thermal comfort variables on the street were investigated by applying ENVI-met V3.1 Beta software. The results show that the position of the visible sky has a greater influence on the street's meteorological and human thermal comfort conditions than the SVF value. It has the ability to maximise or minimise the mean radiation temperature (Tmrt, °C) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, °C) at street level. However, the visible sky positioned to the zenith in a NE-SW or N-S street direction and to the SW of a NW-SE street direction achieves the best daytime micrometeorological and thermal comfort conditions. Alternatively, the visible sky positioned to the NE for a NW-SE street direction, to the NW and the zenith for a NE-SW street direction and to the zenith for a N-S street direction reduces the night-time air temperature (Ta, °C). Therefore, SVF and the position of the visible sky relative to the sun's trajectory, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, must be considered during urban street planning to better understand the resultant micrometeorological and human thermal

  7. Effect of age and pop out distracter on attended field of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Leat, Susan J; Irving, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the functional field of view (FFOV) of younger and older individuals using the attended field of view (AFOV), a method which allows for eye and head movement. The impact of a pop out distracter and a dual task on the FFOV measure was also investigated. Nine young adult (25±6 years) and 9 older participants (72±4 years) took part in the experiment. The AFOV test involved the binocular detection and localization of a white target (Landolt-C) in a field of 24 white rings (distracters). The further AFOV tests were modified to include the presence of a pop out distracter, a dual task condition, and a combination of the two. Older observers had lower viewing efficiency (log [1/presentation time]) in all conditions (pooled mean across conditions: older: 0.05±0.02; younger: 0.48±0.04) than the younger group. The addition of dual or a pop out distracter did not affect the older group (mean difference ∼104±150ms and ∼124±122ms respectively) but the additional pop out distracter reduced the efficiency of the younger group for targets near fixation (mean difference ∼68±35ms). Better viewing efficiency was observed in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Difficulty in disregarding irrelevant stimuli and thereby resorting to inefficient search strategy is proposed as the reason for the differences. The finding that both older and younger individuals are not affected significantly by the presence of the irrelevant pop out distracter has implications in situations such as driving or hazard avoidance. In such scenarios, search performance is likely not impaired beyond what is found with distracters (visual clutter) in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. LabVIEW aplicado al diagnóstico de estado en tiempo real de transformadores de potencia; LabVIEW apply to diagnostic that assess the condition in real time of the power transfor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Fernández Padrón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo está dirigido al rediseño del Sistema de Adquisición y Procesamiento de Datos de la Estación para el Diagnóstico de Estado en Tiempo Real del Autotransformador de Potencia No. 2 de 100MVA, de la Subestación Barquisimeto de Venezuela, a partir de controladores embebidos en tiempo real de la familia cRIO de National Instruments y las técnicas de programación que ofrece la plataforma NI LabVIEW, con la finalidad de integrar un sistema único (software-hardware que permita aumentar la calidad en las mediciones, el procesamiento de los datos, la interface hombre-máquina, su capacidad de expansión y reproducibilidad. El mismo puede ser accedido mediante navegadores Web de Internet y transferir datos en tiempo real a través de la red, además es capaz de trabajar autónomo presentando respaldo en comunicación y alimentación de energía eléctrica, logrando un mejor servicio de diagnóstico continuo en dicho autotransformador.  This work is focused on the redesign of the Acquisition System and Processing Data of the Station for the Diagnostic that Assess the Condition in Real Time of the 100MVA Power Autotransformer No. 2 of the Substation Barquisimeto from Venezuela with the embedded controllers in real time of the cRIO technology of the National Instruments and the programming techniques supported by the NI LabVIEW platform with the purpose of integrating an unique system (hardware-software that allows to improve the quality in the measurements, the processing data, the man-machine interface, its expansion capability and reproduction. This system can be obtained by the internet web browser and it can transfer data in real time through the network, it is also able to work autonomous having a back in communicating and electrical energy feeding, getting a better continuous diagnostic service and the autotransformer.

  9. LabVIEW aplicado al diagnóstico de estado en tiempo real de transformadores de potencia LabVIEW apply to diagnostic that assess the condition in real time of the power transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Fernández Padrón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo está dirigido al rediseño del Sistema de Adquisición y Procesamiento de Datos de la Estación para el Diagnóstico de Estado en Tiempo Real del Autotransformador de Potencia No. 2 de 100MVA, de la Subestación Barquisimeto de Venezuela, a partir de controladores embebidos en tiempo real de la familia cRIO de National Instruments y las técnicas de programación que ofrece la plataforma NI LabVIEW, con la finalidad de integrar un sistema único (software-hardware que permita aumentar la calidad en las mediciones, el procesamiento de los datos, la interface hombre-máquina, su capacidad de expansión y reproducibilidad. El mismo puede ser accedido mediante navegadores Web de Internet y transferir datos en tiempo real a través de la red, además es capaz de trabajar autónomo presentando respaldo en comunicación y alimentación de energía eléctrica, logrando un mejor servicio de diagnóstico continuo en dicho autotransformador.This work is focused on the redesign of the Acquisition System and Processing Data of the Station for the Diagnostic that Assess the Condition in Real Time of the 100MVA Power Autotransformer No. 2 of the Substation Barquisimeto from Venezuela with the embedded controllers in real time of the cRIO technology of the National Instruments and the programming techniques supported by the NI LabVIEW platform with the purpose of integrating an unique system (hardware-software that allows to improve the quality in the measurements, the processing data, the man-machine interface, its expansion capability and reproduction. This system can be obtained by the internet web browser and it can transfer data in real time through the network, it is also able to work autonomous having a back in communicating and electrical energy feeding, getting a better continuous diagnostic service and the autotransformer.

  10. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    Trine Schow, Paul Harris, Thomas William Teasdale, Morten Arendt Rasmussen. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016 Apr 6;38(4):331-41. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161324....

  11. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  12. Utility of large spot binocular indirect laser delivery for peripheral photocoagulation therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Saranya C; Mohney, Brian G; Bang, Genie M; Link, Thomas P; Pulido, Jose S

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the utility of the large spot size (LSS) setting using a binocular laser indirect delivery system for peripheral ablation in children. One patient with bilateral retinopathy of prematurity received photocoagulation with standard spot size burns placed adjacently to LSS burns. Using a pixel analysis program called Image J on the Retcam picture, the areas of each retinal spot size were determined in units of pixels, giving a standard spot range of 805 to 1294 pixels and LSS range of 1699 to 2311 pixels. Additionally, fluence was calculated using theoretical retinal areas produced by each spot size: the standard spot setting was 462 mJ/mm2 and the LSS setting was 104 mJ/mm2. For eyes with retinopathy of prematurity, our study shows that LSS laser indirect delivery halves the number of spots required for treatment and reduces fluence by almost one-quarter, producing more uniform spots.

  13. AN AUTONOMOUS GPS-DENIED UNMANNED VEHICLE PLATFORM BASED ON BINOCULAR VISION FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching based VO (Visual Odometry software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  14. An Autonomous Gps-Denied Unmanned Vehicle Platform Based on Binocular Vision for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M.; Wan, X.; Shao, Y. Y.; Li, S. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching) based VO (Visual Odometry) software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment) modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  15. An Active System for Visually-Guided Reaching in 3D across Binocular Fixations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Martinez-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the importance of relative disparity between objects for accurate hand-eye coordination, this paper presents a biological approach inspired by the cortical neural architecture. So, the motor information is coded in egocentric coordinates obtained from the allocentric representation of the space (in terms of disparity generated from the egocentric representation of the visual information (image coordinates. In that way, the different aspects of the visuomotor coordination are integrated: an active vision system, composed of two vergent cameras; a module for the 2D binocular disparity estimation based on a local estimation of phase differences performed through a bank of Gabor filters; and a robotic actuator to perform the corresponding tasks (visually-guided reaching. The approach’s performance is evaluated through experiments on both simulated and real data.

  16. Semantic Edge Based Disparity Estimation Using Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Binocular Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongchen; Li, Jiamao; Wang, Xianshun; Peng, Jingquan; Shi, Wenjun; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2018-04-03

    Disparity calculation is crucial for binocular sensor ranging. The disparity estimation based on edges is an important branch in the research of sparse stereo matching and plays an important role in visual navigation. In this paper, we propose a robust sparse stereo matching method based on the semantic edges. Some simple matching costs are used first, and then a novel adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to obtain optimal solutions. This algorithm makes use of the disparity or semantic consistency constraint between the stereo images to adaptively search parameters, which can improve the robustness of our method. The proposed method is compared quantitatively and qualitatively with the traditional dynamic programming method, some dense stereo matching methods, and the advanced edge-based method respectively. Experiments show that our method can provide superior performance on the above comparison.

  17. Early visual responses predict conscious face perception within and between subjects during binocular rivalry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that conscious face perception may be related to neural activity in a large time window around 170–800 msec after stimulus presentation, yet in the majority of these studies changes in conscious experience are confounded with changes in physical stimulation. Using...... multivariate classification on MEG data recorded when participants reported changes in conscious perception evoked by binocular rivalry between a face and a grating, we showed that only MEG signals in the 120–320 msec time range, peaking at the M170 around 180 msec and the P2m at around 260 msec, reliably...... activity associated with conscious face perception generalized from one participant to another around the times of maximum prediction accuracy. Our work thus demonstrates that the neural correlates of particular conscious contents (here, faces) are highly consistent in time and space within individuals...

  18. A Randomized Trial of a Binocular iPad Game Versus Part-Time Patching in Children Aged 13 to 16 Years With Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manh, Vivian M; Holmes, Jonathan M; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Kraker, Raymond T; Wallace, David K; Kulp, Marjean T; Galvin, Jennifer A; Shah, Birva K; Davis, Patricia L

    2018-02-01

    To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in teenagers with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. One hundred participants aged 13 to 75% of prescribed treatment. In teenagers aged 13 to <17 years, improvement in amblyopic eye VA with the binocular iPad game used in this study was not found to be better than patching, and was possibly worse. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the minimal treatment response to binocular treatment was owing to poor treatment adherence or lack of treatment effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of Terms of Activity of Enterprises as Pre-condition of Choice of System of Corporate Management: Historical Retrospective View and Modern Tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev Emil N.

    2012-01-01

    The historical retrospective view of evolution of the systems of corporate management in accordance with the gradual increase of level of instability of external environment is investigated. Description of modern conditions of functioning of enterprises in the context of their influence on the choice of the effective system of corporate management is presented.Исследована историческая ретроспектива эволюционирования систем корпоративного управления в соответствии с постепенным увеличением уро...

  20. Evaluation of binocular function among pre- and early-presbyopes with asthenopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reindel W

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available William Reindel,1 Lening Zhang,1 Joseph Chinn,2 Marjorie Rah1 1Vision Care, Bausch & Lomb Inc, Rochester, NY, 2J Chinn LLC, Lafayette, CO, USA Purpose: Individuals approaching presbyopia may exhibit ocular symptoms as they contend with visual demands of near work, coupled with natural age-related changes in accommodation. Therefore, accommodation and vergence of 30- to 40-year-old, myopic, soft contact lens wearing subjects with symptoms of asthenopia and no history of using multifocal lenses were evaluated.Patients and methods: In this prospective, observational study, 253 subjects with asthenopia were evaluated by 25 qualified practitioners, each at a different clinical site. Subjects were 30–40 years in age, had symptoms of soreness, eyestrain, tired eyes, or headaches with near work, regularly performed 2–3 consecutive hours of near work, and were undiagnosed with presbyopia. Amplitude of accommodation (AC and near point convergence (NPC were measured with a Royal Air Force binocular gauge. Triplicate push up and push down AC and NPC measures were recorded, and average AC values were compared to those calculated using the Hofstetter formula (HF. Results: The average AC push up/push down value was significantly better than the HF prediction for this age range (8.04±3.09 vs 6.23±0.80 D, although 22.5% of subjects had mean AC below their HF value (5.36±0.99 D. The average NPC push up/push down value was 12.0±4.69 cm. The mean binocular AC value using the push up measure was significantly better than the push down measure (8.5±3.4 vs 7.6±3.0 D. The mean NPC value using the push up measure was significantly worse than the push down measure (13.0±5.0 vs 11.0±4.7 cm. The most frequent primary diagnosis was ill-sustained accommodation (54%, followed by accommodative insufficiency (18%, and accommodative infacility (12%. Conclusion: Based upon a standardized assessment of accommodation and vergence, ill-sustained accommodation was the

  1. Binocular stereo-navigation for three-dimensional thoracoscopic lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Masato; Isaka, Tamami; Kikkawa, Takuma; Sakamoto, Kei; Yoshiya, Takehito; Mitsuboshi, Shota; Oyama, Kunihiro; Murasugi, Masahide; Onuki, Takamasa

    2015-05-08

    This study investigated the efficacy of binocular stereo-navigation during three-dimensional (3-D) thoracoscopic sublobar resection (TSLR). From July 2001, the authors' department began to use a virtual 3-D pulmonary model on a personal computer (PC) for preoperative simulation before thoracoscopic lung resection and for intraoperative navigation during operation. From 120 of 1-mm thin-sliced high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)-scan images of tumor and hilum, homemade software CTTRY allowed sugeons to mark pulmonary arteries, veins, bronchi, and tumor on the HRCT images manually. The location and thickness of pulmonary vessels and bronchi were rendered as diverse size cylinders. With the resulting numerical data, a 3-D image was reconstructed by Metasequoia shareware. Subsequently, the data of reconstructed 3-D images were converted to Autodesk data, which appeared on a stereoscopic-vision display. Surgeons wearing 3-D polarized glasses performed 3-D TSLR. The patients consisted of 5 men and 5 women, ranging in age from 65 to 84 years. The clinical diagnoses were a primary lung cancer in 6 cases and a solitary metastatic lung tumor in 4 cases. Eight single segmentectomies, one bi-segmentectomy, and one bi-subsegmentectomy were performed. Hilar lymphadenectomy with mediastinal lymph node sampling has been performed in 6 primary lung cancers, but four patients with metastatic lung tumors were performed without lymphadenectomy. The operation time and estimated blood loss ranged from 125 to 333 min and from 5 to 187 g, respectively. There were no intraoperative complications and no conversion to open thoracotomy and lobectomy. Postoperative courses of eight patients were uneventful, and another two patients had a prolonged lung air leak. The drainage duration and hospital stay ranged from 2 to 13 days and from 8 to 19 days, respectively. The tumor histology of primary lung cancer showed 5 adenocarcinoma and 1 squamous cell carcinoma. All primary lung

  2. Generalization of Figure-Ground Segmentation from Binocular to Monocular Vision in an Embodied Biological Brain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    figure and ground the luminance cue breaks down and gestalt contours can fail to pop out. In this case we rely on color, which, having weak stereopsis...REPORT Generalization of Figure - Ground Segmentation from Monocular to Binocular Vision in an Embodied Biological Brain Model 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS figure - ground , neural network, object

  3. Visual cortex and auditory cortex activation in early binocularly blind macaques: A BOLD-fMRI study using auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wu, Lingjie; Tang, Zuohua; Sun, Xinghuai; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Weijun; Qian, Wen; Wang, Jie; Jin, Lixin; Zhong, Yufeng; Xiao, Zebin

    2017-04-15

    Cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices of early binocularly blind macaques is not well studied. In this study, four healthy neonatal macaques were assigned to group A (control group) or group B (binocularly blind group). Sixteen months later, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was conducted to examine the activation in the visual and auditory cortices of each macaque while being tested using pure tones as auditory stimuli. The changes in the BOLD response in the visual and auditory cortices of all macaques were compared with immunofluorescence staining findings. Compared with group A, greater BOLD activity was observed in the bilateral visual cortices of group B, and this effect was particularly obvious in the right visual cortex. In addition, more activated volumes were found in the bilateral auditory cortices of group B than of group A, especially in the right auditory cortex. These findings were consistent with the fact that there were more c-Fos-positive cells in the bilateral visual and auditory cortices of group B compared with group A (p visual cortices of binocularly blind macaques can be reorganized to process auditory stimuli after visual deprivation, and this effect is more obvious in the right than the left visual cortex. These results indicate the establishment of cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers' perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-06-01

    Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers' snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3-5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child's snacking in the context of TV viewing. TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as 'time out', 'enjoyment' or 'quiet.' Caregivers' primary reasons for providing snacks included child's expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture ('TV table') specifically for snacking. Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage 'snack-free' TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children's behaviour without snacks or TV.

  5. Nulling Data Reduction and On-Sky Performance of the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrere, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Mennesson, B.; Hoffman, W. F.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Skemer, A. J.; Bailey, V.; Danchi, W. C.; Downy, E. C.; Durney, O.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a versatile instrument designed for high angular resolution and high-contrast infrared imaging (1.5-13 micrometers). In this paper, we focus on the mid-infrared (8-13 micrometers) nulling mode and present its theory of operation, data reduction, and on-sky performance as of the end of the commissioning phase in 2015 March. With an interferometric baseline of 14.4 m, the LBTI nuller is specifically tuned to resolve the habitable zone of nearby main-sequence stars, where warm exozodiacal dust emission peaks. Measuring the exozodi luminosity function of nearby main-sequence stars is a key milestone to prepare for future exo-Earth direct imaging instruments. Thanks to recent progress in wavefront control and phase stabilization, as well as in data reduction techniques, the LBTI demonstrated in 2015 February a calibrated null accuracy of 0.05% over a 3 hr long observing sequence on the bright nearby A3V star Beta Leo. This is equivalent to an exozodiacal disk density of 15-30 zodi for a Sun-like star located at 10 pc, depending on the adopted disk model. This result sets a new record for high-contrast mid-infrared interferometric imaging and opens a new window on the study of planetary systems.

  6. The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Matthew A; Bressloff, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction–diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave. (paper)

  7. Effective Data-Driven Calibration for a Galvanometric Laser Scanning System Using Binocular Stereo Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Junchao; Zhang, Liyan

    2018-01-12

    A new solution to the problem of galvanometric laser scanning (GLS) system calibration is presented. Under the machine learning framework, we build a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN)to represent the GLS system, which takes the digital control signal at the drives of the GLS system as input and the space vector of the corresponding outgoing laser beam as output. The training data set is obtained with the aid of a moving mechanism and a binocular stereo system. The parameters of the SLFN are efficiently solved in a closed form by using extreme learning machine (ELM). By quantitatively analyzing the regression precision with respective to the number of hidden neurons in the SLFN, we demonstrate that the proper number of hidden neurons can be safely chosen from a broad interval to guarantee good generalization performance. Compared to the traditional model-driven calibration, the proposed calibration method does not need a complex modeling process and is more accurate and stable. As the output of the network is the space vectors of the outgoing laser beams, it costs much less training time and can provide a uniform solution to both laser projection and 3D-reconstruction, in contrast with the existing data-driven calibration method which only works for the laser triangulation problem. Calibration experiment, projection experiment and 3D reconstruction experiment are respectively conducted to test the proposed method, and good results are obtained.

  8. Effective Data-Driven Calibration for a Galvanometric Laser Scanning System Using Binocular Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Tu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solution to the problem of galvanometric laser scanning (GLS system calibration is presented. Under the machine learning framework, we build a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN)to represent the GLS system, which takes the digital control signal at the drives of the GLS system as input and the space vector of the corresponding outgoing laser beam as output. The training data set is obtained with the aid of a moving mechanism and a binocular stereo system. The parameters of the SLFN are efficiently solved in a closed form by using extreme learning machine (ELM. By quantitatively analyzing the regression precision with respective to the number of hidden neurons in the SLFN, we demonstrate that the proper number of hidden neurons can be safely chosen from a broad interval to guarantee good generalization performance. Compared to the traditional model-driven calibration, the proposed calibration method does not need a complex modeling process and is more accurate and stable. As the output of the network is the space vectors of the outgoing laser beams, it costs much less training time and can provide a uniform solution to both laser projection and 3D-reconstruction, in contrast with the existing data-driven calibration method which only works for the laser triangulation problem. Calibration experiment, projection experiment and 3D reconstruction experiment are respectively conducted to test the proposed method, and good results are obtained.

  9. Managment and construction of the Large Binocular Telescope enclosure: Meeting unusual challenges with a competitive discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, James H.; Hill, John M.; Davison, Warren B.; Hart, Wood; Teran, Jose U.

    1998-08-01

    Planning, estimating, and building a telescope and its enclosure within a budget is a challenge to any project staff. The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) project office goal has been to break every phase of the project into small packages and competitively bid the packages. In this way the project office can minimize costs and keep the project budget from escalating out of control. This paper will discuss both the unique and common problems associated with the building of telescopes into the next millennium. The discussion is centered on the planning and execution phases of construction for the LBT, located on Mt. Graham in Arizona. The paper will discuss the effects of delays on the actual start of the telescope due to environmental issues and the impact the delays had on design and budget. The paper will provide the solutions that have been incorporated by the LBT project office to maximize the quality of construction while holding costs to a minimum. The use of a team approach by the contractors, engineers, and the project office has been successful in maintaining quality construction at a reasonable cost.

  10. NULLING DATA REDUCTION AND ON-SKY PERFORMANCE OF THE LARGE BINOCULAR TELESCOPE INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Skemer, A. J.; Bailey, V.; Downey, E. C.; Durney, O.; Grenz, P.; McMahon, T. J.; Montoya, M.; Spalding, E.; Vaz, A.; Arbo, P.; Brusa, G. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mennesson, B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Millan-Gabet, R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Danchi, W. C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hill, J. M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Absil, O. [Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Bailey, H., E-mail: ddefrere@email.arizona.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E, University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2016-06-20

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a versatile instrument designed for high angular resolution and high-contrast infrared imaging (1.5–13 μ m). In this paper, we focus on the mid-infrared (8–13 μ m) nulling mode and present its theory of operation, data reduction, and on-sky performance as of the end of the commissioning phase in 2015 March. With an interferometric baseline of 14.4 m, the LBTI nuller is specifically tuned to resolve the habitable zone of nearby main-sequence stars, where warm exozodiacal dust emission peaks. Measuring the exozodi luminosity function of nearby main-sequence stars is a key milestone to prepare for future exo-Earth direct imaging instruments. Thanks to recent progress in wavefront control and phase stabilization, as well as in data reduction techniques, the LBTI demonstrated in 2015 February a calibrated null accuracy of 0.05% over a 3 hr long observing sequence on the bright nearby A3V star β Leo. This is equivalent to an exozodiacal disk density of 15–30 zodi for a Sun-like star located at 10 pc, depending on the adopted disk model. This result sets a new record for high-contrast mid-infrared interferometric imaging and opens a new window on the study of planetary systems.

  11. The implementation of depth measurement and related algorithms based on binocular vision in embedded AM5728

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhiwei; Li, Xicai; Shi, Junsheng; Huang, Xiaoqiao; Li, Feiyan

    2018-01-01

    Depth measurement is the most basic measurement in various machine vision, such as automatic driving, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), robot and so on. And it has a wide range of use. With the development of image processing technology and the improvement of hardware miniaturization and processing speed, real-time depth measurement using dual cameras has become a reality. In this paper, an embedded AM5728 and the ordinary low-cost dual camera is used as the hardware platform. The related algorithms of dual camera calibration, image matching and depth calculation have been studied and implemented on the hardware platform, and hardware design and the rationality of the related algorithms of the system are tested. The experimental results show that the system can realize simultaneous acquisition of binocular images, switching of left and right video sources, display of depth image and depth range. For images with a resolution of 640 × 480, the processing speed of the system can be up to 25 fps. The experimental results show that the optimal measurement range of the system is from 0.5 to 1.5 meter, and the relative error of the distance measurement is less than 5%. Compared with the PC, ARM11 and DMCU hardware platforms, the embedded AM5728 hardware is good at meeting real-time depth measurement requirements in ensuring the image resolution.

  12. The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model

    KAUST Repository

    Webber, Matthew A

    2013-03-12

    We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA Medialab srl.

  13. Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

  14. Thunderstorm activity in early Earth: same estimations from point of view a role of electric discharges in formation of prebiotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serozhkin, Yu.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The structure and the physical parameters of an early Earth atmosphere [1], most likely, played a determining role in formation of conditions for origin of life. The estimation of thunderstorm activity in atmosphere of the early Earth is important for understanding of the real role of electrical discharges during formation of biochemical compounds. The terrestrial lightning a long time are considered as one of components determining a physical state and chemical structure of an atmosphere. Liebig in 1827 has considered a capability of nitrogen fixation at discharges of lightning [2]. Recent investigations (Lamarque et al. 1996) have achieved that production rate of NOx due to lightning at 3·106 ton/year [3]. The efficiency of electric discharges as energy source for synthesis of low molecular weight organic compounds is explained by the several factors. To them concern effect of optical radiation, high temperature, shock waves and that is especially important, pulse character of these effects. The impulse impact is essentially reduced the probability of destruction of the formed compounds. However, for some reasons is not clear the real role of electric discharges in synthesis of biochemical compounds. The discharges used in experiments on synthesis of organic substances, do not remind the discharges observable in a nature. One more aspect of a problem about a role of electric discharges in forming pre-biotic conditions on the Earth is connected with the thunderstorm activity in a modern atmosphere. This activity is connected with the presence in an atmosphere of ice crystals and existing gradient of temperature. To tell something about a degree of thunderstorm activity during the early Earth, i.e. that period, when formed pre-biotic conditions were is very difficult. Astrobiological potential of various discharges First of all the diversity of electric discharges in terrestrial atmosphere (usual lightning, lightning at eruption of volcanoes

  15. Computer-enhanced stereoscopic vision in a head-mounted operating binocular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Figl, Michael; Matula, Christian; Hummel, Johann; Hanel, Rudolf; Imhof, Herwig; Wanschitz, Felix; Wagner, Arne; Watzinger, Franz; Bergmann, Helmar

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Varioscope, a commercially available head-mounted operating binocular, we have developed the Varioscope AR, a see through head-mounted display (HMD) for augmented reality visualization that seamlessly fits into the infrastructure of a surgical navigation system. We have assessed the extent to which stereoscopic visualization improves target localization in computer-aided surgery in a phantom study. In order to quantify the depth perception of a user aiming at a given target, we have designed a phantom simulating typical clinical situations in skull base surgery. Sixteen steel spheres were fixed at the base of a bony skull, and several typical craniotomies were applied. After having taken CT scans, the skull was filled with opaque jelly in order to simulate brain tissue. The positions of the spheres were registered using VISIT, a system for computer-aided surgical navigation. Then attempts were made to locate the steel spheres with a bayonet probe through the craniotomies using VISIT and the Varioscope AR as a stereoscopic display device. Localization of targets 4 mm in diameter using stereoscopic vision and additional visual cues indicating target proximity had a success rate (defined as a first-trial hit rate) of 87.5%. Using monoscopic vision and target proximity indication, the success rate was found to be 66.6%. Omission of visual hints on reaching a target yielded a success rate of 79.2% in the stereo case and 56.25% with monoscopic vision. Time requirements for localizing all 16 targets ranged from 7.5 min (stereo, with proximity cues) to 10 min (mono, without proximity cues). Navigation error is primarily governed by the accuracy of registration in the navigation system, whereas the HMD does not appear to influence localization significantly. We conclude that stereo vision is a valuable tool in augmented reality guided interventions. (note)

  16. New advances in amblyopia therapy I: binocular therapies and pharmacologic augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Courtney L; Culican, Susan M

    2018-05-18

    Amblyopia therapy options have traditionally been limited to penalisation of the non-amblyopic eye with either patching or pharmaceutical penalisation. Solid evidence, mostly from the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, has validated both number of hours a day of patching and days per week of atropine use. The use of glasses alone has also been established as a good first-line therapy for both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia. Unfortunately, visual acuity equalisation or even improvement is not always attainable with these methods. Additionally, non-compliance with prescribed therapies contributes to treatment failures, with data supporting difficulty adhering to full treatment sessions. Interest in alternative therapies for amblyopia treatment has long been a topic of interest among researchers and clinicians alike. Incorporating new technology with an understanding of the biological basis of amblyopia has led to enthusiasm for binocular treatment of amblyopia. Early work on perceptual learning as well as more recent enthusiasm for iPad-based dichoptic training have each generated interesting and promising data for vision improvement in amblyopes. Use of pharmaceutical augmentation of traditional therapies has also been investigated. Several different drugs with unique mechanisms of action are thought to be able to neurosensitise the brain and enhance responsiveness to amblyopia therapy. No new treatment has emerged from currently available evidence as superior to the traditional therapies in common practice today. But ongoing investigation into the use of both new technology and the understanding of the neural basis of amblyopia promises alternate or perhaps better cures in the future. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Distribution of Binocular Vision Anomalies and Refractive Errors in Iranian Children With Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Visual problems in children contribute to learning disorders, which are one of the most influential factors in learning. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of refractive and binocular vision errors in children with learning disorders. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 406 children with learning disorders with a mean age of 8.56 ± 2.4 years were evaluated. Examinations included the determination of refractive errors with an auto-refractometer and static retinoscopy, measurement of visual acuity with a Snellen chart, evaluation of ocular deviation, and measurement of stereopsis, amplitude of accommodation, and near point of convergence. Results Of the 406 participants, 319 (78.6% were emmetropic in the right eye, 14.5% had myopia, and 6.9% had hyperopia according to cycloplegic refraction. Astigmatism was detected in 75 (18.5% children. In our study, 89.9% of the children had no deviation, 1.0% had esophoria, and 6.4% had exophoria . In addition, 2.2% of the children had suppression. The near point of convergence ranged from 3 to 18 cm, with a mean of 10.12 ± 3.274 cm. Moreover, 98.5 and 98.0% of the participants achieved complete vision with the best correction in the right and left eye, respectively. The best corrected visual acuity in the right and left eye was achieved in 98.5 and 98.0% of the children, respectively. Conclusions The pattern of visual impairment in learning-impaired children is not much different from that in normal children; however, because these children may not be able to express themselves clearly, lack of correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment has resulted in a marked defect in recognizing visual disorders in these children. Therefore, gaining knowledge of the prevalence of refractive errors in children with learning disorders can be considered the first step in their treatment.

  18. Binocular vision and abnormal head posture in children when watching television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the association between the binocular vision and an abnormal head posture (AHP when watching television (TV in children 7-14y of age. METHODS: Fifty normal children in the normal group and 52 children with an AHP when watching TV in the AHP group were tested for spherical equivalents, far and near fusional convergence (FC and fusional divergence (FD amplitudes, near point of convergence, far and near heterophoria, accommodative convergence/ accommodation ratio and stereoacuity. The values of these tests were compared between the two groups. The independent t test was applied at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS: The far and near FC amplitudes and far FD amplitudes were lower in the AHP group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 13.6±5.4△, recovery point 8.7±5.4△. The near FC amplitudes: break point 14.5±7.3△, recovery point 10.3±5.1△. The far FD amplitudes: break point 3.9±2.7△, recovery point 2.6±2.3△ compared with those in the normal group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 19.1±6.2△, recovery point 12.4±4.5△. The near FC amplitudes: break point 22.3±8.0△, recovery point 16.1±5.7△. The far FD amplitudes: break point 7.0±2.1△, recovery point 4.6±1.9△. Other tests presented no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION: An association between the reduced FC and FD amplitudes and the AHP in children when watching TV is proposed in the study. This kind of AHP is considered to be an anomalous manifestation which appears in a part of puerile patients of fusional vergence dysfunction.

  19. Effect of a Binocular iPad Game vs Part-time Patching in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years With Amblyopia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan M; Manh, Vivian M; Lazar, Elizabeth L; Beck, Roy W; Birch, Eileen E; Kraker, Raymond T; Crouch, Eric R; Erzurum, S Ayse; Khuddus, Nausheen; Summers, Allison I; Wallace, David K

    2016-12-01

    A binocular approach to treating anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia has recently been advocated. Initial studies have yielded promising results, suggesting that a larger randomized clinical trial is warranted. To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching. A multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted in community and institutional practices from September 16, 2014, to August 28, 2015. Participants included 385 children aged 5 years to younger than 13 years with amblyopia (20/40 to 20/200, mean 20/63) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were randomly assigned to either 16 weeks of a binocular iPad game prescribed for 1 hour a day (190 participants; binocular group) or patching of the fellow eye prescribed for 2 hours a day (195 participants; patching group). Study follow-up visits were scheduled at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. A modified intent-to-treat analysis was performed on participants who completed the 16-week trial. Binocular iPad game or patching of the fellow eye. Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 16 weeks. Of the 385 participants, 187 were female (48.6%); mean (SD) age was 8.5 (1.9) years. At 16 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA improved 1.05 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 0.85-1.24 lines) in the binocular group and 1.35 lines (2-sided 95% CI, 1.17-1.54 lines) in the patching group, with an adjusted treatment group difference of 0.31 lines favoring patching (upper limit of the 1-sided 95% CI, 0.53 lines). This upper limit exceeded the prespecified noninferiority limit of 0.5 lines. Only 39 of the 176 participants (22.2%) randomized to the binocular game and with log file data available performed more than 75% of the prescribed treatment (median, 46%; interquartile range, 20%-72%). In younger participants (aged 5 to effects (including diplopia) were uncommon and of similar frequency between groups. In children aged 5 to younger

  20. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  1. Metabolic changes in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS in a study of cross-modal plasticity in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four healthy neonatal macaque monkeys were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 2 in each group. Optic nerve transection was performed in both monkeys in the experimental group (group B to obtain binocular blindness. Two healthy macaque monkeys served as a control group (group A. After sixteen months post-procedure, (1H-MRS was performed in the visual cortex of all monkeys. We compared the peak areas of NAA, Cr, Cho, Glx and Ins and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and Ins/Cr of each monkey in group B with group A. RESULTS: The peak area of NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B were found to be dramatically decreased, the peak area of NAA slightly decreased and the NAA/Cr ratio clearly decreased in visual cortex of monkey 3 in group B than those in group A. The peak area of Ins and the Ins/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B slightly increased. The peak area of Cho and the Cho/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B dramatically increased compared with group A. The peak area of Glx in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B slightly increased compared with group A. CONCLUSIONS: (1H-MRS could detect biochemical and metabolic changes in the visual cortex and therefore this technique can be used to provide valuable information for investigating the mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity of binocular blindness in a macaque monkey model.

  2. Binocular Rivalry Measured 2 Hours After Occlusion Therapy Predicts the Recovery Rate of the Amblyopic Eye in Anisometropic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Claudia; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Secci, Jacopo; Caputo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on adults have shown that short-term monocular deprivation boosts the deprived eye signal in binocular rivalry, reflecting homeostatic plasticity. Here we investigate whether homeostatic plasticity is present also during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia. Binocular rivalry and visual acuity (using Snellen charts for children) were measured in 10 children (mean age 6.2 ± 1 years) with moderate anisometropic amblyopia before the beginning of treatment and at four intervals during occlusion therapy (2 hours, 1, 2, and 5 months). Visual stimuli were orthogonal gratings presented dichoptically through ferromagnetic goggles and children reported verbally visual rivalrous perception. Bangerter filters were applied on the spectacle lens over the best eye for occlusion therapy. Two hours of occlusion therapy increased the nonamblyopic eye predominance over the amblyopic eye compared with pretreatment measurements, consistent with the results in adults. The boost of the nonamblyopic eye was still present after 1 month of treatment, steadily decreasing afterward to reach pretreatment levels after 2 months of continuous occlusion. Across subjects, the increase in nonamblyopic eye predominance observed after 2 hours of occlusion correlated (rho = -0.65, P = 0.04) with the visual acuity improvement of the amblyopic eye measured after 2 months of treatment. Homeostatic plasticity operates during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia and the increase in nonamblyopic eye dominance observed at the beginning of treatment correlates with the amblyopic eye recovery rate. These results suggest that binocular rivalry might be used to monitor visual cortical plasticity during occlusion therapy, although further investigations on larger clinical populations are needed to validate the predictive power of the technique.

  3. Influencia del estrés académico en el sistema binocular en universitarios de la UVA

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: El estrés visual, tras trabajo prolongado en cerca, produce modificaciones en el sistema binocular. Esta hipótesis ha sido poco contrastada experimentalmente. El objetivo principal es medir la influencia del estrés académico en estudiantes universitarios de la UVA mediante la medida de la foria. Métodos: Se ha medido la foria en 22 estudiantes, con su corrección habitual, antes y después de un examen, mediante tres métodos: técnica de la varilla de Maddox, técnica de Von Graefe y...

  4. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    How does the brain maintain stable fusion of 3D scenes when the eyes move? Every eye movement causes each retinal position to process a different set of scenic features, and thus the brain needs to binocularly fuse new combinations of features at each position after an eye movement. Despite these breaks in retinotopic fusion due to each movement, previously fused representations of a scene in depth often appear stable. The 3D ARTSCAN neural model proposes how the brain does this by unifying ...

  5. Binocular disparity only comes into play when everything else fails; a finding with broader implications than one might suppose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizlo, Zygmunt; Li, Yunfeng; Steinman, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    This paper calls attention to research showing that binocular disparity, which is an effective cue to depth, plays a secondary role, at best, in the perception of 3D shape. This claim has implications both for how shape should be studied and how this unique perceptual property should be modeled. These issues are discussed from a historical perspective, which shows how the failure to appreciate the importance of the Gestalt grouping principle called 'Figure-Ground Organization' led to many unfruitful efforts. It also calls attention to how this situation can be remedied.

  6. PEPSI: The high-resolution échelle spectrograph and polarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Ilyin, I.; Järvinen, A.; Weber, M.; Woche, M.; Barnes, S. I.; Bauer, S.-M.; Beckert, E.; Bittner, W.; Bredthauer, R.; Carroll, T. A.; Denker, C.; Dionies, F.; DiVarano, I.; Döscher, D.; Fechner, T.; Feuerstein, D.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Harnisch, G.; Hofmann, A.; Lesser, M.; Paschke, J.; Pankratow, S.; Plank, V.; Plüschke, D.; Popow, E.; Sablowski, D.

    2015-05-01

    PEPSI is the bench-mounted, two-arm, fibre-fed and stabilized Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument for the 2×8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Three spectral resolutions of either 43 000, 120 000 or 270 000 can cover the entire optical/red wavelength range from 383 to 907 nm in three exposures. Two 10.3k×10.3k CCDs with 9-μm pixels and peak quantum efficiencies of 94-96 % record a total of 92 échelle orders. We introduce a new variant of a wave-guide image slicer with 3, 5, and 7 slices and peak efficiencies between 92-96 %. A total of six cross dispersers cover the six wavelength settings of the spectrograph, two of them always simultaneously. These are made of a VPH-grating sandwiched by two prisms. The peak efficiency of the system, including the telescope, is 15 % at 650 nm, and still 11 % and 10 % at 390 nm and 900 nm, respectively. In combination with the 110 m2 light-collecting capability of the LBT, we expect a limiting magnitude of ≈ 20th mag in V in the low-resolution mode. The R = 120 000 mode can also be used with two, dual-beam Stokes IQUV polarimeters. The 270 000-mode is made possible with the 7-slice image slicer and a 100-μm fibre through a projected sky aperture of 0.74 arcsec, comparable to the median seeing of the LBT site. The 43 000-mode with 12-pixel sampling per resolution element is our bad seeing or faint-object mode. Any of the three resolution modes can either be used with sky fibers for simultaneous sky exposures or with light from a stabilized Fabry-Pérot étalon for ultra-precise radial velocities. CCD-image processing is performed with the dedicated data-reduction and analysis package PEPSI-S4S. Its full error propagation through all image-processing steps allows an adaptive selection of parameters by using statistical inferences and robust estimators. A solar feed makes use of PEPSI during day time and a 500-m feed from the 1.8 m VATT can be used when the LBT is busy otherwise. In this paper, we

  7. Evaluation of a four month rehabilitation program for stroke patients with balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schow, Trine; Harris, Paul; Teasdale, Thomas William; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-04-06

    Balance problems and binocular visual dysfunction (BVD) are common problems after stroke, however evidence of an effective rehabilitation method are limited. To evaluate the effect of a four-month rehabilitation program for individuals with balance problems and BVD after a stroke. About 40 sessions of 1.5 hours duration over four months with visual therapy and balance rehabilitation, was provided to all 29 participants, aged 18-67 years, in groups of 7-8 individuals. Several measures for BVD, balance, gait, Health Related Quality Of Life (HRQoL) and functional recovery were used at baseline, at the end of training and at a six-month follow up (FU). We found significant improvements in stereopsis, vergence, saccadic movements, burden of binocular visual symptoms, balance and gait speed, fatigue, HRQoL and functional recovery. Moreover, 60% of the participants were in employment at the six-month FU, compared to only 23% before training. All improvements were sustained at the six-month FU. Although a control group is lacking, the evidence suggests that the positive improvement is a result of the combined visual and balance training. The combination of balance and visual training appears to facilitate changes at a multimodal level affecting several functions important in daily life.

  8. Dichoptic movie viewing treats childhood amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Simone L; Reynaud, Alexandre; Hess, Robert F; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Jost, Reed M; Morale, Sarah E; De La Cruz, Angie; Dao, Lori; Stager, David; Birch, Eileen E

    2015-10-01

    Contrast-balanced dichoptic experience with perceptual-learning tasks or simple games has been shown to improve visual acuity significantly in amblyopia. However, these tasks are intensive and repetitive, and up to 40% of unsupervised patients are noncompliant. We investigated the efficacy of a potentially more engaging movie method to provide contrast-balanced binocular experience via complementary dichoptic stimulation. Eight amblyopic children 4-10 years of age were enrolled in a prospective cohort study to watch 3 dichoptic movies per week for 2 weeks on a passive 3D display. Dichoptic versions of 18 popular animated feature films were created. A patterned image mask of irregularly shaped blobs was multiplied with the movie images seen by the amblyopic eye and an inverse mask was multiplied with the images seen by the fellow eye. Fellow-eye contrast was initially set at a reduced level that allowed binocular vision and was then incremented by 10% at each visit. Best-corrected visual acuity, random dot stereoacuity, and interocular suppression were measured at baseline and 2 weeks. Mean amblyopic eye visual acuity (with standard error of the mean) improved from a logarithm of minimum angle of resolution of 0.72 ± 0.08 at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.09 (P = 0.003); that is, 2.0 lines of improvement at the 2-week outcome visit. No significant change in interocular suppression or stereoacuity was found. Passive viewing of dichoptic feature films is feasible and could be a promising new treatment for childhood amblyopia. The maximum improvement that may be achieved by watching dichoptic movies remains to be determined. No known side effects are associated with this new treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  10. Experience of the metal condition examination after 200 thousand hours of operation in view of an opportunity of service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abagyan, A.; Bakirov, M.; Kamyshnikov, O.; Potapov, V.; Ivanenko, I.; Frolov, I.; Zabruskov, N.

    2002-01-01

    In the report the methods and technologies for non-destructive testing of mechanical properties are considered, used by the VNIIAES for the examination of metal condition of elements after 200 thousand hours of operation and within the Program for Life Extension of the units 3 and 4 of the Novo Voronezh NPP and units 1 and 2 of the Kola NPP. The results of the experimental investigations od metal of piping and components by destructive and specimen-free non-destructive methods with the purpose to assess the variation of physical and mechanical properties of steel during extended period after long-term operation are also discussed. The results of the non-destructive analysis allow to expand essentially the scope of examined elements and to obtain data for the assessment of the technical condition and the residual lifetime of piping and components and the investigated units

  11. Emotional processes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgeries with extracorporeal circulation in view of selected indicators of the inflammatory condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotek, Włodzimierz; Pielok, Joanna; Cybulski, Marcin; Samborska, Regina

    2015-01-09

    The aim of this study was to describe positive and negative emotions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries with extracorporeal circulation and the correlations between emotions and basic indicators of the inflammatory condition: C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, body temperature, and leukocyte count. Standardized tools were used to select 52 patients (aged 47-63 years, 6 women--11.5% and 46 men--88.5%) without dementia or depression. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to examine positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X1 and X2) was used to examine the anxiety level. The patients underwent CABG surgery according to a common anesthesia protocol and for 5 consecutive days they were observed in the ward, where selected indicators of the inflammatory condition were monitored. A detailed description of the results of examinations of emotions was presented. The patients with low PA-trait level, high NA-trait level, and high anxiety-trait level (STAI X2) exhibited statistically significantly higher body temperatures than the other patients in the postoperative period. The patients with high NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1) had statistically significantly lower CRP levels in the postoperative period than the patients with low NA-trait and anxiety-state levels (STAI X1). Patients undergoing CABG operations express both positive and negative affects. The changes in the inflammatory markers are expressed mostly by CRP concentration. There exist relationships between the result of tests assessing emotions and the markers of the inflammatory condition.

  12. Discrepancies in assessing home care workers' working conditions in a Norwegian home care service: differing views of stakeholders at three organizational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2015-07-25

    The present study is a follow-up study of factors contributing to an undesirable quality of work environment and sick leave rate in the home care services in a Norwegian municipality. The underlying assumption is that organizational discrepancies in the perceptions and appraisals of significant factors and processes in an organization have detrimental effects on the management of the organization and on work environment conditions. Thus, the study aim is to explore potential organizational discrepancies in the appraisals of factors relating to home care workers' working conditions. The study, using a mixed-methods design, comprised six home care units. It included survey responses of home care workers (80 respondents, response rate 54 %) and qualitative descriptions of stakeholders' appraisals of organizational issues gathered through semi-structured interviews (33 interviews with stakeholders at three organizational levels). Employees at different organizational levels in the home care services expressed divergent appraisals of factors related to the working conditions of home care workers, including impact of organizational measures (i.e. time pressure, work tasks, a new work program, organizational changes, budget model, budget allocation and coping strategies). Survey responses supported interview descriptions by home care workers. Results suggest that organizational discrepancy serve as an important barrier to a sustainable, well-functioning organization in general and to quality-enhancing changes to work procedures in particular. It is recommended to improve communication channels and facilitate the exchange of information across levels to ensure a common understanding of matters significant to the organization of the home care services and to the work environment of home care workers. The prevalence and impact of organizational discrepancy should be included in organization research, particularly when exploring explanatory factors of an unhealthy

  13. Feasibility study of superconducting power cables for DC electric railway feeding systems in view of thermal condition at short circuit accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    A superconducting power cable has merits of a high power transmission capacity, transmission losses reduction, a compactness, etc., therefore, we have been studying the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to DC electric railway feeding systems. However, a superconducting power cable is required to be cooled down and kept at a very low temperature, so it is important to reveal its thermal and cooling characteristics. In this study, electric circuit analysis models of the system and thermal analysis models of superconducting cables were constructed and the system behaviors were simulated. We analyzed the heat generation by a short circuit accident and transient temperature distribution of the cable to estimate the value of temperature rise and the time required from the accident. From these results, we discussed a feasibility of superconducting cables for DC electric railway feeding systems. The results showed that the short circuit accident had little impact on the thermal condition of a superconducting cable in the installed system.

  14. Incidence of vertical phoria on postural control during binocular vision: what perspective for prevention to nonspecific chronic pain management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Eric; Kapoula, Zoï

    2015-01-01

    Vertical heterophoria (VH) is the latent vertical misalignment of the eyes when the retinal images are dissociated, vertical orthophoria (VO) when there is no misalignment. Studies on postural control, during binocular vision in upright stance, reported that healthy subjects with small VH vs. VO are less stable, but the experimental cancellation of VH with an appropriate prism improves postural stability. The same behavior was recorded in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects, all with VH. It was hypothesized that, without refraction problems, VH indicates a perturbation of the somaesthetic cues required in the sensorimotor loops involved in postural control and the capacity of the CNS to optimally integrate these cues, suggesting prevention possibilities. Sensorimotor conflict can induce pain and modify sensory perception in some healthy subjects; some nonspecific pain or chronic pain could result from such prolonged conflict in which VH could be a sign, with new theoretical and clinical implications.

  15. Landing performance by low-time private pilots after the sudden loss of binocular vision - Cyclops II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C. E., Jr.; Swaroop, R.; Mcmurty, T. C.; Blakeley, W. R.; Masters, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Study of low-time general aviation pilots, who, in a series of spot landings, were suddenly deprived of binocular vision by patching either eye on the downwind leg of a standard, closed traffic pattern. Data collected during these landings were compared with control data from landings flown with normal vision during the same flight. The sequence of patching and the mix of control and monocular landings were randomized to minimize the effect of learning. No decrease in performance was observed during landings with vision restricted to one eye, in fact, performance improved. This observation is reported at a high level of confidence (p less than 0.001). These findings confirm the previous work of Lewis and Krier and have important implications with regard to aeromedical certification standards.

  16. The effect of first visual stimulation incorporation of labelled leucine into cerebral cortex of binocularly deprived kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitros, K.; Kossut, M.; Skangiel-Kramska, J.; Mueller, L.; Niemierko, S.; Zernicki, B.

    1978-01-01

    One-month old kittens, binocularly deprived with hoods from birth, were used. Before the experiments in which visual stimulation was applied the brainstem of kittens was transected at the pretrigeminal level. Cortical EEG activity and ocular behavior indicated that the isolated cerebrum of preparations was usually awake during experiment. Patterned visual stimulation was directed to one hemisphere, while the other was used as a control. Visual stimulation evoked in some cases (in 8 out of 17) an increase of incorporation of labelled leucine into the proteins of the striate cortex. Electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel did not reveal any differences in the pattern of insoluble proteins between the stimulated and control visual cortex. It is suggested that first visual stimulation may enhance the protein metabolism of striate cortex in young kittens. Some unknown up to now physiological factors (motivation, attention) may be critical for these phenomena. (author)

  17. Capturing age-related changes in functional contrast sensitivity with decreasing light levels in monocular and binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Gallery, Hanna; Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Harlow, Jonathan A; Barbur, John L

    2013-09-09

    It is challenging to separate the effects of normal aging of the retina and visual pathways independently from optical factors, decreased retinal illuminance, and early stage disease. This study determined limits to describe the effect of light level on normal, age-related changes in monocular and binocular functional contrast sensitivity. We recruited 95 participants aged 20 to 85 years. Contrast thresholds for correct orientation discrimination of the gap in a Landolt C optotype were measured using a 4-alternative, forced-choice (4AFC) procedure at screen luminances from 34 to 0.12 cd/m(2) at the fovea and parafovea (0° and ±4°). Pupil size was measured continuously. The Health of the Retina index (HRindex) was computed to capture the loss of contrast sensitivity with decreasing light level. Participants were excluded if they exhibited performance outside the normal limits of interocular differences or HRindex values, or signs of ocular disease. Parafoveal contrast thresholds showed a steeper decline and higher correlation with age at the parafovea than the fovea. Of participants with clinical signs of ocular disease, 83% had HRindex values outside the normal limits. Binocular summation of contrast signals declined with age, independent of interocular differences. The HRindex worsens more rapidly with age at the parafovea, consistent with histologic findings of rod loss and its link to age-related degenerative disease of the retina. The HRindex and interocular differences could be used to screen for and separate the earliest stages of subclinical disease from changes caused by normal aging.

  18. Binocular neurons in parastriate cortex: interocular 'matching' of receptive field properties, eye dominance and strength of silent suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip A Romo

    Full Text Available Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18 of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1 component to the mean firing rate (F0 of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios were small (≤ 0.3 and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ≤ 10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ≥ 0.7005. By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ≤ 0.4585. In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells, the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented 'eye-origin specific' segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns, combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision.

  19. Image registration algorithm for high-voltage electric power live line working robot based on binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengqi; Ren, Zhigang; Yang, Bo; An, Qinghao; Yu, Xiangru; Li, Jinping

    2017-12-01

    In the process of dismounting and assembling the drop switch for the high-voltage electric power live line working (EPL2W) robot, one of the key problems is the precision of positioning for manipulators, gripper and the bolts used to fix drop switch. To solve it, we study the binocular vision system theory of the robot and the characteristic of dismounting and assembling drop switch. We propose a coarse-to-fine image registration algorithm based on image correlation, which can improve the positioning precision of manipulators and bolt significantly. The algorithm performs the following three steps: firstly, the target points are marked respectively in the right and left visions, and then the system judges whether the target point in right vision can satisfy the lowest registration accuracy by using the similarity of target points' backgrounds in right and left visions, this is a typical coarse-to-fine strategy; secondly, the system calculates the epipolar line, and then the regional sequence existing matching points is generated according to neighborhood of epipolar line, the optimal matching image is confirmed by calculating the similarity between template image in left vision and the region in regional sequence according to correlation matching; finally, the precise coordinates of target points in right and left visions are calculated according to the optimal matching image. The experiment results indicate that the positioning accuracy of image coordinate is within 2 pixels, the positioning accuracy in the world coordinate system is within 3 mm, the positioning accuracy of binocular vision satisfies the requirement dismounting and assembling the drop switch.

  20. Regulating the Access to Awareness: Brain Activity Related to Probe-related and Spontaneous Reversals in Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian A; Mathewson, Kyle E; Tapia, Evelina; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Beck, Diane M

    2017-06-01

    Research on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has implicated an assortment of brain regions, ERP components, and network properties associated with visual awareness. Recently, the P3b ERP component has emerged as a leading NCC candidate. However, typical P3b paradigms depend on the detection of some stimulus change, making it difficult to separate brain processes elicited by the stimulus itself from those associated with updates or changes in visual awareness. Here we used binocular rivalry to ask whether the P3b is associated with changes in awareness even in the absence of changes in the object of awareness. We recorded ERPs during a probe-mediated binocular rivalry paradigm in which brief probes were presented over the image in either the suppressed or dominant eye to determine whether the elicited P3b activity is probe or reversal related. We found that the timing of P3b (but not its amplitude) was closely related to the timing of the report of a perceptual change rather than to the onset of the probe. This is consistent with the proposal that P3b indexes updates in conscious awareness, rather than being related to stimulus processing per se. Conversely, the probe-related P1 amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with reversal latency, suggesting that the degree to which the probe is processed increases the likelihood of a fast perceptual reversal. Finally, the response-locked P3b amplitude (but not its latency) was associated with the duration of an intermediate stage between reversals in which parts of both percepts coexist (piecemeal period). Together, the data suggest that the P3b reflects an update in consciousness and that the intensity of that process (as indexed by P3b amplitude) predicts how immediate that update is.

  1. Seasonal behavior and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone, its precursors and chemical conditions over Iran: A view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-04-01

    annual TCO (∼0.59 ± 0.56 DU yr-1) but decreases in minimum annual TCO (∼-0.42 ± 0.60 DU yr-1) caused by an increase in NO2 species and annual CO (∼-0.95 ± 0.41 × 1016 molec./cm2 yr-1) partly resulting from the transport of reduced CO. The time series of the HCHO/NO2 column ratio (a proxy for the chemical conditions) indicated that during the last decade, the cities of Tehran, Ahvaz, and Isfahan exhibited steady chemical conditions while Tabriz and Mashhad exhibited a change from NOx-saturated/mixed to more NOx-sensitive chemical conditions.

  2. Quantitative proteomic view on secreted, cell surface-associated, and cytoplasmic proteins of the methicillin-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus under iron-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Kristina; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Moche, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of colonizing and infecting humans by its arsenal of surface-exposed and secreted proteins. Iron-limited conditions in mammalian body fluids serve as a major environmental signal to bacteria to express virulence determinants. Here we present a comprehensive, gel-free, and GeLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteome profiling of S. aureus under this infection-relevant situation. (14)N(15)N metabolic labeling and three complementing approaches were combined for relative quantitative analyses of surface-associated proteins. The surface-exposed and secreted proteome profiling approaches comprise trypsin shaving, biotinylation, and precipitation of the supernatant. By analysis of the outer subproteomic and cytoplasmic protein fraction, 1210 proteins could be identified including 221 surface-associated proteins. Thus, access was enabled to 70% of the predicted cell wall-associated proteins, 80% of the predicted sortase substrates, two/thirds of lipoproteins and more than 50% of secreted and cytoplasmic proteins. For iron-deficiency, 158 surface-associated proteins were quantified. Twenty-nine proteins were found in altered amounts showing particularly surface-exposed proteins strongly induced, such as the iron-regulated surface determinant proteins IsdA, IsdB, IsdC and IsdD as well as lipid-anchored iron compound-binding proteins. The work presents a crucial subject for understanding S. aureus pathophysiology by the use of methods that allow quantitative surface proteome profiling.

  3. Zograscopic viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.; Wijntjes, M.; Van Doorn, A.

    2013-01-01

    The “zograscope” is a “visual aid” (commonly known as “optical machine” in the 18th century) invented in the mid-18th century, and in general use until the early 20th century. It was intended to view single pictures (thus not stereographic pairs) with both eyes. The optics approximately eliminates

  4. "Right to recommend, wrong to require"- an empirical and philosophical study of the views among physicians and the general public on smoking cessation as a condition for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Joar; Juth, Niklas; Lynøe, Niels

    2018-01-08

    In many countries, there are health care initiatives to make smokers give up smoking in the peri-operative setting. There is empirical evidence that this may improve some, but not all, operative outcomes. However, it may be feared that some support for such policies stems from ethically questionable opinions, such as paternalism or anti-smoker sentiments. This study aimed at investigating the support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery among Swedish physicians and members of the general public, as well as the reasons provided for this. A random sample of general practitioners and orthopaedic surgeons (n = 795) as well as members of the general public (n = 485) received a mail questionnaire. It contained a vignette case with a smoking 57-year old male farmer with hip osteoarthritis. The patient had been recommended hip replacement therapy, but told that in order to qualify for surgery he needed to give up smoking four weeks prior to and after surgery. The respondents were asked whether making such qualifying demands is acceptable, and asked to rate their agreement with pre-set arguments for and against this policy. Response rates were 58.2% among physicians and 53.8% among the general public. Of these, 83.9% and 86.6%, respectively, agreed that surgery should be made conditional upon smoking cessation. Reference to the peri-operative risks associated with smoking was the most common argument given. However, there was also strong support for the argument that such a policy is mandated in order to achieve long term health gains. There is strong support for a policy of smoking cessation prior to surgery in Sweden. This support is based on considerations of peri-operative risks as well as the general long term risks of smoking. This study indicates that paternalistic attitudes may inform some of the support for peri-operative smoking cessation policies and that at least some respondents seem to favour a "recommendation strategy" vis-à-vis smoking

  5. Remote viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  6. Celestial harvest 300-plus showpieces of the heavens for telescope viewing and contemplation

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2012-01-01

    This book describes over 300 celestial wonders that can be viewed with common binoculars and low-power ""backyard"" telescopes incorporating refractors and reflectors.In addition to such showpieces as the Andromeda Galaxy, the largest and brightest of all galaxies after the Milky Way, and the Blue Snowball, one of the autumn sky's outstanding planetary nebulas, over 20 other special objects are listed and characterized, many of which are visible to the unaided eye on a dark, clear night.The sun, moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and other members of the earth's solar system are also describ

  7. Disfunciones visuo-perceptivas, oculomotoras, acomodativas y binoculares en niños con trastornos por déficit de atención e hiperactividad

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Pérez, María Carmen

    2009-01-01

    1) Determinar el grado de desarrollo de las habilidades visuoperceptivas, oculomotoras, acomodativas y binoculares en estudiantes con TDAH. 2) Comparar las habilidades visuales y visuoperceptivas entre un grupo de estudiantes con TDAH y otro que no presenta este trastorno. 3) Analizar qué habilidades visuoperceptivas (discriminación, memoria visual, figura-fondo, integración visual…) y oculomotoras presentan unos valores más deteriorados en el grupo de estudiantes que presentan...

  8. Microsurgical Clipping of an Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Using a Novel Robotic Visualization Tool in Lieu of the Binocular Operating Microscope: Operative Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Daniel R; Reinard, Kevin A; Ajayi, Olaide O; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2018-01-01

    The binocular operating microscope has been the visualization instrument of choice for microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms for many decades. To discuss recent technological advances that have provided novel visualization tools, which may prove to be superior to the binocular operating microscope in many regards. We present an operative video and our operative experience with the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) during the microsurgical clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, the use of this device for the microsurgical clipping of an intracranial aneurysm has never been described in the literature. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a surgical exoscope which avoids many of the ergonomic constraints of the binocular operating microscope, but is associated with a steep learning curve. The BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) is a maneuverable surgical exoscope that is positioned with a directional aiming device and a surgeon-controlled foot pedal. While utilizing this device comes with a steep learning curve typical of any new technology, the BrightMatterTM Servo System (Synaptive Medical) has several advantages over the conventional surgical microscope, which include a relatively unobstructed surgical field, provision of high-definition images, and visualization of difficult angles/trajectories. This device can easily be utilized as a visualization tool for a variety of cranial and spinal procedures in lieu of the binocular operating microscope. We anticipate that this technology will soon become an integral part of the neurosurgeon's armamentarium. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  9. HIV is Now a Manageable Long-Term Condition, But What Makes it Unique? A Qualitative Study Exploring Views About Distinguishing Features from Multi-Professional HIV Specialists in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliman, Pauline; Porcellato, Lorna

    HIV is evolving from a life-threatening infection to a long-term, manageable condition because of medical advances, radical changes in health and social care policy, and the impact of an aging population. However, HIV remains complex, presenting unique characteristics distinguishing it from other long-term conditions (LTCs). Our aim in this qualitative descriptive study was to identify and explore these features in the context of LTCs. A focus group (FG) method was used to gather the views and experiences of multi-professional HIV specialists who worked in North West England. Twenty-four staff participated in FGs (n = 3), which were audio recorded, manually transcribed, and thematically analyzed. We found four main themes: (a) stigma, (b) challenges faced by HIV specialists, (c) lack HIV-related knowledge, and (d) unique features, termed "stand alone." We concluded that these distinguishing features hindered full recognition and acceptance of HIV as an LTC. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards free 3D end-point control for robotic-assisted human reaching using binocular eye tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon-Dror, Roni O; Fernandez-Quesada, Jorge; Zito, Giuseppe A; Konnaris, Charalambos; Dziemian, Sabine; Faisal, A Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces. We demonstrate here how combining 3D gaze tracking using our GT3D binocular eye tracker with custom designed 3D head tracking system and calibration method enables continuous 3D end-point control of a robotic arm support system. The users can move their own hand to any location of the workspace by simple looking at the target and winking once. This purely eye tracking based system enables the end-user to retain free head movement and yet achieves high spatial end point accuracy in the order of 6 cm RMSE error in each dimension and standard deviation of 4 cm. 3D calibration is achieved by moving the robot along a 3 dimensional space filling Peano curve while the user is tracking it with their eyes. This results in a fully automated calibration procedure that yields several thousand calibration points versus standard approaches using a dozen points, resulting in beyond state-of-the-art 3D accuracy and precision.

  11. Binocular eye movement control and motion perception: What is being tracked?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Steen (Hans); J. Dits (Joyce)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. We investigated under what conditions humans can make independent slow phase eye movements. The ability to make independent movements of the two eyes generally is attributed to few specialized lateral eyed animal species, for example chameleons. In our study, we showed that

  12. Multi-UAV joint target recognizing based on binocular vision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognizing of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on image processing take the advantage of 2D information containing in the image for identifying the target. Compare to single UAV with electrical optical tracking system (EOTS, multi-UAV with EOTS is able to take a group of image focused on the suspected target from multiple view point. Benefit from matching each couple of image in this group, points set constituted by matched feature points implicates the depth of each point. Coordinate of target feature points could be computing from depth of feature points. This depth information makes up a cloud of points and reconstructed an exclusive 3D model to recognizing system. Considering the target recognizing do not require precise target model, the cloud of feature points was regrouped into n subsets and reconstructed to a semi-3D model. Casting these subsets in a Cartesian coordinate and applying these projections in convolutional neural networks (CNN respectively, the integrated output of networks is the improved result of recognizing.

  13. The effects of left and right monocular viewing on hemispheric activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Burtis, D Brandon; Ding, Mingzhou; Mo, Jue; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2018-03-01

    Prior research has revealed that whereas activation of the left hemisphere primarily increases the activity of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, right-hemisphere activation increases the activity of the sympathetic division. In addition, each hemisphere primarily receives retinocollicular projections from the contralateral eye. A prior study reported that pupillary dilation was greater with left- than with right-eye monocular viewing. The goal of this study was to test the alternative hypotheses that this asymmetric pupil dilation with left-eye viewing was induced by activation of the right-hemispheric-mediated sympathetic activity, versus a reduction of left-hemisphere-mediated parasympathetic activity. Thus, this study was designed to learn whether there are changes in hemispheric activation, as measured by alteration of spontaneous alpha activity, during right versus left monocular viewing. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from healthy participants viewing a crosshair with their right, left, or both eyes. There was a significantly less alpha power over the right hemisphere's parietal-occipital area with left and binocular viewing than with right-eye monocular viewing. The greater relative reduction of right-hemisphere alpha activity during left than during right monocular viewing provides further evidence that left-eye viewing induces greater increase in right-hemisphere activation than does right-eye viewing.

  14. Updating Recursive XML Views of Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Byron; Cong, Gao; Fan, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the view update problem for XML views published from relational data. We consider XML views defined in terms of mappings directed by possibly recursive DTDs compressed into DAGs and stored in relations. We provide new techniques to efficiently support XML view updates...... specified in terms of XPath expressions with recursion and complex filters. The interaction between XPath recursion and DAG compression of XML views makes the analysis of the XML view update problem rather intriguing. Furthermore, many issues are still open even for relational view updates, and need...... to be explored. In response to these, on the XML side, we revise the notion of side effects and update semantics based on the semantics of XML views, and present effecient algorithms to translate XML updates to relational view updates. On the relational side, we propose a mild condition on SPJ views, and show...

  15. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  16. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  17. Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Crabb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers. Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis. On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%. Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could

  18. Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, David P; Smith, Nicholas D; Rauscher, Franziska G; Chisholm, Catharine M; Barbur, John L; Edgar, David F; Garway-Heath, David F

    2010-03-16

    Glaucoma is a progressive eye disease and a leading cause of visual disability. Automated assessment of the visual field determines the different stages in the disease process: it would be desirable to link these measurements taken in the clinic with patient's actual function, or establish if patients compensate for their restricted field of view when performing everyday tasks. Hence, this study investigated eye movements in glaucomatous patients when viewing driving scenes in a hazard perception test (HPT). The HPT is a component of the UK driving licence test consisting of a series of short film clips of various traffic scenes viewed from the driver's perspective each containing hazardous situations that require the camera car to change direction or slow down. Data from nine glaucomatous patients with binocular visual field defects and ten age-matched control subjects were considered (all experienced drivers). Each subject viewed 26 different films with eye movements simultaneously monitored by an eye tracker. Computer software was purpose written to pre-process the data, co-register it to the film clips and to quantify eye movements and point-of-regard (using a dynamic bivariate contour ellipse analysis). On average, and across all HPT films, patients exhibited different eye movement characteristics to controls making, for example, significantly more saccades (P<0.001; 95% confidence interval for mean increase: 9.2 to 22.4%). Whilst the average region of 'point-of-regard' of the patients did not differ significantly from the controls, there were revealing cases where patients failed to see a hazard in relation to their binocular visual field defect. Characteristics of eye movement patterns in patients with bilateral glaucoma can differ significantly from age-matched controls when viewing a traffic scene. Further studies of eye movements made by glaucomatous patients could provide useful information about the definition of the visual field component required for

  19. Binocular vision, the optic chiasm, and their associations with vertebrate motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Lennart Larsson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ipsilateral retinal projections (IRP in the optic chiasm (OC vary considerably. Most animal groups possess laterally situated eyes and no or few IRP, but, e.g. cats and primates have frontal eyes and high proportions of IRP. The traditional hypothesis that bifocal vision developed to enable predation or to increase perception in restricted light conditions applies mainly to mammals. The eye-forelimb (EF hypothesis presented here suggests that the reception of visual feedback of limb movements in the limb steering cerebral hemisphere was the fundamental mechanism behind the OC evolution. In other words, that evolutionary change in the OC was necessary to preserve hemispheric autonomy. In the majority of vertebrates, motor processing, tactile, proprioceptive, and visual information involved in steering the hand (limb, paw, fin is primarily received only in the contralateral hemisphere, while multisensory information from the ipsilateral limb is minimal. Since the involved motor nuclei, somatosensory areas, and vision neurons are situated in same hemisphere, the neuronal pathways involved will be relatively short, optimizing the size of the brain. That would not have been possible without, evolutionary modifications of IRP. Multiple axon-guidance genes, which determine whether axons will cross the midline or not, have shaped the OC anatomy. Evolutionary change in the OC seems to be key to preserving hemispheric autonomy when the body and eye evolve to fit new ecological niches. The EF hypothesis may explain the low proportion of IRP in birds, reptiles, and most fishes; the relatively high proportions of IRP in limbless vertebrates; high proportions of IRP in arboreal, in contrast to ground-dwelling, marsupials; the lack of IRP in dolphins; abundant IRP in primates and most predatory mammals, and why IRP emanate exclusively from the temporal retina. The EF hypothesis seams applicable to vertebrates in general and hence more parsimonious than

  20. Negative “gossip” stimuli modulate left-lateralized P1 component while viewing neutral faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Allen, Micah Galen; Gramm, Daniel

    , Anderson et al. (2011) showed that short “gossip” phrases modulated the length of time faces remained perceptually dominant. However, binocular rivalry is measured by self-report. We used EEG to investigate the timing of gossip’s early effect on face perception. Gossip stimuli were those used by Anderson...... et al. (2011), translated to Danish. Neutral faces were taken from the PUT database (Kasiński et al., 2008). Participants (n=30) viewed each face together with the gossip stimuli a total of six times. Following this encoding period, 32 channels of EEG were recorded while participants viewed the faces...... mixed with unfamiliar faces, and performed a distracter task. A post-test checked participants’ memory of the individual faces. We hypothesized that negative gossip would modulate the face-sensitive N170 component at electrodes P7 and P8. No differences were observed in the N170, and no memory effect...

  1. Simultaneous Water Vapor and Dry Air Optical Path Length Measurements and Compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrere, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Boehm, M.; Danchi, W. C.; Durney, O.; Ertel, S.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mennesson, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feed forward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current

  2. Health-related quality of life and binocular vision in patients with diplopia in acute-onset comitant esotropia with press-on prism improves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effect of press-on prisms in patients with acute-onset comitant esotropia and diplopia, focusing primarily on vision-related quality of life and binocular vision. METHODS: Retrospective case-series study. Totally 16 acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia who received treatment in the Huzhou Central Hospital were included in this study from March 2014 to March 2017. Vision-related quality of life before press-on prism correction and 1mo after press-on prism correction were performed with the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire(CHI-NEI-VFQ-25. In each time of follow-up, we made a minute examination, includes worth four dot test and stereo tests. Data was statistically analyzed with paired sample t test, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Except the degree of eye pain, color vision and perimetry, the indicators from CHI-NEI-VFQ-25 table including general health status, overall vision, mental health, social role difficulties, social functional, near activities, distant activities, independency and driving of acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia were obviously significant improved 1mo after press-on prism correction(PPCONCLUSION: Press-on prism correction may be helpful for binocular vision recovery in acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia, so as improve the vision-related quality of life.

  3. Preliminary results from the use of the novel Interactive binocular treatment (I-BiT) system, in the treatment of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddingham, P E; Butler, T K H; Cobb, S V; Moody, A D R; Comaish, I F; Haworth, S M; Gregson, R M; Ash, I M; Brown, S M; Eastgate, R M; Griffiths, G D

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a novel application of adapted virtual reality (VR) technology, for the binocular treatment of amblyopia. We describe the use of the system in six children. Subjects consisted of three conventional treatment 'failures' and three conventional treatment 'refusers', with a mean age of 6.25 years (5.42-7.75 years). Treatment consisted of watching video clips and playing interactive games with specifically designed software to allow streamed binocular image presentation. Initial vision in the amblyopic eye ranged from 6/12 to 6/120 and post-treatment 6/7.5 to 6/24-1. Total treatment time was a mean of 4.4 h. Five out of six children have shown an improvement in their vision (average increase of 10 letters), including those who had previously failed to comply with conventional occlusion. Improvements in vision were demonstrable within a short period of time, in some children after 1 h of treatment. This system is an exciting and promising application of VR technology as a new treatment for amblyopia.

  4. Effectiveness of a Binocular Video Game vs Placebo Video Game for Improving Visual Functions in Older Children, Teenagers, and Adults With Amblyopia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tina Y; Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Chakraborty, Arijit; Dai, Shuan; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kearns, Lisa S; Kowal, Lionel; Lam, Carly S Y; Pang, Peter C K; Parag, Varsha; Pieri, Roberto; Raveendren, Rajkumar Nallour; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Wadham, Angela; Walker, Natalie; Thompson, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Binocular amblyopia treatment using contrast-rebalanced stimuli showed promise in laboratory studies and requires clinical trial investigation in a home-based setting. To compare the effectiveness of a binocular video game with a placebo video game for improving visual functions in older children and adults. The Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia Using Videogames clinical trial was a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Between March 2014 and June 2016, 115 participants 7 years and older with unilateral amblyopia (amblyopic eye visual acuity, 0.30-1.00 logMAR; Snellen equivalent, 20/40-20/200) due to anisometropia, strabismus, or both were recruited. Eligible participants were allocated with equal chance to receive either the active or the placebo video game, with minimization stratified by age group (child, age 7 to 12 years; teenager, age 13 to 17 years; and adult, 18 years and older). Falling-blocks video games played at home on an iPod Touch for 1 hour per day for 6 weeks. The active video game had game elements split between eyes with a dichoptic contrast offset (mean [SD] initial fellow eye contrast, 0.23 [0.14]). The placebo video game presented identical images to both eyes. Change in amblyopic eye visual acuity at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included compliance, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression. Participants and clinicians who measured outcomes were masked to treatment allocation. Of the 115 included participants, 65 (56.5%) were male and 83 (72.2%) were white, and the mean (SD) age at randomization was 21.5 (13.6) years. There were 89 participants (77.4%) who had prior occlusion. The mean (SD) amblyopic eye visual acuity improved 0.06 (0.12) logMAR from baseline in the active group (n = 56) and 0.07 (0.10) logMAR in the placebo group (n = 59). The mean treatment difference between groups, adjusted for baseline visual acuity and age group, was -0.02 logMAR (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.02; P = .25). Compliance with more than 25

  5. Amblyopia and Binocular Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Eileen E.

    2012-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of monocular visual loss in children, affecting 1.3% to 3.6% of children. Current treatments are effective in reducing the visual acuity deficit but many amblyopic individuals are left with residual visual acuity deficits, ocular motor abnormalities, deficient fine motor skills, and risk for recurrent amblyopia. Using a combination of psychophysical, electrophysiological, imaging, risk factor analysis, and fine motor skill assessment, the primary role of bin...

  6. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  7. Driving with binocular visual field loss? A study on a supervised on-road parcours with simultaneous eye and head tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Kasneci

    Full Text Available Post-chiasmal visual pathway lesions and glaucomatous optic neuropathy cause binocular visual field defects (VFDs that may critically interfere with quality of life and driving licensure. The aims of this study were (i to assess the on-road driving performance of patients suffering from binocular visual field loss using a dual-brake vehicle, and (ii to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. A driving instructor, blinded to the participants' diagnosis, rated the driving performance (passed/failed of ten patients with homonymous visual field defects (HP, including four patients with right (HR and six patients with left homonymous visual field defects (HL, ten glaucoma patients (GP, and twenty age and gender-related ophthalmologically healthy control subjects (C during a 40-minute driving task on a pre-specified public on-road parcours. In order to investigate the subjects' visual exploration ability, eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Two additional cameras were used to monitor the driving scene and record head and shoulder movements. Thus this study is novel as a quantitative assessment of eye movements and an additional evaluation of head and shoulder was performed. Six out of ten HP and four out of ten GP were rated as fit to drive by the driving instructor, despite their binocular visual field loss. Three out of 20 control subjects failed the on-road assessment. The extent of the visual field defect was of minor importance with regard to the driving performance. The site of the homonymous visual field defect (HVFD critically interfered with the driving ability: all failed HP subjects suffered from left homonymous visual field loss (HL due to right hemispheric lesions. Patients who failed the driving assessment had mainly difficulties with lane keeping and gap judgment ability. Patients who passed the test displayed different exploration patterns than those who failed. Patients who passed focused longer on

  8. QlikView scripting

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This mini book offers information about QlikView scripting written in an easy-to-understand manner, and covers QlikView scripting from basic to advanced features in a compact format.If you are a basic orintermediate developer with some knowledge of QlikView applications and a basic understanding of QlikView scripting and data extraction and manipulation, this book will be great for you. If you are an advanced user, you can also use this book as a reference guide and teaching aid. If you are a QlikView project team member such as a business user, data/ETL professional, project manager, orsystem

  9. Synchronizing XPath Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2004-01-01

    The increasing availability of XML-based data sources, e.g., for publishing data on the WWW, means that more and more applications (data consumers) rely on accessing and using XML data. Typically, the access is achieved by defining views over the XML data, and accessing data through these views....... However, the XML data sources are often independent of the data consumers and may change their schemas without notification, invalidating the XML views defined by the data consumers. This requires the view definitions to be updated to reflect the new structure of the data sources, a process termed view...... synchronization. XPath is the most commonly used language for retrieving parts of XML documents, and is thus an important cornerstone for XML view definitions. This paper presents techniques for discovering schema changes in XML data sources and synchronizing XPath-based views to reflect these schema changes...

  10. The accuracy of linear measurements of maxillary and mandibular edentulous sites in cone-beam computed tomography images with different fields of view and voxel sizes under simulated clinical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Rumpa; Ramesh, Aruna; Pagni, Sarah [Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of varying resolutions of cone-beam computed tomography images on the accuracy of linear measurements of edentulous areas in human cadaver heads. Intact cadaver heads were used to simulate a clinical situation. Fiduciary markers were placed in the edentulous areas of 4 intact embalmed cadaver heads. The heads were scanned with two different CBCT units using a large field of view (13 cm×16 cm) and small field of view (5 cm×8 cm) at varying voxel sizes (0.3 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.16 mm). The ground truth was established with digital caliper measurements. The imaging measurements were then compared with caliper measurements to determine accuracy. The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no statistically significant difference between the medians of the physical measurements obtained with calipers and the medians of the CBCT measurements. A comparison of accuracy among the different imaging protocols revealed no significant differences as determined by the Friedman test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961, indicating excellent reproducibility. Inter-observer variability was determined graphically with a Bland-Altman plot and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman plot indicated very good reproducibility for smaller measurements but larger discrepancies with larger measurements. The CBCT-based linear measurements in the edentulous sites using different voxel sizes and FOVs are accurate compared with the direct caliper measurements of these sites. Higher resolution CBCT images with smaller voxel size did not result in greater accuracy of the linear measurements.

  11. Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valois, J.C. de

    1990-01-01

    Dutch radiodiagnostics viewed internationally. - A quantitative description of diagnostic radiology is given in terms of radiological density (the number of radiological examinations per 1000 inhibitants), consumptions of roentgen film and contrast media. The data concerning examinations were recorded by a yearly inquiry system addressing all Dutch radiologists. The consumption of film and contrast media were derived from the data banks of the industries. In comparing these data with the data for Western Europe, Japan and the United States it is remarkable that diagnostic radiology scores lowest in regard to density, film consumption and use of contrast media. Only in the use of 35 mm cinefilm (coronary angiography) is The Netherlands number 2 on the list preceded by the United States. As a consequence radiation exposure of the population caused by diagnostic radiology is low in The Netherlands. Although the technical condition of the equipment is good due to regular and preventive service the life-span of the radiological equipment is gradually increasing beyond the limits of the normal economic depreciation. Growing arrears are found in the application of new technology: ultrasound, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The substitution of high osmolar contrast media by low osmolar media is also laggin gbehind. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tab

  12. Differentiating aversive conditioning in bistable perception: Avoidance of a percept vs. salience of a stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Sterzer, Philipp

    2018-05-01

    Alternating conscious visual perception of bistable stimuli is influenced by several factors. In order to understand the effect of negative valence, we tested the effect of two types of aversive conditioning on dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Participants received either aversive classical conditioning of the stimuli shown alone between rivalry blocks, or aversive percept conditioning of one of the two possible perceptual choices during rivalry. Both groups showed successful aversive conditioning according to skin conductance responses and affective valence ratings. However, while classical conditioning led to an immediate but short-lived increase in dominance durations of the conditioned stimulus, percept conditioning yielded no significant immediate effect but tended to decrease durations of the conditioned percept during extinction. These results show dissociable effects of value learning on perceptual inference in situations of perceptual conflict, depending on whether learning relates to the decision between conflicting perceptual choices or the sensory stimuli per se. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mining Views : database views for data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockeel, H.; Calders, T.; Fromont, É.; Goethals, B.; Prado, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a system towards the integration of data mining into relational databases. To this end, a relational database model is proposed, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets, association rules and decision

  14. Mining Views : database views for data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockeel, H.; Calders, T.; Fromont, É.; Goethals, B.; Prado, A.; Nijssen, S.; De Raedt, L.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a relational database model towards the integration of data mining into relational database systems, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets, association rules, decision trees and clusterings, can be

  15. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...... be an important asset in workforce work ability and job satisfaction....

  16. Useful field of view test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The useful field of view test was developed to reflect the visual difficulties that older adults experience with everyday tasks. Importantly, the useful field of view test (UFOV) is one of the most extensively researched and promising predictor tests for a range of driving outcomes measures, including driving ability and crash risk as well as other everyday tasks. Currently available commercial versions of the test can be administered using personal computers; these measure the speed of visual processing for rapid detection and localization of targets under conditions of divided visual attention and in the presence and absence of visual clutter. The test is believed to assess higher-order cognitive abilities, but performance also relies on visual sensory function because in order for targets to be attended to, they must be visible. The format of the UFOV has been modified over the years; the original version estimated the spatial extent of useful field of view, while the latest version measures visual processing speed. While deficits in the useful field of view are associated with functional impairments in everyday activities in older adults, there is also emerging evidence from several research groups that improvements in visual processing speed can be achieved through training. These improvements have been shown to reduce crash risk, and can have a positive impact on health and functional well-being, with the potential to increase the mobility and hence the independence of older adults. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Dynamic registration of an optical see-through HMD into a wide field-of-view rotorcraft flight simulation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viertler, Franz; Hajek, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the challenge of helicopter flight in degraded visual environments, current research considers headmounted displays with 3D-conformal (scene-linked) visual cues as most promising display technology. For pilot-in-theloop simulations with HMDs, a highly accurate registration of the augmented visual system is required. In rotorcraft flight simulators the outside visual cues are usually provided by a dome projection system, since a wide field-of-view (e.g. horizontally > 200° and vertically > 80°) is required, which can hardly be achieved with collimated viewing systems. But optical see-through HMDs do mostly not have an equivalent focus compared to the distance of the pilot's eye-point position to the curved screen, which is also dependant on head motion. Hence, a dynamic vergence correction has been implemented to avoid binocular disparity. In addition, the parallax error induced by even small translational head motions is corrected with a head-tracking system to be adjusted onto the projected screen. For this purpose, two options are presented. The correction can be achieved by rendering the view with yaw and pitch offset angles dependent on the deviating head position from the design eye-point of the spherical projection system. Furthermore, it can be solved by implementing a dynamic eye-point in the multi-channel projection system for the outside visual cues. Both options have been investigated for the integration of a binocular HMD into the Rotorcraft Simulation Environment (ROSIE) at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Pros and cons of both possibilities with regard on integration issues and usability in flight simulations will be discussed.

  18. Mastering QlikView

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    If you are a business application developer or a system analyst who has learned QlikView and Qlik Sense and now want to take your learning to a higher level, then this book is for you.It is assumed that you are aware of the fundamentals of QlikView and have working knowledge of development and in-memory analytics.

  19. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  20. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Green, J Ayen

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook containing plenty of easy-to-follow practical recipes with screenshots that will help you in mastering the Drupal Views module. Drupal 7 Views Cookbook is for developers or technically proficient users who are fairly comfortable with the concepts behind websites and the Drupal environment.

  1. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  2. Design, development, and demonstration of a fully LabVIEW controlled in situ electrochemical Fourier transform infrared setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrochemical interface of nanoparticulate electrocatalysts under reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesselberger, Markus; Ashton, Sean J; Wiberg, Gustav K H; Arenz, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction of an in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup combined with a wall-jet electrode to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of nanoparticulate catalysts in situ under controlled mass transport conditions. The presented setup allows the electrochemical interface to be probed in combination with the simultaneous determination of reaction rates. At the same time, the high level of automation allows it to be used as a standard tool in electrocatalysis research. The performance of the setup was demonstrated by probing the oxygen reduction reaction on a platinum black catalyst in sulfuric electrolyte.

  3. Design of and normative data for a new computer based test of ocular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Reena S; Mudgil, Ananth V

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate a new clinically practical and dynamic test for quantifying torsional binocular eye alignment changes which may occur in the change from monocular to binocular viewing conditions. The test was developed using a computer with Lotus Freelance Software, binoculars with prisms and colored filters. The subject looks through binoculars at the computer screen two meters away. For monocular vision, six concentric blue circles, a blue horizontal line and a tilted red line were displayed on the screen. For binocular vision, white circles replaced blue circles. The subject was asked to orient the lines parallel to each other. The difference in tilt (degrees) between the subjective parallel and fixed horizontal position is the torsional alignment of the eye. The time to administer the test was approximately two minutes. In 70 Normal subjects, average age 16 years, the mean degree of cyclodeviation tilt in the right eye was 0.6 degrees for monocular viewing conditions and 0.7 degrees for binocular viewing conditions, with a standard deviation of approximately one degree. There was no "statistically significant" difference between monocular and binocular viewing. This computer based test is a simple, computerized, non-invasive test that has a potential for use in the diagnosis of cyclovertical strabismus. Currently, there is no commercially available test for this purpose.

  4. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.

  5. "Private Views" Ungaris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad

  6. Japanese views on ASSET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, M [Department of Reactor Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities.

  7. BPMN process views construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yongchareon, S.; Liu, Chengfei; Zhao, X.; Kowalkiewicz, M.; Kitagawa, H.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Process view technology is catching more attentions in modern business process management, as it enables the customisation of business process representation. This capability helps improve the privacy protection, authority control, flexible display, etc., in business process modelling. One of

  8. Competing views on cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... 'system' (or 'network'); it is, rather, between views that are. 'cell-based' and ... In the spirit of the meeting that provided the motivation for bringing out ..... of applications usually reward applications that abide by the. 'consensus'.

  9. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  10. Japanese views on ASSET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation briefly reviews the following aspects directed to ensuring NPP safety: Japanese participation in ASSET activities; views to ASSET activities; recent operating experience in Japan; future ASSET activities

  11. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which encompasses India, Australia, a major portion of the .... Nepal earthquake in which many buildings and structures went ... The 1970 version (same as Figure 3) of code ... The national Seismic Zone Map presents a large-scale view of.

  12. Software-centric View on OVMS for LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowitzsch, J.; Borelli, J.; Pott, J.; Kürster, M.

    2012-09-01

    The performance of infrared interferometry (IF) and adaptive optics (AO) strongly depends on the mitigation and correction of telescope vibrations. Therefore, at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) the OVMS, the Optical Path Difference and Vibration Monitoring System, is being installed. It is meant to ensure suitable conditions for adaptive optics and interferometry. The vibration information is collected from accelerometers that are distributed over the optical elements of the LBT. The collected vibration measurements are converted into tip-tilt and optical path difference data. That data is utilized in the control strategies of the LBT adaptive secondary mirrors and the beam combining interferometers, LINC-NIRVANA and LBTI. Within the OVMS the software part is responsibility of the LINC-NIRVANA team at MPIA Heidelberg. It comprises the software for the real-time data acquisition from the accelerometers as well as the related telemetry interface and the vibration monitoring quick look tools. The basic design ideas, implementation details and special features are explained here.

  13. Immersive viewing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2006-05-01

    An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

  14. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  15. Reading performance of monofocal pseudophakic patients with and without glasses under normal and dim light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Wolfgang; Radner, Stephan; Raunig, Valerian; Diendorfer, Gabriela

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate reading performance of patients with monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Acrysof SN60WF) with or without reading glasses under bright and dim light conditions. Austrian Academy of Ophthalmology, Vienna, Austria. Evaluation of a diagnostic test or technology. In pseudophakic patients, the spherical refractive error was limited to between +0.50 diopter (D) and -0.75 D with astigmatism of 0.75 D (mean spherical equivalent: right eye, -0.08 ± 0.43 [SD]; left eye, -0.15 ± 0.35). Near addition was +2.75 D. Reading performance was assessed binocularly with or without reading glasses at an illumination of 100 candelas (cd)/m(2) and 4 cd/m(2) using the Radner Reading Charts. In the 25 patients evaluated, binocularly, the mean corrected distance visual acuity was -0.07 ± 0.06 logMAR and the mean uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.01 ± 0.11 logMAR. The mean reading acuity with reading glasses was 0.02 ± 0.10 logRAD at 100 cd/m(2) and 0.12 ± 0.14 logRAD at 4 cd/m(2). Without reading glasses, it was 0.44 ± 0.13 logRAD and 0.56 ± 0.16 logRAD, respectively (P light conditions. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... in a short span of time in view of their safety and efficacy. However, it is ..... memory loss which is mainly caused due to reduced synthe- sis of the .... effects and 6–25 month follow-up did not reveal any long-term adverse ...

  17. Clashing world views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagassa, G.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines how politics, economics, and an increasing awareness of environmental and societal impacts are affecting the market for new hydroelectric projects. The topics of the article include border conflicts, new opposition, resettlement issues, the problems and benefits of hydroelectric projects, taking action, and a clash of world views

  18. Taking a Long View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    a global perspective which leads to a more positive assessment. I will do this from a historical materialist perspective and therefore I begin with a discussion of the long view in Marx. This leads on to a discussion of Marx’s law of the long term declining rate of profit (LTFRP) and its counteracting...

  19. VMware view security essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Langenhan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to secure your virtual environment.This book is a ""how-to"" for the novice, a ""reference guide"" for the advanced user, and a ""go to"" for the experienced user in all the aspects of VMware View desktop virtualization security.

  20. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    widely accepted model is the 'funnel view' of protein folding. (Bryngelson et al. ... The detailed characterization of the structure, dynamics and folding process of a protein is crucial for understanding ... molecular motor complexes that generate force towards the .... DLC8 phosphorylation by Pak1 prevents interaction with.

  1. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schwarzschild metric for data interpretation or we have to use more exotic ... lensing—the Galactic Center—large telescopes—VLBI interferometry. .... telescopes were used in a 16-year long study to obtain the most detailed view ever of .... 2005) in the K-band (see also perspectives for observations with GRAVITY facili-.

  2. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the rapidly developing field of study of the transient sky, fast radio transients are perhaps the most exciting objects of scrutiny at present. The SKA, with its wide field-of-view and significant improve- ment in sensitivity over existing facilities, is expected to detect a plethora of fast transients which, in addition to help ...

  3. Three-Dimensional View of Ionized Gas Conditions in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Stephanie; NOAO Data Lab

    2018-06-01

    We present a 3D version of common emission line diagnostic diagrams used to identify the source of ionization in galaxies, and highlight interesting features in this new 3D space, which are associated with global galaxy properties. Namely, we combine the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagrams, and apply it to a set of >300,000 galaxies from the SDSS survey. Among other features, we show that the usual “branch” of star-forming galaxies becomes a curved surface in the new 3D space. Understanding the underlying reasons can shed light on the nearby galaxy population but also aid our interpretation of high-redshift surveys, which indicate a strong evolution of emission line ratios. Despite efforts to explain the origin of this strong evolution, a consensus has not yet been reached. Yet, the implications are crucial to our understanding of galaxy growth across cosmic time, and in particular to assess how star forming regions differed at earlier times (gas properties? stellar properties? a combination?). We perform this analysis within the framework of the NOAO Data Lab (datalab.noao.edu) jointly with public visualization tools. The final workflow will be released publicly.

  4. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  5. Effects of situational conditions on students' views of business ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tamao; Kakuyama, Takashi; Tsuzuki, Yukie

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated undergraduates' responses regarding selected ethical issues facing managers and employees of today's businesses. The focus of the study lies in the influences of two situational variables (organizational roles and prospects) on students' response pattern. Japanese students (306 men and 81 women, M = 20.1 yr., SD = 2.2) imagined that they were managers or operative employees of a middle-sized manufacturing company and that their company had high or low prospects. The response pattern tended to be more ethical for "managers," whereas the response pattern tended to be less ethical for "employees" in a "low prospect" than in a "high prospect" company.

  6. Children's Views about the Water Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Varda

    1989-01-01

    Israeli children's (kindergarten to grade nine) explanations about the water cycle are described. Reports the children's views about the source of clouds and the mechanism of rainfall. It was concluded that understanding evaporation is a necessary condition for explaining a mechanism of rain containing the ideas of condensation and heaviness. (YP)

  7. Impact of Viewing vs. Not Viewing a Real Forest on Physiological and Psychological Responses in the Same Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of viewing versus not viewing a real forest on human subjects’ physiological and psychological responses in the same setting. Fifteen healthy volunteers (11 males, four females, mean age 36 years participated. Each participant was asked to view a forest while seated in a comfortable chair for 15 min (Forest condition vs. sitting the same length of time with a curtain obscuring the forest view (Enclosed condition. Both conditions significantly decreased blood pressure (BP variables, i.e., systolic BP, diastolic BP, and mean arterial pressure between pre and post experimental stimuli, but these reductions showed no difference between conditions. Interestingly, the Forest viewing reduced cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2 assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and improved the subjects’ Profile of Mood States (POMS scores, whereas the Enclosed condition increased the HbO2 and did not affect the POMS scores. There were no significant differences in saliva amylase or heart rate variability (HRV between the two conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that viewing a real forest may have a positive effect on cerebral activity and psychological responses. However, both viewing and not viewing the forest had similar effects on cardiovascular responses such as BP variables and HRV.

  8. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  9. Concert Viewing Headphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Atsuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An audiovisual interface equipped with a projector, an inclina-tion sensor, and a distance sensor for zoom control has been developed that enables a user to selectively view and listen to specific performers in a video-taped group performance. Dubbed Concert Viewing Headphones, it has both image and sound processing functions. The image processing extracts the portion of the image indicated by the user and projects it free of distortion on the front and side walls. The sound processing creates imaginary microphones for those performers without one so that the user can hear the sound from any performer. Testing using images and sounds captured using a fisheye-lens camera and 37 lavalier microphones showed that sound locali-zation was fastest when an inverse square function was used for the sound mixing and that the zoom function was useful for locating the desired sound performance.

  10. Clinical study on binocular visual function of dyslexic children%阅读障碍儿童双眼视功能的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭军伟; 乔丽萍; 杜明洋; 何玲; 王世同

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨阅读障碍儿童和正常儿童双眼视功能各参数的差异,为阅读障碍儿童的临床诊治提供依据.方法 横断面研究.采用整群抽样法抽取天津市东丽区2所小学1984名3~5年级全体学生,根据阅读障碍诊断标准筛选出阅读障碍儿童102例,并选出年龄、性别、年级与之匹配的正常儿童102例作为对照组,分别对两组儿童进行双眼视功能检查,统计分析检测结果.结果 阅读障碍组儿童和对照组儿童的视力分别为(0.58±0.28,0.56±0.29;P>0.05),差异无统计学意义;阅读障碍组及对照组的近隐斜度和AC/A分别为(-3.45±3.27,-1.08±3.59;P<0.05)和(3.09±0.84,3.81±0.81;P <0.05),差异均有统计学意义;阅读障碍组和对照组近距离三棱镜基底向内(BI)聚散度分别为(12.67±2.01/18.08±5.18/11.17±2.12,17.08±5.66/24.75±4.45/14.33±4.03),差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);阅读障碍组和对照组近距离三棱镜基底向外(B0)聚散度分别为(13.10±2.42/20.5±3.03/7.81±1.93,19.20±4.10/29.20±5.12/12.1±3.96)差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 阅读障碍儿童的视力、屈光状态、远距离水平隐斜视度、远距离三棱镜基底向内及向外聚散度可正常.但存在AC/A比率偏低、近距离较大外隐斜、近距离融像性聚散储备不足,这些因素可能是引起阅读障碍儿童视觉效率下降的重要原因.%Objective To explore the differences of binocular vision function between dyslexic children and normal children,and to provide the basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of dyslexic children.Methods By using cluster random sampling,2 primary schools from Dongli district of Tianjin were selected and 1984 students from3rdto 5thgradewere investigated,among them a sample of 102 dyslexic children and 102 normal children with the same age,gender and grade as control group were selected according to criteria of dyslexia.The different examinations for binocular

  11. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  12. Viewing Age: Lifespan Identity and Television Viewing Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jake

    1997-01-01

    Introduces a theoretical perspective on media viewing choices, grounded in social identity theory. Content analysis demonstrates that child, younger adult, and older adult television viewers show a preference for viewing characters of their own age. The experiment demonstrates that young adults' preference for viewing young adult characters exists…

  13. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  14. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  15. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glacial-interglacial changes in the surface water characteristics ... Introduction physical conditions in the north Atlantic Ocean, such ... of the northeast Indian Ocean have indicated sig- .... 1989 Climate change in the circum-north Atlantic region.

  17. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... accepted physical principles and default states in order to grasp the living .... emergence of life, as exemplified by the pioneering work of ..... Instead, the balance equa- ... The 'unconstrained' condition proper to the biological.

  18. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... represents a higher percentage of growth than in industrial countries. Over 98% of ...... endogenous levels of plant hormones and the cell responses to plant growth ...... use efficiency under water deficit conditions in transgenic.

  19. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  20. The Active Side of Stereopsis: Fixation Strategy and Adaptation to Natural Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Canessa, Andrea; Sabatini, Silvio P.

    2017-01-01

    Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disp...

  1. The view from Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselyov, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the observations of correspondents for the Bulletin (two Russian journalists, one based in Moscow, the other in Kiev) who investigated the status of the Soviet Union's Black Sea Fleet and Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. After two years of wrangling and two earlier failed settlements, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk at Massandra in Crimea. On September 3, the leaders announced that Russia would buy out Ukraine's interest in the fleet and lease the port at Sevastopol. The Massandra summit was also supposed to settle Ukraine's status as a non-nuclear-weapons state. Described here are the Kiev-based correspondent's views on the Massandra summit (and its major topics), which was to have been called off by the Russian foreign ministry when Ukrainian Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma resigned

  2. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  3. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  4. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stars contain matter in the form of the familiar chemical elements, but sometimes at extreme conditions of temperature and pressure which are not accessible in the laboratory. The physics of stars - the first chapter of the book of astrophysics - therefore needs theoretical insights into the behaviour of matter under these ...

  5. Views from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    aircraft like the high-flying U-2 spy planes for. Weather satellites permitted weather predictions as never before. Satellites were developed in the first ten years of the space program for earth resources and mapping. In this paper and presentation we will observe some of the best views taken in space and from space...of the Earth, and the moon and beyond. We will travel in space with our astronauts. Some of the photographs we will see are famous and others not nearly so. We will discuss some of the history behind the pictures and some of the benefits that have been gained from the views from space.

  6. VIRTUAL COMPETITIVENESS: YOUTHS’ VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Semenov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT has become an integral part both of every individual’s life and of the society in general. It is no longer possible to deny the impact of virtual environment on socialisation and development of the identity of young people. In this regard, the investigation of young people’s view on virtual social networks, and the possibility of students’ own competitiveness realization through various web services. The aim of the research presented in the article is to study the factors of students’ assessment of virtual social networks as a tool of personal fulfillment. Methodology and research methods. Content analysis and synthesis of scientific publications studies were carried out at a theoretical stage of the research; secondary sampling analysis of sociologic data material sources was conducted. The empirical research stage involved the instrument of questionnaire surveys, statistical data processing and interpretation of the results. Results and scientific novelty. The social survey conducted in 2017 with the participation of 1087 high school students and 1196 college students of the Tyumen Region shown that the more competitive students consider themselves, the more competitive they perceive the people having great popularity on the Internet. At that, compared to girls, young people are more inclined to consider the people having great popularity on the Internet competitive. It is determined that having a popular virtual media account for the young person is less worthwhile than for female respondents. The author explains this fact: male representatives regard it as “social capital” which can contribute to growth of their competitiveness in society as well as to achieve some profit. The author concludes that youth views on competitiveness are not directly related to the activity in virtual social networks. Frequent use by respondents of the Internet and

  7. Layer 2/3 synapses in monocular and binocular regions of tree shrew visual cortex express mAChR-dependent long-term depression and long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Portia; Norton, Thomas T; McMahon, Lori L

    2008-07-01

    Acetylcholine is an important modulator of synaptic efficacy and is required for learning and memory tasks involving the visual cortex. In rodent visual cortex, activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) induces a persistent long-term depression (LTD) of transmission at synapses recorded in layer 2/3 of acute slices. Although the rodent studies expand our knowledge of how the cholinergic system modulates synaptic function underlying learning and memory, they are not easily extrapolated to more complex visual systems. Here we used tree shrews for their similarities to primates, including a visual cortex with separate, defined regions of monocular and binocular innervation, to determine whether mAChR activation induces long-term plasticity. We find that the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) not only induces long-term plasticity, but the direction of the plasticity depends on the subregion. In the monocular region, CCh application induces LTD of the postsynaptic potential recorded in layer 2/3 that requires activation of m3 mAChRs and a signaling cascade that includes activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. In contrast, layer 2/3 postsynaptic potentials recorded in the binocular region express long-term potentiation (LTP) following CCh application that requires activation of m1 mAChRs and phospholipase C. Our results show that activation of mAChRs induces long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses in tree shrew visual cortex. However, depending on the ocular inputs to that region, variation exists as to the direction of plasticity, as well as to the specific mAChR and signaling mechanisms that are required.

  8. A journalist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudret, Paul

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the result of five years of experience with the nuclear world in Switzerland (five Swiss nuclear plants) from the point of view of a journalist, who doesn't pretend to know everything; who is neither scientific nor a technical journalist, he is writing for the man in the street, and works for a daily paper i.e. has to work very fast and as close to the reality as possible. Understanding and mutual confidence between the nuclear industry and media is emphasised as essential. 'Nuclear' people are specialists and are warned about the fact that they are dealing with non-specialists, journalists and the public who would like to understand what are the processes that might affect them and do not have a dictionary of technical terminology at hand. It is pointed out that the nuclear industry should speak openly about problems and accept being criticised if they want to restore confidence with the media and with the public

  9. The present view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Samanta

    2013-01-01

    “La mirada vigente” is a homenage to Dan Beninson, who was one of the creators of radiation protection worldwide. He taught several generations of nuclear scientists in our country and abroad, playing a key role in the scientific-technological development of Argentina. He was also one of the key figures in the nuclear activity of our country; the creator of the institution that ensures its safety. Likewise, this book, is a testament about what this man meant for many people in Argentina (his country) and in the world (his yard); and simultaneously, a testament of the key moments in the history of a scientific discipline and the activity to which he dedicated his entire life. “La mirada vigente” is also a testimony of other individuals’ point of view. The eyes of others over the features of his person, and career, and his achievements. But above all, it provides a personal and almost intimate perspective, about specific episodes that describe his interesting life. “La mirada vigente” is the exploration of his versatile life, rich as only a few. And the reflection of a work legacy that still remain alive. [es

  10. FWCW: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A S

    1995-12-01

    The personal experiences at the Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women and the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum were described by a Chinese American veterinarian. The author became aware that women were primarily the persons living in poverty in the world. Business and government appeared more concerned with economic growth. As a consequence, developed countries with 20% of world population consume 80% of the world's resources. The privilege of money secures a position of power in the world, power to buy up the resources of the world. This process is unsustainable and inequitable. Women are viewed as key players in shifting the balance in favor of a higher quality of life. The NGO workshops on Women in Livestock Development (WILD) was run by women veterinarians, who worked at the local level with women in poor areas. WILD operates out of offices in Arkansas in the USA. WILD women work in Sichuan, China, among the Han and Tibetans in increasing family income through heifer and livestock production. Conference participants from WILD programs talked about their experiences with increased income and loans to other women. The World Women's Veterinary Association members, who attended the conference, visited a small animal clinic in Beijing run by the Agriculture Ministry, and Beijing Agricultural University and its Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Demonstrations were given of small animal acupuncture. The author found the conference to be a success and found that press reports misrepresented the energy generated by the meeting.

  11. New Paranal Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Last year saw very good progress at ESO's Paranal Observatory , the site of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The third and fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, MELIPAL and YEPUN had "First Light" (cf. PR 01/00 and PR 18/00 ), while the first two, ANTU and KUEYEN , were busy collecting first-class data for hundreds of astronomers. Meanwhile, work continued towards the next phase of the VLT project, the combination of the telescopes into the VLT Interferometer. The test instrument, VINCI (cf. PR 22/00 ) is now being installed in the VLTI Laboratory at the centre of the observing platform on the top of Paranal. Below is a new collection of video sequences and photos that illustrate the latest developments at the Paranal Observatory. The were obtained by the EPR Video Team in December 2000. The photos are available in different formats, including "high-resolution" that is suitable for reproduction purposes. A related ESO Video News Reel for professional broadcasters will soon become available and will be announced via the usual channels. Overview Paranal Observatory (Dec. 2000) Video Clip 02a/01 [MPEG - 4.5Mb] ESO PR Video Clip 02a/01 "Paranal Observatory (December 2000)" (4875 frames/3:15 min) [MPEG Video+Audio; 160x120 pix; 4.5Mb] [MPEG Video+Audio; 320x240 pix; 13.5 Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 34kps] [RealMedia; streaming; 200kps] ESO Video Clip 02a/01 shows some of the construction activities at the Paranal Observatory in December 2000, beginning with a general view of the site. Then follow views of the Residencia , a building that has been designed by Architects Auer and Weber in Munich - it integrates very well into the desert, creating a welcome recreational site for staff and visitors in this harsh environment. The next scenes focus on the "stations" for the auxiliary telescopes for the VLTI and the installation of two delay lines in the 140-m long underground tunnel. The following part of the video clip shows the start-up of the excavation work for the 2.6-m VLT Survey

  12. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solid line shows schematically the pressure-density relationship for cold matter. The dashed lines show the pressure PI1 needed to balance gravity in a body of mass M and radius R as a function of its density p. Intersection with the solid line is the condition for equilibrium P oc (GM. 2. ) / R 2 = GM 2 • Since p oc M/RJ ,.

  13. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  14. Clinical Views: Object-Oriented Views for Clinical Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoni, Luisa; Combi, Carlo; Pinciroli, Francesco

    1998-01-01

    We present here a prototype of a clinical information system for the archiving and the management of multimedia and temporally-oriented clinical data related to PTCA patients. The system is based on an object-oriented DBMS and supports multiple views and view schemas on patients' data. Remote data access is supported too.

  15. Critical Viewing and Participatory Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jodi R.

    1994-01-01

    Illustrates ways that the work of some communication scholars with resistant, oppositional, and critical audiences does not, however, endorse active public life. Attempts to realign the language of critical viewing with the goals of participatory democracy by suggesting qualities of critical viewing that are conducive to achieving and maintaining…

  16. Service outsourcing with process views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Norta, A.H.; Kopp, O.; Pitkänen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Service outsourcing is a business paradigm in which an organization has a part of its business process performed by a service provider. Process views are pivotal to support this way of working. A process view shields secret or irrelevant details from a private business process, thus allowing an

  17. Communications and Development: Two Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Two views on current international communication are presented--that of an American academician, and that of an Indian journalist. John Lent traces the rise of development journalism and development communication from the point of view of those who believe that individual freedom of expression should be treated as an inviolable right. Narinder…

  18. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  19. The emotional and cognitive effect of immersion in film viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.T.; Tan, E.S.; Molenaar, D.

    2010-01-01

    This brief report presents an experiment testing the effect of immersion on emotional responses and cognitive genre categorisation of film viewers. Immersion of a film presentation was varied by presenting an animated movie either in a 3D-viewing condition (low immersive condition) or in a CAVE

  20. Views on Biotic Nature and the Idea of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łepko, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    The search for balance between humankind's civilisational aspirations and the durable protection of nature is conditioned by contemporaneous views of biotic nature. Of particular importance in this regard are physiocentric and physiological views that may be set against one another. The first of these was presented by Hans Jonas, the second by Lothar Schäfer. This paper does not confine itself to setting one view against the other, but rather sets minimum conditions for cooperation between their promoters in the interests of balance between the aspirations of the present generation and those of future generations. Both views of nature are in their own way conducive to a break with the illusion present in some areas of the modern natural sciences - that nature is a boundless area of are inexhaustible resources.

  1. The STAPL pView

    KAUST Repository

    Buss, Antal

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Template Adaptive Parallel Library (STAPL) is a C++ parallel programming library that provides a collection of distributed data structures (pContainers) and parallel algorithms (pAlgorithms) and a generic methodology for extending them to provide customized functionality. STAPL algorithms are written in terms of pViews, which provide a generic access interface to pContainer data by abstracting common data structure concepts. Briefly, pViews allow the same pContainer to present multiple interfaces, e.g., enabling the same pMatrix to be \\'viewed\\' (or used) as a row-major or column-major matrix, or even as a vector. In this paper, we describe the stapl pView concept and its properties. pViews generalize the iterator concept and enable parallelism by providing random access to, and an ADT for, collections of elements. We illustrate how pViews provide support for managing the tradeoff between expressivity and performance and examine the performance overhead incurred when using pViews. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Analysis of the diffraction effects for a multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional display system based on shutter parallax barriers with full resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Yu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Fangda; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Ye; Liu, Yumin; Ye, Han; Chen, Laurence Lujun

    2017-10-01

    A multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) system is built by using a 2D display screen and a customized parallax-barrier shutter (PBS) screen. The shutter screen is controlled dynamically by address driving matrix circuit and it is placed in front of the display screen at a certain location. The system could achieve densest viewpoints due to its specially optical and geometric design which is based on concept of "eye space". The resolution of 3D imaging is not reduced compared to 2D mode by using limited time division multiplexing technology. The diffraction effects may play an important role in 3D display imaging quality, especially when applied to small screen, such as iPhone screen etc. For small screen, diffraction effects may contribute crosstalk between binocular views, image brightness uniformity etc. Therefore, diffraction effects are analyzed and considered in a one-dimensional shutter screen model of the 3D display, in which the numerical simulation of light from display pixels on display screen through parallax barrier slits to each viewing zone in eye space, is performed. The simulation results provide guidance for criteria screen size over which the impact of diffraction effects are ignorable, and below which diffraction effects must be taken into account. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the corresponding experimental measurements and observation with discussion.

  3. What is Stereopsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vishwanath

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available “Stereopsis” refers to the characteristically vivid qualitative impression of 3D structure that is observed when real (or simulated-3D scenes are viewed binocularly. Stereopsis is associated with a compelling perception of solidity or 3-dimensionality, a clear sense of space between objects, and a phenomenal sense of realism. These visual characteristics are conventionally thought to be a result of the different views of an object afforded by binocular vision (disparity or self-motion (motion parallax. However, such visual characteristics can also be obtained under controlled monocular viewing of pictures. One explanation for the impression of monocular stereopsis is based on the notion of cue-coherence/conflict (eg, Ames, 1925. When a picture is viewed with both eyes, binocular cues specify the flat picture surface and are in conflict with the 3-dimentionality implied by the pictorial cues. The elimination of these conflicting cues under monocular viewing putatively causes the enhancement of pictorial depth impression. The cue-coherence/conflict explanation also predicts a greater magnitude of perceived depth relief accompanying the greater impression of stereopsis. I will present an alternative theory that stereopsis is the conscious perception of the precision of the brains estimate of absolute (egocentrically scaled depth. Both qualitative and quantitative empirical results are consistent with this theory. Specifically, they show that (i the same qualitative characteristics of depth impression are reported under binocular viewing of real scenes, stereoscopic images, and controlled monocular viewing of pictures; (ii the impression of stereopsis is measurable and its variation, under different viewing conditions is not consistent with a cue-conflict account; (iii stereopsis can be elicited by manipulating egocentric distance cues when viewing pictures, without altering conflicting binocular cues; and (iv under conditions that elicit

  4. The forgotten view: Chest X-ray - Lateral view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M. Ittyachen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With CT (computed tomography chest gaining more importance as a diagnostic tool, chest X-ray especially the lateral view is taken less commonly nowadays. Besides CT chest is also proven to be superior to chest X-ray in patients with major blunt trauma. We are presenting a 68-year old male who was partially treated from outside for a left sided pneumonia. He came to our hospital because of persisting chest pain. Chest X-ray, frontal view (postero-anterior was almost normal except for a mild opacity in the left lower zone. CT scan of the chest revealed a fluid collection posteriorly enclosed within enhancing pleura. Chest X-ray, left lateral view showed a corresponding posterior pleural based opacity. We are presenting this case to highlight the importance of the lateral view of the chest X-ray. In selected cases there is still a role for the lateral view. With the three dimensional visualization provided by the CT, the lateral view of the chest may be easier to understand. Consequent to the initial diagnosis by CT further follow up can be done with the chest X-ray. In a limited way this mitigates unnecessary expenditure and more importantly prevents the patient from exposure to harmful radiation in the form of repeated CT.

  5. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Eric D.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computer-based data acquisition and control, the graphical interface program LabVIEW from National Instruments is so ubiquitous that in many ways it has almost become the laboratory standard. To date, there have been approximately fifteen books concerning LabVIEW, but Professor Essick's treatise takes on a completely different tack than all of the previous discussions. In the more standard treatments of the ways and wherefores of LabVIEW such as LabVIEW Graphical Programming: Practical Applications in Instrumentation and Control by Gary W. Johnson (McGraw Hill, NY 1997), the emphasis has been instructing the reader how to program LabVIEW to create a Virtual Instrument (VI) on the computer for interfacing to a particular instruments. LabVIEW is written in ''G'' a graphical programming language developed by National Instruments. In the past the emphasis has been on training the experimenter to learn ''G''. Without going into details here, ''G'' incorporates the usual loops, arithmetic expressions, etc., found in many programming languages, but in an icon (graphical) environment. The net result being that LabVIEW contains all of the standard methods needed for interfacing to instruments, data acquisition, data analysis, graphics, and also methodology to incorporate programs written in other languages into LabVIEW. Historically, according to Professor Essick, he developed a series of experiments for an upper division laboratory course for computer-based instrumentation. His observation was that while many students had the necessary background in computer programming languages, there were students who had virtually no concept about writing a computer program let alone a computer- based interfacing program. Thus the beginnings of a concept for not only teaching computer- based instrumentation techniques, but aiso a method for the beginner to experience writing a com- puter program. Professor Essick saw LabVIEW as the ''perfect environment in which to

  6. "Private Views" Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise ja eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. "Private Views" ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi

  7. 'Private Views' Ungaris / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Inglise js eesti kunstnike ühisprojekt 8. augustini Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis Ungaris. Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. 'Private Views' ülesandeks on keskenduda ruumi mõistele naiskunstniku pilgu läbi.

  8. A broader view of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.

  9. View synthesis using parallax invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, Fadi

    2001-06-01

    View synthesis becomes a focus of attention of both the computer vision and computer graphics communities. It consists of creating novel images of a scene as it would appear from novel viewpoints. View synthesis can be used in a wide variety of applications such as video compression, graphics generation, virtual reality and entertainment. This paper addresses the following problem. Given a dense disparity map between two reference images, we would like to synthesize a novel view of the same scene associated with a novel viewpoint. Most of the existing work is relying on building a set of 3D meshes which are then projected onto the new image (the rendering process is performed using texture mapping). The advantages of our view synthesis approach are as follows. First, the novel view is specified by a rotation and a translation which are the most natural way to express the virtual location of the camera. Second, the approach is able to synthesize highly realistic images whose viewing position is significantly far away from the reference viewpoints. Third, the approach is able to handle the visibility problem during the synthesis process. Our developed framework has two main steps. The first step (analysis step) consists of computing the homography at infinity, the epipoles, and thus the parallax field associated with the reference images. The second step (synthesis step) consists of warping the reference image into a new one, which is based on the invariance of the computed parallax field. The analysis step is working directly on the reference views, and only need to be performed once. Examples of synthesizing novel views using either feature correspondences or dense disparity map have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  10. An LBT view of the Andromeda’s satellite galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cusano Felice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on deep (V ∼ 26.5 mag time series observations of four dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs in the Andromeda (M31 complex, namely, And XIX, And XXI, And XXV and And XXVII, that we have observed with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT. We discovered in these galaxies a total of over 200 RR Lyrae stars and 19 Anomalous Cepheids. We also characterised the stellar populations and the spatial distributions of these dSphs.

  11. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  12. Evaluation of viewing experiences induced by a curved three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2015-10-01

    Despite an increased need for three-dimensional (3-D) functionality in curved displays, comparisons pertinent to human factors between curved and flat panel 3-D displays have rarely been tested. This study compared stereoscopic 3-D viewing experiences induced by a curved display with those of a flat panel display by evaluating subjective and objective measures. Twenty-four participants took part in the experiments and viewed 3-D content with two different displays (flat and curved 3-D display) within a counterbalanced and within-subject design. For the 30-min viewing condition, a paired t-test showed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes, which were caused by engagement rather than cognitive fatigue, in the curved 3-D viewing condition compared to the flat 3-D viewing condition at P3 and P4. No significant differences in P300 amplitudes were observed for 60-min viewing. Subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly higher in the curved 3-D viewing condition than in the flat 3-D viewing condition for 30-min viewing. Our findings support that curved 3-D displays can be effective for enhancing engagement among viewers based on specific viewing times and environments.

  13. Pathologic conditions in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beomonte Zobel, B.; Tella, S.; Innacoli, M.; D'Archivio, C.; Cardone, G.; Masciocchi, C.; Gallucci, M.; Passariello, R.; Cappa, F.

    1991-01-01

    Soma authors suggested that MR imaging could rapresent an effective diagnostic alternative in the study of pathologic conditions of mother and fetus during pregnancy. To verify the actual role of MR imaging, we examined 20 patients in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of gestation, after a preliminary US examination. Fifteen patients presented fetal or placental pathologies; in 4 patients the onset of the pathologic condition occurred during pregnancy; in 1 case of US diagnosis of fetal ascites, MR findings were nornal and the newborn was healty. As for placental pathologies, our series included a case of placental cyst, two hematomas between placenta and uterine wall, and two cases of partial placenta previa. As for fetal malformation, we evaluated a case of omphalocele, one of Prune-Belly syndrome, a case of femoral asimmetry, one of thanatophoric dwarfism, a case of thoracopagus twins with cardiovascular abnormalities, two fetal hydrocephali, and three cases of pyelo-ureteral stenosis. As for maternal pathologies during pregnancy, we observed a case of subserous uterine fibromyoma, one of of right hydronephrosis, one of protrusion of lumbar invertebral disk, and a large ovarian cyst. In our experience, MR imaging exhibited high sensitivity and a large field of view, which were both useful in the investigation of the different conditions occurring during pregnancy. In the evaluation of fetal and placental abnormalities, especially during the 3rd trimester, the diagnostic yieldof MR imaging suggested it as a complementary technique to US for the evaluation of fetal malformation and of intrauterine growth retardation

  14. Occlusion-Aware View Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available View interpolation is an essential step in content preparation for multiview 3D displays, free-viewpoint video, and multiview image/video compression. It is performed by establishing a correspondence among views, followed by interpolation using the corresponding intensities. However, occlusions pose a significant challenge, especially if few input images are available. In this paper, we identify challenges related to disparity estimation and view interpolation in presence of occlusions. We then propose an occlusion-aware intermediate view interpolation algorithm that uses four input images to handle the disappearing areas. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, all pixels in view to be computed are classified in terms of their visibility in the input images. Then, disparity for each pixel is estimated from different image pairs depending on the computed visibility map. Finally, luminance/color of each pixel is adaptively interpolated from an image pair selected by its visibility label. Extensive experimental results show striking improvements in interpolated image quality over occlusion-unaware interpolation from two images and very significant gains over occlusion-aware spline-based reconstruction from four images, both on synthetic and real images. Although improvements are obvious only in the vicinity of object boundaries, this should be useful in high-quality 3D applications, such as digital 3D cinema and ultra-high resolution multiview autostereoscopic displays, where distortions at depth discontinuities are highly objectionable, especially if they vary with viewpoint change.

  15. Occlusion-Aware View Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Serdar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract View interpolation is an essential step in content preparation for multiview 3D displays, free-viewpoint video, and multiview image/video compression. It is performed by establishing a correspondence among views, followed by interpolation using the corresponding intensities. However, occlusions pose a significant challenge, especially if few input images are available. In this paper, we identify challenges related to disparity estimation and view interpolation in presence of occlusions. We then propose an occlusion-aware intermediate view interpolation algorithm that uses four input images to handle the disappearing areas. The algorithm consists of three steps. First, all pixels in view to be computed are classified in terms of their visibility in the input images. Then, disparity for each pixel is estimated from different image pairs depending on the computed visibility map. Finally, luminance/color of each pixel is adaptively interpolated from an image pair selected by its visibility label. Extensive experimental results show striking improvements in interpolated image quality over occlusion-unaware interpolation from two images and very significant gains over occlusion-aware spline-based reconstruction from four images, both on synthetic and real images. Although improvements are obvious only in the vicinity of object boundaries, this should be useful in high-quality 3D applications, such as digital 3D cinema and ultra-high resolution multiview autostereoscopic displays, where distortions at depth discontinuities are highly objectionable, especially if they vary with viewpoint change.

  16. Realistic Visualization of Virtual Views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    2005-01-01

    that can be impractical and sometime impossible. In addition, the artificial nature of data often makes visualized virtual scenarios not realistic enough. Not realistic in the sense that a synthetic scene is easy to discriminate visually from a natural scene. A new field of research has consequently...... developed and received much attention in recent years: Realistic Virtual View Synthesis. The main goal is a high fidelity representation of virtual scenarios while easing modeling and physical phenomena simulation. In particular, realism is achieved by the transfer to the novel view of all the physical...... phenomena captured in the reference photographs, (i.e. the transfer of photographic-realism). An overview of most prominent approaches in realistic virtual view synthesis will be presented and briefly discussed. Applications of proposed methods to visual survey, virtual cinematography, as well as mobile...

  17. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...

  18. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  19. Students' Views on Contextual Vocabulary Teaching: A Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Bahadir Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…

  20. The Active Side of Stereopsis: Fixation Strategy and Adaptation to Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibaldi, Agostino; Canessa, Andrea; Sabatini, Silvio P

    2017-03-20

    Depth perception in near viewing strongly relies on the interpretation of binocular retinal disparity to obtain stereopsis. Statistical regularities of retinal disparities have been claimed to greatly impact on the neural mechanisms that underlie binocular vision, both to facilitate perceptual decisions and to reduce computational load. In this paper, we designed a novel and unconventional approach in order to assess the role of fixation strategy in conditioning the statistics of retinal disparity. We integrated accurate realistic three-dimensional models of natural scenes with binocular eye movement recording, to obtain accurate ground-truth statistics of retinal disparity experienced by a subject in near viewing. Our results evidence how the organization of human binocular visual system is finely adapted to the disparity statistics characterizing actual fixations, thus revealing a novel role of the active fixation strategy over the binocular visual functionality. This suggests an ecological explanation for the intrinsic preference of stereopsis for a close central object surrounded by a far background, as an early binocular aspect of the figure-ground segregation process.

  1. Young people’s own museum views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drotner, Kirsten; Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Mortenesen, Christian Hviid

    2017-01-01

    Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning-making practi......Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning...

  2. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures

  3. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures

  4. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages

  5. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgment of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  6. Lighting for remote viewing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Scenes viewed by television do not provide the same channels of information for judgement of distances as scenes viewed directly, since television eliminates or degrades several depth perception cues. However, it may be possible to improve depth perception of televised scenes by enhancing the information available through depth cues that are available from lighting. A literature survey and expert opinions were integrated to design a remote lighting arrangement which could enhance depth perception of operators performing remote handling operations. This paper describes the lighting arrangement and discusses some of its advantages and disadvantages. 10 references, 2 figures.

  7. View

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Thoithi

    Pesticides and household/industrial chemicals, the two most important poisoning agents, accounted for ... thousands of people are exposed to poisoning. ... highest death rate (52.9%) [2,3]. ... targeted at children must focus on these classes of ... Poison. Age in years. 0-5 6-13 14-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 > 50 Unspecified Total.

  8. Hitler's Reich Viewed from 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James E.

    1971-01-01

    Viewed within a context of Orwell's 1984," the author's visit to East Germany, and particularly to the Museum for German History, revealed the efforts of an authoritarian regime to manipulate the thoughts and directions of that society to its own advantage. (JB)

  9. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  10. Chemistry Teachers' Views of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkanat, Çigdem; Gökdere, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine chemistry teachers' views of creativity. In this study, phenomenology method, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used. The participants of this study were 13 chemistry teachers working in Amasya. A semi-structured interview form was used for data collection. By using NVivo 9 qualitative…

  11. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  12. Time dependent view factor methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence

  13. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  14. Sublime Views and Beautiful Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan; Hatch, Mary Jo

    To create a generative theory that provides beautiful explanations and sublime views requires both a crafts and an art approach to scientific theorizing. The search for generativity leads scholars to perform various theorizing moves between the confines of simple, yet eloquent beauty...

  15. Health promoting leadership - different views of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andrea; Axelsson, Runo; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2011-01-01

    To describe and analyse different views of health promoting leadership among actors involved in workplace health promotion in eight Swedish municipalities. Twenty individuals were interviewed and their views were analysed according to the methodology of phenomenograpic research, exploring how health promoting leadership was described, what motives were expressed, and what critical conditions were perceived for developing such leadership. The informants described health promoting leadership in three ways: organising health promoting activities, having a supportive leadership style, and developing a health promoting workplace. The motives mentioned for developing health promoting leadership were instrumental motives and improved health. The critical conditions for health promoting leadership were organisational conditions, characteristics of individual managers, and support to managers. It seems that the concept of health promoting leadership was often used to link ideas about good leadership to the health of employees. Organisational goals and management trends may also have influenced the motives as well as the conditions for development of health promoting leadership.

  16. Standard Hip Ventrodorsal Leg Extended View In The Diagnosis Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is hereditary developmental condition that involves a lack of conformity between the femoral head and acetabulum. It invariably leads to osteoarthritis. We hereby review the standard hip ventrodorsal leg extended view to be adopted by our Tanzanian veterinarians. Diagnostic radiography is the ...

  17. Predicting User Views in Online News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Rambow, Owen

    2017-01-01

    We analyze user viewing behavior on anonline news site. We collect data from64,000 news articles, and use text featuresto predict frequency of user views.We compare predictiveness of the headlineand “teaser” (viewed before clicking) andthe body (viewed after clicking). Both arepredictive of click...

  18. Audience Perceptions of Family Viewing Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Brian F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a survey on Family Viewing Time designed to determine audience reactions to program content including violent and sexual content, audience perceptions of the suitability of program offerings for family viewing, and audience viewing habits with respect to Family Viewing Time. (MH)

  19. Evidence for view-invariant face recognition units in unfamiliar face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, David B; Brooks, Joseph L; Johnston, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task. Later, participants attempted to recognize both seen and novel views of the learned faces (recognition phase). Experiment 1 tested participants' recognition of a novel view, a day after learning. Experiment 2 was identical, but tested participants on the same day as learning. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 1, but tested participants on a novel view that was outside the rotation of those views learned. Results revealed a significant advantage, across all experiments, for recognizing a novel view when two views had been learned compared to single view learning. The observed view invariance supports the notion that an FRU representation is established during multi-view face learning under particular learning conditions.

  20. QlikView Server and Publisher

    CERN Document Server

    Redmond, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive guide with a step-by-step approach that enables you to host and manage servers using QlikView Server and QlikView Publisher.If you are a server administrator wanting to learn about how to deploy QlikView Server for server management,analysis and testing, and QlikView Publisher for publishing of business content then this is the perfect book for you. No prior experience with QlikView is expected.

  1. Three points of view in transport theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben, Panta Pazos [Faculdade de Matematica, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Tilio de Vilhena, M. [Instituto de Matematica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    A lot of efforts in Transport Theory is used to develop numerical methods or hybrid numerical-analytical techniques. We present in this work three points of view about transport problems. First the C0 semigroup approach, in which the free transport operator {psi} {yields} {mu} {nabla} generates an strongly continuous semigroup. The operators operator {psi} {yields} {sigma}t and operator {psi} {yields} {integral} {nabla} k(x,{mu},{mu}') {psi}(x,{mu}') d{mu}' are bounded operators, and by perturbation the transport operator {psi} {yields} {mu} {nabla} {psi} + {sigma}t {psi} - K {psi} also generates an strongly continuous semigroup. To prove the convergence of the approximations of a numerical methods to the exact solution we use the approximation theorem of C0 semi-groups in canonical form. In other way, the discrete schemes theory is employed in searching the rate of convergence of numerical techniques in transport theory. For 1D dependent of time transport problem and two-dimensional steady state problem we summarize some estimates, incorporating different boundary conditions. Finally we give a survey about the dynamical behavior of the SN approximations. In order to give a unified approach, some results illustrates the equivalence of the three points of views for the case of the steady-state transport problem for slab geometry. (author)

  2. Three points of view in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, Panta Pazos; Tilio de Vilhena, M.

    2001-01-01

    A lot of efforts in Transport Theory is used to develop numerical methods or hybrid numerical-analytical techniques. We present in this work three points of view about transport problems. First the C0 semigroup approach, in which the free transport operator ψ → μ ∇ generates an strongly continuous semigroup. The operators operator ψ → σt and operator ψ → ∫ ∇ k(x,μ,μ' ψ(x,μ') dμ' are bounded operators, and by perturbation the transport operator ψ → μ ∇ ψ + σt ψ - K ψ also generates an strongly continuous semigroup. To prove the convergence of the approximations of a numerical methods to the exact solution we use the approximation theorem of C0 semi-groups in canonical form. In other way, the discrete schemes theory is employed in searching the rate of convergence of numerical techniques in transport theory. For 1D dependent of time transport problem and two-dimensional steady state problem we summarize some estimates, incorporating different boundary conditions. Finally we give a survey about the dynamical behavior of the SN approximations. In order to give a unified approach, some results illustrates the equivalence of the three points of views for the case of the steady-state transport problem for slab geometry. (author)

  3. Views of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  4. Evaluation and development of a novel binocular treatment (I-BiT™) system using video clips and interactive games to improve vision in children with amblyopia ('lazy eye'): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Alexander J; Gregson, Richard M; MacKeith, Daisy; Herbison, Nicola; Ash, Isabel M; Cobb, Sue V; Eastgate, Richard M; Hepburn, Trish; Vivian, Anthony; Moore, Diane; Haworth, Stephen M

    2013-05-20

    Amblyopia (lazy eye) affects the vision of approximately 2% of all children. Traditional treatment consists of wearing a patch over their 'good' eye for a number of hours daily, over several months. This treatment is unpopular and compliance is often low. Therefore results can be poor. A novel binocular treatment which uses 3D technology to present specially developed computer games and video footage (I-BiT™) has been studied in a small group of patients and has shown positive results over a short period of time. The system is therefore now being examined in a randomised clinical trial. Seventy-five patients aged between 4 and 8 years with a diagnosis of amblyopia will be randomised to one of three treatments with a ratio of 1:1:1 - I-BiT™ game, non-I-BiT™ game, and I-BiT™ DVD. They will be treated for 30 minutes once weekly for 6 weeks. Their visual acuity will be assessed independently at baseline, mid-treatment (week 3), at the end of treatment (week 6) and 4 weeks after completing treatment (week 10). The primary endpoint will be the change in visual acuity from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints will be additional visual acuity measures, patient acceptability, compliance and the incidence of adverse events. This is the first randomised controlled trial using the I-BiT™ system. The results will determine if the I-BiT™ system is effective in the treatment of amblyopia and will also determine the optimal treatment for future development. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01702727.

  5. For current viewing resistor loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory R [Tijeras, NM; Hass, Jay B [Lee's Summit, MO

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  6. World View in Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of updating the economic model of society there arose the problem of eliminating contradictions in the development of economic science that do not allow us to solve problems of practice in proven ways. Although these contradictions and methods for their resolving are partially reflected in many scientific publications, methodological and practical justifications for a comprehensive study of the reserves of the economic science development by combining the provisions of philosophy and disciplines of the humanities are still relevant. The solution of the problem of unpredictability of functioning and development of the economy using such a combination of scientific disciplines can be ensured by applying the world view models that enable justifying the vector of attention of scientists in the subject area of the problem. The constructiveness of the interaction of scientists representing different ontological views of the world depends on improving of the conceptual and categorical support of their dialogue. A scientific world view in such a composition creates a basis, firstly, for a fruitful discussion of representatives of various disciplines having a common subject of research, and, secondly, for overcoming the institutional and cognitive barriers to professional mobility of scientists. It can also serve to develop the mobility of representatives of professional communities of researchers.

  7. Nuclear energy and global warming: a new economic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokhshad Hejazi

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to state energy situation and then energy policy globally in economic view and then offer the practical solution. Besides above questions, the most important questions that will be answered are: What is the energy position, in economic view? and what is the most important priority among environmental issues? According to present conditions and environmental challenges what is the way map for energy supply? Is the priority for environment and energy with an economic sight, in present and future, same as the past? (Author)

  8. Stakeholder views on pharmacogenomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Haridarshan N; Ursan, Iulia D; Zueger, Patrick M; Cavallari, Larisa H; Pickard, A Simon

    2014-02-01

    Pharmacogenomics has an important role in the evolution of personalized medicine, and its widespread uptake may ultimately depend on the interests and perspectives of key players in health care. Our aim was to summarize studies on stakeholder perspectives and attitudes toward pharmacogenomic testing. Thus, we conducted a review of original research studies that reported stakeholder views on pharmacogenomic testing using a structured approach in PubMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and EMBASE. A standardized data abstraction form was developed that included stakeholder group of interest-patients, general public, providers, and payers. Stakeholder views regarding barriers to pharmacogenetic implementation were organized into the following themes: ancillary information-related, clinical, economic, educational, ethical or legal, medical mistrust, and practicality. Of 34 studies that met our inclusion criteria, 37 perspectives were reported (15 on providers, 9 on the general public, 9 on patients, and 4 on payers). The most common topics that arose in studies of providers related to clinical usefulness of genetic data (n=11) and educational needs (n=11). Among the general public, the most common concerns were medical mistrust (n=5), insufficient education (n=5), and practicality (n=5). The most prevalent issues from the patient perspective were ethical or legal (n=6) and economic (n=5) issues. Among payers, leading issues were practicality (n=4) and clinical usefulness (n=3). There was overlap in the topics and concerns across stakeholder perspectives, including lack of knowledge about pharmacogenomic testing. Views on issues related to privacy, cost, and test result dissemination varied by stakeholder perspective. Limited research had been conducted in underrepresented groups. Efforts to address the issues raised by stakeholders may facilitate the implementation of pharmacogenomic testing into

  9. Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

  10. Gender Advantages and Gender Normality in the Views of Estonian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurme, Tiiu; Kasemaa, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on Estonian secondary school students was to obtain an overview of the gender-related views and experiences of the everyday school life by students, and to analyse the school-related factors in the development of gender roles and gender-related expectations. We view gender equality as a central condition for social…

  11. An Examination of Television Viewing Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies nine motivations for television viewing and relates these to age, viewing levels, television attitudes of attachment and reality, and program preferences. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of uses and gratifications research perspectives. (JMF)

  12. Formalizing correspondence rules for automotive architectural views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajsuren, Y.; Gerpheide, C.M.; Serebrenik, A.; Wijs, A.J.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Seinturier, L.; Bures, T.; McGregor, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture views have long been used in software industry to systematically model complex systems by representing them from the perspective of related stakeholder concerns. However, consensus has not been reached for the architecture views between automotive architecture description languages and

  13. Popperian and Inductivist Views of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrates that a view of the nature of science is dependent upon underlying assumptions concerning scientific proof. Compares the inductive view of science with the non-inductive viewpoint of Karl Popper. (CP)

  14. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  15. Learning QlikView data visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Pover, Karl

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to start developing charts from your data.Learning QlikView Data Visualization is for anybody interested in performing powerful data analysis and crafting insightful data visualization, independent of any previous knowledge of QlikView. Experience with spreadsheet software will help you understand QlikView functions.

  16. Adolescents' Motivations for Viewing Graphic Horror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Deirdre D.

    1995-01-01

    Identifies four motivations adolescents report for viewing graphic horror films: gore watching, thrill watching, independent watching, and problem watching. Argues that viewing motivations are predictors of responses to graphic horror. Finds that viewing motivations were related to viewers' cognitive and affective responses and a tendency to…

  17. Views of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses views of Martin Luther King, Jr., including concepts of human rights, related counseling approaches, and ethics. Claims King's views provide helpful insights for counselors and clients. Concludes King invited individuals to view challenging life situations as moral opportunities. (Author/ABL)

  18. Effect of Need for Approval and Situational Variables on the Viewing of Erotic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Neil M.

    1976-01-01

    The role of social desirability on willingness to view erotic materials under conditions of implicit approval and disapproval was studied. Low need-for-approval subjects were more influenced by situational cues than high need-for-approval subjects. (NG)

  19. Font size and viewing distance of handheld smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bababekova, Yuliya; Rosenfield, Mark; Hue, Jennifer E; Huang, Rae R

    2011-07-01

    The use of handheld smart phones for written communication is becoming ubiquitous in modern society. The relatively small screens found in these devices may necessitate close working distances and small text sizes, which can increase the demands placed on accommodation and vergence. Font size and viewing distance were measured while subjects used handheld electronic devices in two separate trials. In the first study (n=129), subjects were asked to show a typical text message on their own personal phone and to hold the device "as if they were about to read a text message." A second trial was conducted in a similar manner except subjects (n=100) were asked to view a specific web page from the internet. For text messages and internet viewing, the mean font size was 1.1 M (range, 0.7 to 2.1 M) and 0.8 M (range, 0.3 to 1.4 M), respectively. The mean working distance for text messages and internet viewing was 36.2 cm (range, 17.5 to 58.0 cm) and 32.2 cm (range, 19 to 60 cm), respectively. The mean font size for both conditions was comparable with newspaper print, although some subjects viewed text that was considerably smaller. However, the mean working distances were closer than the typical near working distance of 40 cm for adults when viewing hardcopy text. These close distances place increased demands on both accommodation and vergence, which could exacerbate symptoms. Practitioners need to consider the closer distances adopted while viewing material on smart phones when examining patients and prescribing refractive corrections for use at near, as well as when treating patients presenting with asthenopia associated with nearwork. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Optometry

  20. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  1. Perspective view over the Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated true color perspective view over the Grand Canyon was created from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data acquired on May 12, 2000. The Grand Canyon Village is in the lower foreground; the Bright Angel Trail crosses the Tonto Platform, before dropping down to the Colorado Village and then to the Phantom Ranch (green area across the river). Bright Angel Canyon and the North Rim dominate the view. At the top center of the image the dark blue area with light blue haze is an active forest fire. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 5 km in foreground to 40 km Location: 36.3 degrees north latitude, 112 degrees west longitude Orientation: North-northeast at top Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters Dates Acquired: May 12, 2000

  2. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  4. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Malabre, M.

    1961-01-01

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [fr

  5. APPRAISING THE CONDITIONS OF UNIVERSAL MORALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hub of our discussion of the conditions of universal morality is predicated upon the fact that the argument that a society's social life can only be measured by the peculiarities of its ... The call for a context-bound conception of morality has lost much of its hold in view of the interlocking network of our contemporary life.

  6. Visual and Ocular Control Anomalies in Relation to Reading Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, C. H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The visual behavior under both static and dynamic viewing conditions was examined in a group of 13-year-old successful readers, compared with a group of the same age retarded in reading. Research supports the notion that problems of dynamic binocular vision and control while reading are important. (Author/KC)

  7. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  8. Geophysicists' views about public engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, J. C.; Dudo, A.; Yuan, S.

    2016-12-01

    The proposed talk would present the results of 2016 survey of American Geophysical Union members (n = 2040) about public engagement. This survey took place as part of a broader, NSF funded, study of engagement views across eight different U.S.-based scientific societies. The presentation would include data about geophysicists' past engagement behavior and willingness to engage alongside data about engagement attitudes, perceived norms (i.e. beliefs about whether peers engage and value engagement), and perceived efficacy (i.e., scientists' beliefs about their own communication skills and the impact of engagement). The presentation would also include results that describe scientists' overall goals for engagement (e.g., increasing support for specific policy positions, changing citizen behavior, etc.), as well as their communication-specific objectives (e.g., increasing knowledge, increase excitement, etc.). All of the results would be put in the context of equivalent results from scientists from seven other societies across a variety of fields, including chemistry, biology, and the social sciences. Three themes that would be emphasized in the presentation include (1) the fact that there are substantial commonalities in engagement views across scientific fields, (2) the important role that perceived engagement skill (efficacy) appears to play in predicting engagement willingness, and (3) a lack of evidence that scientists are thinking about engagement in strategic ways. Strategic engagement, in this regard, would involve setting clear goals and then choosing activities that the social science of science communication suggests might allow one to achieve those goals. The presentation would conclude with thoughts about what might be done to improve the effectiveness of science communication training.

  9. Iter in vessel viewing system design and assessment activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, C., E-mail: carlo.neri@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Costa, P.; Ferri De Collibus, M.; Florean, M.; Mugnaini, G.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F.; Rossi, P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System was developed and tested at ENEA laboratories in Frascati under EFDA task agreements, it is able to perform sub-millimetric bi-dimensional and three-dimensional images inside ITER during maintenance procedure allowing the evaluation of the state and damages of the in-vessel surface. The present prototype has been designed to operate under room conditions and starting from springtime 2009 a Grant with F4E is in progress for the design and the assessment of the IVVS system for ITER, keeping in account all the environmental conditions and constraints.

  10. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical gears. 

  11. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  12. Interocularly merged face percepts eliminate binocular rivalry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. Christiaan; Boucherie, Daphne; Denys, Damiaan; Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Self, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Faces are important visual objects for humans and other social animals. A complex network of specialized brain areas is involved in the recognition and interpretation of faces. This network needs to strike a balance between being sensitive enough to distinguish between different faces with similar

  13. School violence: an insider view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shelley A; Fisher, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    To discover what teachers perceive to be contributing factors to violence in schools. Open-ended questions were asked of a convenience sample of teachers ( = 396) during an in-service education program on school violence. The teachers were in a semi-rural school district in a Mid-Atlantic state. Answers were analyzed using content analysis; all responses were reviewed and important themes were extracted. Identified themes were then placed into suitable categories and studied to determine relationships. Of the surveys analyzed ( = 239), 13 themes were identified. The three categories which then identified probable causes of school violence were (1) lack of knowledge, (2) lack of support, and (3) inadequate safety measures. Nurses can use the results of this study in multiple ways. One is to help parents understand their role in preventing school violence. Because violence in the home and violence in the media seem to foster violent acting-out behavior, nurses can teach parents about these correlations and seek solutions such as the elimination of family violence, and monitoring television viewing and video games. Nursing assessments of school-aged children and their families can include these elements. School nurses in particular can use these study results as an opportunity to develop interventions for students, teachers, and families that stress knowledge building about impulse control, anger management, appropriate parenting, and early intervention for at-risk children.

  14. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  15. Career development: graduate nurse views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan; Muthulakshmi, Paulpandi; Happell, Brenda; Hunt, Glenn E

    2013-09-01

    To explore recent Singapore nursing graduates' experience of and views about their career development and progress. The recruitment and retention of an adequate number of registered nurses is a continuing workforce issue in Singapore and other major cities. Survey of recent nursing graduates. Recent nursing graduates from the Bachelor programme (n = 147) were sent an individual survey; a response rate of 54% was achieved. Findings show that nurses rated their self-concept in a positive manner and were most satisfied (moderately to very) with helping patients and providing effective care, and the level of patient involvement. They were least satisfied (moderately to only a little) with prestige among the general medical community and the general public, hours of work, lifestyle factors and research opportunities. The following four factors were identified as significant impediments to career development; lack of support in the work place; perceived insufficient clinical career development opportunities; excessive work hours; and limited access to merit-based places in further education. Suggestions made to overcome perceived career development barriers are as follows: broad multifactorial healthcare system changes; decreased and more flexible working hours; and fairer access to further clinical and higher education. Results highlight the value clinical nurses place on having access to career development opportunities, merit-based further education and work place supports. These factors also have the potential to influence patient care and impact on the retention of nurses in their present job and satisfaction with their nursing career. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Cosmological Views of Anania Shirakatsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2017-12-01

    Since the ancient times the usage of cosmological ideas in mythology and poetry has contributed to the formation and development of human's philosophical thought. It is believed that before the M. Mashtots's alphabet, ancient Armenians have expressed their astronomical knowledge through stone structures and rock art.In the Armenian reality, the cosmological views, the idea of the spherical shape of the Earth and information of other celestial bodies more vividly were manifested in the works of Movses Khorenatsi, David Anhaght (5th century) and Anania Shirakatsi (7th century).Anania Shirakatsi is an Armenian Astronomer, Mathematician, Philosopher, Geographer and Alchemist.The importance of his work is also noted by foreign authors and he was called 7th century Cosmologist, First Scientist of Armenia and Middival Astronomer. Shirakatsi's works are united in his comprehensive knowledge, his insight of the mind, the ability of combining and analyzing facts and his literature talent.His works have simultaneous historical, cosmic, geographical, religious, literary and mystical significance. In the present study we will show Anania Shirakatsi's cosmological ideas and observations.

  17. Contemporary views on selective mutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoski Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review contemporary literature on selective mutism (SM, available in our language. The paper includes a contemporary definition of the disorder, previous studies of selective mutism, theories about its origin, and treatment. SM is a disorder that occurs in childhood, when a child's speech is selectively lacking in certain social situations. School is the context in which the disorder is typically manifested, which is why SM is often diagnosed only after children start school. The paper gives a historical account of changes in views on this disorder. Modern conceptions emphasize selective inability of children to spontaneously and successfully express themselves verbally. In researching SM, case studies on children who have selective mutism are most commonly published. Etiological factors are not precisely defined, and different conceptions give their interpretations depending on various theoretical frameworks. Some studies consistently indicate a relation between SM and social anxiety, and some with opposing behavior and delays in language development. Based on theoretical explanations of SM, psychological interventions (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and projective techniques, counseling and family therapy are created. Modern treatment of selective mutism includes an eclectic approach and emphasizes the role of teachers and school in general. Future studies should deepen the knowledge about selective mutism, specify the methodological procedure and stimulate the individualized treatment of children with SM.

  18. Biodiversities and habitabilities : a biologist view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    If life were to again take the path it followed billion years ago, nobody can certify that it would take the same path, leading to the same species, the same types of cells, the same organisation. This implies that if life exists - or existed - elsewhere, benefiting from the same initial planetary conditions, it most likely does would not have the same history, or would not have followed the same itinerary. Thus, how can we possibly recognize and/or identify something new, probably completely new that we are unable to conceive and/or to conceptualize? From a materialistic point of view, there is no frontier between what is alive and what is not; this is a basic question for the biology community, mainly via the question of viruses and viroids. It is thus very ambiguous to define the meaning of biomarkers, and even more to search for life elsewhere based strictly on the observations of what we know occurs on Earth. Just as what is 'pathological' in biology provides us with an insight on what is 'normal', the space that lies at the border between the living and the non-living will maybe allow us to envisage other forms of life (that we cannot imagine to-day).

  19. Scientific explanation in school: An enactive view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Didi, Khadeeja

    This study explores explanation-in-action, a corollary to an enactive orientation to cognition. Explanation, understood this way is identified as a semiotic, perceptually driven activity, where the interactions that arise between students that enable the engagement to continue indicate a certain tentative coherence of meaning that is brought forth in interaction in a constraining environment. Challenging summary state views of explanation as statement, this study explores the evolution of scientific explanation in two Grade Eight Maldivian classrooms. Enactivism, understood across different embodied cognitive systems, reconfigures the discourse on explanation by re-orienting the form in which explanation is understood. The notion of explanation-in-action as a topological function implicates the boundary of the cognitive system in the action. Further, it also recognizes that embedding boundaries and the dynamics that create the boundaries can constrain the explanation that occurs in different domains. In effect, the study calls for reconfiguring validation as in-action---as the constraining dynamic feature that emerges in the ongoing explanation-in-action. In the study I pay attention to the different boundaries of some systemic configurations in the classroom. I consider how the boundary conditions create the possibility for signification, and therefore, explanation. This research suggests that in explaining-in-action students are able to draw on the enabling possibilities of personal boundaries and the constraining social boundaries to further structure their explaining in ways that are local to the task at hand.

  20. Treatment of hemorrhoids: A coloproctologist's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2015-08-21

    Hemorrhoids is recognized as one of the most common medical conditions in general population. It is clinically characterized by painless rectal bleeding during defecation with or without prolapsing anal tissue. Generally, hemorrhoids can be divided into two types: internal hemorrhoid and external hemorrhoid. External hemorrhoid usually requires no specific treatment unless it becomes acutely thrombosed or causes patients discomfort. Meanwhile, low-graded internal hemorrhoids can be effectively treated with medication and non-operative measures (such as rubber band ligation and injection sclerotherapy). Surgery is indicated for high-graded internal hemorrhoids, or when non-operative approaches have failed, or complications have occurred. Although excisional hemorrhoidectomy remains the mainstay operation for advanced hemorrhoids and complicated hemorrhoids, several minimally invasive operations (including Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy, doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation and stapled hemorrhoidopexy) have been introduced into surgical practices in order to avoid post-hemorrhiodectomy pain. This article deals with some fundamental knowledge and current treatment of hemorrhoids in a view of a coloproctologist - which includes the management of hemorrhoids in complicated situations such as hemorrhoids in pregnancy, hemorrhoids in immunocompromised patients, hemorrhoids in patients with cirrhosis or portal hypertension, hemorrhoids in patients having antithrombotic agents, and acutely thrombosed or strangulated hemorrhoids. Future perspectives in the treatment of hemorrhoids are also discussed.

  1. Our views on transmission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellford, W.H.; Sutley, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss the need for predictable and fair access to transmission facilities in order to ensure competitive generation of power. They propose that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission should regulate transmission to prevent a utility from gaining a competitive advantage in electricity generation markets, the incorporation of transmission access into every bidding program under state jurisdiction, and requirement of transmission rates, terms and conditions for all in-state utilities be included in the request for proposal

  2. Stereo Viewing System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The Stereo Viewing System provides stereoscopic viewing of Light Duty Utility Arm activities. Stereoscopic viewing allows operators to see the depth of objects. This capability improves the control of the Light Duty Utility Arm performed in DOE's underground radioactive waste storage tanks and allows operators to evaluate the depth of pits, seams, and other anomalies. Potential applications include Light Duty Utility Arm deployment operations at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Hanford Site, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

  3. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  4. A prospective view of radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barescut, Jean C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: If we exclude the specific case of medical radioprotection and workers radioprotection, the main challenge of tomorrow radioprotection is the protection of usual people faced to a possible increase of ambient contamination, either as a consequence of usual releases of industry or as a consequence of sporadic accidents. From the view points of regulators and practitioners of radioprotection, we have to optimize today researches and studies, to optimize protection investments and to prepare future rules according to what could be the possible concerns of radioprotection in a near future. Clearly, when dealing with nuclear energy, a perspective of 30 years is not a very far one. A nuclear plant built today will still be in operation 30 years from now. But 30 years is a fairly long time compared to evolutions of science. For example, DNA was discovered in 1953 and gene engineering began seriously in the years 70s. There is no doubt that the evolution speed will not decrease and that the scientific situation will be quite different within 30 years. This could have many practical consequences. One is that the risk associated to radioactive stress could be better estimated, another is that precursors of a disease attributable to radioactivity will certainly be detected earlier and will allow cure to begin earlier. It is quite likely also that our ability to stimulate the natural defenses of organisms will improve. In an even more futuristic approach, the use of nanoengines or the use of highly selective killer processes at the cell level seems quite possible. Radioprotection will not only be influenced by science but also by the level of environmental threats. We have already a pretty good backward knowledge but, if we consider that the real beginning of industrial nuclear age was in the seventies, within 30 years, we will have more than 70 years of retrospective view. That should be enough to determine if our exposure to radioactivity is really increasing

  5. Physics and our View of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgevoord, Jan

    1994-11-01

    Foreword; 1. Introduction JAN HILGEVOORD; 2. Questioning the answers GERARD T. HOOFT; 3. Theories of everything JOHN BARROW; 4. The scientific view of the world DENNIS DIEKS; 5. Enlarging the world ERNAN McMULLIN; 6. The world of empiricism BAS VAN FRAASSEN; 7. Has the scientific view of the world a special status compared with other views? PAUL FEYERABEND; 8. Quantum theory and our view of the world PAUL FEYERABEND; 9. Interpretation of science - science as interpretation BAS VAN FRAASSEN; 10. Problems in debates about physics and religion WILLEM DREES; 11. The mind of God PAUL DAVIES; 12. The sources of models for God: metaphysics or metaphor? MARY HESSE; 13. Discussion.

  6. FACET, Radiation View Factor with Shadowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors as input data to finite element heat transfer analysis codes. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are incorporated to integrate the view factor equation for three dimensional geometries. The algorithm used for any two surfaces depends on their geometric relationship and whether third surface obstructions exist. The three algorithms are the area integration (AI) method, the line integration method (LI), and the Mitalas and Stephenson (MS) method. The LI method is used to calculate the view factor between two disjoint surfaces. If the two surfaces have an adjoint edge, the MS method is used. The AI method is used if there is self or third surface shadowing. In two-dimensional planar geometries, the view factor between two surfaces is calculated using Hottel's cross string method. For axisymmetric geometries in the absence of shadowing, the view factor between two surfaces is calculated by view factor algebra using the view factors between parallel coaxial discs. In the presence of self or third surface shadowing, the geometry is represented in three dimensions before calculating the view factors

  7. Views on information literacy / Sichten auf Informationskompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Hapke, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Poster (in English and German language) illustrating different views on information literacy. Poster in deutscher und englischer Sprache zur Veranschaulichung verschiedener Sichten auf Informationskompetenz.

  8. CRISM Views Phobos and Deimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    These two images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show Mars' two small moons, Phobos and Deimos, as seen from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's low orbit around Mars. Both images were taken while the spacecraft was over Mars' night side, with the spacecraft turned off its normal nadir-viewing geometry to glimpse the moons. The image of Phobos, shown at the top, was taken at 0119 UTC on October 23 (9:19 p.m. EDT on Oct. 22), and shows features as small as 400 meters (1,320 feet) across. The image of Deimos, shown at the bottom, was taken at 2016 UTC (12:16 p.m. EDT) on June 7, 2007, and shows features as small as 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) across. Both CRISM images were taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and are displayed at twice the size in the original data for viewing purposes. Phobos and Deimos are about 21 and 12 kilometers (13.0 and 7.5 miles) in diameter and orbit Mars with periods of 7 hours, 39.2 minutes and 1 day, 6 hours, 17.9 minutes respectively. Because Phobos orbits Mars in a shorter time than Mars' 24 hour, 37.4-minute rotational period, to an observer on Mars' surface it would appear to rise in the west and set in the east. From Mars' surface, Phobos appears about one-third the diameter of the Moon from Earth, whereas Deimos appears as a bright star. The moons were discovered in 1877 by the astronomer Asaph Hall, and as satellites of a planet named for the Roman god of war, they were named for Greek mythological figures that personify fear and terror. The first spacecraft measurements of Phobos and Deimos, from the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter spacecraft, showed that both moons have dark surfaces reflecting only 5 to 7% of the sunlight that falls on them. The first reconstruction of the moons' spectrum of reflected sunlight was a difficult compilation from three different instruments, and appeared to show a flat, grayish spectrum resembling carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Carbonaceous

  9. Symbol in View of Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad reza Yousefi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Symbol from the perspective of rhetorical word, is phrase or sentence that apparent meaning, also inspires to reader a wide range of semantic.Since exploring the complex social and political ideas in the most mysticalway and indirectreflectionsocial and political thoughts symbolically is easier, so the symbol and symbolism especially in Persian literatureespeciallyin the realm of Persian poetry, has a special appearance.In addition to the factors mentioned in the contemporary literature, according familiar in literature and the emergence of particular schools interest toambiguoussymbolization has spreadfurther, especially the symbol has all the features of art ambiguity in the poem and it isone the major factors causing uncertainty.Thus, the precise definitions and symbols of contemporary poetry could be dominant in the unwinding ambiguous symbol detection of cryptic allusions and metaphors that matches the cursor symbol to help readers.  In the literature, especially language poetry, the inability of language toreflecting obscure mystical ideas, avoid to directexpression of political and social concerns of the reader in the course of participate to creation ambiguous literary works is the main motivation towards symbol and symbolization.According widespread use of symbol and its different of species can be viewed from different perspectives.The creation of ambiguity is the main purposes of using symbols (especially in poetry, so many poets have tried to achieve this goal have to formation of similar symbols and the explanation and resolution of this issue can open new window for understanding the poetry in front of an audience.  In this paper examines the ambiguity of symbols in terms of its precise boundaries are reviewed. Ambiguity is one of the important processes and also is the key Iranian poetry its means is today poetry. In such poetry ambiguity is a need to explore the new world from a different perspective, or explore this

  10. Users' views of prison health services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Louise; Hek, Gill; Harris, Francesca; Powell, Jane; Kemple, Terry; Price, Sally

    2007-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Prison provides an opportunity for a 'hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a 'legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners.

  11. Conceptual design studies of in-vessel viewing equipment for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1996-03-01

    In-vessel viewing systems are essential to inspect all surface of in-vessel components so as to detect and locate damages, and to assist in-vessel maintenance operations. The in-vessel viewing operations are categorized into the three cases, which are 1) rapid inspection just after off-normal events such as disruption, 2) scheduled inspection, and 3) supplementary inspection during maintenance operations. In case of the rapid inspection, the viewing systems have to be operated in vacuum (ca. 10 -5 Pa) and high temperature (ca. 300degC) under a gamma ray dose rate of 10 7 R/h. On the other hand, the latter two cases are anticipated to be under atmospheric inert gas, 150degC and 3x10 6 R/h. Accordingly, the in-vessel viewing systems are required to have sufficient durability under those conditions of all cases as well as precision of the vision to all of in-vessel surface. Based on those requirements, scoping studies on various viewing concepts have been performed and the applicability to the ITER conditions have been assessed. As a result, two types of viewing systems have been chosen, which are a periscope type viewing system and a image fiber type viewing system with a multi-joint manipulator. Both systems are based on radiation hard optical elements which are being developed. In this report, the design features of both viewing systems are described, including technical issues for ITER application. Finally, a periscope type viewing system is recommended as a primary system and the following specifications/conditions are proposed for the further engineering design. (1) Unified type periscope with a movable mirror at the tip (2) Integrated lighting device into the periscope (3) Accessed from top vertical ports located at 7.3m from the machine center (4) Proposed configuration with a total length of around 27m and a diameter of 200mm. (author)

  12. Características estruturais maculares de olhos de pré-escolares nascidos prematuros: análise por tomografia de coerência óptica e oftalmoscopia binocular indireta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Beatriz Bonotto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a estrutura retiniana da mácula e fóvea entre prematuros com retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP estágios II e III pós-tratamento, com ROP estágios II e III regredida espontaneamente e sem ROP, através de exames de tomografia de coerência óptica (OCT e da oftalmoscopia binocular indireta (OBI. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal, observacional e não cego. Foram incluídas crianças prematuras nascidas entre 06/1992 e 06/2006 e examinadas entre 06/2009 e 12/2010; idade gestacional menor ou igual a 32 semanas e peso ao nascer menor ou igual a 1.599 g; com mínimo de três consultas durante o período de seleção; sem retinopatia da prematuridade ou com diagnóstico de ROP estágios II ou III em pelo menos um dos olhos com regressão espontânea ou após tratamento; máximo de seis meses de idade cronológica para o primeiro exame no serviço; idade cronológica mínima de quatro anos no período da reavaliação. Foram excluídas crianças prematuras que não compareceram ou que não tinham condições clínicas para a realização dos exames de reavaliação. Os prematuros foram divididos em três grupos: G1- com ROP pós-tratamento; G2- com ROP pós-regressão espontânea; e G3- sem ROP. Os exames realizados foram OBI e OCT. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro prematuros (48 olhos apresentaram os critérios exigidos para a pesquisa, com idade média cronológica entre 5 e 6 anos. À OBI, houve diferença estatística significativa para a presença de alterações na retina dos prematuros do grupo G1. No entanto estas alterações corresponderam às lesões cicatriciais deixadas pelo tratamento da ROP, sem comprometimento visível da região macular. À OCT houve diferença estatística significativa para a maior espessura foveal para os prematuros do grupo G1. Considerando-se o olho esquerdo, não houve diferença estatística significativa relacionada à espessura da fóvea entre G1 e G3. Não houve diferença entre os tr

  13. Reading strategies in mild to moderate strabismic amblyopia: an eye movement investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanonidou, Evgenia; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate oculomotor strategies in strabismic amblyopia and evaluate abnormalities during monocular and binocular reading. METHODS. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted infrared video eye-tracker (250 Hz, amblyopia, reading is impaired, not only during monocular viewing with the amblyopic eye, but also with the nonamblyopic eye and binocularly, even though normal visual acuity pertains to the latter two conditions. The impaired reading performance is associated with differences in both the saccadic and fixational patterns, most likely as adaptation strategies to abnormal sensory experiences such as crowding and suppression.

  14. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  15. Enhancing multi-view autostereoscopic displays by viewing distance control (VDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Duckstein, Bernd; Renault, Sylvain; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René; Ebner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Conventional multi-view displays spatially interlace various views of a 3D scene and form appropriate viewing channels. However, they only support sufficient stereo quality within a limited range around the nominal viewing distance (NVD). If this distance is maintained, two slightly divergent views are projected to the person's eyes, both covering the entire screen. With increasing deviations from the NVD the stereo image quality decreases. As a major drawback in usability, the manufacturer so far assigns this distance. We propose a software-based solution that corrects false view assignments depending on the distance of the viewer. Our novel approach enables continuous view adaptation based on the calculation of intermediate views and a column-bycolumn rendering method. The algorithm controls each individual subpixel and generates a new interleaving pattern from selected views. In addition, we use color-coded test content to verify its efficacy. This novel technology helps shifting the physically determined NVD to a user-defined distance thereby supporting stereopsis. The recent viewing positions can fall in front or behind the NVD of the original setup. Our algorithm can be applied to all multi-view autostereoscopic displays — independent of the ascent or the periodicity of the optical element. In general, the viewing distance can be corrected with a factor of more than 2.5. By creating a continuous viewing area the visualized 3D content is suitable even for persons with largely divergent intraocular distance — adults and children alike — without any deficiency in spatial perception.

  16. MISR Views the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.'MISR', as it turns out, is the

  17. Light Pollution: The Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    al.), an overview of the work on radio frequency protection of sites (Cohen et al.) and the excellent introduction to the topic from the Chilean point of view (Daud). Related topics in the book are light pollution education, aircraft contrails, space advertising (with an added document provided by the relevant UN commission), and an experiment on involving the population of an entire country in measuring sky brightness, by using the internet and the media. The text is aimed at professionals from a wide range of disciplines related to lighting and its effects on the night-time environment in the broadest sense of the word. Lay persons interested in this emerging multi-disciplinary field can also find much of interest in this book. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1174-1

  18. The Power of Traditional Design Techniques: The Effects of Viewing a Japanese Garden on Individuals With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Seiko; Gianfagia, Thomas J; Munafo, John P; Fujii, Eijiro; Shen, Xuting; Sun, Minkai; Shi, Bertram Emil; Liu, Congcong; Hamano, Hiroshi; Herrup, Karl

    2017-07-01

    This study is to examine how viewing a Japanese garden affects Japanese patients with dementia. In a previous study, authors explored the effect on individuals with Alzheimer's disease of viewing an indoor Japanese garden at a nursing home in the United States and reported that viewing the garden significantly reduced the heart rate, evoked short-term and long-term memories, and improved behavioral symptoms. However, it was unclear whether these effects were caused by the design of Japanese garden or unfamiliarity of the design to Caucasians. We constructed a Japanese garden on the rooftop of a hospital in Japan and assessed with a total of 25 subjects on the following categories: (1) eye movement, (2) heart rate, and (3) behavior under four different conditions: (a) open view of the site before construction of the Japanese garden (the control space), (b) open view of the Japanese garden, (c) view of the Japanese garden through closed door, and (d) view of Japanese garden through closed door with the chrysanthemum scent. Findings/Results: Viewers' eyes scanned larger area while viewing the Japanese garden, and viewing the Japanese garden significantly reduced heart rate and improved behavioral symptoms than the control space. We also found that the effect of viewing the same Japanese garden differed across three conditions: the view through an open door, a closed door, and a closed door with added scent.

  19. Searching for the value of a view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill; Charles F. Schwan

    1989-01-01

    Assessing the trade-offs between market and nonmarket products of wildlands poses a major problem fornatural resource planners and managers. Scenic quality is a resource that is not quantifiable in monetary terms. To determine if market values of real estate offering views could define relative dollar values for physical dimensions and objects in views, they were...

  20. Programming Arduino with LabVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    If you already have some experience with LabVIEW and want to apply your skills to control physical objects and make measurements using the Arduino sensor, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Arduino and LabVIEW is essential to fully understand the projects detailed in this book.

  1. Developing a Teachable Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kim

    2007-01-01

    As professors of management and organizational behavior mature in their teaching, they should begin to develop a teachable point of view. In this article, the author describes several attributes of a teachable point of view. Based on his own teaching experience, the author outlines five criteria for the content of the material taught--the what of…

  2. World View: The Second Hidden Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Lisa; And Others

    Proposing that world view is a dimension of culture which lies below the surface of human behavior at the level of the subconscious, this paper argues that this often ignored dimension of culture profoundly influences human communication. The paper is divided into two sections. First, world view is defined and its importance in explaining how…

  3. Consumer Views: Importance of Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on the importance of fuel economy amongst other vehicle attributes and views on which alternative fuel types would be the best and worst replacements for gasoline.

  4. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  5. Students' Views of Learning in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund-Myrskog, Gunilla

    1997-01-01

    Conceptions of learning and approaches to learning within vocational education were studied with 30 Finnish students of automotive mechanics. About half the students took a quantitative view of learning and favored a surface approach. Encouraging a qualitative view of learning and deeper approaches in vocational education is discussed. (SLD)

  6. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. LabVIEW 8 student edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    For courses in Measurement and Instrumentation, Electrical Engineering lab, and Physics and Chemistry lab. This revised printing has been updated to include new LabVIEW 8.2 Student Edition. National Instruments' LabVIEW is the defacto industry standard for test, measurement, and automation software solutions. With the Student Edition of LabVIEW, students can design graphical programming solutions to their classroom problems and laboratory experiments with software that delivers the graphical programming capabilites of the LabVIEW professional version. . The Student Edition is also compatible with all National Instruments data acquisition and instrument control hardware. Note: The LabVIEW Student Edition is available to students, faculty, and staff for personal educational use only. It is not intended for research, institutional, or commercial use. For more information about these licensing options, please visit the National Instruments website at (http:www.ni.com/academic/)

  8. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui

    2004-01-01

    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  9. Cross-view gait recognition using joint Bayesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Sun, Shouqian; Chen, Xiaoyu; Min, Xin

    2017-07-01

    Human gait, as a soft biometric, helps to recognize people by walking. To further improve the recognition performance under cross-view condition, we propose Joint Bayesian to model the view variance. We evaluated our prosed method with the largest population (OULP) dataset which makes our result reliable in a statically way. As a result, we confirmed our proposed method significantly outperformed state-of-the-art approaches for both identification and verification tasks. Finally, sensitivity analysis on the number of training subjects was conducted, we find Joint Bayesian could achieve competitive results even with a small subset of training subjects (100 subjects). For further comparison, experimental results, learning models, and test codes are available.

  10. Large-Scale Data for Multiple-View Stereopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Vogiatzis, George

    2016-01-01

    The seminal multiple-view stereo benchmark evaluations from Middlebury and by Strecha et al. have played a major role in propelling the development of multi-view stereopsis (MVS) methodology. The somewhat small size and variability of these data sets, however, limit their scope and the conclusions...... that can be derived from them. To facilitate further development within MVS, we here present a new and varied data set consisting of 80 scenes, seen from 49 or 64 accurate camera positions. This is accompanied by accurate structured light scans for reference and evaluation. In addition all images are taken...... under seven different lighting conditions. As a benchmark and to validate the use of our data set for obtaining reasonable and statistically significant findings about MVS, we have applied the three state-of-the-art MVS algorithms by Campbell et al., Furukawa et al., and Tola et al. to the data set...

  11. Invitation to View Method with Advantages and Disadvantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk BUYRUKOĞLU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxpayers and tax administrators sometimes may experience tax dispute. These disputes may arise from the taxpayers as well as from the tax administrators. In resolving tax disputes, tax administrators and tax payers are the first, usually administratively, solution. Because while the tax revenues of the state are possible entered into the state treasury, the taxpayers will benefit from the advantages of administrative solutions. The state and taxpayer herein will be the winner. Invitation to view is one of the administrative remedies for tax disputes. With this practice taxpayers who have caused tax evasion penalty are invited by tax administrators to make a declaration on the condition that the tax examination of the tax disputes is not started and the dispatch process has not been done to the discretion comission. In this study, advantages and disadvantages will be addressed after the definition, legal support, purpose, scope and mechanism of Invitation to view.

  12. Ventilation-air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi.

    1991-01-01

    Heretofore, in ventilation-air conditioning systems in a nuclear power plant, exhaust gases from each of the ventilation-air conditioning systems of a reactor building, a turbine building, a waste processing building are joined and they are released into atmosphere from the top of a high main exhaustion stack. In order to build such a high main exhaustion stack, a considerable construction cost is required and, in addition, there is a worry of lacking balance with surrounding scenery. Then, in the present invention, exhaust gases are heated by waste heat in a turbine during their introduction from the ventilation-air conditioning facility in the building of a power plant to the main exhaust stack. With such a constitution, since the exhaust gases are heated and their temperature is elevated, they uprise by natural convection when they are released from the top of the main exhaustion stack to the atmosphere. Accordingly, they are released to a level higher than the conventional case in view of the volume of the blower which sends the exhaust gases under pressure, to diffuse them to the atmosphere more sufficiently compared with a conventional case. Further, the height of the main exhaustion stack can be reduced, enabling to minimize the cost for moving the blower. (T.M.)

  13. Shocking matter to extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.M.; Sharma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    A good understanding of the thermodynamic response of matter at high compression and high energy densities is important to several areas of physics. Shock-wave experiments are uniquely suited for obtaining data at extreme conditions, and a shock-compressed matter can be viewed as a condensed system with or without dissociation or as a strongly coupled plasma. This article reviews work by Da Silva et al. in which irradiances ranging from 5x10 superscript 12 to 2x10 superscript 14 W/cm 2 were used to generate 8- to 10-ns square pulses in liquid deuterium. The authors demonstrated negligible pre-heating of the sample, steady propagation of the shock wave, and direct determination of the shock wave velocity along with particle velocity and density in the shocked state. Da Silva et al. results are compared with models and other experimental information, and the usefulness of the data in other areas is assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig

  14. Bare Quantum Null Energy Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zicao; Marolf, Donald

    2018-02-16

    The quantum null energy condition (QNEC) is a conjectured relation between a null version of quantum field theory energy and derivatives of quantum field theory von Neumann entropy. In some cases, divergences cancel between these two terms and the QNEC is intrinsically finite. We study the more general case here where they do not and argue that a QNEC can still hold for bare (unrenormalized) quantities. While the original QNEC applied only to locally stationary null congruences in backgrounds that solve semiclassical theories of quantum gravity, at least in the formal perturbation theory at a small Planck length, the quantum focusing conjecture can be viewed as the special case of our bare QNEC for which the metric is on shell.

  15. THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FAIR VIEW AND THE PRUDENCE IN ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the accounts of Romania, the principle of true and fair view and the prudence principle are in a relationship of mutual conditioning. True and fair view has its origins in Anglo-Saxon accounting, the British, and English translation of the expression is "true and fair view". In the context of Romania's national, a first reference to the concept of true and fair view a we identify in the root Accounting Law No 82/1991 which lays down that objective accounting- ensuring accurate image, clear, and complete heritage of the financial situation and the results. Prudence is to be found in sincerity (in the direction of the present in the financial statements facts which might influence the recipient information and should serve the concept of true and fair view.

  16. Views of college students on plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Mohmand, Humayun; Ahmad, Nabila

    2013-06-01

    Various studies have been conducted in many countries to determine the perception/awareness about plastic surgery. The present study assessed the views of college students about plastic surgery. A questionnaire consisted of nine questions regarding the basic knowledge about plastic surgery was randomly distributed among college students. The students were given 20 minutes to fill out the forms. A total of 250 male and 250 female college students were randomly included in the study. The mean age of the male students was 21.1 years as compared to 20.7 years of female students. The top five conditions named were related to hair (89.8%) followed by face scars (88%). The most common procedure named by the students was liposuction (88.2%) followed by hair transplantation. 80.2% of the students opted not to be a plastic surgeon if given an opportunity to select the profession. 33.8% of the students had seen some kinds of plastic surgery operation. Only 5.6% of the students (3.4% male and 2.2% female) had seen some kinds of plastic surgery procedure. 68% of male students and 48% of female students wished to have a plastic surgery procedure sometime in their lives. Majority of the students (88%) got the information from the internet. The second most common source was magazines (85.2%). Majority of the students (53.4%) had an idea of an invisible scar as a result of having a plastic surgery procedure. Only 22% thought to have no scar. Late Michael Jackson was at the top of the list of celebrities having a plastic surgery procedure (97.8%) followed by Nawaz Shariff (92.4%). Despite the rapid growth of plastic surgery in the last two decades, a large portion of population remains unaware of the spatiality. It is essential to institute programs to educate healthcare consumers and providers about the plastic surgery.

  17. Betting on conditionals

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer , Guy; Over , David P; Baratgin , Jean

    2010-01-01

    A study is reported testing two hypotheses about a close parallel relation between indicative conditionals, if A then B, and conditional bets, I bet you that if A then B. The first is that both the indicative conditional and the conditional bet are related to the conditional probability, P(B|A). The second is that de Finetti's three-valued truth table has psychological reality for both types of conditional – true, false, or void for indicative conditionals and win, lose or void for conditiona...

  18. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  19. Language, Thought, and Culture: Views and Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zahedi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study follows two aims: one to review some late views on the relations among language, thought, and culture; and the other, to offer a new strategy, in a novel model, based on last achievements in the minimalist approach. Studying views and arguments, three dichotomies are discussed: 1 the views which confirm the relation between culture and language in opposition to the views that deny this; 2 distinguishing the symmetry-procedural view and the transforming views of language; and 3 distinction among the social-communicational, and the biological-genetic motivations of language. The hypothesis for the novel strategy is that considering what the minimalist program has offered, especially from 2000 onwards, it is possible that language affects thought, while coding the and that culture affects language (which is called ethno-grammar . This is in addition to the biological-genetic base. From this point of view, language’s main function is neither to provide communication, nor to express thought, but to connect cognitive and socio-cultural terminals together.

  20. The activity view of inner speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eMartínez-Manrique

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We distinguish two general approaches to inner speech (IS –the ‘format’ and the ‘activity’ views–, and defend the activity view. The format view grounds the utility of IS on features of the representational format of language, and is related to the thesis that the proper function of IS is to make conscious thinking possible. IS appears typically as a product constituted by representations of phonological features. The view also has implications for the idea that passivity phenomena in cognition may be misattributed IS. The activity view sees IS as a speaking activity that does not have a proper function in cognition. It simply inherits the array of functions of outer speech. We argue that it is methodologically advisable to start from this variety of uses, which suggests commonalities between internal and external activities. The format view has several problems; it has to deny unsymbolized thinking; it cannot easily explain how IS makes thoughts available to consciousness, and it cannot explain those uses of IS where its format features apparently play no role. The activity view not only lacks these problems but also has explanatory advantages: construing IS as an activity allows it to be integrally constituted by its content; the view is able to construe unsymbolized thinking as part of a continuum of phenomena that exploit the same mechanisms, and it offers a simple explanation for the variety of uses of IS.