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  1. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Binge Drinking ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A Time To Act A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  3. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and HIV/AIDS - and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video ... Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of ...

  4. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  5. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Improve Systemic Analysis (10:45) Take 3 Teen Pregnancy The Immunization Baby Book The Story of Folic ... the health risks of binge drinking - including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car ... Teen Drivers Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop ...

  6. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  7. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us ... and Facts for Binge Eating Disorder Symptoms and Causes of Binge Eating Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment of ...

  9. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    % and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...... studies on binge drinking in pregnancy may have failed to find any association because of methodological problems. It is suggested that future studies should take into account the number of binge episodes as well as the time of binge drinking. This information may easily be obtained from most pregnant...

  10. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  11. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  12. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  13. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  14. Bing and Neel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jennane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report the case of a Bing and Neel syndrome revealed by an isolated left ptosis. Case Report. a 57-year-old man was followed up since October 2003 for a typical Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. A first complete remission was obtained with chlorambucil. In August 2004, he relapsed. A second complete remission was obtained with RFC chemotherapy regimen (rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide. In October 2009, the patient presented with an isolated left ptosis revealing a Bing and Neel syndrome. The diagnosis was suspected on MRI and confirmed by the detection in the CSF of a monoclonal IgM similar to the one found in the plasma. A quite good partial remission has been obtained after one course of RDHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin and 3 courses of RDHOx (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and oxaliplatin, in addition to ten intrahectal chemotherapy injections. The treatment was followed by intensification and autologous stem cell transplantation. At D58, the patient died due to a septic shock. Conclusion. BNS is a rare and potentially treatable complication of WM. It should be considered in patients with neurologic symptoms and a history of WM.

  15. Investigating the Reinforcing Value of Binge Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carolyn M.; Chester, David S.; Powell, David; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating is a hallmark feature of several types of eating disorders, including bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa (binge/purge type), and binge-eating disorder, and is associated with numerous harmful consequences. For decades, researchers have sought to understand what maintains and reinforces this behavior in the face of such profound negative consequences. In this context, researchers have focused on the binge-eating behavior itself, and given little consideration to what may be a crucial part of the process: anticipating or planning binge-eating episodes. In this article, we discuss binge anticipation, its potential reinforcing value, and methodologies which would allow researchers to investigate this potentially critical process in individuals who binge eat. PMID:27184737

  16. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  17. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  18. Binge Eating Disorder and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Rachele K; McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-08-01

    Children and adolescents who eat unusually large amounts of food, feel guilty about it, and try to hide their overeating may be struggling with binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with suicidal ideation and other eating disorders. Although BED is new to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the syndrome is becoming increasingly recognized. The study of BED in children and adolescents is in its natal phase, but the importance of recognition and possible treatment strategies are discussed in the current article along with psychiatric nursing implications.

  19. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an

  20. Binging at the campus: Motivations and impulsivity influence binge drinking profiles in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël; Poncin, Marie; Maurage, Pierre

    2017-01-26

    This study explored the involvement of two key psychological factors, drinking motives and impulsivity traits, in binge drinking. On the basis of a large screening phase (N=4424), 867 binge drinkers were selected and were first compared with 924 non-binge drinkers. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the binge drinker sample, to explore the respective involvement of four drinking motives (DMQ-R model) and four impulsivity facets (UPPS model) in this habit. Centrally, the cluster analysis identified three clusters of binge drinkers presenting distinct psychological characteristics and alcohol consumption patterns: emotional, recreational, and hazardous binge drinkers. Hazardous binge drinkers were characterized by strong drinking motives but moderate impulsivity. Binge drinking should thus no more be considered as a unitary drinking pattern but rather as a habit encompassing a variety of psychological profiles. Moreover, risky drinking habits in young people might be mainly related to disproportionate drinking motives. Future studies should thus consider binge drinking heterogeneity, and prevention programs focusing on drinking motivations should be developed.

  1. Fox reimbedding and Bing submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Let M be an orientable closed connected 3-manifold. We introduce the notion of amalgamated Heegaard genus of M with respect to a closed separating 2-manifold F, and use it to show that the following two statements are equivalent: (i) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that the exterior of the image of Y is a union of handlebodies; and (ii) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that every knot in M can be isotoped to lie within the image of Y . Our result can be regarded as a common generalization of the reimbedding theorem by Fox [Fox48] and the characterization of 3-sphere by Bing [Bin58], as well as more recent results of Hass and Thompson [HT89] and Kobayashi and Nishi [KN94].

  2. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  3. Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.

    2011-11-01

    Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.

  4. Examining associations between adolescent binge eating and binge eating in parents and friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Choo, Tse-Hwei J.; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Method Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents’ and friends’ self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Results Girls’ binge eating was associated with their male friends’ (odds ratio=2.33; p=.03) and fathers’ binge eating (odds ratio=3.38; p=.02), but not with their female friends’ or mothers’ binge eating (p>.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents’ or friends’ behavior. Discussion Adolescent girls’ binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. PMID:24105696

  5. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  6. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating , are among ... There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. People ...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  8. Evaluation of Extinction as a Functional Treatment for Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Amanda; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a serious behavior problem exhibited by individuals diagnosed with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Binge eating is thought to be maintained by automatic negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotional responding. Current treatments produce only moderate abstinence, perhaps because they do not attempt…

  9. Binge Drinking in Young Adults: Data, Definitions and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    Binge drinking is an increasingly important topic in alcohol research, but the field lacks empirical cohesion and definitional precision. The present review summarizes findings and viewpoints from the scientific binge-drinking literature. Epidemiological studies quantify the seriousness of alcohol-related problems arising from binge drinking, with…

  10. Binge Drinking Effects on EEG in Young Adult Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Courtney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Young adult (N = 96 university students who varied in their binge drinking history were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG recording during passive viewing. Groups consisted of male and female non-binge drinkers (>1 to 5/4 drinks/ounces in under two hours, low-binge drinkers (5/4–7/6 drinks/ounces in under two hours, and high-binge drinkers (≥ 10 drinks/ounces in under two hours, who had been drinking alcohol at their respective levels for an average of 3 years. The non- and low-binge drinkers exhibited less spectral power than the high-binge drinkers in the delta (0–4 Hz and fast-beta (20–35 Hz bands. Binge drinking appears to be associated with a specific pattern of brain electrical activity in young adults that may reflect the future development of alcoholism.

  11. Topiramate: use in binge eating disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.

  12. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  13. Exercise enhances hippocampal recovery following binge ethanol exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E Maynard

    Full Text Available Binge drinking damages the brain, and although a significant amount of recovery occurs with abstinence, there is a need for effective strategies to maximize neurorestoration. In contrast to binge drinking, exercise promotes brain health, so the present study assessed whether it could counteract ethanol-induced damage by augmenting natural self-repair processes following one or more binge exposures. Adult female rats were exposed to 0 (control, 1 or 2 binges, using an established 4-day model of binge-induced neurodegeneration. Half of the animals in each group remained sedentary, or had running wheel access beginning 7 days after the final binge, and were sacrificed 28 days later. To assess binge-induced hippocampal damage and exercise restoration, we quantified volume of the dentate gyrus and number of granule neurons. We found that a single binge exposure significantly decreased the volume of the dentate gyrus and number of granule neurons. A second binge did not exacerbate the damage. Exercise completely restored baseline volume and granule neuron numbers. To investigate a potential mechanism of this restoration, we administered IdU (a thymidine analog in order to label cells generated after the first binge. Previous studies have shown that neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is decreased by binge alcohol exposure, and that the hippocampus responds to this insult by increasing cell genesis during abstinence. We found increased IdU labeling in binge-exposed animals, and a further increase in binged animals that exercised. Our results indicate that exercise reverses long-lasting hippocampal damage by augmenting natural self-repair processes.

  14. Bing Xin:The Teller of Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AT 9 p.m. on February 28, 1999,contemporary Chinese masterand famous writer Bing Xinpassed away quietly. As she wrote in herwill, "I quietly came into the world and Iwill leave it the same way." The entireliterary circle as well as other membersof society attended her funeral to mournher passing. Thousands of fire-red rosesencircled her. Several generations of herreaders came from all parts of thecountry to pay tribute to the centenarian

  15. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Cuzzolaro; Maurizio Bellini; Lorenzo Donini; Chiara Santomassimo

    2008-01-01

    Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED) and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a) to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological) of BED and b) to present the results of an original resear...

  16. Dietary restraint moderates genetic risk for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; Burt, S Alexandra; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-02-01

    Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may increase susceptibility for binge eating only in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral exposure factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult same-sex female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study and the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Twin moderation models were used to examine whether levels of dietary restraint moderate genetic and environmental influences on binge eating. Results indicated that genetic and nonshared environmental factors for binge eating increased at higher levels of dietary restraint. These effects were present after controlling for age, body mass index, and genetic and environmental overlap among dietary restraint and binge eating. Results suggest that dietary restraint may be most important for individuals at genetic risk for binge eating and that the combination of these factors could enhance individual differences in risk for binge eating.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms.

  18. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days.

  19. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3 weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex

  20. Binge or control? : assessment of the validity, treatment and underlying mechanisms of Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on patients with Binge Eating Disorder. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part the validity of the diagnosis of BED will be discussed. The results of two literature reviews and an empirical cross-sectional study suggested that BED is a distinct eating disorder and

  1. Binge drinking, drinking frequency, and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Eliasen, Marie; Ekholm, Ola

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a decreased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). However, drinking heavily and in binges has been suggested to increase IHD risk. This complexity makes the issue of binge drinking within the light-to-moderate alcohol range...

  2. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  3. De oorsprong van Art Nouveau - Het Bing imperium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisberg, Gabriel P.; Becker, Edwin; Posseme, Evelyne

    2004-01-01

    The opening of Sigmund Bing's gallery L'Art Nouveau had been an eagerly expected event in the Paris art world throughout the latter half of 1895, since Bing first announced that he would be soon exhibiting artistic furniture. The doors finally opened on 26 December 1895 as visitors poured in at 22 R

  4. College Student Binge Eating: Insecure Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole

    2014-01-01

    Because college students who have accomplished developmental tasks less effectively may be at risk for detrimental behavior such as binge eating, we examined emotion regulation as a mediator of attachment insecurity and binge eating. Based on undergraduate and graduate student responses to a Web-based survey ("N" = 381), structural…

  5. Binge Abstinence is Associated with Reduced Energy Intake After Treatment in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Dorflinger, Lindsey M.; Rolls, Barbara J.; Mitchell, Diane C.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is strongly associated with obesity and related medical and psychiatric morbidities. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has consistently been shown to reduce binge eating frequency and improve psychological functioning, as well as to produce abstinence rates of roughly 50%. This study examined the relationship between binge abstinence and dietary and psychological outcomes after CBT for BED. Methods Fifty adult patients with BED received 6-month treatments using a combination of CBT and dietary counseling. Trained interviewers conducted two 24-hour dietary recall interviews on randomly selected days at baseline and at 6 months. Results Participants had significant reductions in energy, macronutrient, and sugar intake and an increase in fruit intake. They reported significant reductions in BMI and binge eating frequency (from mean = 14.24 to mean = 1.90 binge eating episodes during the previous 28 days), as well as improvements in psychological functioning. Those who became binge abstinent reported eating roughly 400 fewer calories per day and experienced greater improvements in psychological functioning than those who did not. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that individuals who achieve complete cessation from binge eating have significantly improved dietary and psychological outcomes that could potentially improve weight status, compared with those who continue to binge eat post-treatment. PMID:27797154

  6. Improving prediction of binge episodes by modelling chronicity of dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Millicent; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates the influences of chronicity of, and time lag between, dietary restriction and binge outcome for predicting binge episode onset. Sixty-two women aged 18 to 40 years old completed an online survey at random intervals seven times daily for a 7-day period. Participants self-reported engagement in dietary restriction and/or binging, and temptation to binge. Consecutive instances of reported dietary restriction better predicted subsequent binges than single instances. As the time lag between the first report of dietary restriction and binge onset increased, a clear linear trend emerged, such that the value of restriction for predicting binges increased with the number of consecutive assessments in which they reported dietary restriction. A similar pattern was found when predicting temptation to binge. Present findings suggest that duration of restriction is a crucial determinant of binge onset. These findings have implications for clinical practice by highlighting the time course from dietary restriction to binging.

  7. Body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint influence binge eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Ana; Saldaña, Carmina

    2014-11-01

    As binge eating is a common behavior throughout the general population, we hypothesized that body dissatisfaction would produce binge eating via its prediction of dieting. Six hundred eight individuals were nonrandomly recruited from the community. The mean age and body mass index of participants were 34.76 years (SD, 14.41) and 27.82 kg/m(2) (SD, 9.54), respectively. Participants were asked to complete several self-report questionnaires, which included measures of dieting status, binge eating behavior, body dissatisfaction, overvaluation of weight and shape, and self-esteem. The results showed that dieting was a common behavior; 38.1% of participants reported dieting during the past year. Binge eating during the previous 6 months was reported by 9.9% of the sample and was associated with a higher body mass index as well as more frequent dieting. A model including dieting status, overvaluation of weight and shape, shape satisfaction, and self-esteem showed the best fit for the prediction of binge eating behavior. Moreover, those who dieted and overvalued their weight and shape were 2.01 and 2.31 times more likely, respectively, to binge eat. Structural equation modeling revealed that body dissatisfaction caused dietary restraint, thus triggering binge eating. Both dieting and overvaluation of weight and shape are important risk factors for the development of binge eating disorders. Dieting and binge eating are common behaviors that represent a risk for the development of both excess weight and eating disorders. The structural model proposed in this study could be beneficial in understanding this causal relationship.

  8. Neurobiological features of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED.

  9. [The treatment of binge eating disorder - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The binge eating disorder is a relatively new type of eating disorders, which was first described in 1992, and became a distinct nosological entity in the system of DSM-5 in 2013. Its central symptom is the binge, which is not followed by compensatory behaviours as in bulimia nervosa. Therefore, the patients are generally obese. The prevalence of the disorder is 1-3% in the general population, but much higher in help-seeking obese subjects. The two main goals of the therapy is body weight reduction, and the cessation of binges. In the pharmacotherapy of binge eating disorder the antidepressants are recommended mainly in the case of unsuccessful psychotherapy, and in treating comorbid depression. In the field of psychotherapy data are available mainly on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectic behaviour therapy, behavioural weight loss, and interpersonal therapy. Effectivity studies on new therapeutic methods and treatment combinations are needed as well as long term follow-up studies.

  10. Determinants for binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Kragh Andersen, Per; Sabroe, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Binge drinking is a relatively common behavior among adolescents in Denmark. The aim of this study is to assess whether peer alcohol drinking, mothers’ and fathers’ attitudes toward alcohol drinking, and the adolescents’ own financial situations (e.g., the presence...... of pocket money) predict binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark. Methods: This study is based on the Danish data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which took place in 2011. This cross-sectional survey obtained data from 2765 adolescents who were in grade 9 in Denmark...... at that time. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the outcome variable of binge drinking and the exposure variables of alcohol-drinking peers, pocket money, and mother’s/father’s approval of intoxication. Results: The risk of binge drinking increased with the number of alcohol...

  11. Binge Drinking and Occupation, North Dakota, 2004–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne W. Jarman, DVM, MPH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionBinge drinking is a leading cause of preventable death and results in employee absenteeism and lost productivity. Knowledge about the prevalence of binge drinking among employees of different occupations is limited.MethodsWe assessed the prevalence of binge drinking (i.e., consuming five or more drinks per occasion during the previous 30 days by primary occupation using data from the 2004–2005 North Dakota Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used logistic regression to assess the association between binge drinking and primary occupation.ResultsOverall, 24.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5–25.7 of North Dakota workers reported binge drinking. The prevalence was highest among farm or ranch employees (45.3%; 95% CI, 28.3–63.4, food or drink servers (33.4%; 95% CI, 23.9–44.4, and farm or ranch owners (32.5%; 95% CI, 26.3–39.4. The prevalence was lowest among health care workers (13.2%; 95% CI, 10.3–16.8. Compared with health care workers, the adjusted odds of binge drinking were highest among farm or ranch employees (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.2; 95% CI, 0.9–5.5, food or drink servers (AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1–4.0, and farm or ranch owners (AOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.6. Health insurance coverage was lowest among employees in occupations with the highest prevalence of binge drinking.ConclusionWe found occupational differences in the prevalence of binge drinking among employees in North Dakota. Many occupational categories had a high prevalence of binge drinking. We recommend the implementation of both employer-sponsored and population-based interventions to reduce binge drinking among North Dakota workers, particularly because employees in occupations with the highest rates of binge drinking had the lowest rates of health insurance coverage.

  12. Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking...... environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. RESULTS: There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children...... of mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function...

  13. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  14. Systemisk/Narrativ gruppebehandling af Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver gruppeterapi på systemisk/narrativt grundlag til patienter med Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Den beskriver, hvordan en problemmættet historie omkring BED-gruppen blev dekonstrueret ved at ændre behandlingens udformning og eksperimentere med socialkonstruktionistiske ideer og......, hvilket har fremmet konsolideringen af foretrukne historier i gruppens refleksioner og styrket terapeuternes evne til at facilitere processen. Nøgleord: Binge Eating Disorder, systemisk narrativ terapi, grupppe...

  15. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  16. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Mortality Weekly Report ( MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing ... 44 years (N = 198,098) who reported any alcohol use or binge drinking, † by selected characteristics — Behavioral ...

  17. Does the Interpersonal Model Generalize to Obesity Without Binge Eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Sutton, Rachel; Tasca, Giorgio A; Salerno, Laura; Oieni, Veronica; Compare, Angelo

    2016-09-01

    The interpersonal model has been validated for binge eating disorder (BED), but it is not yet known if the model applies to individuals who are obese but who do not binge eat. The goal of this study was to compare the validity of the interpersonal model in those with BED versus those with obesity, and normal weight samples. Data from a sample of 93 treatment-seeking women diagnosed with BED, 186 women who were obese without BED, and 100 controls who were normal weight were examined for indirect effects of interpersonal problems on binge eating psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Findings demonstrated the mediating role of negative affect for those with BED and those who were obese without BED. Testing a reverse model suggested that the interpersonal model is specific for BED but that this model may not be specific for those without BED. This is the first study to find support for the interpersonal model in a sample of women with obesity but who do not binge. However, negative affect likely plays a more complex role in determining overeating in those with obesity but who do not binge. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Estrogens stimulate serotonin neurons to inhibit binge-like eating in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binge eating afflicts approximately 5% of US adults, though effective treatments are limited. Here, we showed that estrogen replacement substantially suppresses binge-like eating behavior in ovariectomized female mice. Estrogen-dependent inhibition of binge-like eating was blocked in female mice spe...

  19. Characteristics of women who binge drink before and after they become aware of their pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Rod Nielsen, Naja; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2008-01-01

    Background Consumption of high doses of alcohol on a single occasion (binge drinking) may harm the developing foetus and pregnant women are advised to avoid binge drinking while pregnant. We present characteristics of Danish women who binge drank in the pre-and post recognised part of their pregn...

  20. The Perspective Theory of Zong Bing in the 5th Century of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuKeming; ZuoHongshan

    2003-01-01

    A brief historical introduction of researches on perspective in ancient China is presented,this paper studied and discussed the perspective theory or Zong Bing (宗炳) in the 5th century of China, including Zong Bing and this An introduction to Landscape Painting, and its mathematical basis, drawing ideas of Zong Bing as well.

  1. Restaurant eating in nonpurge binge-eating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Gayle M

    2006-11-01

    This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fast food eating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption.

  2. Trajectories of binge drinking and personality change across emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, Kathryn P; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2015-12-01

    College students binge drink more frequently than the broader population, yet most individuals "mature out" of binge drinking. Impulsivity and sensation seeking traits are important for understanding who is at risk for maintaining binge drinking across college and the transition to adult roles. We use latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to examine longitudinal binge-drinking trajectories spanning from the end of high school through 2 years after college (M ages = 18.4 to 23.8). Data were gathered over 10 waves from students at a large Southwestern university (N = 2,245). We use latent factor models to estimate changes in self-reported impulsive (IMP) and sensation-seeking (SS) personality traits across 2 time periods-(a) the end of high school to the end of college and (b) the 2-year transition out of college. LCGA suggested 7 binge-drinking trajectories: frequent, moderate, increasing, occasional, low increasing, decreasing, and rare. Models of personality showed that from high school through college, change in SS and IMP generally paralleled drinking trajectories, with increasing and decreasing individuals showing corresponding changes in SS. Across the transition out of college, only the increasing group demonstrated a developmentally deviant increase in IMP, whereas all other groups showed normative stability or decreases in both IMP and SS. These data indicate that "late bloomers," who begin binge drinking only in the later years of college, are a unique at-risk group for drinking associated with abnormal patterns of personality maturation during emerging adulthood. Our results indicate that personality targeted interventions may benefit college students.

  3. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cuzzolaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.

  4. Binge drinking in pregnancy and risk of fetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    episodes was related to the risk of early (at or before 12 completed weeks) or late (13-21 completed weeks) spontaneous abortion. However, three or more binge episodes showed an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.01-2.40) for stillbirth (22 or more completed weeks) relative...... pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, but neither frequency nor timing of binge drinking was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in clinically recognized pregnancies....

  5. Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  6. Personality factors and styles among college students who binge eat and drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Christina C; Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2009-03-01

    Elevated rates of comorbidity between binge eating and alcohol use problems have been widely documented. Prior studies have examined specific personality traits associated with the co-occurrence of these problems. The current study explores comprehensive personality factors that are associated with the co-occurrence of binge eating and binge drinking among a diverse sample of 208 college undergraduates. Using the Five Factor Model of personality, the authors assessed both comprehensive personality factors and style of impulse control, a personality style defined by different combinations of neuroticism and conscientiousness. On the basis of responses to a screening instrument, college students were assigned to one of four groups: binge eat, binge drink, binge eat and drink, and non-binge. The binge eat and drink group reported a higher level of neuroticism than did students in the binge drink and non-binge groups. Additionally, the binge eat and drink group was more likely to report an undercontrolled style of impulse control than were other groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is a behavior that occurs in some eating disorders, as well as in obesity and in nonclinical populations. Both sugars and fats are readily consumed by human beings and are common components of binges. This chapter describes animal models of sugar and fat bingeing, which allow for a detailed analysis of these behaviors and their concomitant physiological effects. The model of sugar bingeing has been used successfully to elicit behavioral and neurochemical signs of dependence in rats; e.g., indices of opiate-like withdrawal, increased intake after abstinence, cross-sensitization with drugs of abuse, and the repeated release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens following repeated bingeing. Studies using the model of fat bingeing suggest that it can produce some, but not all, of the signs of dependence that are seen with sugar binge eating, as well as increase body weight, potentially leading to obesity.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of university students' definitions of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E; Young, Kathleen M; Hoffmann, Erica; Gumber, Shinakee; Cummings, Jeremy P; Pavlick, Michelle; Rosenberg, Harold

    2012-06-01

    This study was designed to assess undergraduates' (N = 424) definitions of binge drinking and to evaluate whether the number of drinks they said comprise a binge varied as a function of beverage type, respondent gender, and respondent binge drinking status. When asked to designate the specific number of drinks that comprise a binge for each of four beverage types, students reported that the number of beers constituting a binge was significantly larger than the number of glasses of wine, shots of hard liquor, and servings of any combination of alcoholic beverage types; men reported that a larger number of drinks constitute a binge than did women; and those who had engaged in 3 or more binges in the past 2 weeks reported that more drinks comprise a binge than those who had binged less often. Responses to an open-ended question asking their definition of a binge revealed that students sometimes characterize a binge in terms of motivations for and unhealthy consequences of drinking, in addition to defining a binge as comprising consumption of a large amount of alcohol in a limited (though often unspecified) time period. Furthermore, students attributed their open-ended definitions of binge drinking to informal sources of information and observation of others' drinking almost as often as they did to school-based or media-based sources. This suggests that educators might look for innovative ways to use both formal and informal social networking, and video illustrations of restrained drinking, as ways to influence young people's views of binge drinking.

  9. Binge-Like Eating Attenuates Nisoxetine Feeding Suppression, Stress Activation, and Brain Norepinephrine Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Yeh, Chung-Yang; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Walters, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is often associated with binge eating. A critical component of the control of stress is the central norepinephrine system. We investigated how dietary-induced binge eating alters central norepinephrine and related behaviors. Young male Sprague Dawley rats received calorie deprivation (24 h) and /or intermittent sweetened fat (vegetable shortening with sucrose; 30 min) twice a week for 10 weeks. The groups were Restrict Binge (calorie deprivation/sweetened fat), Binge (sweetened fat), Restrict (calorie deprivation), and Naive (no calorie deprivation/no sweetened fat). Dietary-induced binge eating was demonstrated by Restrict Binge and Binge, which showed an escalation in 30-min intake over time. Feeding suppression following nisoxetine (3 mg/kg; IP), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was not evident in Restrict Binge (Restrict Binge: 107±13, Binge: 52±9, Restrict: 80±8, Naive: 59±13% of saline injection at 1 h). In subsequent experiments with Restrict Binge and Naive, Restrict Binge had reduced corticosterone (Restrict Binge: 266±25; Naive: 494±36 ng/ml) and less feeding suppression (Restrict Binge: 81±12, Naive: 50±11% of non-restraint intake at 30 min) following restraint stress (1 h). Dietary-induced binge eating in Restrict Binge was not altered by a dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesion caused by N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), but frontal cortex norepinephrine was positively correlated with the average 30-min intake post-lesion (0.69; p<0.01). In a separate set of animals, single-unit in vivo electrophysiological recording of locus coeruleus–norepinephrine neural activity demonstrated reduced sensory-evoked response as a consequence of the Restrict Binge schedule (Restrict Binge: 8.1±0.67, Naive: 11.9±1.09 Hz). These results, which suggest that a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating is to attenuate the responsiveness of the brain norepinephrine system, will further our understanding of how highly

  10. Binge-like eating attenuates nisoxetine feeding suppression, stress activation, and brain norepinephrine activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Bello

    Full Text Available Stress is often associated with binge eating. A critical component of the control of stress is the central norepinephrine system. We investigated how dietary-induced binge eating alters central norepinephrine and related behaviors. Young male Sprague Dawley rats received calorie deprivation (24 h and /or intermittent sweetened fat (vegetable shortening with sucrose; 30 min twice a week for 10 weeks. The groups were Restrict Binge (calorie deprivation/sweetened fat, Binge (sweetened fat, Restrict (calorie deprivation, and Naive (no calorie deprivation/no sweetened fat. Dietary-induced binge eating was demonstrated by Restrict Binge and Binge, which showed an escalation in 30-min intake over time. Feeding suppression following nisoxetine (3 mg/kg; IP, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was not evident in Restrict Binge (Restrict Binge: 107±13, Binge: 52±9, Restrict: 80±8, Naive: 59±13% of saline injection at 1 h. In subsequent experiments with Restrict Binge and Naive, Restrict Binge had reduced corticosterone (Restrict Binge: 266±25; Naive: 494±36 ng/ml and less feeding suppression (Restrict Binge: 81±12, Naive: 50±11% of non-restraint intake at 30 min following restraint stress (1 h. Dietary-induced binge eating in Restrict Binge was not altered by a dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesion caused by N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4, but frontal cortex norepinephrine was positively correlated with the average 30-min intake post-lesion (0.69; p<0.01. In a separate set of animals, single-unit in vivo electrophysiological recording of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine neural activity demonstrated reduced sensory-evoked response as a consequence of the Restrict Binge schedule (Restrict Binge: 8.1±0.67, Naive: 11.9±1.09 Hz. These results, which suggest that a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating is to attenuate the responsiveness of the brain norepinephrine system, will further our understanding of how highly

  11. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...

  12. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun’ichi Noma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.Keywords: milnacipran, specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, binge eating, vomiting, eating disorder, pharmacotherapy

  13. Binge drinking among adolescents: prevalence, risk practices and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio

    2017-01-12

    According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.

  14. Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabosky, Joshua I.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The excessive influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation--referred to as overvaluation--is considered by some a central feature across eating disorders but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge eating disorder (BED). This study examined shape/weight overvaluation in 399 consecutive patients with BED. Participants completed semistructured…

  15. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  16. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges : a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  17. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  18. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents.

  19. Forskningsrapport: Samskabelsesparathed i Ringkøbing-Skjern Kommune, 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Ulrich, Jens; Kjeldsen, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Forskningsrapporten præsenterer resultater af en spørgeskemaundersøgelse gennemført i Ringkøbing-Skjern Kommune i 2016. Undersøgelsen måler kommunens samskabelsesparathed i de enkelte fag- og stabsområder og er baseret på en samskabelsestypologi, der indeholder fire tilgange til samskabelse: styret...

  20. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  1. Quit Binging (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    Too many people are overindulging in alcohol and putting themselves at risk for death from alcohol poisoning. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking, including alcohol poisoning death.  Created: 1/15/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  2. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  3. Comparison of two self-report instruments for assessing binge eating in bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Katherine A; Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M; Rothschild, Bruce S; Burke-Martindale, Carolyn H; Brody, Michelle L

    2006-04-01

    This study compared two self-report methods for assessing binge eating in severely obese bariatric surgery candidates. Participants were 249 gastric bypass candidates who completed the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) prior to surgery. Participants were classified by binge eating status (i.e., no or recurrent binge eating) with each of the measures. The degree of agreement was examined, as well as the relationship between binge eating and measures of convergent validity. The two measures identified a similar number of patients with recurrent binge eating (i.e., at least 1 binge/week); however, overlap was modest (kappa=.26). Agreement on twice weekly binge eating was poor (kappa=.05). The QEWP-R and EDE-Q both identified clinically meaningful groups of binge eaters. The EDE-Q appeared to differentiate between non/infrequent bingers and recurrent bingers better than the QEWP-R, based on measures of convergent validity. In addition, the EDE-Q demonstrated an advantage because it identified binge eaters with elevated weight and shape overconcern. Using the self-report measures concurrently did not improve identification of binge eating in this study. More work is needed to determine the construct validity and clinical utility of these measures with gastric bypass patients.

  4. Do women give the same information on binge drinking during pregnancy when asked repeatedly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, K; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period...... in question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy...

  5. The role of anxiety in binge eating behavior: a critical examination of theory and empirical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Rosenbaum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to expand the understanding of binge eating by reviewing the role of aspects of negative affect. Specifically, this paper will present evidence for further investigation of the bearing that anxiety may have in binge eating development and maintenance. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the relation of binge eating and anxiety was performed. Valuable contributions have been made to the binge eating literature regarding some aspects of negative affect (i.e., depression; however, outside of bulimia nervosa studies, much of the theoretical and empirical binge eating research to date has not directly addressed the role of anxiety. Research supports expansion of investigations of negative emotionality and binge eating to include specific study of anxiety. Greater inclusivity and specificity in the unique contributions of various negative emotions may further the development of temporal models and intervention efforts.

  6. Binge drinking: Burden of liver disease and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Susana; Arias-Loste, María Teresa; Puente, Angela; Cabezas, Joaquín; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2015-11-28

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages is harmful to human health. In recent years, consumption patterns of alcoholic beverages have changed in our society, and binge drinking has generalized. It is considered to be a socio-sanitary problem with few known consequences in terms of individual and third-party social impacts (in the form of violence or traffic accidents) and its organic impact (affects the liver and other organs and systems, such as the nervous and cardiovascular systems) and represents an important financial burden due to its increasing economic impact. This review provides a global approach to binge drinking and emphasizes its epidemiological character, the effect of this type of consumption and the possible management of a problem with an increasing tendency in our society.

  7. Binge drinking: Burden of liver disease and beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susana; Llerena; María; Teresa; Arias-Loste; Angela; Puente; Joaquín; Cabezas; Javier; Crespo; Emilio; Fábrega

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages is harmful to human health. In recent years, consumption patterns of alcoholic beverages have changed in our society, and binge drinking has generalized. It is considered to be a socio-sanitary problem with few known consequences in terms of individual and third-party social impacts(in the form of violence or traffic accidents) and its organic impact(affects the liver and other organs and systems, such as the nervous and cardiovascular systems) and represents an important financial burden due to its increasing economic impact. This review provides a global approach to binge drinking and emphasizes its epidemiological character, the effect of this type of consumption and the possible management of a problem with an increasing tendency in our society.

  8. Prevalence of binge drinking and associated behaviours among 3286 college students in France.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies conducted on characteristics of binge drinking and associated behaviours in college student populations are scarce especially in France. Hence, it is important to identify risk factors for binge drinking at university, especially those which may be changed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of binge drinking and associated behaviours across a large sample of college students in Upper Normandy (France). Methods A cross sectional study was performed between N...

  9. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure causes more severe pancreatic injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenhua; Yang, Fanmuyi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yongchao; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A; Ke, Zun-Ji; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol abuse increases the risk for pancreatitis. The pattern of alcohol drinking may impact its effect. We tested a hypothesis that chronic ethanol consumption in combination with binge exposure imposes more severe damage to the pancreas. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control, chronic ethanol exposure, binge ethanol exposure and chronic plus binge ethanol exposure. For the control group, mice were fed with a liquid diet for two weeks. For the chronic ethanol exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks. In the binge ethanol exposure group, mice were treated with ethanol by gavage (5g/kg, 25% ethanol w/v) daily for 3days. For the chronic plus binge exposure group, mice were fed with a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol for two weeks and exposed to ethanol by gavage during the last 3days. Chronic and binge exposure alone caused minimal pancreatic injury. However, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure induced significant apoptotic cell death. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure altered the levels of alpha-amylase, glucose and insulin. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure caused pancreatic inflammation which was shown by the macrophages infiltration and the increase of cytokines and chemokines. Chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased the expression of ADH1 and CYP2E1. It also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress which was demonstrated by the unfolded protein response. In addition, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, indicating oxidative stress. Therefore, chronic plus binge ethanol exposure is more detrimental to the pancreas.

  10. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreases binge eating in a rodent model

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Matthew M.; Resch, Jon M.; Maunze, Brian; Frenkel, Mogen M.; Baker, David A.; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating behavior involves rapid consumption of highly palatable foods leading to increased weight gain. Feeding in binge disorders resembles other compulsive behaviors, many of which are responsive to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which is a cysteine prodrug often used to promote non-vesicular glutamate release by a cystine-glutamate antiporter. To examine the potential for NAC to alter a form of compulsive eating, we examined the impact of NAC on binge eating in a rodent model. Specifically,...

  11. Effects of message framing in anti-binge drinking PSAs: the moderating role of counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Shen, Lijiang; Reid, Leonard N

    2013-01-01

    This experiment examined the interaction effects of message framing and counterfactual thinking on attitudes toward binge drinking and behavioral intentions. Data from a 2 (message framing: gain vs. loss) × 2 (counterfactual thinking priming: additive vs. subtractive) between-subjects factorial design showed that a gain-framed message resulted in lower binge drinking intentions than did a loss-framed message after subjects engaged in additive counterfactual thinking. The effects of a loss-framed message on binge drinking intentions occurred when subtractive counterfactual thinking was induced. Theoretical and practical implications for anti-binge drinking public service announcements are discussed.

  12. Conditional covariation of binge drinking with predictors of college students' cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Gisela; Tibbetts, Stephen G

    2003-12-01

    Recent research has identified a variety of significant predictors of academic dishonesty, but virtually no studies have examined the conditional relation of binge drinking and students' cheating. Using a survey sample of 289 college students, this study tested the mediating relations of binge drinking with the correlation of independent variables--including opportunity, strain, and self-control--on self-reported academic dishonesty. Low self-control had a stronger correlation with students' cheating behaviors for those who were heavy binge drinkers (beta = -.52) than for students who were nonbingers (beta = -.38). Differential relations were found for other key variables, namely, opportunity and strain, at varying severities of binge drinking.

  13. Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating.

  14. The neurobiological basis of binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Robert M; Hutson, Peter H; Herman, Barry K; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-04-01

    Relatively little is known about the neuropathophysiology of binge-eating disorder (BED). Here, the evidence from neuroimaging, neurocognitive, genetics, and animal studies are reviewed to synthesize our current understanding of the pathophysiology of BED. Binge-eating disorder may be conceptualized as an impulsive/compulsive disorder, with altered reward sensitivity and food-related attentional biases. Neuroimaging studies suggest there are corticostriatal circuitry alterations in BED similar to those observed in substance abuse, including altered function of prefrontal, insular, and orbitofrontal cortices and the striatum. Human genetics and animal studies suggest that there are changes in neurotransmitter networks, including dopaminergic and opioidergic systems, associated with binge-eating behaviors. Overall, the current evidence suggests that BED may be related to maladaptation of the corticostriatal circuitry regulating motivation and impulse control similar to that found in other impulsive/compulsive disorders. Further studies are needed to understand the genetics of BED and how neurotransmitter activity and neurocircuitry function are altered in BED and how pharmacotherapies may influence these systems to reduce BED symptoms.

  15. Change in binge eating and binge eating disorder associated with migration from Mexico to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sonja A; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the U.S. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N = 2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mexicans with no migrant family members, Mexicans with at least one migrant family member, Mexican return-migrants, Mexican-born migrants in the U.S., and two successive generations of Mexican-Americans in the U.S. The lifetime prevalence of BED was 1.6% in Mexico and 2.2% among Mexican-Americans. Compared with Mexicans in families with migrants, risk for BED was higher in US-born Mexican-Americans with two U.S.-born parents (aHR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.93). This effect was attenuated by 24% (aHR = 1.97, 95% CI 0.84-4.62) with adjustment for prior-onset depressive or anxiety disorder. Adjustment for prior-onset conduct disorder increased the magnitude of association (aHR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.22-6.20). A similar pattern was observed for binge eating. Among respondents reporting binge eating, onset in the U.S. (vs. Mexico) was not associated with prevalence of further eating disorder symptoms. Migration from Mexico to the U.S. is associated with an increased risk for BED that may be partially attributable to non-specific influences on internalizing disorders. Among respondents reporting binge eating in either country, similar levels of further symptoms were endorsed, suggesting some cross-cultural generalizability of criteria.

  16. Facets of negative affect prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Peterson, Carol B; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data suggest that global negative affect (NA) increases prior to and decreases following episodes of binge eating and purging, providing support for the affect regulation model of BN. The current study examined whether facets of NA are differentially related to bulimic behaviors. Women with bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 133) completed a 2-week EMA protocol. Momentary assessments of 4 facets of NA (Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness) were derived from the PANAS subscales. Trajectories of the NA facets were modeled prior to and following binge-only, purge-only, and binge/purge events. Fear, Guilt, Hostility, and Sadness increased prior to and decreased following binge-only and binge/purge events. The same results were found for purge-only events, with the exception that Hostility did not increase significantly prior to purging. Notably, ratings of Guilt were higher than those of Fear, Hostility, and Sadness at the time of binge-only and binge/purge events. Furthermore, post hoc analyses demonstrate that Guilt increased prior to and decreased following the 3 behavior types, even after controlling for Fear, Hostility, and Sadness. These results provide further support for the affect regulation model of BN and also suggest that guilt may be particularly important to the pathology of BN.

  17. A mouse model for binge-level methamphetamine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Shabani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge/crash cycles of methamphetamine (MA use are frequently reported by individuals suffering from MA use disorders. An MA binge is self-reported as multiple daily doses that commonly accumulate to 800 mg/day (~10 mg/kg/day for a 170 pound human. A genetic animal model with a similar vulnerability to binge-level MA intake is missing. We used selectively bred MA high drinking (MAHDR and low drinking (MALDR mouse lines to determine whether several procedural variations would result in binge-level MA intake. Data were also collected in two progenitor populations of the MA drinking lines, the DBA/2J (D2 strain and the F2 cross of the D2 and C57BL/6J strains. The impact of 3 factors was examined: (1 concentration of MA in the two-bottle choice procedure used for selective breeding; (2 ratio of bottles containing MA vs. water, and (3 length of the withdrawal (or abstinence period between MA drinking sessions. When MA concentration was progressively increased every 4 days in 20 mg/l amounts from 20 to 140 mg/l, maximum intake in MALDR mice was 1.1 mg/kg, whereas MAHDR mice consumed as much as 14.6 mg/kg. When these concentrations were tested in a multiple bottle choice procedure, the highest ratio of MA to water bottles (3:1 was associated with escalated MA intake of up to 29.1 mg/kg in MAHDR mice and 12.0 mg/kg in F2 mice; MALDR mice did not show a ratio-dependent escalation in MA intake. Finally, MAHDR and D2 mice were offered 3 bottles of MA vs. water at increasing concentrations from 20 to 80 mg/l, and tested under an intermittent 6-h withdrawal period, which was lengthened to 30 hours (D2 mice or to 30 or 78 hours (MAHDR. D2 and MAHDR mice initially consumed similar amounts of 14-16 mg/kg MA, but D2 mice reduced their MA intake 3-fold after introduction of 30-h abstinence periods, whereas MAHDR mice retained their high level of intake regardless of withdrawal period. MAHDR mice provide a genetic model of binge-level MA intake appropriate for the

  18. GS 455534 selectively suppresses binge eating of palatable food and attenuates dopamine release in the accumbens of sugar-bingeing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Paredes, Daniel; von Loga, Isabell; Murray, Susan M; Wang, Miaoyuan; Arolfo, Maria P; Yao, Lina; Diamond, Ivan; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating palatable foods has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug addiction. GS 455534 is a highly selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitor that has been shown to reduce alcohol and cocaine intake in rats. Given the overlaps between binge eating and drug abuse, we examined the effects of GS 455534 on binge eating and subsequent dopamine release. Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a sugar (experiment 1) or fat (experiment 2) binge eating diet. After 25 days, GS 455534 was administered at 7.5 and 15 mg/kg by an intraperitoneal injection, and food intake was monitored. In experiment 3, rats with cannulae aimed at the nucleus accumbens shell were maintained on the binge sugar diet for 25 days. Microdialysis was performed, during which GS 455534 15 mg/kg was administered, and sugar was available. Dialysate samples were analyzed to determine extracellular levels of dopamine. In experiment 1, GS 455534 selectively decreased sugar intake food was made available in the Binge Sugar group but not the Ad libitum Sugar group, with no effect on chow intake. In experiment 2, GS 455534 decreased fat intake in the Binge Fat group, but not the Ad libitum Fat group, however, it also reduced chow intake. In experiment 3, GS 455534 attenuated accumbens dopamine release by almost 50% in binge eating rats compared with the vehicle injection. The findings suggest that selective reversible aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors may have the therapeutic potential to reduce binge eating of palatable foods in clinical populations.

  19. Differences in bingeing behavior and cocaine reward following intermittent access to sucrose, glucose or fructose solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, J M; Stratford, J M; Zahniser, N R

    2015-08-20

    Daily intermittent access to sugar solutions results in intense bouts of sugar intake (i.e. bingeing) in rats. Bingeing on sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose, has been associated with a "primed" mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Recent studies suggest glucose and fructose engage brain reward and energy-sensing mechanisms in opposing ways and may drive sucrose intake through unique neuronal circuits. Here, we examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats whether or not (1) intermittent access to isocaloric solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose results in distinctive sugar-bingeing profiles and (2) previous sugar bingeing alters cocaine locomotor activation and/or reward, as determined by conditioned place preference (CPP). To encourage bingeing, rats were given 24-h access to water and 12-h-intermittent access to chow plus an intermittent bottle that contained water (control) or 8% solutions of sucrose, glucose or fructose for 9days, followed by ad libitum chow diet and a 10-day cocaine (15mg/kg; i.p.) CPP paradigm. By day 4 of the sugar-bingeing diet, sugar bingeing in the fructose group surpassed the glucose group, with the sucrose group being intermediate. All three sugar groups had similar chow and water intake throughout the diet. In contrast, controls exhibited chow bingeing by day 5 without altering water intake. Similar magnitudes of cocaine CPP were observed in rats with a history of sucrose, fructose or chow (control) bingeing. Notably, the glucose-bingeing rats did not demonstrate a significant cocaine CPP despite showing similar cocaine-induced locomotor activity as the other diet groups. Overall, these results show that fructose and glucose, the monosaccharide components of sucrose, produce divergent degrees of bingeing and cocaine reward.

  20. Evolution of the binge drinking pattern in college students: neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montserrat; Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that alcohol impairs response inhibition and that adolescence is a critical period of neuromaturation where cognitive processes such as inhibitory control are still developing. In recent years, growing evidence has shown the negative consequences of alcohol binge drinking on the adolescent and young human brain. However, the effects of cessation of binge drinking on brain function remain unexplored. The objective of the present study was to examine brain activity during response execution and inhibition in young binge drinkers in relation to the progression of their drinking habits over time. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a Go/NoGo task were recorded twice within a 2-year interval in 57 undergraduate students (25 controls, 22 binge drinkers, and 10 ex-binge drinkers) with no personal or family history of alcoholism or psychopathological disorders. The results showed that the amplitude of NoGo-P3 over the frontal region correlated with an earlier age of onset of regular drinking as well as with greater quantity and speed of alcohol consumption. Regression analysis showed that NoGo-P3 amplitude was significantly predicted by the speed of alcohol intake and the age of onset of regular drinking. The group comparisons showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern for at least 2 years, binge drinkers displayed significantly larger NoGo-P3 amplitudes than controls, whereas ex-binge drinkers were in an intermediate position between the two other groups (with no significant differences with respect to controls or binge drinkers). These findings suggest that binge drinking in young people may impair the neural functioning related to inhibitory processes, and that the cessation of binge drinking may act as a brake on the neurophysiological impairments related to response inhibition.

  1. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  2. Associated Factors for Self-Reported Binge Eating among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Sylvie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Adolescents (n=3,287) completed questionnaire concerning eating behaviors. Found that binge eaters had disorderly eating habits (skipping meals, snacking, eating sweets, unbalanced diets), concern with body shape (feeling too fat), and depressive symptoms more often than nonbinge eaters did. Relationship between binging episodes and eating habits,…

  3. Self-consciousness and binge eating in college women : an escape from rumination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon; Donofrio, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Binge-eating is a highly distressing symptom that has been found to co-occur with other symptoms of eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa. One perspective of binge eating is that it is an attempt to escape high levels of aversive self-consciousness. A primary aim of this study is to e

  4. Metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in a sample of Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Nikčević, Ana V; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    In this study, our principal aim was to investigate whether metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in women and, if so, whether this relationship is independent of age, self-reported body mass index (BMI), negative affect, irrational food beliefs and craving. One hundred and four women, consisting of 32 consecutive patients with binge eating disorder undergoing initial assessment for cognitive therapy for eating disorders, 39 moderate binge eaters, and 33 non-binge eaters (both from the general population), completed the following measures: Self-reported BMI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, General Craving Scale, Metacognitions about Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. A series of Spearman's rho correlation analyses revealed that self-reported BMI, anxiety, depression, irrational food beliefs, craving, and all three factors of the metacognitions about desire thinking questionnaire were significantly associated with the severity of binge eating. A stepwise regression analysis identified self-reported BMI, craving, and negative metacognitions about desire thinking as significant predictors of the severity of binge eating. These results, taken together, highlight the possible role of metacognitions about desire thinking in predicting the severity of binge eating. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Beyond inhibition: a dual-process perspective to renew the exploration of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoy, Séverine; Billieux, Joël; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge drinking and notably the emotional-automatic processes. Dual-process model postulates that addictive disorders are not only due to impaired reflective system (involved in deliberate behaviors), but rather to an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated affective-automatic one (involved in impulsive behaviors). This proposal has been confirmed in alcohol-dependence, but has not been tested in binge drinking. The observation of comparable impairments in binge drinking and alcohol-dependence led to the "continuum hypothesis," suggesting similar deficits across different alcohol-related disorders. In this perspective, applying the dual-process model to binge drinking might renew the understanding of this continuum hypothesis. A three-axes research agenda will be proposed, exploring: (1) the affective-automatic system in binge drinking; (2) the systems' interactions and imbalance in binge drinking; (3) the evolution of this imbalance in the transition between binge drinking and alcohol-dependence.

  6. A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method:…

  7. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  8. Beyond inhibition: A dual-process perspective to renew the exploration of binge drinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severine eLannoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge drinking and notably the emotional-automatic processes. Dual-process model postulates that addictive disorders are not only due to impaired reflective system (involved in deliberate behaviours, but rather to an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated affective-automatic one (involved in impulsive behaviours. This proposal has been confirmed in alcohol-dependence, but has not been tested in binge drinking. The observation of comparable impairments in binge-drinking and alcohol-dependence led to the continuum hypothesis, suggesting similar deficits across different alcohol-related disorders. In this perspective, applying the dual-process model to binge drinking might renew the understanding of this continuum hypothesis. A three-axes research agenda will be proposed, exploring: (1 the affective-automatic system in binge drinking; (2 the systems’ interactions and imbalance in binge drinking; (3 the evolution of this imbalance in the transition between binge drinking and alcohol-dependence.

  9. A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method: A total of…

  10. The Utility of a Gender-Specific Definition of Binge Drinking on the AUDIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Van Tyne, Kathryne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although binge drinking is commonly defined as the consumption of at least 5 drinks in 1 sitting for men and 4 for women, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) defines binge drinking as the consumption of 6 or more drinks in 1 sitting for both men and women. This study examined the effect of using gender-specific binge…

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Guided Self-Help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Dickerson, John F.; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating…

  12. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Applied to Binge Eating: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sarah; Huss, Debra B.

    2005-01-01

    Binge eating is a common problem associated with distress and dysfunction. Mindfulness-based interventions are attracting increasing attention, and the recent empirical literature suggests that they may be effective for a variety of disorders. Current theories about the etiology and maintenance of binge eating suggest that mindfulness training may…

  13. Young Adults' Food Selection Patterns: Relations with Binge Eating and Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Palmberg, Allison A.; Hill, Katherine Vatalaro; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Binge eating is increasingly prevalent in college students (White, Reynolds-Malear, & Cordero, 2011). Binge episodes involve eating an objectively large quantity of food in a discrete amount of time and a perceived lost control over eating (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Strong negative affect commonly precedes and follows each…

  14. Attachment anxiety is associated with a fear of becoming fat, which is mediated by binge eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous work demonstrated that individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety are prone to increased binge eating (Alexander & Siegel, 2013. Given that our society rejects obese individuals and individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety tend to be highly sensitive to rejection (Downey & Feldman, 1996, it follows that those with increased attachment anxiety may be especially fearful of becoming fat. Methods Undergraduate psychology students (n = 148 completed surveys measuring attachment, binge eating, and fear of becoming fat. Results The data demonstrate that attachment anxiety is positively associated with a fear of becoming fat (β = .30, p < .001 and binge eating mediates this relationship. In other words, binge eating underlies the fear of becoming fat. Discussion These findings contribute to a more refined understanding of binge eating which may create pathways for professionals to develop targeted interventions.

  15. Thinness and eating expectancies predict subsequent binge-eating and purging behavior among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory T; Simmons, Jean R; Flory, Kate; Annus, Agnes M; Hill, Kelly K

    2007-02-01

    One's expectancies for reinforcement from eating or from thinness are thought to represent summaries of one's eating-related learning history and to thus influence the development of binge-eating and purging behavior. In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors tested this hypothesis and the hypothesis that binge eating also influences subsequent expectancy development. The authors used trajectory analysis to identify groups of middle school girls who followed different trajectories of binge eating, purging, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies. Initial eating and thinness reinforcement expectancies identified girls whose binge eating and purging increased during middle school, and expectancies differentiated girls who began these problem behaviors from girls who did not. Initial binge-eating scores differentiated among eating expectancy developmental trajectories. The onset of most behaviors can be understood in terms of learned expectancies for reinforcement from these behaviors. The same model can be applied to the risk for eating disorders.

  16. Energy Drinks and Binge Drinking Predict College Students' Sleep Quantity, Quality, and Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Griffin, Jamie; Huntley, Edward D; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2016-05-16

    This study examines whether energy drink use and binge drinking predict sleep quantity, sleep quality, and next-day tiredness among college students. Web-based daily data on substance use and sleep were collected across four semesters in 2009 and 2010 from 667 individuals for up to 56 days each, yielding information on 25,616 person-days. Controlling for average levels of energy drink use and binge drinking (i.e., 4+ drinks for women, 5+ drinks for men), on days when students consumed energy drinks, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not use energy drinks. Similarly, on days when students binge drank, they reported lower sleep quantity and quality that night, and greater next-day tiredness, compared to days they did not binge drink. There was no significant interaction effect between binge drinking and energy drink use on the outcomes.

  17. Attachment anxiety is associated with a fear of becoming fat, which is mediated by binge eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous work demonstrated that individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety are prone to increased binge eating (Alexander & Siegel, 2013). Given that our society rejects obese individuals and individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety tend to be highly sensitive to rejection (Downey & Feldman, 1996), it follows that those with increased attachment anxiety may be especially fearful of becoming fat. Methods Undergraduate psychology students (n = 148) completed surveys measuring attachment, binge eating, and fear of becoming fat. Results The data demonstrate that attachment anxiety is positively associated with a fear of becoming fat (β = .30, p < .001) and binge eating mediates this relationship. In other words, binge eating underlies the fear of becoming fat. Discussion These findings contribute to a more refined understanding of binge eating which may create pathways for professionals to develop targeted interventions. PMID:28286709

  18. Perceptions and practices of student binge drinking: an observational study of residential college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinkinbeard, Samantha S; Johnson, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Professionals have debated the use of the term binge drinking over the past couple of decades, yet little attention has been paid to college student perceptions. We explored how students at one university qualitatively defined binge drinking; whether their own definitions coincided with those adopted by researchers; and whether students' own definitions varied according to their behavior. The most common definition provided by students included a description of the consumption of a large, non-specific, amount of alcohol. Only half of the students who, by standard definition, participated in binge drinking in the previous 30 days actually identified their behavior as such. Finally, binge drinkers were more likely to define binge drinking in an extreme manner such that it results in vomiting or blacking out.

  19. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on child’s general intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1617 women and their children......, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. Main outcome measure  WPPSI-R. Results  There were no systematic or significant differences in general intelligence between children of mothers reporting binge drinking and children of mothers...

  20. Alexithymia, depression, anxiety and binge eating in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Źak-Gołąb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Alexithymia is a personality trait that may affect the development and course of obesity and effectiveness of treatment. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of alexithymia in obese women beginning a weight reduction program and determine the relationships between alexithymia and anxiety, depression, and binge eating. Methods: Obese women (n = 100; age 45 ± 13 yr completed the following self-report inventories: Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 26, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Binge Eating Scale (BES. Results: Alexithymia was found in 46 patients and was more frequent among women who had attained only primary and vocational education than in those with a higher education level (39.1% vs. 10.9%; p = 0.002 and in those >45 years old than in younger women (30.4% vs. 69.6%; p = 0.03. The frequency of severe depression symptoms was higher in alexithymic women than in non-alexithymic women (19.6% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03; however, the anxiety state was equally prevalent in both subgroups. The prevalence of alexithymia (52.6% vs. 44.4% and its level (73.2 ± 8.9 vs. 71.2 ± 11.3 points were similar in women with and without binge eating disorder. Multivariate mixed linear regression analysis revealed that higher body mass index was associated with primary and vocational education (odds ratio [OR] = 16.69 and severe depression symptoms (OR = 52.45, but not alexithymia. Conclusions: In addition to severe depression and low education level, obesity may predispose for the development of alexithymia. However, alexithymia does not affect the severity of obesity in women.

  1. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfley DE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Denise E Wilfley,1 Leslie Citrome,2 Barry K Herman3 1Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 2Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 3Global Medical Affairs, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Abstract: The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional

  2. Binge drinking among Arab/Chaldeans: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Owens, Darlene; Said, Manal

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with young Arab/Chaldeans (N = 82) from different ethno-religious groups (Chaldeans, Orthodox Christians, and Muslims) to explore the potential risk and the protective factors associated with the high level of binge (or episodic heavy) drinking among Arab/Chaldeans reported by general population surveys. Most of the participants were aware of and knowledgeable about the problem in their community. Themes identified as contributory factors consistent across ethno-religious groups included the availability of alcohol, the importance of family, conformity to group behavior, and social reasons. Differences included the context for drinking and gender roles. These findings can be used to tailor culturally appropriate interventions.

  3. Patterns of binge drinking at an international nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of substance use in young Danes while holidaying in the Bulgarian holiday resort of Sunny Beach (SB) to their patterns of substance use in Denmark. METHODS: Data were collected from visitors to SB in 2007 (n = 1011). Information on alcohol a...... nightlife resorts provide a context for excess in drug use and alcohol use. Alcohol poses a potentially severe threat to the short- and long-term health of young tourists, but little attention has been paid to form interventions targeting binge drinking in nightlife resorts....

  4. HUMAN METHAMPHETAMINE PHARMACOKINETICS SIMULATED IN THE RAT: BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF A 72- HOUR BINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S.; Melega, William P.; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly-defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using dynamic infusion, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [3H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35% and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and following a METH binge suggest that for humans under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles. PMID:19571794

  5. Human methamphetamine pharmacokinetics simulated in the rat: behavioral and neurochemical effects of a 72-h binge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J

    2009-10-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high-dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse, which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats, we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion, DI) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using DI, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72 h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [(3)H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35 and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge-treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24 h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and after a METH binge suggest that for human beings under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles.

  6. Do executive functioning deficits underpin binge eating disorder? A comparison of overweight women with and without binge eating pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M.; Forman, Evan M.; Ruocco, Anthony C.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Juarascio, Adrienne S.; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara

    2015-01-01

    Objective Deficits in executive function (EF) --including inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, decision-making, and working memory--may be risk or maintenance factors for binge eating disorder (BED). However, there is mixed evidence regarding EF deficits in individuals with BED. Significant methodological weaknesses (e.g., use of a single EF measure, omission of relevant covariates) in the current literature represent one reason for lack of consensus. Methods The current study compared EF in a sample of overweight women with (n=31) and without (n=43) full or sub-threshold BED, with the aim of conducting a multi-faceted investigation of the neurocognitive profile of BED. A neuropsychological battery of EF was administered to all participants. Results After controlling for IQ and age, individuals with binge eating displayed significantly poorer performance on tasks of problem-solving and inhibitory control, and displayed higher prioritization of immediate versus delayed rewards, but the two groups did not appear to differ on set-shifting, working memory, and risk taking. Differences in inhibitory control were no longer statistically significant when depressive symptomology was added as a covariate and correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Exploratory analyses indicated that full and sub-threshold BED groups did not differ in EF. Discussion Results partially support the hypothesis of relative EF deficits in individuals with BED, suggesting that binge eating may be maintained by cognitive factors distinct from those of obesity. Future research should aim to replicate with a larger sample, control for a wider range of psychiatric comorbidities, and examine whether EF deficits predict treatment outcome. PMID:25644028

  7. Bing Zhi: pioneer of modern biology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Le Kang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Located in the lobby of the Institute of Zoology at Chinese Academy of Sciences,is a bronze statue of Dr.Bing Zhi.Many passers-by,especially the young ones,would ask who this person is and what he has accomplished.The short answer is,according to the plate of the statue,that he is a pioneer zoologist and educator and the founder of modern biology in China.The more detailed answer involves the word"first"for quite a few significances:As a biologist,Bing Zhi is the co-founder of the first non-governmental scientific society of China,the co-founder of the first Chinese scientific journal,the founder of the first biology department in China,the founder of the first biological research institute in China,and the founder of China Zoological Society; as an educator,he trained many young men who later became renowned specialists in their own areas.

  8. Cravings and food consumption in Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Longena; Davis, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing work that examines the role of cravings in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The current study uses a case-control design to establish a relationship between cravings and food exposure, and between cravings and food consumption in individuals diagnosed with BED. Twenty-nine females with BED, 40 obese controls, and 50 normal-weight controls were first presented with a neutral cue and completed a food-craving measure. They were then presented with their favourite snack food and completed the craving measure again, after which they were allowed to consume the food. The BED group had significantly higher scores for pre- and post-craving measures, and consumed more food compared to the controls. There was, however, no significant interaction between group and craving scores. Results also showed a positive correlation between food consumption and cravings scores both before and after food exposure for individuals with BED. The findings suggest that the level of cravings prior to food exposure may be sufficient to predict overeating in BED and that treatment may want to target this as a defining feature that differentiates individuals with BED from those who do not binge eat.

  9. Motivation for Palatable Food Despite Consequences in an Animal Model of Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Kimberly D.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; King, Vinetra L.; Boggiano, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Binge-eating involves an abnormal motivation for highly palatable food in that these foods are repeatedly consumed despite their binge-triggering effects and life-affecting consequences associated with binge-eating. We determined if rats identified as binge-eating prone (BEP) similarly display abnormal motivation for palatable food. Method Food-sated BEP and binge-eating resistant (BER) rats were given voluntary access to palatable food paired with increasing intensity of footshock. Later, they were exposed to a period of cyclic caloric restriction-refeeding. Results BEPs consumed significantly more and tolerated higher levels of footshock for palatable food than BERs. Cyclic restriction-refeeding increased BERs' tolerance of shock for palatable food. Discussion Previously observed parallels of the rat BEP model to human binge-eating can now be extended to include an abnormal motivation for palatable food. This model should prove useful in identifying specific genes that interact with the nutritional environment to mediate binge-eating and may point to novel physiological targets to treat compulsive overeating. PMID:20186718

  10. The association of binge eating and neighbourhood fast-food restaurant availability on diet and weight status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Tracey; Adamus-Leach, Heather; O’Connor, Daniel P; Mama, Scherezade; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fast-food restaurants (FFR) are prevalent. Binge eating is common among overweight and obese women. For women prone to binge eating, neighbourhood FFR availability (i.e. the neighbourhood around one’s home) may promote poor diet and overweight/obesity. The present study tested the effects of binge eating and neighbourhood FFR availability on diet (fat and total energy intake) and BMI among African American and Hispanic/Latino women. Design All measures represent baseline data from the Health is Power randomized clinical trial. The numbers of FFR in participants’ neighbourhoods were counted and dichotomized (0 or ≥1 neighbourhood FFR). Participants completed measures of binge eating status and diet. Weight and height were measured and BMI calculated. 2 (binge eating status) × 2 (neighbourhood FFR availability) ANCOVA tested effects on diet and BMI while controlling for demographics. Setting Houston and Austin, TX, USA. Subjects African American and Hispanic/Latino women aged 25–60 years. Results Of the total sample (n 162), 48% had 1–15 neighbourhood FFR and 29% were binge eaters. There was an interaction effect on BMI (P=0·05). Binge eaters with ≥1 neighbourhood FFR had higher BMI than non-binge eaters or binge eaters with no neighbourhood FFR. There were no significant interactions or neighbourhood FFR main effects on total energy or fat intake (P>0·05). A main effect of binge eating showed that binge eaters consumed more total energy (P=0·005) and fat (P=0·005) than non-binge eaters. Conclusions Binge eaters represented a substantial proportion of this predominantly overweight and obese sample of African American and Hispanic/ Latino women. The association between neighbourhood FFR availability and weight status is complicated by binge eating status, which is related to diet. PMID:24476972

  11. Ashamed and Fused with Body Image and Eating: Binge Eating as an Avoidance Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2017-01-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is currently recognized as a severe disorder associated with relevant psychiatric and physical comorbidity, and marked emotional distress. Shame is a specific negative emotion that has been highlighted as central in eating disorders. However, the effect of shame and underlying mechanisms on binge eating symptomatology severity remained unclear. This study examines the role of shame, depressive symptoms, weight and shape concerns and eating concerns, and body image-related cognitive fusion, on binge eating symptomatology severity. Participated in this study 73 patients with the diagnosis of BED, established through a clinical interview-Eating Disorder Examination 17.0D-who completed measures of external shame, body-image related cognitive fusion, depressive symptoms and binge eating symptomatology. Results revealed positive associations between binge eating severity and depressive symptoms, shame, weight and shape concerns, eating concerns and body image-related cognitive fusion. A path analysis showed that, when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, external shame has a direct effect on binge eating severity, and an indirect effect mediated by increased eating concern and higher levels of body image-related cognitive fusion. Results confirmed the plausibility of the model, which explained 43% of the severity of binge eating symptoms. The proposed model suggests that, in BED patients, perceiving that others see the self negatively may be associated with an entanglement with body image-related thoughts and concerns about eating, which may, in turn, fuel binge eating symptoms. Findings have important clinical implications supporting the relevance of addressing shame and associated processes in binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Pharmacological approaches to the management of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Peat, Christine M; La Via, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of ~3.5 % in adult women, 2.0 % in adult men, and 1.6 % in adolescents. BED is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating that are accompanied by a sense of loss of control over eating and result in marked psychological distress. BED is highly co-morbid with obesity and with depression and other psychiatric conditions, and it is associated with substantial role impairment. Currently, there are no US FDA-approved pharmacological treatments for BED. Animal and human studies implicate underlying dysregulation in dopamine, opioid, acetylcholine, and serotonin neurocircuitry within brain reward regions in the pathogenesis and maintenance of BED. To date, the efficacy of various agents that target these and other neurotransmitter systems involved in motivated feeding behavior, mood regulation, and impulse control have been investigated in the treatment of BED. Several antidepressant and anticonvulsant agents have demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating frequency, but only in limited cases have these effects resulted in patients achieving abstinence, which is the primary goal of treatment; they also range from less (fluvoxamine) to more (topiramate) effective in achieving weight loss that is both clinically meaningful and significantly greater than placebo. Collectively, the literature on pharmacological treatment approaches to BED is limited in that very few agents have been studied in multiple, confirmatory trials with adequate follow up, and almost none have been evaluated in large patient samples that are diverse with respect to age, sex, and ethnicity. In addition, prior trials have not adequately addressed, through study design, the high placebo response commonly observed in this patient population. Several novel agents are in various phases of testing, and recent animal studies focusing on glutamate-signaling circuits linking the amygdala to the

  13. Understanding and coping with binge eating disorder: the patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common of the 6 feeding and eating disorders recognized by the DSM-5 and a significant public health problem that can be successfully managed with appropriate help. Many patients, however, are hesitant to discuss the symptoms of BED with their providers because of embarrassment or because they simply do not recognize the behavior as a problem behavior. Clinicians need to increase their awareness of BED, its warning signs, and how and why patients might try to hide it leading to increased BED recognition and timely diagnosis. Then, given the right tools, clinicians can help patients to not only accept the diagnosis and look into various treatment options but also to move beyond it to recognize if any comorbid disorders are present and in need of treatment.

  14. Binge eating disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracci, Arianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Iovieno, Nadia; di Volo, Silvia; Benbow, Jim; Bolognesi, Simone; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical course of a young woman suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) associated with obesity. It illustrates the efficacy of different medications in the treatment of BED and related conditions and is followed by the comments and clinical observations of 2 practicing psychiatrists. The issues described in this paper have important clinical implications and are topical, given that BED is now recognized as a specific disorder in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition classification system, but neither the US Food and Drug Administration nor any other regulatory agency has yet approved a drug for treatment of this disease, despite its very prevalent and disabling nature. Growing evidence from the fields of psychopathology and neurobiology, including preclinical and clinical studies, converges to support the idea that "overeating" has much in common with other behavioral addictions, and substance abuse treatment agents may show promise for the treatment of BED.

  15. A primer on binge eating disorder diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 2.6% among U.S. adults, yet often goes unrecognized. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), BED is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food larger than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances and a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode), occurring on average at least once a week for 3 months, and associated with marked distress. It can affect both men and women, regardless if they are at normal weight, overweight, or obese, and regardless of their ethnic or racial group. Psychiatric comorbidities are very common, with 79% of adults with BED also experiencing anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, or substance use disorders; almost 50% of persons with BED have ≥ 3 psychiatric comorbidities. Multiple neurobiological explanations have been proffered for BED, including dysregulation in reward center and impulse control circuitry, with potentially related disturbances in dopamine neurotransmission and endogenous μ-opioid signaling. Additionally, there is interplay between genetic influences and environmental stressors. Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral interventions have been recommended as first line and are supported by meta-analytic reviews. Unfortunately, routine medication treatments for anxiety and depression do not necessarily ameliorate the symptoms of BED; however, at present, there is one approved agent for the treatment of moderate to severe BED-lisdexamfetamine, a stimulant that was originally approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  16. Diagnosing binge eating disorder in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, C Brendan; Rasgon, Natalie L; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), now recognized as a distinct eating disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, is the most prevalent eating disorder. Although nearly half of individuals with BED are obese, BED also occurs in nonobese individuals. Despite the relatively high percentage of weight loss treatment-seeking individuals meeting BED criteria, primary care physicians may not be familiar with or have ever diagnosed BED. Many providers may also have difficulty distinguishing BED as a contributory factor in obesity. This review differentiates BED from other causes of obesity by describing how obese individuals with BED differ from obese individuals without BED and from nonobese individuals with BED in areas including psychopathology, behavior, genetics, physiology, quality of life and productivity. The ways in which health-care providers can identify individuals who may have BED are also highlighted so the proper course of treatment is pursued. Overall, obese individuals with BED demonstrate a number of key characteristics that differentiate them from obese individuals without eating disorders, including increased impulsivity in response to food stimuli with loss of control over eating, resulting in the consumption of more calories. They also experience significant guilt and other negative emotions following a meal. In addition, individuals with BED patients have more psychiatric comorbidity, display more psychopathology, exhibit longer binge durations, consume more meals as snacks during the day and have less dietary restraint compared with individuals with BED who are not obese. However, the differences between individuals with BED who are obese versus not obese are not as prominent. Taken together, the evidence appears to support the conclusion that BED is a unique and treatable neurobehavioral disorder associated with distinct behavioral and psychological profiles and distinct medical and functional outcomes, and that

  17. Changing arenas of underage adolescent binge drinking in Swedish small towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Birgitta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – The study explores arenas of adolescent binge drinking in small Swedish towns and the meanings these have for young persons. The focus is thus on space and place, and on the geography of underage drinking.

  18. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  19. Evaluation of a functional treatment for binge eating associated with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, T D; Miltenberger, R G

    2010-01-01

    Binge-eating disorders (BED) are a common problem affecting up to 5 percent of the American population in any given 6-month period. Currently, the most widely accepted treatment is some variation of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, although the abstinence rates following this type of treatment are only around 50%. A recent study by Bosch et al. explored the effects of extinction with four women who engaged in binge-eating behavior associated with BED and bulimia nervosa (BN). The treatment was successful, with three of the four participants obtaining abstinence. To date, this has been the only study examining this procedure. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate extinction of binge eating with four young women who met diagnostic criteria for BN. The results showed that the treatment decreased binge eating to zero for all four women, although one dropped out of the study shortly after beginning the intervention.

  20. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the United States answered questions assessing key predictors and individual characteristics. In the Wave 2 survey, 179 participants returned and reported their drinking behavior over 2 weeks' time. After conducting a negative binomial regression, we found that more favorable attitude toward drinking and less perceived control of drinking at Wave 1 were associated with more binge drinking at Wave 2; subjective norm at Wave 1 was not a significant predictor of binge drinking at Wave 2; students with higher stress at Wave 1 engaged in more binge drinking at Wave 2, but those with higher loneliness did not. Implications of findings are discussed.

  1. The relationship between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking among women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kaer, Susanne K; Munk, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the association between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking, and to examine whether there are differences in this association between four countries. METHODS: The data consisted of 68,539 women aged 18-47 years randomly selected from the general population...... in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Frequency of binge drinking, defined as consuming >6 U of alcohol at the same occasion once or more per month, and age at drinking debut were assessed through a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: Overall, 12-26% reported binge drinking once or more per month in the four...... countries. Median age for starting drinking was 16 years in all four countries. Women who started drinking at 14 years or younger were significantly more likely to binge drink than women who started drinking at 19 years or older with adjusted odds ratios of 2.9 (95% confidence intervals 2.3-3.7), 2.8 (2...

  2. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  3. Vital Signs – Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    This podcast is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  4. Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers Talk About Experiences of Binge and Loss of Control Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Allison A.; Stern, Marilyn; Kelly, Nichole R.; Bulik, Cynthia; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Trapp, Stephen K.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adolescents’ experience of binge eating (BE) might differ in important ways from that of adults. Moreover, although BE appears more common in African American women than other disordered eating behaviors, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on this behavior in adolescents. The current investigation used qualitative methodology to examine the perceptions of White and African American adolescent girls and their mothers regarding experiences of binge an...

  5. Binge eating disorder should be included in DSM-IV: a reply to Fairburn et al.'s "the classification of recurrent overeating: the binge eating disorder proposal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, R L; Stunkard, A; Yanovski, S; Marcus, M D; Wadden, T; Wing, R; Mitchell, J; Hasin, D

    1993-03-01

    Extensive recent research supports a proposal that a new eating disorder, binge eating disorder (BED), be included in DSM-IV. BED criteria define a relatively pure group of individuals who are distressed by recurrent binge eating who do not exhibit the compensatory features of bulimia nervosa. This large number of patients currently can only be diagnosed as eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Recognizing this new disorder will help stimulate research and clinical programs for these patients. Fairburn et al.'s critique of BED fails to acknowledge the large body of knowledge that indicates that BED represents a distinct and definable subgroup of eating disordered patients and that the diagnosis provides useful information about psychopathology, prognosis, and outcome (Fairburn, Welch, & Hay [in press]. The classification of recurrent overeating: The "binge eating disorder" proposal. International Journal of Eating Disorders.) Against any reasonable standard for adding a new diagnosis to DSM-IV, BED meets the test.

  6. Examining the addictive-like properties of binge eating using an animal model of sugar dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M

    2007-10-01

    The increase in the incidence of obesity and eating disorders has encouraged research efforts aimed at understanding the etiology of abnormal eating behaviors. Clinical reports have led to the suggestion that some individuals may develop addictive-like behaviors when consuming palatable foods. Binge eating is a behavioral component of bulimia and obesity and has also become increasingly common in nonclinical populations in our society. This review summarizes the behavioral and neurochemical similarities between binge eating of palatable foods and the administration of drugs of abuse. An animal model of bingeing on sugar is used to illustrate behaviors found with some drugs of abuse, such as opiate-like withdrawal signs, enhanced intake following abstinence, and cross-sensitization. Related neurochemical changes commonly observed with drugs of abuse, including changes in dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens, can also be found with bingeing on sugar. These neurochemical alterations are exacerbated when animals binge on sugar while at a low body weight or when the food they ingest is purged. Drawing on other animal models and the clinical literature, parallels between drug abuse and binge-eating behavior are discussed.

  7. Functional and structural brain connectivity of young binge drinkers: a follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correas, A.; Cuesta, P.; López-Caneda, E.; Rodríguez Holguín, S.; García-Moreno, L. M.; Pineda-Pardo, J. A.; Cadaveira, F.; Maestú, F.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of ongoing brain maturation characterized by hierarchical changes in the functional and structural networks. For this reason, the young brain is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol. Nowadays, binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol consumption increasingly prevalent among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the evolution of the functional and anatomical connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in young binge drinkers along two years. Magnetoencephalography signal during eyes closed resting state as well as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) were acquired twice within a 2-year interval from 39 undergraduate students (22 controls, 17 binge drinkers) with neither personal nor family history of alcoholism. The group comparison showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern along at least two years, binge drinkers displayed an increased brain connectivity of the DMN in comparison with the control group. On the other hand, the structural connectivity did not show significant differences neither between groups nor over the time. These findings point out that a continued pattern of binge drinking leads to functional alterations in the normal brain maturation process, even before anatomical changes can be detected. PMID:27506835

  8. The Efficacy of Psychological Therapies in Reducing Weight and Binge Eating in People with Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Who Are Overweight or Obese—A Critical Synthesis and Meta-Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Amorim Palavras

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent binge eating episodes, the core feature of Bulimia Nervosa (BN and Binge Eating Disorder (BED, are frequently comorbid with obesity. Psychological interventions, notably Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT, are effective for binge eating reduction in BED or BN but less so for weight loss. Behavioural Weight Loss Therapy (BWLT shows effectiveness for binge eating reduction and weight loss but the latter appears poorly sustained over time. Our aim was to review evidence for efficacy of psychological therapies for BN/BED associated with overweight or obesity in reducing binge frequency and weight. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials with adult samples who had BN or BED was conducted considering articles in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese with no restrictions for the timeline publication ending in March 2016. A quality appraisal of the trials and meta-analyses comparing BWLT to CBT were done. This review identified 2248 articles for screening and 19 published articles were selected. No trials of BN were identified. This review found CBT was favoured compared to BWLT with regard to short-term binge eating reduction. However, insufficient evidence was found for superiority for BWLT efficacy compared to CBT considering binge eating remission, reduction of binge eating frequency and weight loss. More research is needed to test the efficacy of psychological treatments for BED or BN with co-morbid overweight or obesity, including trials evaluating binge eating remission and weight loss in the long-term.

  9. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model

  10. Binge-drinking in Britain as a social and cultural phenomenon: the development of a grounded theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wersch, Anna; Walker, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Techniques and procedures of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory were used to develop a conditional matrix on binge-drinking in Britain, reflecting data of 32 participants, aged between 22 and 58. The core category was 'binge-drinking as a social and cultural phenomenon'. Results show the value of binge-drinking as an enjoyable way of socializing and counter-balancing the demands of daily hassles and routines. Intervening and contextual factors indicate fluctuations in binge-drinking behaviour and the social and cultural constraints that may operate, such as 'no drink-driving', 'not when the next day is a work day' and 'not on one's own'.

  11. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the

  12. Binge drinking and blood pressure: cross-sectional results of the HAPIEE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pajak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45-69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥ 100 g in men and ≥ 60 g in women in one session at least once a month were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure and a binary outcome (≥ 140/90 mm Hg. RESULTS: In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45-1.82 after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03-1.39. In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05-1.63. Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure.

  13. The epidemiology and genetics of binge eating disorder (BED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    This narrative review provides an overview of the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED), highlighting the medical history of this disorder and its entry as an independent condition in the Feeding and Eating Disorders section of the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Estimates of prevalence are provided, as well as recognition that the female to male ratio is lower in BED than in other eating disorders. Evidence is also provided of the most common comorbidities of BED, including mood and anxiety disorders and a range of addiction disorders. In addition, discussion of the viewpoint that BED itself may be an addiction - at least in severe cases - is presented. Although the genetic study of BED is still in its infancy, current research is reviewed with a focus on certain neurotransmitter genes that regulate brain reward mechanisms. To date, a focal point of this research has been on the dopamine and the μ-opioid receptor genes. Preliminary evidence suggests that a predisposing risk factor for BED may be a heightened sensitivity to reward, which could manifest as a strong dopamine signal in the brain's striatal region. Caution is encouraged, however, in the interpretation of current findings, since samples are relatively small in much of the research. To date, no genome-wide association studies have focused exclusively on BED.

  14. Attentional bias for food cues in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Florian; Naumann, Eva; Trentowska, Monika; Svaldi, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate an attentional bias toward food stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). To this end, a BED and a weight-matched control group (CG) completed a clarification task and a spatial cueing paradigm. The clarification task revealed that food stimuli were faster detected than neutral stimuli, and that this difference was more pronounced in BED than in the CG. The spatial cueing paradigm indicated a stimulus engagement effect in the BED group but not in the CG, suggesting that an early locus in stimulus processing contributes to differences between BED patients and obese controls. Both groups experienced difficulty disengaging attention from food stimuli, and this effect was only descriptively larger in the BED group. The effects obtained in both paradigms were found to be correlated with reported severity of BED symptoms. Of note, this relationship was partially mediated by the arousal associated with food stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, as predicted by an account on incentive sensitization.

  15. Perception of parental acceptance in women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, N L; Johnson, W B; Koch, C

    2000-01-01

    The authors contribute to the validating literature for binge eating disorder (BED) by examining perceptions of parents and satisfaction with life among obese women with and without BED. Participants were female patients, recruited through a private medical clinic, who were assigned to groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and scores on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP; R. L. Spitzer et al., 1992). Groups consisted of (a) obese women with BED (n = 32), (b) obese women who had no eating disorders (n = 51), and (c) nonobese women with no eating disorders (n = 30). All participants completed the Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ; R. P. Rohner, 1986), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; J. Fischer & K. Corcoran, 1994), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; A. T. Beck & R. A. Steer, 1987). Obese women with BED perceived their fathers as more rejecting than did women in the other groups. Moreover, obese women with BED perceived their fathers as significantly more rejecting than their mothers. The BED group indicated lower satisfaction with life and higher levels of depression than the groups without eating disorders. These findings further validate the diagnostic category of BED. Obese women with BED appear to be a distinct subgroup of the obese population. The results indicate a need for further assessment of the father-daughter relationship in connection to BED and other eating disorders.

  16. BingEO: Enable Distributed Earth Observation Data for Environmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Yang, C.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Our planet is facing great environmental challenges including global climate change, environmental vulnerability, extreme poverty, and a shortage of clean cheap energy. To address these problems, scientists are developing various models to analysis, forecast, simulate various geospatial phenomena to support critical decision making. These models not only challenge our computing technology, but also challenge us to feed huge demands of earth observation data. Through various policies and programs, open and free sharing of earth observation data are advocated in earth science. Currently, thousands of data sources are freely available online through open standards such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS). Seamless sharing and access to these resources call for a spatial Cyberinfrastructure (CI) to enable the use of spatial data for the advancement of related applied sciences including environmental research. Based on Microsoft Bing Search Engine and Bing Map, a seamlessly integrated and visual tool is under development to bridge the gap between researchers/educators and earth observation data providers. With this tool, earth science researchers/educators can easily and visually find the best data sets for their research and education. The tool includes a registry and its related supporting module at server-side and an integrated portal as its client. The proposed portal, Bing Earth Observation (BingEO), is based on Bing Search and Bing Map to: 1) Use Bing Search to discover Web Map Services (WMS) resources available over the internet; 2) Develop and maintain a registry to manage all the available WMS resources and constantly monitor their service quality; 3) Allow users to manually register data services; 4) Provide a Bing Maps-based Web application to visualize the data on a high-quality and easy-to-manipulate map platform and enable users to select the best data layers online. Given the amount of observation data

  17. Acute gastric dilatation in a patient with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed-Kent, Ailis M; Fagenholz, Peter J; Alam, Hasan B

    2010-10-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rare complication of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype that results from gastrointestinal abnormalities, including decreased gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. Early diagnosis and intervention is critical since delay may result in gastric necrosis, perforation, shock, and death. We report a 26-year-old female with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, who presented with abdominal pain and nausea after a binge episode. Abdominal radiography and computed tomography showed a grossly dilated stomach measuring 32 cm × 17.9 cm consistent with acute gastric dilatation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with gastrotomy and gastric decompression, and recovered uneventfully. Initially, the patient denied the binge episode, as many patients with eating disorders do, but later revealed an extensive history of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype. This case stresses the importance of obtaining a thorough history of eating disorders and maintaining a high index of suspicion for acute gastric dilatation in young women who present with abdominal pain and distention.

  18. Alcohol binging causes peliosis hepatis during azathioprine therapy in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Elsing; Joerg Placke; Thomas Herrmann

    2007-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have normal life expectancy and, due to modern immunosuppressive therapies, also a normal quality of life. Since mostly young people are affected, their social behaviour suits this environment. Alcohol binging is an increasingly disturbing factor among young people. We describe a patient with Crohn's disease, treated with azathioprine,who developed peliosis hepatis after three epsiodes of alcohol binging. Liver toxicity was not observed previously during the course of the treatment.Azathioprine-induced peliosis hepatis is thought to be idiosyncratic in humans. From animal studies, however,it is clear that hepatic depletion of glutathione leads to azathioprine toxicity to the sinusoidal endothelial cells. Damage of these cells causes peliosis hepatis.Since alcohol binging leads to hepatic glutathione depletion, we conclude that in our patient the episodes of binging have reduced liver gluathione content and therefore this has increased azathioprine toxicity causing peliosis hepatis. The problem of alcohol binging has not yet been addressed in IBD patients undertaking immunosuppressive therapy. This should be reviewed in future considerations regarding patients advice.

  19. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  20. Moderators of post-binge eating negative emotion in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Kyle P; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the impact of two variables on post-binge eating negative emotion in a combined sample of women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 47) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 121). Participants completed two weeks of an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they provided multiple daily ratings of overall negative affect and guilt and reported eating disorder behaviors including binge eating and self-induced vomiting. The results indicate that both overall negative affect and guilt exhibited a statistically significantly decrease in the hour immediately following binge eating episodes. The decrease in guilt, but not overall negative affect, was moderated by eating disorder diagnosis and the tendency to engage in self-induced vomiting. Specifically, individuals with BN reported a greater reduction in guilt than those with AN, and individuals who did not typically engage in self-induced vomiting reported more decreases in guilt than those who typically engaged in self-induced vomiting. This study extends the existing literature on the relationship between negative affect and eating disorder behaviors, suggesting guilt as a potentially relevant facet of negative affect in the maintenance of binge eating. In addition, the findings indicate that two individual differences, eating disorder diagnosis and self-induced vomiting, may influence the trajectory of guilt following binge eating episodes.

  1. Integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults: a pilot efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steven C; Pokorny, Steven B; Schroeder, Darrell R; Tan, Winston; Werch, Chudley E

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. The primary aim of this investigation was to complete a pilot evaluation of the efficacy of an integrated intervention that targets both cigarette smoking and binge drinking on the cigarette smoking and binge behavior of young adults at 6-month follow-up. Participants were 95 young adult (M=24.3; SD=3.5 years) smokers (≥1 cigarettes per day) who binge drink (≥1 time per month) and who were randomly assigned to standard treatment (n=47) involving six individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (integrated intervention; n=48). Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both 3 month end of treatment and 6 month follow-up, more participants who received integrated intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received standard treatment at 3 months (19% vs. 9%, p=0.06) and 6 months (21% vs. 9%, p=0.05). At 6 months, participants who completed the study and who received integrated intervention consumed fewer drinks per month (psmoking cessation and reduces binge drinking compared to standard treatment.

  2. Desire thinking as a predictor of craving and binge drinking: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesca; Caselli, Gabriele; Felicetti, Federica; Rampioni, Margherita; Romanelli, Pierluigi; Troiani, Lorena; Sassaroli, Sandra; Albery, Ian P; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-01-01

    Desire thinking is a conscious and voluntary cognitive process orienting to prefigure images, information and memories about positive target-related experience. Desire thinking has been found to be associated with both craving and alcohol use in clinical and non-clinical populations, however its role in predicting craving and problematic drinking patterns has never been investigated using a longitudinal design. The central aim of the present study was to explore the role of desire thinking at Time 2 (3months post-baseline) in predicting craving and binge drinking and Time 3 (6months post-baseline), controlling for levels of both these constructs and Time 1 (baseline). One hundred and thirty three non-hazardous drinkers were assessed on craving and binge drinking at Times 1 and 3, and on desire thinking at Time 2. Findings showed that desire thinking at Time 2 predicted craving and binge drinking at Time 3, controlling for craving and binge drinking at Time 1. Furthermore, the imaginal prefiguration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between craving at Times 1 and 3; conversely the verbal perseveration component of desire thinking at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between binge drinking at Times 1 and 3. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Food thought suppression: a matched comparison of obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary studies of non-clinical samples suggest that purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, referred to as food thought suppression, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in obese individuals. Despite possible implications for the treatment of obesity and eating disorders, little research has examined food thought suppression in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). This study compared food thought suppression in 60 obese patients with BED to an age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 59 obese persons who do not binge eat (NBO). In addition, this study examined the associations between food thought suppression and eating disorder psychopathology within the BED and NBO groups and separately by gender. Participants with BED and women endorsed the highest levels of food thought suppression. Food thought suppression was significantly and positively associated with many features of ED psychopathology in NBO women and with eating concerns in men with BED. Among women with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with higher frequency of binge eating, whereas among men with BED, higher levels of food thought suppression were associated with lower frequency of binge eating. Our findings suggest gender differences in the potential significance of food thought suppression in obese groups with and without co-existing binge eating problems.

  4. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Geliebter, Allan; Volkow, Nora D; Telang, Frank W; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard C; Galanti, Kochavi; Selig, Peter A; Han, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Wong, Christopher T; Fowler, Joanna S

    2011-08-01

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [(11)C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  5. Spectrum of binge eating symptomatology in patients treated with clozapine and olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, F M; Linden, A; König, I R; Martin, M; Remschmidt, H; Hebebrand, J

    2003-01-01

    The authors explored the binge eating symptomatology in 74 patients receiving clozapine (N = 57) or olanzapine (N = 17), and compared body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and weight gain in patients with and without binge eating symptomatology. Subjects who screened positively for binge eating were interviewed using a modified version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP). Current BMIs were assessed cross-sectionally, BMIs at initiation of clozapine/olanzapine treatment retrospectively. Thirty-seven subjects (50%) screened positively. Taking clozapine and olanzapine together, 6/27 (22.2%) females and 3/47 (6.4%) males fulfilled criteria for binge eating disorder, 3/27 (11.1%) females and 2/47 (4.3%) males for bulimia nervosa. Patients who screened positively showed higher current BMIs (26.8 +/- 3.9 vs. 24.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2)) and higher BMI increments during clozapine/olanzapine treatment (3.9 +/- 3.1 vs. 2.6 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2)) than patients who screened negatively. We conclude that clozapine/olanzapine may induce binge eating and full blown eating disorders which may have predictive value for weight gain. For future research in this field we suggest a novel DSM-IV research classification "Medication-induced eating disorders".

  6. Binge eating in adolescents: its relation to behavioural problems and family-meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Baigrie, Susana; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between binge eating, behavioural problems and family-meal patterns in a sample of adolescents. Two hundred and fifty-nine adolescents from a public secondary school completed the Bulimic Investigatory test, Edinburgh (BITE) [Henderson, M., & Freeman, C. P. (1987). A self-rating scale for bulimia. The "BITE". British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 18-24.] and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) [Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Youth Self-Report and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont.], as well as 13 additional questions regarding the eating episodes and family-meal patterns. The results show that binge eating is a frequent behaviour in adolescence with 33.2% of the sample reporting binge eating at least once in the last six months. The adolescents who reported binge eating had higher scores on most of the YSR first-order factors compared to those who do not engage in this behaviour. No differences were found in family meal patterns. Questions regarding the binge-eating episodes were also analysed making comparisons by age and gender.

  7. Reformulating and Testing the Perfectionism Model of Binge Eating among Undergraduate Women: A Short-Term, Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P.; Sherry, Simon B.; Graham, Aislin R.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Dayna L.; Allen, Stephanie L.; Fitzpatrick, Skye; McGrath, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is related to binge eating. This study reformulates and tests the PMOBE, with a focus on addressing limitations observed in the perfectionism and binge-eating literature. In the reformulated PMOBE, concern over mistakes is seen as a destructive…

  8. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Lokman, S.; Monshouwer, K.; Lemmers, L.; Conrod, P.; Wiers, R.; Engels, R.; Kleinjan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent a

  9. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Lokman, S.; Monshouwer, K.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Conrod, P.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent a

  10. Challenging the Collegiate Rite of Passage: A Campus-Wide Social Marketing Media Campaign To Reduce Binge Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…

  11. A Cognitive-Behavioral Mindfulness Group Therapy Intervention for the Treatment of Binge Eating in Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This…

  12. The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…

  13. Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of different nutrients, such as fats and sugars, normally produces different effects on physiology, the brain, and behavior. However, they do share certain neural pathways for reinforcement of behavior, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. When these nutrients are consumed in the form of binges, this can release excessive DA, which causes compensatory changes that are comparable to the effects of drugs of abuse. In this article, we review data obtained with animal models of fat and sugar bingeing. The concept of "food addiction" is described and reviewed from both clinical and laboratory animal perspectives. Behavioral manifestations of addictive-like behavior and concomitant alterations in DA and opioid systems are compared for sugar and fat bingeing. Finally, in relation to eating disorders and obesity, we discuss how fat may be the macronutrient that results in excess body weight, and sweet taste in the absence of fat may be largely responsible for producing addictive-like behaviors that include a withdrawal syndrome.

  14. Understanding experiences and outcomes in treatment of binge eating disorder and obesity: A mixed method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Lene; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    Background: Binge eating disorder (BED) has recently been recognized as a diagnosis in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders). BED is a severe eating disorder with physical, social and psychological consequences. The prevalence of BED is 2-3% and the majority develop weight problems...... and obesity. Treatment is found effective in reducing eating disorder symptomatology, but rarely leads to weight loss. It is still unknown how the issue of obesity can be addressed in BED treatment without increasing the risk of binge eating relapse. Objectives: The study is an explorative investigation...... of the outcome of a newly developed group based treatment that combines psychotherapy and either weight loss or well-being components for patients with binge eating disorders and obesity. Methods: The study uses a convergent mixed methods design. Qualitative and quantitative data are gathered using in...

  15. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability.

  16. Mindfulness meditation as an intervention for binge eating, emotional eating, and weight loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterman, Shawn N; Kleinman, Brighid M; Hood, Megan M; Nackers, Lisa M; Corsica, Joyce A

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based approaches are growing in popularity as interventions for disordered eating and weight loss. Initial research suggests that mindfulness meditation may be an effective intervention for binge eating; however, no systematic review has examined interventions where mindfulness meditation was the primary intervention and no review has examined its effect on subclinical disordered eating or weight. Using the PRISMA method for systematic reviews, we reviewed 14 studies that investigated mindfulness meditation as the primary intervention and assessed binge eating, emotional eating, and/or weight change. Results suggest that mindfulness meditation effectively decreases binge eating and emotional eating in populations engaging in this behavior; evidence for its effect on weight is mixed. Additional research is warranted to determine comparative effectiveness and long-term effects of mindfulness training.

  17. Adding mindfulness to CBT programs for binge eating: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Knowles, Ann; Crafti, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the effectiveness of a combined mindfulness-CBT group therapy program for women with binge eating problems. Questionnaires were completed by group participants pre-program (n = 30), post-program (n = 30) and 3 month follow-up (n = 28). Significant reductions between pre- and post-program scores were found on standardised measures assessing binge eating, dieting, and body image dissatisfaction, with all reductions maintained at follow-up. Qualitative interviews with 16 women following completion of the program revealed the value of mindfulness in improving eating behaviour through increased self-awareness. This exploratory study supports the value of adding mindfulness to the more commonly utilised CBT-based programs for binge eating.

  18. Gender roles and binge drinking among Latino emerging adults: a latent class regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G

    2014-09-01

    Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.

  19. A Longitudinal Test of Impulsivity and Depression Pathways to Early Binge Eating Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carolyn M.; Zapolski, Tamika C.B.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The very early engagement in bulimic behaviors, such as binge eating, may be influenced by factors that dispose individuals to impulsive action as well as by factors that dispose individuals to depressive symptomatology. Using a longitudinal design, we conducted the first test of the simultaneous operation of both risk factors as children transition from elementary to middle school. Method In a sample of 1,906 children, we assessed risk for impulsive action (negative urgency, which is the tendency to act rashly when distressed, and eating expectancies, which are learned anticipations that eating will alleviate negative mood) and risk for depression (negative affect and depressive symptomatology) and binge eating behavior at three time points using a longitudinal design: the end of fifth grade (last year of elementary school: T0), the beginning of sixth grade (first year of middle school: T1), and the end of sixth grade (T2). Results Both the impulsive action and depression pathways predicted very early engagement in binge eating: each accounted for variance beyond the other. Mediation tests found that T1 eating expectancies mediated the predictive influence of T0 negative urgency on T2 binge eating (z = 2.45, p < .01) and that T1 depressive symptoms mediated the influence of T0 negative affect on T2 binge eating (z = 2.04, p < .05). Discussion In children, elevated levels of both negative urgency and negative affect predict early binge eating. This finding has important clinical implications because there are different interventions for the two different risk processes. PMID:24659534

  20. Binge eating & childhood emotional abuse: The mediating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies reveal that childhood emotional abuse (CEA) is the trauma most clearly associated with adult eating pathology. Yet, relatively little is understood about psychological mechanisms linking these distal experiences. Anger's mediational role in the relationship between CEA and adult binge eating (BE) is explored in a community-based sample of 498 adult women (mean age 44). Detailed telephone interviews assess BE (7 items), CEA (single item), and unresolved anger (single item) along with self-criticism (modified Rosenberg self-esteem scale), depression and anxiety symptoms (BSI sub-scales). Statistical analyses include Pearson correlations, Baron and Kenny's steps for mediation, and Preacher and Hayes bootstrapping method to test proposed multiple mediators simultaneously. Findings reveal significantly more respondents (n = 476 with complete data) with serious BE behaviors report a history of CEA compared to women with considerable and/or minimal BE (53% vs 37%, p = 0.002 respectively). Significant correlations are found among all study variables. Mediation analyses focus on anger together with self-criticism, depression and anxiety. Findings reveal anger and self-criticism fully mediate the CEA-BE relationship. In contrast, depression and anxiety symptoms are not significant mediators in a model that includes anger and self-criticism. Although additional research is warranted to more fully understand complex causal processes, in the interim, treatment interventions should be broadened to include assessments of anger among adult women with BE behaviors, especially those with histories of childhood abuse. Additionally, prevention strategies that incorporate learning how to express anger directly and positively may be particularly effective in reducing various disordered eating behaviors among women and girls.

  1. Binge Eating Disorder and Medical Comorbidities in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce; Flum, David R.; Spaniolas, Konstatinos; Bessler, Mark; Devlin, Michael; Marcus, Marsha D.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Engel, Scott; Khandelwal, Saurobh; Yanovski, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether binge eating disorder (BED) status is associated with medical comorbidities in obese adults scheduled for bariatric surgery. Method The study utilized Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 data obtained from 6 clinical centers around the United States. This is a well-phenotyped cohort of individuals who were evaluated within 30 days prior to their scheduled surgery using standardized protocols. In the cohort, 350 participants were classified as having BED and 1875 as not having BED (non-BED). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether BED status was independently related to medical comorbidities. As an exploratory analysis, significance was based on nominal P-values (p<.05). Holm-adjusted P-values were also reported. Results After adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index, BED status was independently associated with 4 of 15 comorbidities (i.e., impaired glucose levels (odds ratio [OR]=1.45 (95%CI: 1.12–1.87), high triglycerides (OR=1.28 (95%CI: 1.002–1.63) and urinary incontinence (OR=1.30 (95%CI: 1.02,1.66) all being more common among the BED sample, and severe walking limitations being less common in the BED sample (OR=0.53 (95%CI: 0.29–0.96)). With further adjustment for psychiatric/emotional health indicators, BED status was independently associated with 3 comorbidities (impaired glucose levels (OR=1.36 (95%CI: 1.04–1.79), cardiovascular disease (OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.30–0.86) and severe walking limitations (OR=0.38 (95%CI: 0.19–0.77)). However, Holm’s adjusted P-values for all variables were greater than .05. Discussion The results suggest the possibility of a contribution of BED to risk of specific medical comorbidities in severely obese adults. PMID:25778499

  2. The Round Table 03 圆桌: A Conversation with Xu Bing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eschenburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The following is an excerpt from a conversation between contemporary Chinese artist Xu Bing, Madeline Eschenburg, and Ellen Larson. Xu Bing curated an exhibition at the Central Academy of Fine Arts titled The Second CAFAM Future Exhibition, Observer-Creator: The Reality Representation of Chinese Young Art, on exhibition through March 2015. Our conversation centered around his thoughts on a new generation of young Chinese artists as well as reflection on his own early career and time in New York. The conversation was conducted in Chinese and has been translated into English.

  3. 'Let's get wasted': A discourse analysis of teenagers' talk about binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainey, Timothy A; Stephens, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a significant health issue. To explore teenagers talk about binge drinking, four peer-group interviews were conducted with 20 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, with experience of excessive alcohol use. A discourse analysis showed that a 'drinking is cool' discourse constructed 'getting wasted' as an integral part of social life, while a 'drinking as a social lubricant' discourse described the behavioural functions of alcohol use. Participants also actively resisted an 'alcohol is bad' discourse, which acknowledges the risks of alcohol use. The findings illustrate how teenagers use these resources in sophisticated ways to position the teen drinker positively and negatively.

  4. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Carolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9% than for girls (47.5%. The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p p Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that

  5. Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for concurrent Binge Eating Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbasson, Christine M; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Shapira, Leah B

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often evidence comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD), resulting in poor outcome. This study is the first to examine treatment outcome for this concurrent disordered population. In this pilot study, 38 individuals diagnosed with BED and SUD participated in a 16-week group Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MACBT). Participants significantly improved on measures of objective binge eating episodes; disordered eating attitudes; alcohol and drug addiction severity; and depression. Taken together, MACBT appears to hold promise in treating individuals with co-existing BED-SUD.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Obese Presurgery Patients with and without Binge Eating Disorder, and Subdiagnostic Binge Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marie Sandberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study health-related quality of life (HRQoL in obese presurgery patients with binge eating disorder (BED and with subdiagnostic binge eating disorder (SBED compared to patients without eating disorders or SBED. Method. Participants were patients referred to St. Olavs University Hospital, Norway, for bariatric surgery. Eating Disorders in Obesity (EDO questionnaire was used to diagnose BED and SBED. Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 assessed health-related quality of life. Questionnaires were returned by 160 of 209 patients. The present study sample consisted of 143 patients (103 women and 40 men as 17 patients did not complete the SF-12. Results. Patients with BED and patients with SBED both had significantly lower mental HRQoL, but not physical HRQoL, compared to patients without eating disorders. Discussion. The findings indicate that obese presurgery patients with BED, and also SBED, may have special treatment needs in regard to their mental health.

  7. A pilot study linking reduced fronto-striatal recruitment during reward processing to persistent bingeing following treatment for binge-eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kober, Hedy; Worhunsky, Patrick D.; White, Marney A.; Stevens, Michael C.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this study was to examine neurobiological underpinnings of reward processing that may relate to treatment outcome for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method Prior to starting treatment, nineteen obese persons seeking treatment for BED performed a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses examined how the neural correlates of reward processing related to binge-eating status after four-month of treatment. Results Ten individuals continued to report binge- eating (BEpost-tx) following treatment and nine individuals did not (NBEpost-tx). The groups did not differ in body mass index. The BEpost-tx group relative to the NBEpost-tx group showed diminished recruitment of the ventral striatum and the inferior frontal gyrus during the anticipatory phase of reward processing and reduced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during the outcome phase of reward processing. Discussion These results link brain reward circuitry to treatment outcome in BED and suggest that specific brain regions underlying reward processing may represent important therapeutic targets in BED. PMID:24729034

  8. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  9. Binge Drinking and Risky Sex among College Students. NBER Working Paper No. 15953

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual behavior in nationally representative data on age 18-24 four-year college students. For having sex, overall or without condoms, large and significant positive associations are eliminated upon holding constant proxies for time-invariant sexual activity and drinking preferences.…

  10. Guideline for the diagnosis, treatment and response criteria for Bing Neel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnema, Monique C; Kimby, Eva; D'Sa, Shirley; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Poulain, Stéphanie; Snijders, Tom J; Kastritis, Efstathios; Kremer, Stéphane; Fitsiori, Aikaterini; Simon, Laurence; Davi, Frédéric; Lunn, Michael; Castillo, Jorge J; Patterson, Christopher J; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Costopoulos, Myrto; Leblond, Véronique; Kersten, Marie-José; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Treon, Steven P

    2017-01-01

    Bing Neel syndrome is a rare disease manifestation of Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia that results from infiltration of the central nervous system by malignant lymphoplasmacytic cells. In this guideline, we describe the clinical symptoms, as well as the appropriate laboratory and radiological studies

  11. Health services use in women with a history of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined health services use during the past 12 months in a sample of young women with a history of an adolescent eating disorder (bulimia nervosa [BN] or binge eating disorder [BED]). Method: A community sample of 1,582 young women (mean age = 21.5 years) was classified

  12. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  13. The Role of Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Underage Binge Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Nicole M.; Barrett, Blake; Moore, Kathleen A.; Schonfeld, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study explored associations between positive alcohol expectancies, and demographics, as well as academic status and binge drinking among underage college students. Participants: A sample of 1,553 underage college students at 3 public universities and 1 college in the Southeast who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey in the…

  14. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  15. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.W.; Vroling, M.S.; Ouwens, M.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N=304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6months later (N=190). We asse

  16. Combining Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder: Current Status, Limitations, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Mitchell, James E

    2016-06-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research. In contrast to the prevalence and significance of BED, to date, limited research has been performed on combining psychological and pharmacological treatments for BED to enhance outcomes. Our review here found that combining certain medications with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or behavioral weight loss (BWL) interventions produces superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy only but does not substantially improve outcomes achieved with CBT/BWL only. One medication (orlistat) has improved weight losses with CBT/BWL albeit minimally, and only one medication (topiramate) has enhanced reductions achieved with CBT in both binge eating and weight. Implications for future research are discussed.

  17. Incidence and Weight Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder among Young Women in the Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the population prevalence and incidence of binge eating disorder (BED) among young women. Method: In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women participated in five surveys from age 16 until their mid-thirties. At Wave 4 (mean age 24 years), the w

  18. The Clinical Features of Binge Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa: What Are the Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Keri A.

    2001-01-01

    Compares the clinical characteristics of binge eating disorder (BED) and the related syndrome bulimia nervosa (BN). Findings suggest individuals with BED are distinguishable from those with BN on a number of traits, including higher rates of obesity and lower levels of eating concern and dietary restraint. (Contains 29 references and 2 tables.)…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic…

  20. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  1. Binge Eating Disorder: Reliability and Validity of a New Diagnostic Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Michelle L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined reliability and validity of binge eating disorder (BED), proposed for inclusion in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), fourth edition. Interrater reliability of BED diagnosis compared favorably with that of most diagnoses in DSM revised third edition. Study comparing obese individuals with and without BED and…

  2. Armodafinil in binge eating disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Blom, Thomas J; Williams, Stephanie; Casuto, Leah S; Keck, Paul E

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of armodafinil in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). Sixty participants with BED were randomized to receive armodafinil (150-250 mg/day) (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) in a 10-week, prospective, parallel-group, double-blind, flexible-dose, single-center trial. In the primary longitudinal analysis, armodafinil and placebo produced similar rates of improvement in binge eating day frequency (the primary outcome measure); however, armodafinil was associated with a statistically significantly higher rate of decrease in binge eating episode frequency. In the secondary baseline-to-endpoint analyses, armodafinil was associated with statistically significant reductions in obsessive-compulsive features of binge eating and BMI. The mean (SD) armodafinil daily dose at endpoint evaluation was 216.7 (43.9) mg. There were no serious adverse events, although one armodafinil recipient developed markedly increased blood pressure that resolved upon drug discontinuation. The small sample size may have limited the detection of important drug-placebo differences. As some of the observed effect sizes appeared clinically meaningful, larger studies of armodafinil in the treatment of BED are warranted.

  3. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  4. Salivary cortisol and binge eating disorder in obese women after surgery for morbid obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Ramshorst, B. van; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Geenen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol leve

  5. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  6. Obese Patients With a Binge Eating Disorder Have an Unfavorable Metabolic and Inflammatory Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Ruffo, Mariafrancesca; Caroleo, Mariarita; Rania, Marianna; Aloi, Matteo; De Fazio, Pasquale; Sesti, Giorgio; Arturi, Franco

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate whether obese patients with a binge eating disorder (BED) have an altered metabolic and inflammatory profile related to their eating behaviors compared with non-BED obese.A total of 115 White obese patients consecutively recruited underwent biochemical, anthropometrical evaluation, and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Patients answered the Binge Eating Scale and were interviewed by a psychiatrist. The patients were subsequently divided into 2 groups according to diagnosis: non-BED obese (n = 85) and BED obese (n = 30). Structural equation modeling analysis was performed to elucidate the relation between eating behaviors and metabolic and inflammatory profile.BED obese exhibited significantly higher percentages of altered eating behaviors, body mass index (P Binge eating disorder obese also had a worse metabolic and inflammatory profile, exhibiting significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P Binge eating disorder obese exhibited an unfavorable metabolic and inflammatory profile, which is related to their characteristic eating habits.

  7. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  8. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  9. A Discrepancy of Definitions: Binge Drinking and Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugiah, Sera

    2012-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol than men. They get intoxicated more quickly and have a higher blood alcohol level than men, even when body weight and alcohol consumption are the same. Despite this we are seeing a convergence of the drinking patterns of young women and young men, including binge drinking. In this research, 20…

  10. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN WOMEN WITH BINGE EATING DISORDER IN PRIMARY CARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background To examine the frequency and significance of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnically diverse obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) seeking treatment for obesity and binge eating in primary care. Methods Participants were a consecutive series of 105 obese women with BED; 43% were African-American, 36% were Caucasian, and 21% were Hispanic-American/other. Participants were evaluated with reliable semi-structured interviews and established measures. Results Of the 105 women, 25 (24%) met criteria for PTSD. PTSD was associated with significantly elevated rates of mood, anxiety, and drug use disorders, significantly elevated eating disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination global score and scales), greater depressive affect, and lower self-esteem, even though the patients with comorbid PTSD did not have higher body mass indexes (BMIs) or greater frequency of binge eating. The heightened eating disorder psychopathology and depression and the lower self-esteem among patients with comorbid PTSD persisted even after controlling for anxiety disorder comorbidity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that among ethnically/racially diverse obese women with BED who present for obesity and binge eating treatment in primary care settings, PTSD is common and is associated with heightened psychiatric comorbidity, greater eating disorder psychopathology, and poorer psychological functioning. PMID:23160245

  11. Stress and binge drinking: A toxic combination for the teenage brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Aaron; Déry, Nicolas; Pilgrim, Malcolm; Ioan, Miruna; Becker, Suzanna

    2016-09-01

    Young adult university students frequently binge on alcohol and have high stress levels. Based on findings in rodents, we predicted that heavy current alcohol use and elevated stress and depression scores would be associated with deficits on high interference memory tasks, while early onset, prolonged binge patterns would lead to broader cognitive deficits on tests of associative encoding and executive functions. We developed the Concentration Memory Task, a novel computerized version of the Concentration card game with a high degree of interference. We found that young adults with elevated stress, depression, and alcohol consumption scores were impaired in the Concentration Memory Task. We also analyzed data from a previous study, and found that higher alcohol consumption scores were associated with impaired performance on another high interference memory task, based on Kirwan and Stark's Mnemonic Similarity Test. On the other hand, adolescent onset of binge drinking predicted poorer performance on broader range of memory tests, including a more systematic test of spatial recognition memory, and an associative learning task. Our results are broadly consistent with findings in rodents that acute alcohol and stress exposure suppress neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, which in turn impairs performance in high interference memory tasks, while adolescent onset binge drinking causes more extensive brain damage and cognitive deficits.

  12. Associations between Responsible Beverage Service Laws and Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…

  13. Experiential Learning in Marketing Communications Courses: The Demarketing of College Binge-Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensher, Susan G.; Seal, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The experiential learning approach has been gathering substantial momentum and support in educational circles. In the team-based experiential learning project presented here, which effectively integrated theory and application, students were charged with creating an integrated marketing communications plan to demarket binge drinking on the college…

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kauhanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n=2682 in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n=952. Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18 age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood.

  15. Overeating and Binge Eating in Emerging Adulthood: 10-Year Stability and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n…

  16. Xu Bing, Ed Pien and Gu Xiong: Lost and Found in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The works of contemporary artists Xu Bing, Ed Pien and Gu Xiong are involved in bringing to light some of the factors inherent in social, cultural and linguistic translation. In doing so, each artist is also engaged in the nuanced activity of moving between historical and contemporary aesthetic strategies in order to interrogate the way meaning is…

  17. Binge drinking and psychoactive drug use in a cohort of European youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Siliquini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. TEN-D by Night is an international, multicentre, cross-sectional portal survey conducted on a large sample of young people in six European countries. This paper aims to investigate the alcohol and psychoactive drug consumption of this sample, with a focus on the prevalence of binge drinking and the poly-drug habits of the TEN-D cohort. Design and Methods. The study population consisted of 4695 young people attending recreational sites on weekend nights. The intervention included two questionnaires and two psychoactive substance detection tests performed at the entry and exit of the recreational sites. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to predict the probability of binge drinking. Results. Binge drinking was reported by 20% of the males and 13% of the females (P=0.001 before entry into the recreational sites and by 18% of the males and 11% of the females before entry into the clubs (P<0.001. Poly-drug use was reported by 71% of the males and 66% of the females. Living with a parent (OR 1.57; P=0.01, seeking employment (OR 1.66; P=0.005 and cannabis consumption (several times per month and several times per week, OR 1.94 and 3.66, respectively, P<0.05 were associated with binge drinking. Conclusions. Our survey showed that it is possible to identify individuals and groups at higher risk of binge drinking. This identification would allow for a focus on specific targets and would facilitate the redesign of prevention programmes. The increased use of psychoactive substances among youths should be studied extensively to promote successful prevention campaigns.

  18. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: shared associations with seasonality and personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2013-12-27

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits - associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1-3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n = 412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of

  19. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism.

  20. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  1. Binge eating under a complex reading: Subsidies for the praxis of food and nutrition education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães BOSI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Binge eating disorder is characterized by the consumption of large amounts of food in a short time, accompanied by the feeling of lack of control, remorse and guilt. binge eating disorder has a close interface with the obesity problem, a matter of great dimensions for health services, especially for the high comorbidity. Although this disorder is closely linked to obesity, a matter of great dimensions for healthcare, especially due to it high comorbidity, this disorder is still poorly known in its symbolic dimension, compromising actions directed to this dimension, among them those included in the scope of food and nutrition education. The purpose of this article is to delimitate the issue of binge eating disorder, under a lens based on complex thinking, in order to discuss and support the scope of the nutritional eating education, illustrating, with life experiences, the multidimensionality inherent to eating disorders. The analysis aims to highlight the challenge of working in educational practices focused on these complex disorders. Therefore, we articulated the theoretical with the empirical levels, revisiting, through a reflexive exercise, the discursive material obtained in a broad research carried out by the authors, guided by phenomenological-hermeneutics approach focusing on the understanding of binge eating disorder, with obese women who have also received this diagnosis. The analysis highlights binge eating disorder as an intense experience of suffering, which compromises the ability to innovate and reinvent behavior, in which food operates as an emotional cushion. In this context, healing requires taking an active and engaged place, feeling an active part in the self-transformation process. Thus, food and nutritional education should be conceived in the scope of a comprehensive care, as a fundamental and strategic space due to the specific nature of the practice, in potential terms.

  2. Binge Ethanol and MDMA Combination Exacerbates Toxic Cardiac Effects by Inducing Cellular Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Ros-Simó, Clara; Milanés, María-Victoria; Valverde, Olga; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is a common pattern of ethanol consumption among young people. Binge drinkers are especially susceptible to brain damage when other substances are co-administered, in particular 3,4 methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The aim of the present work was to study the mechanisms implicated in the adaptive changes observed after administration of these drugs of abuse. So, we have evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity and the expression and activation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), after voluntary binge ethanol consumption, alone and in combination with MDMA. Both parameters are markers of stressful situations and they could be modified inducing several alterations in different systems. Adolescent mice received MDMA, ethanol or both (ethanol plus MDMA). Drinking in the dark (DID) procedure was used as a model of binge. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH phosphorylated at serine 31 and HSP27 expression and its phosphorylation at serine 82 were evaluated in adolescent mice 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after treatments in the left ventricle. NA and normetanephrine (NMN) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); TH and HSP27 expression and phosphorylation were measured by quantitative blot immunollabeling using specific antibodies. Ethanol and MDMA co-administration increased NA turnover and TH expression and phosphorylation versus the consumption of each one of these drugs. In parallel with the described modifications in the cardiac sympathetic activity, our results showed that binge ethanol+MDMA exposure is associated with an increase in HSP27 expression and phosphorylation in the left ventricle, supporting the idea that the combination of both drugs exacerbates the cellular stress induced by ethanol or MDMA alone. PMID:26509576

  3. The social image of drinking - mass media campaigns may inadvertently increase binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Kohlmann, Karoline; Monter, Anne; Ameis, Nina

    2016-11-23

    Mass media campaigns that promote responsible drinking are rarely tested for their usefulness in reducing heavy alcohol consumption. Existing campaigns that appeal to responsible drinking while simultaneously displaying young people in social drinking situations may even have paradoxical effects. To examine such possible effects, we drew on a real-world media campaign, which we systematically modified on the basis of recent prototype research. We pilot tested questionnaires (using n = 41 participants), developed two different sets of posters in the style of an existing campaign (n = 39) and investigated their effectiveness (n = 102). In the main study, young men were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: sociable or unsociable binge drinker prototype condition or a control group. Outcome variables were intention, behavioural willingness, attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, prototype evaluation and prototype similarity with respect to binge drinking. Binge drinking as a habit was included to control for the fact that habitual drinking in social situations is hard to overcome and poses a particular challenge to interventions. The manipulation check showed that the experimental variation (sociable vs. unsociable drinker prototype condition) was successful. Results of the main study showed that the sociable drinker prototype condition resulted in a higher willingness and - for those with less of a habit - a higher intention to binge drink the next weekend. The unsociable drinker prototype condition had no effects. The results imply that the social components of mass media campaigns might inadvertently exacerbate binge drinking in young men. We therefore advocate against campaigns including aspects of alcohol consumption that might be positively associated with drinker prototype perception. Finally, we provide suggestions for future research.

  4. Eating Patterns in Youth with Restricting and Binge Eating/Purging Type Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Accurso, Erin C.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Sztainer, Maya; Byrne, Catherine; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe eating patterns in youth with restricting and binge/purge type anorexia nervosa (AN) and to examine whether eating patterns are associated with binge eating or purging behaviors. Method Participants included 160 children and adolescents (M=15.14±2.17 years) evaluated at The University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program who met criteria for DSM-5 restrictive type AN (AN-R; 75%; n=120) or binge eating/purging type AN (AN-BE/P; 25%; n=40). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) upon initial evaluation. Results Youth with AN-R and AN-BE/P differed in their eating patterns, such that youth with AN-R consumed meals and snacks more regularly relative to youth with AN-BE/P. Among youth with AN-BE/P, skipping dinner was associated with a greater number of binge eating episodes (r=−.379, p<0.05), while skipping breakfast was associated with a greater number of purging episodes (r=−.309, p<0.05). Discussion Youth with AN-R generally follow a regular meal schedule, but are likely consuming insufficient amounts of food across meals and snacks. In contrast, youth with AN-BE/P tend to have more irregular eating patterns, which may play a role in binge eating and purging behaviors. Adults monitoring of meals may be beneficial for youth with AN, and particularly those with AN-BE/P who engage in irregular eating patterns. PMID:24777645

  5. Adolescent but not adult ethanol binge drinking modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria A.; Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethanol (EtOH) binge drinking is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers that induces long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations in adulthood. An early history of EtOH abuse during adolescence is highly correlated with cocaine addiction in adulthood. Abstinence of cocaine abuse can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, psychosis, depression, and cognitive impairments. This study assessed the consequences of adolescent exposure to EtOH on the behavioral alterations promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adulthood. Methods We pretreated juvenile (34–47 days old) or adult (68–81 days old) mice with EtOH (1.25 g/kg) following a binge-drinking pattern. Then, after a three-week period without drug delivery, they were subjected to a chronic cocaine treatment in adulthood and tested under cocaine withdrawal by the ensuing paradigms: open field, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, tail suspension test, and object recognition. Another set of mice were treated with the same EtOH binge-drinking procedure during adolescence and were tested immediately afterwards under the same behavioral paradigms. Results Adolescent EtOH pretreatment undermined the anxiogenic effects observed after cocaine abstinence, reduced prepulse inhibition, and increased immobility scores in the tail suspension test following cocaine withdrawal. Moreover, the memory deficits evoked by these substances when given separately were enhanced in cocaine-withdrawn mice exposed to EtOH during adolescence. EtOH binge drinking during adolescence also induced anxiety, depressive symptoms, and memory impairments when measured immediately afterwards. In contrast, neither EtOH nor cocaine alone or in combination altered any of these behaviors when given in adulthood. Conclusions EtOH binge drinking induces short- and long-term behavioral alterations and modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms when given in adolescent mice. PMID:28291777

  6. Social appearance anxiety and dietary restraint as mediators between perfectionism and binge eating: A six month three wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosof, Leigh C; Levinson, Cheri A

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating is related to perfectionism and restrained eating. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. It is possible that social anxiety, specifically social appearance anxiety (i.e., the fear of overall appearance evaluation), influences the relationship between binge eating, perfectionism, and dietary restraint. In the current study (N = 300 women), we tested the relationship between dietary restraint, social appearance anxiety, concern over mistakes (a component of perfectionism), and binge eating in prospective data (three time points: at baseline, at two month, and at six month follow up). We found that social appearance anxiety, dietary restraint, and concern over mistakes each predicted binge eating at baseline. Only social appearance anxiety prospectively predicted binge eating when accounting for all variables. Further, in the tested model, social appearance anxiety mediated the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating across six months. On the contrary, dietary restraint did not mediate the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating in the tested model. The finding that social appearance anxiety served as a mediator between concern over mistakes and binge eating, but that dietary restraint did not, implies that social appearance anxiety may be a more salient prospective predictor of binge eating than dietary restraint. Intervening on social appearance anxiety may be important in the treatment and prevention of binge eating.

  7. Addiction Vulnerability and Binge Eating in Women: Exploring Reward Sensitivity, Affect Regulation, Impulsivity & Weight/Shape Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Chen, Eunice Y; Schmitz, Mark F; Arlt, Jean; McCloskey, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Almost 40% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid addiction. The current study examined weight/shape concerns as a potential moderator of the relation between the hypothesized latent factor "addiction vulnerability" (i.e., impairments in reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity) and binge eating. Undergraduate women (n=272) with either high or low weight/shape concerns completed self-report measures examining reward sensitivity, emotion regulation, impulsivity and disordered (binge) eating. Results showed that (1) reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity all loaded onto a latent "addiction vulnerability" factor for both women with high and with low weight/shape concerns, (2) women with higher weight/shape concerns reported more impairment in these areas, and (3) weight/shape concerns moderated the relation between addiction vulnerability and binge eating. These findings suggest that underlying processes identified in addiction are present in individuals who binge eat, though weight/shape concerns may be a unique characteristic of disordered eating.

  8. Binge Eating Disorder Mediates Links between Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Caloric Intake in Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann E. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    . The associations between internalizing symptoms and food intake are best described as operating indirectly through a BED diagnosis. This suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety influence whether one engages in binge eating, which influences kcal intake. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between mood, binge eating, and food intake will facilitate the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies for both BED and obesity.

  9. Effects of binge ethanol administration on the behavioral outcome of rats after lateral fluid percussion brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R M; Doubinskaia, I; Singh, D K; Campbell, G; Mace, D; Fletcher, A; Dendle, P; Yurek, D M; Scheff, S W; Kraemer, P J

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 weeks of binge ethanol administration (BEAn) on the behavioral outcome in rats after lateral fluid percussion (FP) brain injury. Rats were intragastrically given 7.5 mL/kg of either 40% ethanol in 5% glucose solution (3 g ethanol/kg; binge ethanol group), or 5% glucose solution (vehicle group), twice on Thursday and Friday of 3 consecutive weeks. Then rats from both groups were subjected to either lateral FP brain injury of moderate severity (1.8 atm) or to sham operation. Postinjury behavioral measurements revealed that brain injury caused significant spatial learning disability in both groups. There were no significant differences in mean search latencies in the sham animals between the vehicle and binge ethanol groups. On the other hand, the mean search latency of the binge ethanol group was significantly higher than that of the vehicle group in trial blocks 2 and 4. There were no significant differences in the target visits (expressed as mean zone difference [MZD]) during the probe trial between the injured animals of binge ethanol and vehicle groups. However, there was only a minor trend towards worsened MZD score in the binge-injured animals. Histologic analysis of injured animals from both injured ethanol and vehicle groups revealed similar extents of ipsilateral cortical and observable hippocampal damage. These results suggest that 4 weeks of binge ethanol treatment followed by ethanol intoxication at the time of injury worsens some aspects of the spatial learning ability of rats. This worsening is probably caused by subtle, undetectable morphologic damage by binge ethanol administration.

  10. Evaluating the indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity through cognitive-affective self-regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Forman, Mallory J

    2013-04-01

    Current theory and evidence point to disruptions in self-concept and difficulties with emotion regulation as contributing to the severity of binge eating. Alternatively, contemporary perspectives on self-compassion suggest that individual differences in this adaptive approach to self-regulation may serve to counteract these cognitive-affective triggers presumably resulting in reductions in binge eating severity. Accordingly, the present cross-sectional analysis examined an indirect effect model of positive dimensions of self-compassion on binge eating severity through both emotional tolerance and unconditional self-acceptance pathways. Two hundred fifteen undergraduate students (78% female) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest; BMI was calculated from self-reported heights and weights. Pearson's correlations revealed a positive linear association between self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance; negative links were observed between self-compassion and emotional intolerance along with the severity of binge eating symptoms. A subsequent multiple mediator analysis utilizing both normal test theory and robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures confirmed the presence of a significant total indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity (-.15, pself-acceptance (-.11, pself-compassion training into college health promotion efforts towards mitigating the appreciable levels of binge eating behavior prevalent in this at-risk population.

  11. Alcohol availability and neighborhood poverty and their relationship to binge drinking and related problems among drinkers in committed relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy M; Chartier, Karen G; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T Robert

    2012-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and neighborhood poverty. The 1,784 current drinkers in the survey reported on their binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and other covariates. AOD was defined as the number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 persons and was obtained at the zip code level. Neighborhood poverty was defined as having a low (poverty at the census tract level. We used logistic regression for survey data to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and tested for differences of associations by sex. Associations of neighborhood poverty with binge drinking were stronger for male than for female drinkers. The association of neighborhood poverty with alcohol-related problems was also stronger for men than for women. We observed no relationships between AOD and binge drinking or alcohol-related problems in this couples survey. Efforts to reduce binge drinking or alcohol-related problems among partners in committed relationships may have the greatest impact if targeted to male drinkers living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, as well as residence in an impoverished neighborhood are risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) and other relationship conflicts.

  12. Associations of Neuroticism and Impulsivity with Binge Eating in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Winn, Angela E; Townsend, Lisa; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    Binge eating behavior is a public health concern with serious physical and mental health consequences. Certain personality traits have been found to contribute to the development of eating disorders in clinical samples of youth, but little is known about associations between personality traits and binge eating in the general adolescent population. We examined the associations of neuroticism and impulsivity-both independently and in combination-with lifetime prevalence of binge eating, using nationally representative, cross-sectional data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement (n=437). Neuroticism and impulsivity were each significantly associated with lifetime prevalence of binge eating (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]=1.11, confidence interval [CI]=1.07, 1.15, p<0.001; aPR=1.06, CI=1.04, 1.09, p<0.001, respectively). The combination of high neuroticism and high impulsivity was associated with higher lifetime binge eating than the combination of low neuroticism and low impulsivity (aPR=3.72, CI=2.45, 5.65, p<0.001), and this association was stronger for female than male adolescents (females: aPR=5.37, CI=3.24, 8.91, p<0.001 vs. males: aPR=2.45, CI=1.43, 4.22, p=0.002). Our findings have implications for informing theories of etiology and interventions to target binge eating behaviors.

  13. Association between Acculturation and Binge Drinking among Asian-Americans: Results from the California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monideepa B. Becerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans (N=665,195 were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (OR=3.05, 95% CI=1.55, 5.98 and monolingual (English only Vietnamese (OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.58, 5.70, especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only, not being current married (South Asian only, and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians. Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults.

  14. Ringkøbing-Skjern Energy Atlas for municipal energy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Ringkøbing-Skjern is Denmark's largest municipality, located in the west part of Central Denmark Region. Its medium-term goal is to achieve 100 % self-sufficiency in renewable energy supply by 2020. To achieve this ambitious goal, future courses of action have been outlined in the municipality......'s energy strategy "Energy2020" and divided into five groups: increasing production from wind, bioenergy and other renewable energy sources, reducing heat demand in buildings and converting transportation sector to renewable energy. The analysis of technical, economic and environmental impacts...... of such a variety of technologies on the municipality's energy system requires highly detailed decision support system. For that purpose, GIS-based energy atlas has been developed for Ringkøbing-Skjern municipality. The data about energy supply and demand, transmission and distribution infrastructure, energy...

  15. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElroy SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan L McElroy, Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Anne M O'MeliaLindner Center of HOPE, Mason, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED, an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research.Keywords: binge eating disorder, pharmacotherapy, medication management

  16. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients.

  17. I Working with dissociative dynamics and the longing for excess in binge eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sue

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author describes her work with a woman who, in her mid 20s, sought analysis for her non-vomiting binge eating disorder. The paper explores how two aspects of Jung's view of the psyche as healthily dissociable were used to think about the potential for change contained within the explosive, aggressive energies in this patient's bingeing. The resultant approach takes the patient's splitting defences, dissociations and self-destructive behaviour as a point of access to her unconscious. Seen in this way, these behaviours contain the seeds of recovery and are the starting point for analysis rather than defences against it. The paper also brings a number of Jungian and post-Jungian ideas into conversation with aspects of contemporary thinking about subjectivity, identity and the longing for excess developed by Leo Bersani and Judith Butler.

  18. Mindfulness-based eating awareness training for treating binge eating disorder: the conceptual foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeller, Jean L; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food intake and self-identity. MB-EAT involves training in mindfulness meditation and guided mindfulness practices that are designed to address the core issues of BED: controlling responses to varying emotional states; making conscious food choices; developing an awareness of hunger and satiety cues; and cultivating self-acceptance. Evidence to date supports the value of MB-EAT in decreasing binge episodes, improving one's sense of self-control with regard to eating, and diminishing depressive symptoms.

  19. An Exploratory Study of a Meditation-based Intervention for Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeller, J L; Hallett, C B

    1999-05-01

    The efficacy of a 6-week meditation-based group intervention for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) was evaluated in 18 obese women, using standard and eating-specific mindfulness meditation exercises. A single-group extended baseline design assessed all variables at 3 weeks pre-and post-, and at 1, 3, and 6 weeks; briefer assessment occurred weekly.Binges decreased in frequency, from 4.02/week to 1.57/week (p Eating Scale (BES) and on the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories decreased significantly; sense of control increased. Time using eatingrelated meditations predicted decreases on the BES (r 5 .66, p < .01). Results suggest that meditation training may be an effective component in treating BED.

  20. Child abuse and neglect: Relations to adolescent binge drinking in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M.; Heeren, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or ...

  1. Validation of the portuguese version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns: revised (QEWP-R) for the screening of binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present paper describes the validation of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) designed for the diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED) and sub-clinical binge eating. METHODS: 89 overweight women seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity were assessed with the Portuguese version of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns and were, subsequently, interviewed with the eating disorders module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-...

  2. Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelink, Carol; Hampson, Aidan; Wink, David A.; Eiden, Lee E.; Eskay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Binge alcohol consumption in the rat induces substantial neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Oxidative stress and cytotoxic edema have both been shown to be involved in such neurotoxicity, whereas N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity has been implicated in alcohol withdrawal and excitoxic injury. Because the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) was previously shown in vitro to prevent glutamate toxicity through its ability to reduce oxidative stress, we evaluated CBD as a neuroprotectant in a rat binge ethanol model. When administered concurrently with binge ethanol exposure, CBD protected against hippocampal and entorhinal cortical neurodegeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the common antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and α-tocopherol also afforded significant protection. In contrast, the NMDA receptor antagonists dizocilpine (MK-801) and memantine did not prevent cell death. Of the diuretics tested, furosemide was protective, whereas the other two anion exchanger inhibitors, L-644,711 [(R)-(+)-(5,6-dichloro2,3,9,9a-tetrahydro 3-oxo-9a-propyl-1H-fluoren-7-yl)oxy acetic acid] and bumetanide, were ineffective. In vitro comparison of these diuretics indicated that furosemide is also a potent antioxidant, whereas the nonprotective diuretics are not. The lack of efficacy of L-644,711 and bumetanide suggests that the antioxidant rather than the diuretic properties of furosemide contribute most critically to its efficacy in reversing ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in vitro, in our model. This study provides the first demonstration of CBD as an in vivo neuroprotectant and shows the efficacy of lipophilic antioxidants in preventing binge ethanol-induced brain injury. PMID:15878999

  3. Alcohol, binge drinking and associated mental health problems in young urban Chileans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Mason-Jones

    Full Text Available To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans.Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010.Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54] or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]. Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78], feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]. Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05].Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed.

  4. Differential expression of CART in feeding and reward circuits in binge eating rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharne, Ashish P; Borkar, Chandrashekhar D; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2015-09-15

    Binge eating (BE) disrupts feeding and subverts reward mechanism. Since cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) mediates satiety as well as reward, its role in BE justifies investigation. To induce BE, rats were provided restricted access to high fat sweet palatable diet (HFSPD) for a period of 4 weeks. Immunoreactivity profile of the CART elements, and accompanying neuroplastic changes were studied in satiety- and reward-regulating brain nuclei. Further, we investigated the effects of CART, CART-antibody or rimonabant on the intake of normal chow or HFSPD. Rats fed on HFSPD showed development of BE-like phenotype as reflected by significant consumption of HFSPD in short time frame, suggestive of dysregulated satiety mechanisms. At the mid-point during BE, CART-immunoreactivity was significantly increased in hypothalamic arcuate (ARC), lateral (LH), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and paraventricular nucleus of thalamus (PVT). However, for next 22-h post-binge time-period, the animals showed no interest in food, and low CART expression. Pre-binge treatment with rimonabant, a drug recommended for the treatment of BE, produced anorexia, increased CART expression in ARC and LH, but not in AcbSh and PVT. Higher dose of CART was required to produce anorexia in binged rats. While neuronal tracing studies confirmed CART fiber connectivity from ARC and LH to AcbSh, increase in CART and synaptophysin immunostaining in this pathway in BE rats suggested strengthening of the CART connectivity. We conclude that CART bearing ARC-LH-PVT-AcbSh reward circuit may override the satiety signaling in ARC-PVN pathway in BE rats.

  5. Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

    2011-07-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity.

  6. Clarifying Boundaries of Binge Eating Disorder and Psychiatric Comorbidity: A Latent Structure Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja; Denise E. Wilfley; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Pike, Kathleen M; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) presents with substantial psychiatric comorbidity. This latent structure analysis sought to delineate boundaries of BED given its comorbidity with affective and anxiety disorders. A population-based sample of 151 women with BED, 102 women with affective or anxiety disorders, and 259 women without psychiatric disorders was assessed with clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires. Taxometric analyses were conducted using DSM-IV criteria of BED and of affectiv...

  7. The freshness of Persian Information: the case of Persian Newspapers indexed in Google, Yahoo and Bing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam yaghtin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to study the freshness of Persian information, the study attempted to explore the indexing speed of Persian newspapers in Google, Yahoo and Bing. The present study was conducted using a webometric method. The population study comprised all the online newspapers published in Persian. The study sample was identified using a targeted method. It included those Persian newspapers listed on the Magiran database with their electronic versions regularly published on their respective websites. The results revealed that Google outperforms the two other search engines in terms of timely indexing the Persian newspapers. Furthermore, it generally enjoys a more consistent and stable indexing model. Yahoo and Bing are not only slower in indexing the newspapers, but also experience a comparably lower consistency level in their indexing models. Yahoo and Bing show to be comparable in their indexing speeds. In this study, the indexing status of Persian newspapers on different internet search engines was investigated for the first time. Results showed that those accessing these newspapers using internet search engines will have a higher chance of accessing their most updated versions using Google.

  8. Ringkøbing-Skjern energy atlas for analysis of heat saving potentials in building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Ringkøbing-Skjern municipality aims to be 100% self-sufficient in renewable energy supply starting from 2020. It is expected that the building sector will contribute by reducing energy demand by 25-50%.Technical, economic, environmental and geographical aspects need to be considered when analysin...... that heat savings should be directed towards buildings supplied by oil boilers, natural gas boilers and ground-source heat pumps....... such drastic change of municipality's energy system. For that purpose, GIS-based Ringkøbing-Skjern Energy Atlas has been developed. The present paper utilises Ringkøbing-Skjern Energy Atlas together with the Heating Model to calculate potentials and costs of heat saving measures.The results show...... that the reduction of heating demand by 25% and 35% can be achieved at the annuitized full cost lower than 1.7 and 2 DKK/kWh, respectively. The results also show that significant heat saving potential lies in farmhouses and detached houses as well as in buildings built before 1950. Over 75% of very cheap heat saving...

  9. Novel pharmacologic treatment in acute binge eating disorder – role of lisdexamfetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerdjikova AI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anna I Guerdjikova,1,2 Nicole Mori,1,2 Leah S Casuto,1,2 Susan L McElroy1,2 1Lindner Center of HOPE, Mason, OH, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior without the inappropriate compensatory weight loss behaviors of bulimia nervosa. BED affects both sexes and all age groups and is associated with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Until recently, self-help and psychotherapy were the primary treatment options for patients with BED. In early 2015, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug stimulant marketed for attention deficit hyperactive disorder, was the first pharmacologic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate or severe BED in adults. This article summarizes BED clinical presentation, and discusses the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of BED in adults. Keywords: binging, overeating, Vyvanse, stimulant, approved medication

  10. Relationship of fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption to binge eating symptoms in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Penny L; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kaplan, Charles D; Bode, Sharon; Mama, Scherezade K; Lee, Rebecca E

    2012-04-01

    African American (AA) and Hispanic or Latina (HL) women have the highest rates of overweight and obesity of any gender and ethnic groups. Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder in the United States and is linked to overweight and obesity. Traditional treatments for BED may not be appropriate or viable for AA and HL women, because they are less likely than whites to seek treatment for psychological conditions and may have less access to healthcare. Improving dietary habits in those with BED or subthreshold BED may reduce binge eating symptoms. The current study investigated the association of fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption to binge eating symptoms in AA and HL women. AA and HL women in the Health Is Power (HIP) study (N=283) reported fruit and vegetable intake, fat intake, and binge eating symptoms. Women were middle aged (M=45.8 years, SD=9.2) and obese (M BMI=34.5 kg/m(2), SD=7.5). Greater fat consumption was correlated with lower fruit and vegetable consumption (r(s)=-0.159, p<0.01). Higher BMI (r(s)=0.209, p<0.01), and greater fat consumption (r(s)=0.227, p<0.05) were correlated with increased binge eating symptoms. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that for HL women (β=0.130, p=0.024), higher BMI (β=0.148, p=0.012), and greater fat consumption (β=0.196, p=0.001) were associated with increased binge eating symptoms (R(2)=0.086, F(3,278)=8.715, p<0.001). Findings suggest there may be a relationship between fat consumption and binge eating symptoms, warranting further study to determine whether improving dietary habits may serve as a treatment for BED in AA and HL women.

  11. Piscivorous fish exhibit temperature-influenced binge feeding during an annual prey pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the limits of consumption is important for determining trophic influences on ecosystems and predator adaptations to inconsistent prey availability. Fishes have been observed to consume beyond what is sustainable (i.e. digested on a daily basis), but this phenomenon of hyperphagia (or binge-feeding) is largely overlooked. We expect hyperphagia to be a short-term (1-day) event that is facilitated by gut volume providing capacity to store consumed food during periods of high prey availability to be later digested.We define how temperature, body size and food availability influence the degree of binge-feeding by comparing field observations with laboratory experiments of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a large freshwater piscivore that experiences highly variable prey pulses. We also simulated bull trout consumption and growth during salmon smolt outmigrations under two scenarios: 1) daily consumption being dependent upon bioenergetically sustainable rates and 2) daily consumption being dependent upon available gut volume (i.e. consumption is equal to gut volume when empty and otherwise ‘topping off’ based on sustainable digestion rates).One-day consumption by laboratory-held bull trout during the first day of feeding experiments after fasting exceeded bioenergetically sustainable rates by 12- to 87-fold at low temperatures (3 °C) and by  ˜1·3-fold at 20 °C. The degree of binge-feeding by bull trout in the field was slightly reduced but largely in agreement with laboratory estimates, especially when prey availability was extremely high [during a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolt outmigration and at a counting fence where smolts are funnelled into high densities]. Consumption by bull trout at other settings were lower and more variable, but still regularly hyperphagic.Simulations demonstrated the ability to binge-feed increased cumulative consumption (16–32%) and cumulative growth (19–110%) relative to only feeding at

  12. Investigation of a role for ghrelin signaling in binge-like feeding in mice under limited access to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S J; Rodrigues, T; Watts, A; Murray, E; Wilson, A; Abizaid, A

    2016-04-05

    Binge eating is defined by the consumption of an excessive amount of food in a short time, reflecting a form of hedonic eating that is not necessarily motivated by caloric need. Foods consumed during a binge are also often high in fat and/or sugar. Ghrelin, signaling centrally via the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), stimulates growth hormone release and appetite. GHSR signaling also enhances the rewarding value of palatable foods and increases the motivation for such foods. As ghrelin interacts directly with dopaminergic reward circuitry, shown to be involved in binge eating, the current studies explored the role of GHSR signaling in a limited access model of binge eating in mice. In this model, mice received either intermittent (INT) or daily (DAILY) access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) for 2h late in the light cycle, alongside 24-h ad libitum chow. In CD-1 mice, 2-h exposure to HFD generated substantial binge-like intake of HFD, as well as a binge-compensate pattern of 24-h daily intake. INT and daily groups did not differ in 2-h HFD consumption, while INT mice maintained stable intake of chow despite access to HFD. GHSR knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice both binged during HFD access, and exhibited the same binge-compensate pattern. INT GHSR KO mice did not binge as much as WT, while DAILY KO and WT were comparable. Overall, GHSR KO mice consumed fewer calories from HFD, regardless of access condition. GHSR KO mice also had reduced activation of the nucleus accumbens shell, but not core, following HFD consumption. These data support the ability of INT HFD in mice to induce a binge-compensate pattern of intake that emulates select components of binge eating in humans. There also appears to be a role for GHSR signaling in driving HFD consumption under these conditions, potentially via mediation of reward-related circuitry.

  13. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  14. The association among food addiction, binge eating severity and psychopathology in obese and overweight patients attending low-energy-diet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Continisio, Massimo; Tamburello, Stella; Lamis, Dorian A; Tamburello, Antonino; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have shown that food addiction (FA) is strongly related with psychopathology. However, this relationship may be partly mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. The aim of the current study was to assess the strength of the association between FA and psychopathology, and whether this relationship was mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. Participants were 112 patients seeking weight loss interventions. All the participants were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), The Symptom Check list-90-R (SCL-90), and the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Thirty-eight (33.9%) individuals were diagnosed as having FA. FA severity was strongly associated with binge eating, whereas both FA and binge eating were positively and moderately associated with psychopathology. A mediational model analyzing direct and indirect (through the mediating role of binge eating) effects of FA on psychopathology indicated that the relation between FA and psychopathology was fully mediated by the severity of binge eating. This finding suggests that FA may contribute to the development of psychopathology through its effect on binge eating.

  15. Binge drinking during pregnancy and risk of seizures in childhood: a study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...

  16. Self-critical perfectionism and binge eating symptoms: a longitudinal test of the intervening role of psychological need frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Liesbet; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Verstuyf, Joke

    2014-07-01

    Although abundant research has shown that self-critical perfectionism relates to binge eating symptoms, fewer studies have addressed the role of intervening processes that might explain why this is the case. Grounded in self-determination theory, we hypothesized that self-critical perfectionism would relate to an increased risk for binge eating symptoms because it engenders frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This hypothesis was tested in a sample of 566 adolescents (72% female; mean age = 13.3 years) using a 3-wave longitudinal study with a 6-month interval. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that self-critical perfectionism related to increases in psychological need frustration which, in turn, predicted increases in binge eating symptoms. Structural relations were found to be equivalent for males and females. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Binge eating disorder and the proposed DSM-IV criteria: psychometric analysis of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangle, D W; Johnson, W G; Carr-Nangle, R E; Engler, L B

    1994-09-01

    Proposed binge eating disorder (BED) diagnostic criteria were investigated to provide necessary psychometric characteristics and explore their utility in assessment. One hundred four subjects (52 self-referred bingers, 52 comparison subjects) completed an initial administration of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP). The results supported the ability of the two core BED criteria (i.e., episodic overeating, loss of control) to discriminate between clinical and nonclinical binge eaters. Thirty-nine of the self-referred and 40 of the comparison subjects completed a second QEWP administration 3 weeks later. Results indicated that the BED diagnosis was moderately stable over the 3-week interval (kappa = .58, combined sample). Using self-monitoring data completed by the self-referred subjects, predictive efficiency analyses indicated that the QEWP was able to identify both high and low probability binge eaters. Implications of the findings for the definition, assessment, and utility of the BED diagnosis are discussed.

  18. The Benefits of Using Semi-continuous and Continuous Models to Analyze Binge Eating Data: A Monte Carlo Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, Andrew; Hildebrandt, Tom; Yu, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Objective Change in binge eating is typically a primary outcome for interventions targeting individuals with eating pathology. A range of statistical models exist to handle these types of frequency distributions, but little empirical evidence exists to guide the appropriate choice of statistical model. Method Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the utility of semi-continuous models relative to continuous models in various situations relevant to binge eating treatment studies. Results Semi-continuous models yielded more accurate estimates of the population, while continuous models were higher powered when higher levels of missing data were present. Discussion The present findings generally support the use of semi-continuous models applied to binge eating data, with total sample sizes of roughly 200 being adequately powered to detect moderate treatment effects. However, models with a significant amount of missing data yielded more favorable power estimates for continuous models. PMID:25195793

  19. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    . Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge...... drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics......BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy...

  20. Group cognitive behavioral treatment in female soldiers diagnosed with binge/purge eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rinat; Yanykulovitch-Levy, Dana; Wertheim, Hadas; Gordon-Erez, Shirley; Shahimov, Meital; Weizman, Abraham; Stein, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) is the recommended intervention in bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified with binge/purge (EDNOS-B/P) symptoms. There are fewer data on its application in a group format. We sought to investigate the effect of group CBT in female soldiers with B/P symptomatology in an open trial design. For this purpose we assessed 64 female soldiers serving in the Israeli Defense Force diagnosed with BN and EDNOS-B/P who participated in a group CBT format of 16 weekly sessions and one follow-up session. In this study, 42 participants (65.6%) completed treatment and 22 participants (34.4%) did not. A total of 39 treatment completers (92.8% of treatment completers) and 19 non-completers (86.4% of treatment non-completers) were assessed around 12 months after treatment. Participants completed at baseline and following treatment questionnaires assessing eating-related symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At follow-up they were assessed for eating-related symptoms. Our findings show only minimal baseline differences between treatment completers and non-completers. Significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment was shown for B/P and restrictive symptoms, depression, anxiety, and overall functioning. At that time, more than a third of treatment completers were abstinent from binging and more than a half from vomiting. The improvement in B/P and restricting symptoms was maintained at 1 year follow-up for treatment completers. At that time around 60% were abstinent from binging and more than 70% from vomiting. Participants not completing treatment were also improved at follow-up but to a lesser extent. The findings of the present study suggest that group CBT may be effective for the treatment of female soldiers with BN and EDNOS-B/P.

  1. Black patients with binge-eating disorder: Comparison of different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-10-01

    The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is a well-established assessment instrument, but requires substantial training and administration time. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) is the corresponding self-report survey, which does not have these demands. Research has shown concordance between these 2 assessment methods, but samples have lacked racial diversity. The current study examined the concordance of the EDE-Q and EDE in a sample of Black patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) and a matched sample of White patients. Participants were 238 (Black n = 119, White n = 119) treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV-TR-defined BED. Participants completed the EDE-Q, and trained doctoral-level clinicians assessed participants for BED and eating-disorder psychopathology using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview. The EDE-Q and EDE yielded significantly correlated frequencies of binge eating and eating-disorder psychopathology subscales. The EDE-Q yielded significantly lower frequencies of binge eating and higher scores on 3 of 4 subscales (not dietary restraint). Similar patterns of concordance between the EDE-Q and EDE were found for an alternative brief version of the instruments. Patterns of convergence and divergence between the EDE-Q and EDE observed in Black patients with BED are generally consistent with findings derived from the matched White sample: overall, scores are correlated but higher on the self-report compared with interview assessment methods. Clinicians assessing patients with BED should be aware of this overall pattern, and be aware that this pattern is similar in Black patients with BED with the notable exception of dietary restraint. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. A comparative analysis of Type 2 diabetes and binge eating disorder in a bariatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Applegate, Katherine L; Grant, John P

    2011-08-01

    An emerging literature has illuminated an important link between Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and binge eating disorder (BED) within obese cohorts. However, prior work has not examined this relationship specifically in a weight loss surgery (WLS) sample or fully explored potential psychosocial factors associated with this co-occurrence. Therefore, the present investigation sought to identify socio-demographic (i.e. age, education, BMI, ethnicity, gender, age of obesity onset) and psychological (i.e. depressive symptoms, hedonic hunger/food locus of control beliefs, severity of binge eating-related cognitions) correlates of the co-occurrence of Type 2 DM and BED among bariatric surgery candidates. An archival sample of 488 patients seeking surgical treatment for clinical obesity completed a standard battery of pre-operative psychosocial measures. The presence of BED was evaluated using a semi-structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV TR (APA, 2000) and was further corroborated by responses on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R; Spitzer, Yanovski, & Marcus, 1993). Results indicated that 8.2% of the sample was classified as having both Type 2 DM and BED concurrently. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that in addition to other psychological (e.g., binge eating-related cognitions, hedonic hunger) and demographic variables (i.e. male gender), African American ethnicity (OR=3.3: 1.41-7.73) was a particularly robust indicator of comorbid status. Findings support and extend previous health disparity research urging greater attention to the needs of traditionally underserved, at-risk populations seeking treatment for obesity complicated by dysregulated eating and metabolism. Additionally, these preliminary results underscore the relevance of considering the potential benefits of providing quality comprehensive pre- and post-operative psychological care among bariatric patients towards optimizing both short- and long

  3. Prevalence of binge eating disorder in obese adults seeking weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamado, P J; Williamson, D A; Bentz, B G; Ryan, D H; Rhodes, S K; O'Neil, P M; Sebastian, S B; Barker, S E

    1997-09-01

    Binge eating has been identified as a common problem in samples of obese persons. Earlier studies found that approximately 30% of participants presenting for weight loss treatment could be diagnosed with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). This study investigated the prevalence of BED using the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP) and the Interview for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (IDED) in a sample of 468 obese adults seeking weight loss treatment at two research facilities. The study found that only a small percentage of the participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Revision (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for BED using either the IDED (1.3%) or QEWP (7.3%). A larger percentage of the sample (10.7% based on the IDED and 20.5% based on the QEWP) reported binge eating, but did not endorse all criteria necessary to warrant a diagnosis of BED. The primary finding of the study was that the prevalence of BED in treatment seeking obese adults was much lower than was reported in previous studies. Also, there was significant discrepancy in prevalence rates of BED as defined by self-report and interview assessment methods, with the interview method yielding lower estimates of prevalence. These findings suggest that the prevalence of BED may be lower than estimates of earlier reports. We recommend that future studies of BED use reliable and valid interview methods and that this research focus on more diverse populations, including men and a variety of racial and ethnic groups.

  4. Elisabeth Bing Is a Treasure: Personal Reflections on a Life in Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgurski, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Celebrating Elisabeth Bing’s 100th birthday is an honor and a joy. Elisabeth’s life is an inspiration to all who continue her mission of birth and women’s advocacy. Dr. Mary Jo Podgurski strives to capture the indomitable spirit of the founder of American Society for Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics (ASPO)/Lamaze (now Lamaze International) through a personal reflection. Elisabeth Bing lived with valor. She is a role model to women everywhere, the mother of childbirth education, and a woman of great courage and wisdom. Thank you, Elisabeth, for the huge gift of your life. PMID:25411534

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy in a man with comorbid severe obesity, binge eating disorder, and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Del Casale, Antonio; Serata, Daniele; Caccia, Federica; Di Pietro, Simone; Scatena, Paola; Carbonetti, Paolo; Fensore, Claudio; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    A 41-year-old man with comorbid binge-eating disorder, severe obesity, and bipolar disorder since the age of 20 years, resistant to drug and psychotherapy combinations, worsened progressively. Relentless weight gain forced him to immobility and dependence on others. He was hospitalized for a mixed-mood episode with anxiety, mystical delusions, and auditory hallucinations. To overcome treatment resistance, we suggested electroconvulsive therapy. After 1 electroconvulsive therapy cycle, psychological symptoms promptly improved. He received clozapine and lithium. After 2 years, he reached normal weight and fair psychopathological compensation.

  6. Binge Eating in Parkinson Disease: Prevalence, Correlates, and the Contribution of Deep Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Susatia, Frandy; Bowers, Dawn; Ong, Tiara L.; Jacobson, Charles E.; Okun, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Malaty, Irene A.; Foote, Kelly D.; Fernandez, Hubert H.

    2011-01-01

    Of 96 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients at the University of Florida Movement Disorders Center, one (1%) met diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder (BED). Eight (8.3%) exhibited subthreshold BED. Psychometric criteria classified problem gambling in 17.8%, hoarding in 8.3%, buying in 11.5%, hypersexuality in 1.0%, and mania in 1.0% of patients. More overeaters met psychometric criteria for at least one additional impulse control disorder (67% vs. 29%). No more overeaters than non-overea...

  7. Validation of the portuguese version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns: revised (QEWP-R for the screening of binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Maria Beatriz Ferrari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present paper describes the validation of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R designed for the diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED and sub-clinical binge eating. METHODS: 89 overweight women seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity were assessed with the Portuguese version of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns and were, subsequently, interviewed with the eating disorders module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/P. Rates of binge eating disorder and sub-clinical cases of binge eating obtained with the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised were then compared to those obtained with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTS: In the identification of binge eating, irrespective of the presence of all criteria for binge eating disorder the QEWP-R Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised yielded a sensitivity value of 0.88, a specificity value of 0.63 and a positive predictive value of 0.825. Rates for the identification of the full syndrome of binge eating disorder were: sensitivity value of 0.548, a specificity value of 0.8 and a positive predictive value of 0.793. CONCLUSIONS: The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised can be useful in a first-step screening procedure to identify probable cases of binge eating. It can be useful as a screening tool and as a first step of clinical assessment of patients seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity.

  8. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-06-17

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women.

  9. Visual attentional bias for food in adolescents with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Lüthold, Patrick; Kittel, Rebekka; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) are prone of having their attention interfered by food cues, and that food-related attentional biases are associated with calorie intake and eating disorder psychopathology. For adolescents with BED experimental evidence on attentional processing of food cues is lacking. Using eye-tracking and a visual search task, the present study examined visual orienting and disengagement processes of food in youth with BED. Eye-movement data and reaction times were recorded in 25 adolescents (12-20 years) with BED and 25 controls (CG) individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and socio-economic status. During a free exploration paradigm, the BED group showed a greater gaze duration bias for food images than the CG. Groups did not differ in gaze direction biases. In a visual search task, the BED group showed a greater detection bias for food targets than the CG. Group differences were more pronounced for personally attractive than unattractive food images. Regarding clinical associations, only in the BED group the gaze duration bias for food was associated with increased hunger and lower body mass index, and the detection bias for food targets was associated with greater reward sensitivity. The study provided first evidence of an attentional bias to food in adolescents with BED. However, more research is needed for further specifying disengagement and orienting processes in adolescent BED, including overt and covert attention, and their prospective associations with binge-eating behaviors and associated psychopathology.

  10. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Vitale, Giovanni; Massi, Maurizio; Cifani, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The present study evaluated the effect of Hypericum perforatum dry extract in an experimental model of binge eating (BE). Methods. BE for highly palatable food (HPF) was evoked in female rats by three 8-day cycles of food restriction/re-feeding and acute stress on the test day (day 25). Stress was induced by preventing access to HPF for 15 min, while rats were able to see and smell it. Hypericum perforatum dry extract was given by gavage. Results. Only rats exposed to both food restrictions and stress exhibited BE. The doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum extract significantly reduced the BE episode, while 125 mg/kg was ineffective. The same doses did not affect HPF intake in the absence of BE. The dose of 250 mg/kg did not significantly modify stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels, suggesting that the effect on BE is not due to suppression of the stress response The combined administration of 125 mg/kg of Hypericum perforatum together with Salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea, produced a synergic effect on BE. Conclusions. The present results indicate for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extracts may have therapeutic properties in bingeing-related eating disorders.

  11. City of Bingöl in May 2003: Assessment of strong ground motion records

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Çeken; G Beyhan; H H Selim

    2014-03-01

    The main shock of Bingöl earthquake ( = 6.4) recorded by six accelerometers in the area occurred at 03:27 local time on May 1, 2003. The largest acceleration value of north–south component was recorded as 545.5 cm/s2 at the nearest station which is 12 km away from the epicenter of earthquake. Especially, 0.15 s short period was observed when high spectral acceleration value occurred. An acceleration value greater than 50 gal was recorded at the BNG (Bingöl) station and structural damage occurred within 6.5 s was very important for the near source and strong ground motion seismology. The recorded peak acceleration values were greater than the estimated empirical acceleration values. However, the structural damage was not as high and widespread as expected. This occurrence was explained by considering the factors of earthquake source, frequency content, effective duration, effective acceleration value, local soil conditions, rupture direction and attenuation.

  12. Pharmacological manipulations in animal models of anorexia and binge eating in relation to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K

    2014-10-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT(2C/2A) receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive α2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs.

  13. The association between emotions and eating behaviour in an obese population with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, W; Devonport, T J; Blake, M

    2016-01-01

    There is utility in understanding the antecedents of binge eating (BE), with a view to explaining poorer weight loss treatment responses in this subgroup. A systematic review was completed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the aim of exploring associations between emotions and eating behaviour in a population affected by obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search of four electronic databases (2004-2014) yielded 15 studies for inclusion. Included studies performed poorly on data quality analysis with respect to controlling for confounding variables, and sample size. Included papers largely focused on negative emotions as antecedents of BE; depression was consistently associated with a BED-obese classification and BE. Negative mood, sadness, tension and instability of emotions were found to be antecedents of BE in an adult BED-obese sample. However, findings were mixed regarding the role of stress, anger and positive emotions within the BED-obese population. Recommendations are presented for the identification of BED, and ecologically valid experimental designs that further understanding of the complex and varied emotions that associate with BE. The implications of these and other limitations for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research alongside suggestions for practitioners. © 2015 World Obesity.

  14. Regional grey matter volume abnormalities in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Axel; Vaitl, Dieter; Schienle, Anne

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-eating disorder (BED) are associated with structural brain abnormalities. Both disorders share the main symptom binge-eating, but are considered differential diagnoses. We attempted to identify alterations in grey matter volume (GMV) that are present in both psychopathologies as well as disorder-specific GMV characteristics. Such information can help to improve neurobiological models of eating disorders and their classification. A total of 50 participants (patients suffering from BN (purge type), BED, and normal-weight controls) underwent structural MRI scanning. GMV for specific brain regions involved in food/reinforcement processing was analyzed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Both patient groups were characterized by greater volumes of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to healthy controls. In BN patients, who had increased ventral striatum volumes, body mass index and purging severity were correlated with striatal grey matter volume. Altogether, our data implicate a crucial role of the medial OFC in the studied eating disorders. The structural abnormality might be associated with dysfunctions in food reward processing and/or self-regulation. The bulimia-specific volume enlargement of the ventral striatum is discussed in the framework of negative reinforcement through purging and associated weight regulation.

  15. Examining Associations between Negative Urgency and Key Components of Objective Binge Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when experiencing negative emotions) is a risk factor for binge eating, although few studies have examined interviewer-assessed objective binge episodes (OBEs). Moreover, research has not investigated how NU relates to the core components of OBEs: loss of control (LOC) eating and objective overeating (OO). Understanding the relationship between NU and these core components will enhance etiologic models of eating disorder development. Thus, the current study examined associations between NU, OBEs, and the components of OBEs by comparing levels of NU in women with OBEs, LOC eating only, and OO only to women with no pathological eating. Method Participants were 612 women who endorsed lifetime OBEs (5.4%), LOC eating outside of OBEs (5.7%), OO only (2.8%), or none of these eating episodes (85.9%). Results Women with OBEs, LOC only, and OO only had significantly higher levels of NU than women without these episodes, suggesting that NU is associated with both the LOC and OO components of OBEs. Discussion NU relates to the spectrum of pathology present in women with OBEs. Future research should examine the mechanisms underlying these associations, including impaired behavioral/psychological control and/or increased reward sensitivity in response to negative affect. PMID:25865091

  16. Treatment of obese patients with binge eating disorder using topiramate: a review

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    Paolo Leombruni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Leombruni, Luca Lavagnino, Secondo FassinoDepartment of Neurosciences, Psychiatry Section, University of Torino, Centre for Eating Disorders and Obesity, Torino, ItalyAbstract: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and prophylaxis of migraine. Some authors have proposed its use as a mood stabilizer and have reported its efficacy in reducing impulsiveness and improving mood regulation, possibly via its antagonism to glutamatergic transmission in the lateral hypothalamus, although this indication is still controversial. Weight loss is a side effect consistently reported in the medical literature in patients treated with topiramate. Given its potential role in stabilizing mood and reducing impulse control problems and weight, topiramate has been proposed as a treatment for obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this paper is to review published data on the efficacy and safety of topiramate for the treatment of obese subjects with BED. Although the evidence is preliminary, topiramate appears to be a relatively safe and effective treatment for obese subjects with BED. Limitations of the studies and future directions for research are discussed.Keywords: topiramate, binge eating disorder, obesity

  17. Dietary restraint partially mediates the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating only in lean individuals: The importance of accounting for body mass in studies of restraint

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    Jaime Ashley Coffino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data that suggests impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI. Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333 or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173 and completed the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the difficulties with impulse control subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but dietary restraint was not. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  18. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  19. Influence of negative affect on decision making in women with restrictive and binge-purge type anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with

  20. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  1. Predictors and Moderators of Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Medication for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,…

  2. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  3. The prevalence of DSM-IV personality pathology among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, PV; Van Furth, EF; Lacey, JH; Waller, G

    2003-01-01

    Background. There are numerous reports of personality disorder pathology in different eating disorders. However, few studies have directly compared personality pathology in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity. The present study examines group differences in DSM-IV personality patholog

  4. Psychiatric Disorders Associated with the Onset and Persistence of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…

  5. The Prevalence of Binge Eating Disorder and Its Relationship to Work and Classroom Productivity and Activity Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, Anna A.; Stoffel, Cheri L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder on university campus, its associations with health risk factors, and its associations with work and classroom productivity and activity impairment, adjusted for health risk factors. Participants: The study was conducted at a public midwestern university in the United…

  6. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  7. Predicting dropout from intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy for binge eating disorder using pre-treatment characteristics: A naturalistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroling, M.S.; Wiersma, F.E.; Lammers, M.W.; Noorthoorn, E.O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Method: Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An explo

  8. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. University Binge Drinking Patterns and Changes in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Undergraduates in a Hong Kong University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H.; Chan, Karli W. C.; Chow, Julie K. W.; Fung, K. P.; Fong, Ben Y. F.; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of binge drinking and changes in drinking patterns among Chinese university students. Participants and Methods: Responses to an anonymous questionnaire were compared between a random sample of 411 second year Chinese undergraduate students in 2006 and 2,630 first year students from the previous year. Students…

  10. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  11. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Dunlop

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating.

  12. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings.

  13. Do Emotional Eating Urges Regulate Affect? Concurrent and Prospective Associations and Implications for Risk Models of Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.; Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Hu, Jean Yueqin; Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Emotional eating (EE) reflects an urge to eat in response to emotional rather than physical cues and is a risk factor for the development of binge eating. EE has been conceptualized as an attempt to regulate negative affect (NA), a posited maintenance factor for binge eating. However, no study has examined whether EE urges regulate affect. Further, no studies have examined longitudinal associations between EE urges and positive affect (PA). Method We examined within-subject longitudinal associations between affect and EE urges in a community-based sample of female twins (mean age=17.8 years). Participants (N=239) completed ratings of affect and EE urges for 45 consecutive days. Results Greater NA was concurrently associated with greater EE urges. Additionally, greater EE urges predicted worse NA for both concurrent and prospective (next-day) analyses. Finally, lower PA was associated with greater EE urges in concurrent analyses, but there were no prospective associations between changes in PA and EE urges. Discussion EE urges do not appear to effectively regulate affect. EE urges in a community-based sample appears to have the same functional relationship with affect as binge eating in clinical samples, further supporting EE as a useful dimensional construct for examining processes related to binge eating. PMID:24431328

  14. Components of Negative Affect as Moderators of the Relationship between Early Drinking Onset and Binge-Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert S.; Swaim, Randall C.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age…

  15. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  16. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p sexual orientation to multiple types of people was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 2.9 for disclosure to one-two types of people, p types of people, p sexual health outcomes, including high number of lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, p sexual risk behavior and was actually associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (aOR = 2.8, p sexual orientation to multiple types of people may be more engaged with the sexual minority community, likely in bars and other venues where permissive norms for alcohol use prevail. That this frequency of binge drinking does not appear to be associated with increased sexual risk behavior (and may even be associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months) lends further support to the suggestion that these individuals with healthy concepts of the self (as indicated by high levels of disclosure and low

  17. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Wiers Reinout

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent adolescents from binge drinking. This article describes a study that aims to assess the effects of this selective school-based prevention programme in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial is being conducted among 13 to 15-year-old adolescents in secondary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention condition consisted of two 90 minute group sessions, carried out at the participants' schools and provided by a qualified counsellor and a co-facilitator. The intervention targeted young adolescents who demonstrated personality risk for alcohol abuse. The group sessions were adapted to four personality profiles. The control condition received no further intervention above the standard substance use education sessions provided in the Dutch national curriculum. The primary outcomes will be the percentage reduction in binge drinking, weekly drinking and drinking-related problems after three specified time periods. A screening survey collected data by means of an Internet questionnaire. Students have completed, or will complete, a post-treatment survey after 2, 6, and 12 months, also by means of an online questionnaire. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention programme. We expect that a significantly lower number of adolescents will binge drink, drink weekly, and have drinking-related problems in the intervention condition compared to the control condition, as a result of this intervention. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch

  18. Computed tomography assessment of peripubertal craniofacial morphology in a sheep model of binge alcohol drinking in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker

  19. Escalating dose pretreatment induces pharmacodynamic and not pharmacokinetic tolerance to a subsequent high-dose methamphetamine binge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Meghan L; Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Cho, Arthur K; Lacan, Goran; Melega, William P

    2006-11-01

    A major feature of human methamphetamine (METH) abuse is the gradual dose escalation that precedes high-dose exposure. The period of escalating doses (EDs) is likely associated with development of tolerance to aspects of METH's pharmacologic and toxic effects but the relative contributions of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors have not been well defined. In our prior studies in rats, we showed that pretreatment with an ED-METH regimen (0.1-4.0 mg/kg over 14 days) attenuated the toxicity of a subsequently administered high-dose METH binge (4 x 6 mg/kg at 2 h interval) that itself produced behavioral stereotypy, increases in core temperature, and decreases in DA system phenotypic markers in caudate-putamen (CP). Using those ED-METH and binge protocols in the present studies, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters that may have contributed to the apparent neuroprotection afforded by ED-METH were assessed. The ED-METH regimen itself reduced [(3)H]WIN35,428 (WIN) binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) by 15% in CP, but did not affect DA content. During the METH binge, ED-METH pretreated animals showed attenuated increases in core temperature while concurrent microdialysis studies in CP showed a reduced DA response despite unaltered extracellular levels of METH. At 1 h after the binge, concentrations of METH and its metabolite amphetamine in brain and plasma were unaffected by the ED-METH. The results show that ED-METH pretreatment produces reductions in DAT binding and the DA response during a subsequent METH binge by altering pharmacodynamic and not pharmacokinetic parameters.

  20. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  1. Transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica Binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pinto de Azevedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP foi descrito pela primeira vez nos anos 1950. Contudo, sua elevação à categoria diagnóstica apenas ocorreu em 1994, quando foi incluído no apêndice B do DSM IV, com critérios provisórios para seu diagnóstico. Trata-se de uma síndrome caracterizada por episódios recorrentes de compulsão alimentar, sem qualquer comportamento de compensação para evitar um possível ganho de peso. Incertezas quanto a seus parâmetros diagnósticos como caracterização da quantidade de alimentos ingeridos, duração de um episódio de comer compulsivo, ou mesmo o valor da perda de controle sobre a ingestão alimentar, tornam difíceis uma homogeinização de um grupo sindrômico. Desta forma, estudos epidemiológicos podem revelar diferentes dados de caracterização da população portadora deste transtorno. Isto reforça a necessidade da manutenção de estudos para avaliação desta patologia.Binge eating disorder was first described in 1955. However, its upgrade to a diagnostic category only occurred in 1994, when it was included in appendix B of DSM IV, with provisory criteria. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, without any compensatory behavior to prevent a possible weight gain. Uncertainties about the diagnostic criteria like the amount of food ingested, the duration or the value of the loss of control during a binge eating episode make its characterization difficult. Then, epidemiological studies may reveal the characterization of this disorder. This means that more studies are needed for an appropriate evaluation of this pathology.

  2. An empirical comparison of atypical bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Fontenelle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10 defines atypical bulimia nervosa (ABN as an eating disorder that encompasses several different syndromes, including the DSM-IV binge eating disorder (BED. We investigated whether patients with BED can be differentiated clinically from patients with ABN who do not meet criteria for BED. Fifty-three obese patients were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the ICD-10 criteria for eating disorders. All volunteers completed the Binge Eating Scale (BES, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90. Individuals fulfilling criteria for both ABN and BED (N = 18, ABN without BED (N = 16, and obese controls (N = 19 were compared and contrasted. Patients with ABN and BED and patients with ABN without BED displayed similar levels of binge eating severity according to the BES (31.05 ± 7.7 and 30.05 ± 5.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than those found in the obese controls (18.32 ± 8.7; P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. When compared to patients with ABN and BED, patients with ABN without BED showed increased lifetime rates of agoraphobia (P = 0.02 and increased scores in the somatization (1.97 ± 0.85 vs 1.02 ± 0.68; P = 0.001, obsessive-compulsive (2.10 ± 1.03 vs 1.22 ± 0.88; P = 0.01, anxiety (1.70 ± 0.82 vs 1.02 ± 0.72; P = 0.02, anger (1.41 ± 1.03 vs 0.59 ± 0.54; P = 0.005 and psychoticism (1.49 ± 0.93 vs 0.75 ± 0.55; P = 0.01 dimensions of the SCL-90. The BED construct may represent a subgroup of ABN with less comorbities and associated symptoms.

  3. Binge Drinking

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  19. Negative emotional expectancies and readiness to change among college student binge drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A M; Palfai, T P

    2001-01-01

    While expectancies are considered to be an important cognitive variable in the etiology and maintenance of substance use, less is known about their role in attitudes toward addictive behavior change. It has recently been suggested that negative alcohol expectancies, in particular, might play a fundamental role in motivation to change. Among a population of college student binge drinkers, the differential ability of positive and negative expectancies to predict total readiness to change (RTC) scores was examined. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that controlling for level of consumption and number of drinking-related problems, negative and not positive expectancies significantly predicted RTC. In an examination of expectancy subtypes, negative emotional expectancies emerged as the only significant predictor of change motivation. Possible explanations for the findings and implications for interventions with undergraduate heavy drinkers are discussed.

  20. The Association of Binge Eating Disorder with Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Canan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED in individuals with type 2 diabetes and to investigate whether a comorbidity with BED would affect glycemic control in these patients. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. The participants were assessed for eating disorders by a psychiatrist. Blood samples were drawn and HbA1c and other biochemical parameters were measured. Results: Of the 82 subjects, 27 (34.1% met the criteria for BED. No other types of eating disorders were detected. HbA1c was significantly higher in individuals with BED (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that BED is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients and it impairs glycemic control. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes should be assessed carefully for eating disorders. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 26-7

  1. Automated identification of patients with a diagnosis of binge eating disorder from narrative electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Brandon K; LaFleur, Joanne; Kamauu, Aaron W C; Ginter, Thomas; Forbush, Tyler B; Agbor, Stephen; Supina, Dylan; Hodgkins, Paul; DuVall, Scott L

    2014-02-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) does not have an International Classification of Diseases, 9th or 10th edition code, but is included under 'eating disorder not otherwise specified' (EDNOS). This historical cohort study identified patients with clinician-diagnosed BED from electronic health records (EHR) in the Department of Veterans Affairs between 2000 and 2011 using natural language processing (NLP) and compared their characteristics to patients identified by EDNOS diagnosis codes. NLP identified 1487 BED patients with classification accuracy of 91.8% and sensitivity of 96.2% compared to human review. After applying study inclusion criteria, 525 patients had NLP-identified BED only, 1354 had EDNOS only, and 68 had both BED and EDNOS. Patient characteristics were similar between the groups. This is the first study to use NLP as a method to identify BED patients from EHR data and will allow further epidemiological study of patients with BED in systems with adequate clinical notes.

  2. Intentional hypoglycemia to control bingeing in a patient with type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Mandana; Kreisman, Stuart; Hall, Lacresha

    2015-02-01

    Most cases of eating disorders associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus are categorized as diabulimia, a disorder of withholding insulin treatment to lose weight through sustained hyperglycemia. In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with both type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa who has an atypical way of controlling her bingeing by keeping her blood sugars low. This pattern of intentionally sustained hypoglycemia has not been previously described in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Knowing various presentations of eating disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes can provide healthcare workers with enhanced ability in recognizing and educating at-risk patients, in the hope of preventing serious hypoglycemia or complications. Furthermore, a patient's awareness of complications associated with suboptimal control of diabetes, whether by overdosing or underdosing their insulin regimen, might lead to avoidance of disordered eating behaviours.

  3. Cognitive interference and a food-related memory bias in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Schmitz, Florian; Trentowska, Monika; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Berking, Matthias; Naumann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The present study was concerned with cognitive interference and a specific memory bias for eating-related stimuli in binge eating disorder (BED). Further objectives were to find out under which circumstances such effects would occur, and whether they are related with each other and with reported severity of BED symptoms. A group of women diagnosed with BED and a matched sample of overweight controls completed two paradigms, an n-back task with lures and a recent-probes task. The BED group generally experienced more interference in the n-back task. Additionally, they revealed selectively increased interference for food items in the recent-probes task. Findings can be reconciled with the view that control functions are generally impaired in BED, and that there is an additional bias for eating-related stimuli, both of which were related with reported severity of BED symptoms.

  4. Acute Stressors Reduce Neural and Behavioral Inhibition to Food Cues among Binge Eating Disorder Symptomatic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Lyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stressors can trigger binge-eating but researchers have yet to consider their effects on both neural responses to food cues and food consumption among those at risk. In this experiment, we examined the impact of acute stressors on neural activation to food images and subsequent food consumption within binge-eating disorder (BED and non-eating disordered control groups. Eighteen women meeting DSM-IV BED criteria and 26 women serving as non-eating disordered controls were randomly assigned to unpleasant stressor (painful cold pressor test followed by negative performance feedback or less unpleasant stressor (non-painful sensory discrimination task followed by positive performance feedback conditions. Subsequently, they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while viewing food and neutral images. After the scans, participants completed a self-report battery in an environment conducive to snacking. During exposure to food images, BED-symptomatic women in the unpleasant stressor condition reported more liking of high calorie food images and showed less activation in one inhibitory area, the hippocampus, compared to controls in this condition. BED-symptomatic women exposed to unpleasant stressors also consumed more chocolate than any other group during the post-scan questionnaire completion. Crucially, reduced hippocampal activation to high calorie food images predicted more chocolate consumption following fMRI scans within the entire sample. This experiment provides initial evidence suggesting unpleasant acute stressors contribute to reduced inhibitory region responsiveness in relation to external food cues and later food consumption among BED-symptomatic women.

  5. Impulsivity in binge eating disorder: food cues elicit increased reward responses and disinhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Schag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Binge eating disorder (BED represents a distinct eating disorder diagnosis. Current approaches assume increased impulsivity to be one factor leading to binge eating and weight gain. We used eye tracking to investigate both components of impulsivity, namely reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behaviour towards food in BED for the first time. METHODS: Overweight and obese people with BED (BED+; n = 25, without BED (BED-; n = 26 and healthy normal-weight controls (NWC; n = 25 performed a free exploration paradigm measuring reward sensitivity (experiment 1 and a modified antisaccade paradigm measuring disinhibited, rash-spontaneous behaviour (experiment 2 using food and nonfood stimuli. Additionally, trait impulsivity was assessed. RESULTS: In experiment 1, all participants located their initial fixations more often on food stimuli and BED+ participants gazed longer on food stimuli in comparison with BED- and NWC participants. In experiment 2, BED+ participants had more difficulties inhibiting saccades towards food and nonfood stimuli compared with both other groups in first saccades, and especially towards food stimuli in second saccades and concerning sequences of first and second saccades. BED- participants did not differ significantly from NWC participants in both experiments. Additionally, eye tracking performance was associated with self-reported reward responsiveness and self-control. CONCLUSIONS: According to these results, food-related reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behaviour, as the two components of impulsivity, are increased in BED in comparison with weight-matched and normal-weight controls. This indicates that BED represents a neurobehavioural phenotype of obesity that is characterised by increased impulsivity. Interventions for BED should target these special needs of affected patients.

  6. Characterization of IGF-II isoforms in binge eating disorder and its group psychological treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Tasca

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED affects 3.5% of the population and is characterized by binge eating for at least 2 days a week for 6 months. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy which are associated with varied success. Little is known about the biology of BED. Since there is evidence that the insulin like growth factor system is implicated in regulation of body weight, insulin sensitivity and feeding behavior, we speculated it may be involved in BED.A cross-sectional comparison was made between three groups of women: overweight with BED, overweight without BED and normal weight without BED. Women were assigned to Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Blood was collected before therapy, at completion and at 6 months follow up for evaluation of IGF-II using Western blot.97 overweight women with BED contributed to the cross-sectional comparison. The two control groups comprised 53 overweight women without BED, and 50 age matched normal weight women without BED. Obese women had significantly lower Big IGF-II than normal weight women, p = .028; Overweight women with BED had higher Mature IGF-II than normal weight women, p<.05. Big IGF-II showed a significant decreasing slope from pre- to post- to six months post-group psychological treatment, unrelated to changes in BMI (p = .008.Levels of IGF-II isoforms differed significantly between overweight and normal weight women. Overweight women with BED display abnormal levels of circulating IGF-II isoforms. BED is characterized by elevated mature IGF-II, an isoform shown to carry significant bioactivity. This finding is not related to BMI or to changes in body weight. The results also provide preliminary evidence that BIG IGF-II is sensitive to change due to group psychological treatment. We suggest that abnormalities in IGF-II processing may be involved in the neurobiology of BED.

  7. Evaluation of Spirulina Supplementation on Intermittent Binge Ethanol - Induced Neurotoxicity in Dentate Gyrus of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Asari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Spirulina is a widely used nutritional supplement which is rich in antioxidants and proteins.  Studies have shown that intermittent binge-like ethanol consumption during adolescent period caused neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. It has been suggested that antioxidant therapy may provide some level of protection against neurotoxicity of ethanol at cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effects of spirulina supplementation on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given ethanol (10 g/kg/day, intermittent binge model, or spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg/day or both from postnatal day 30 for two weeks duration. The cerebral hemispheres were processed for routine histological staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-GFAP antibody.  Ethanol-treated group showed significant deficit in the numbers of granule cells and hilar neurons of the dentate gyrus when compared to the control group. Spirulina supplementation failed to provide protection against ethanol-induced neuronal loss. Spirulina supplementation also failed to alter increased expression of GFAP immunoreactivity induced by ethanol exposure. In conclusion, these findings indicate that spirulina supplementation is not effective in reducing the ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Industrial Relevance. Spirulina is one of the widely used nutritional supplements particularly in Asian population. Being a strong antioxidant, spirulina has been shown to have many therapeutic effects in human. However, the question of whether spirulina supplementation is able to mitigate the effect of ethanol neurotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that spirulina supplementation is able to provide some protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a rat model

  8. Bing Maps: aerofotointerpretazione archeologica online. La visione panoramica “made in Microsoft”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Mastroianni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the aerial archaeology confirmed the importance and the potentiality of aerial photography in the study of landscape that already was realized by Giacomo Boni, Franz Stolze and O.G.S. Crawford between the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century. Aerial photography is today a tool used in numerous fields: from geology to civil engineering, from the study of the environment to the identification of pollution sources, from architecture to archeology; in fact it is becoming a valid and indispensable tool for the study of the ancient topography. In this last field, the aerial photograph is really important if it is used as instrument of knowledge and research. The aerial view is sure the most useful tool for observe the modern landscape and all evidence or “marks” that would be unintelligible if they are observed from the ground. The great diffusion of internet has made possible the creation of catalogues that allow consulting maps, orthophotos, aerial and oblique images online; the Italian regions have decided to publish all data on internet with the creation of websites (WebGIS. However, it is possible to encounter serious difficulties in finding the photographic material because of high costs and long times, but thanks to the use of Bing Maps, a web mapping service of Microsoft™, it is possible to break down such restrictions. Bing Maps has high resolution oblique photographs, so called “Bird’s Eye”, that allow to realize a free virtual aerial survey thanks to combined use of aerial and oblique images. This approach has been used to observe the modern landscape of Veio obtaining new archaeological useful data, without cost, for the reconstruction and update of ancient topography of Etruscan town.

  9. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were....../internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N...... = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking...

  10. Adolescent binge drinking leads to changes in alcohol drinking, anxiety, and amygdalar corticotropin releasing factor cells in adulthood in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Gilpin

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects

  11. Assessing the roles of impulsivity, food-related cognitions, BMI, and demographics in the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J

    2015-08-01

    The dual pathway model is a widely accepted model of binge eating that focuses on the role of sociocultural factors, negative affect, and dietary restraint. However, less is known about demographic (e.g., gender and ethnicity) differences in the model and the role of other variables in the model. To further our understanding of the dual pathway model of binge eating, the current study examined the role of demographics (i.e., gender, race, BMI, parental education and obesity), impulsivity, and food-related cognitions in the dual pathway model. A sample of college students completed a battery of measures. Multi-group structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the dual pathway model separately for men and women. Results supported the dual pathway model of binge eating among men and women, and also supported food-related cognitions as an important variable prior to binge eating. In other words, body shame was associated with more dietary restraint and negative affect, and in turn, dietary restraint and negative affect were associated with increased negative food-related cognitions. Then, food-related cognitions predicted binge eating. Additionally impulsivity was related to body shame, negative affect, and food-related cognitions, but was unrelated to binge eating after controlling for the other variables. Racial differences existed among women in BMI and body shame, but there were no racial differences among men. Our results suggest that the dual pathway model adequately explains binge eating among men and women, but that food-related cognitions may be an imporant anteceden to binge eating.

  12. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wolz, I.; Sauvaget, A.; R. Granero; Mestre-Bach, G.; M. Baño; Martín-Romera, V.; M. Veciana de las Heras; S. Jiménez-Murcia; Jansen, A; Roefs, A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.

    2017-01-01

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-induced craving. To investigate the combined influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on craving, inhibitory control and motivated attention, 20 healthy controls and 19 individuals with binge-eating v...

  13. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Suffoletto

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive

  14. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  15. Child abuse and neglect: relations to adolescent binge drinking in the national longitudinal study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks in a row at least 2-3 times per month in the past year. Among those reporting any maltreatment, 12.4% reported binge drinking compared to 9.9% among those reporting no maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for adolescent binge drinking controlling for parental alcoholism. In particular, all types of or combinations of types of maltreatment were strongly associated with adolescent binge drinking, controlling for age, gender, race, parental alcoholism and monitoring. Research examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on later alcohol abuse needs to recognize the clustering effects of multiple types of childhood maltreatment on alcohol problems.

  16. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating.

  17. The prevalence of binge eating disorder in a sample of college students in the north of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mónica; Conceição, Eva; Vaz, Ana Rita; Machado, Paulo P P

    2014-05-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) has important associated comorbidities and has been recently considered as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition. This study investigates the prevalence of BED in a sample of college students using a two-stage design. Between October 2008 and July 2009, 805 students attending a public college campus completed the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns - Revised to screen for possible cases. Eighty-five students meeting key criteria for BED were invited for a second stage interview using the Eating Disorder Examination. At stage 1, 9.6% of the subjects reported binge eating episodes. At stage 2, a prevalence rate of 0.5% for BED was found, and 1% if the criterion for large amount of food was excluded.

  18. Remote treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: a randomized trial of Internet-assisted cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljotsson, B; Lundin, C; Mitsell, K; Carlbring, P; Ramklint, M; Ghaderi, A

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of self-help based on cognitive behaviour therapy in combination with Internet support in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. After confirming the diagnosis with an in-person interview, 73 patients were randomly allocated to treatment or a waiting list control group. Treated individuals showed marked improvement after 12 weeks of self-help compared to the control group on both primary and secondary outcome measures. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that 37% (46% among completers) had no binge eating or purging at the end of the treatment and a considerable number of patients achieved clinically significant improvement on most of the other measures as well. The results were maintained at the 6-month follow-up, and provide evidence to support the continued use and development of self-help programmes.

  19. Evidence and potential mechanisms for mindfulness practices and energy psychology for obesity and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojcher, Renee; Gould Fogerite, Susan; Perlman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic. Chronic stress produces endocrine and immune factors that are contributors to obesity's etiology. These biochemicals also can affect appetite and eating behaviors that can lead to binge-eating disorder. The inadequacies of standard care and the problem of patient noncompliance have inspired a search for alternative treatments. Proposals in the literature have called for combination therapies involving behavioral or new biological therapies. This manuscript suggests that mind-body interventions would be ideal for such combinations. Two mind-body modalities, energy psychology and mindfulness meditation, are reviewed for their potential in treating weight loss, stress, and behavior modification related to binge-eating disorder. Whereas mindfulness meditation and practices show more compelling evidence, energy psychology, in the infancy stages of elucidation, exhibits initially promising outcomes but requires further evidence-based trials.

  20. Binge-like ingestion of a combination of an energy drink and alcohol leads to cognitive deficits and motivational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2015-09-01

    The combination of alcohol with an energy drink (ED) is believed to contribute to risky alcohol-drinking behaviors, such as binge drinking. However, the long-term effects on cognition and reward function that are caused by the repeated binge-like ingestion of alcohol and EDs are still poorly known. The present study examined the effects of a history of repeated exposure to alcohol and/or an ED on short-term memory and alcohol-seeking behavior. Male Wistar rats were given daily intragastric administration of alcohol (3.4g/kg) combined or not with an ED (10.71ml/kg) for 6 consecutive days. The rats were tested for locomotion 15min after the first intragastric treatment. Short-term memory was assessed in the novel object recognition and social discrimination tests 2-3days after the last intragastric administration. The rewarding effect of alcohol was tested 1-3weeks following the last intragastric administration in a conditioned place preference paradigm. The acute binge-like ingestion of alcohol decreased locomotor activity, whereas the combination of alcohol and an ED increased locomotion in the first minutes of assessment. Alcohol exposure produced cognitive deficits in both the object recognition and social discrimination tests, and adding the ED to the alcohol solution did not modify these effects. The combination of alcohol and the ED increased alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. Thus, a history of binge-like alcohol exposure combined with the ED caused subsequent cognitive deficits and increased alcohol seeking behavior, and such behavioral effects might contribute to the progression to alcohol abuse disorders.

  1. Is there an association between traumatic dental injury and social capital, binge drinking and socioeconomic indicators among schoolchildren?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Neves de Paiva

    Full Text Available Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother's schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively.The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588. Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010, those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001 and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235-6.466, p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654-8.535, p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21-3.06, p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury.The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended.

  2. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eRazzoli; Valentina eSanghez; Alessandro eBartolomucci

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  3. Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Nancy Romero Abstract Research suggests that the associations between femininity, body image and eating disorders are intricate. How these constructs are linked to each other still needs to be determined. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of these links, examining the mediational relationship among these constructs. Also...

  4. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  5. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Atrayee; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT) or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH) (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals) or dextrose (Control). Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART.

  6. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Banerjee

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals or dextrose (Control. Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4, leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Birgit; Nagl, Michaela; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Hilbert, Anja; Kersting, Anette

    2016-07-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait-lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n=69) or a wait-list condition (n=70). Binge-eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology were measured with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination administered over the telephone. Additionally, body weight and body mass index, depression, and anxiety were assessed before and immediately after treatment. Three-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data were recorded in the treatment group. Immediately after the treatment the number of binge-eating episodes showed significant improvement (d=1.02, between group) in the treatment group relative to the wait-list condition. The treatment group had also significantly reduced symptoms of all eating psychopathology outcomes relative to the wait-list condition (0.82≤d≤1.11). In the treatment group significant improvement was still observed for all measures 1year after the intervention relative to pretreatment levels. The Internet-based intervention proved to be efficacious, significantly reducing the number of binge-eating episodes and eating disorder pathology long term. Low-threshold e-health interventions should be further evaluated to improve treatment access for patients suffering from BED.

  8. Comparison of hydrogenated vegetable shortening and nutritionally complete high fat diet on limited access-binge behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jon F.; Melhorn, Susan J; Heiman, Justin U.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that intermittent exposure to hydrogenated vegetable shortening yields a binge/compensate pattern of feeding in rats. The present study was designed to assess whether rats would exhibit similar patterns of intake when given intermittent access to a nutritionally complete high-fat diet. Four groups of rats received varying exposure to either hydrogenated vegetable shortening or high-fat diet for 8 consecutive weeks. Animals were given daily and intermittent acce...

  9. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  10. Adolescent rats are more prone to binge eating behavior: a study of age and obesity as risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron

    2014-08-15

    Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.

  11. "openness of search engine": A critical flaw in search systems; a case study on google, yahoo and bing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, Katuru SM Kalyana

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that Search Engines are playing a great role in Internet usage. But all the top search engines Google, Yahoo and Bing are having a critical flaw called "Openness of a Search Engine". An Internet user should be allowed to get the search results only when requested through Search engine's web page but the user must not be allowed to get the search results when requested through any web page that does not belong to the Search Engine. Only results of a search engine should be available to the Internet user but not the Search Engine. This paper explains the critical flaw called "Openness of Search Engine" with a case study on top 3 search engines 'Google', 'Yahoo' and 'Bing'. This paper conducts an attack based test using J2EE framework and proves that 'Google' passed the test and it strongly protects its Critical Search System, where 'Yahoo' and 'Bing' are failed to protect their Search Engines. But previously 'Google' also had other high severity issues with the Openness of search engine; this ...

  12. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.

  13. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  14. Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-04-01

    Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN.

  15. Clinical Utility of Subtyping Binge Eating Disorder by History of Anorexia or Bulimia Nervosa in a Treatment Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Linsey M.; Mitchell, James E.; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether having a history of anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) is associated with response to treatment in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). Method Data from 189 adults diagnosed with BED who were randomly assigned to one of three group cognitive-behavioral (CBT) treatments were analyzed to compare those with and without a history of AN/BN. Results A total of 16% of the sample had a history of AN/BN. The BED subgroup with a history of AN/BN presented with higher rates of mood disorders and greater eating-related symptom severity at baseline. Participants with a history of AN/BN also had higher global eating disorder (ED) symptoms at end of treatment (EOT), and more frequent objective binge-eating episodes at EOT and 12-month follow-up. Discussion These findings suggest that in adults with BED, a history of AN/BN is predictive of greater eating-related symptom severity following group-based CBT and poorer short- and long-term binge-eating outcomes. These findings suggest that considering ED history in the treatment of adults with BED may be clinically useful. PMID:25959549

  16. Ceramide metabolism analysis in a model of binge drinking reveals both neuroprotective and toxic effects of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Mihyun; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Patel, Neha; Haughey, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is a common form of alcohol abuse that involves repeated rounds of intoxication followed by withdrawal. The episodic effects of binge drinking and withdrawal on brain resident cells are thought to contribute to neural remodeling and neurological damage. However, the molecular mechanisms for these neurodegenerative effects are not understood. Ethanol (EtOH) regulates the metabolism of ceramide, a highly bioactive lipid that is enriched in brain. We used a mouse model of binge drinking to determine the effects of EtOH intoxication and withdrawal on brain ceramide metabolism. Intoxication and acute alcohol withdrawal were each associated with distinct changes in ceramide regulatory genes and metabolic products. EtOH intoxication was accompanied by decreased concentrations of multiple ceramides, coincident with reductions in the expression of enzymes involved in the production of ceramides, and increased expression of ceramide degrading enzymes. EtOH withdrawal was associated with specific increases in ceramide C16:0, C18:0 and C20:0 and increased expression of enzymes involved with ceramide production. These data suggest that EtOH intoxication may evoke a ceramide phenotype that is neuroprotective, while EtOH withdrawal results in a metabolic shift that increases the production of potentially toxic ceramide species. PMID:25060779

  17. Negative Affect Prior to and Following Overeating-Only, Loss of Control Eating-Only, and Binge Eating Episodes in Obese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kelly C.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to examine the trajectory of five types of negative affect (global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, sadness) prior to and following three types of eating episodes (overeating in the absence of loss of control [OE-only], loss of control eating in the absence of overeating [LOC-only], and binge eating) among obese adults using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Fifty obese adults (84% female) completed a two-week EMA protocol during which they were asked to record all eating episodes and rate each episode on continua of overeating and loss of control. Momentary measures of global negative affect, fear, guilt, hostility, and sadness were assessed using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Trajectories for each of the five types of negative affect were modeled prior to and following episodes of OE-only, LOC-only, and binge eating. Results Consistent with previous findings, global negative affect and Guilt increased prior to and decreased following binge eating episodes (all ps<.05). Guilt also decreased following OE-only episodes (p<.05). Discussion These results are consistent with the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating may function to regulate global negative affect, and more specifically, guilt among obese adults. These data suggest that the relationship between negative affect and binge eating may not be unique to individuals with clinical eating disorders and indicate that targeting negative affect may be an effective strategy for the treatment of binge eating in the context of obesity. PMID:25808854

  18. Radiation-induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ) cvs Napoleon and Bing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saamin, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using gamma radiation to determine radiosensitivities of main and accessory buds, to increase the proportion of mutant tissue, and to determine the type of damage and mode of recovery in irradiated shoot spices of sweet cherry cvs Napoleon and Bin. Survival, growth, and the types of mutations of V/sub 1/ (primary) shoots and V/sub 2/ plants were observed. LD/sub 50/ values, based on survival of forced buds were about 5kR for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air, 5.5kR for acute exposure in water, and 6kR for fractionated dose in water. 0.39-0.69 accessory buds/site on non-irradiated Napoleon had forced after 30 days in the glasshouse. In the Bing field experiment with main buds, the LD/sub 50/ for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air was 3.5kR. In water, the LD/sub 50/ was 5kR for acute treatment and 6.5kR for fractionated dose. The overall mutation frequency in Napoleon V/sub 2/ shoots derived from main buds was 7.6%: 0.04% growth-reduced mutants, 0.4% total leaf mutants, and7.1% partial leaf mutants.

  19. [Structural equation model in the study of risk factors in the maintenance of binge eating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, A; Vicentini, M; Spoto, A; Vidotto, G

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated, in a sample of 483 adolescent girls, a number of risk factors associated with Binge Eating (BE) disorder, i.e. negative feelings, dieting behaviour, social influence and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the following questionnaires: Bulimia Test, Depression Questionnaire, Dieting Self-Efficacy Measure, Dieting Success, Dieting Status Measure, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Scale Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used in the data analysis to verify the hypothesized relations among the variables, with the aim of identifying the main predictors of BE. This methodology explains the correlation between the considered variables, and determines, using quantitative good fit indexes, both the strength of the correlations and the plausibility of the causal links between the hypothesized factors. Our findings confirm that negative feelings (Negative Affect) are the primary predictor for the maintenance of BE and highlight the significant role played by Social Influence. While Dieting Behaviour is not a primary predictor for the maintenance of BE it appears to influence it through its link with Negative Affect.

  20. Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Luca; Innamorati, Marco; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims Several studies report a positive association between adverse life experiences and adult obesity. Despite the high comorbidity between binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, few authors have studied the link between trauma and BED. In this review the association between exposure to adverse life experiences and a risk for the development of obesity and BED in adulthood is explored. Methods Based on a scientific literature review in Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo databases, the results of 70 studies (N = 306,583 participants) were evaluated including 53 studies on relationship between adverse life experiences and obesity, 7 studies on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to obesity, and 10 studies on the association between adverse life experiences and BED. In addition, mediating factors between the association of adverse life experiences, obesity and BED were examined. Results The majority of studies (87%) report that adverse life experiences are a risk factor for developing obesity and BED. More precisely a positive association between traumatic experiences and obesity and PTSD and obesity were found, respectively, in 85% and 86% of studies. Finally, the great majority of studies (90%) between trauma and the development of BED in adulthood strongly support this association. Meanwhile, different factors mediating between the trauma and obesity link were identified. Discussion and conclusions Although research data show a strong association between life adverse experiences and the development of obesity and BED, more research is needed to explain this association.

  1. Binge eating disorder and obesity: preliminary evidence for distinct cardiovascular and psychological phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated cardiovascular functioning, mood, and eating-related psychological factors at rest and in response to mental stress in three groups of women: 1) Obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; n=9); 2) obese non-BED women (n=15); and 3) normal weight (NW) non-BED women (n=15). Compared to both obese and NW non-BED women, obese women with BED showed heightened overall blood pressure and reported greater depression symptoms, perceived stress, and eating-related psychopathology. Additionally, obese women with BED reported greater overall negative affect and state anxiety compared to obese non-BED women. The heart rate response to stress was blunted in the obese BED group compared to the other groups, but this effect was no longer significant after controlling for baseline differences in depression. Correlational analyses revealed a positive association between stress-induced changes in hunger and cardiovascular measures only in obese women with BED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if stress dysregulation and stress-induced increases in hunger contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of BED. In particular, studies utilizing an additional NW BED control group are warranted in order to further examine the impact of BED above and beyond the impact of obesity on psychophysiological functioning and to inform the growing literature regarding stress-related factors that distinguish the BED and obesity phenotypes.

  2. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder in Midlife and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Benyamini, Yael; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We examined eating disorders in midlife and beyond by comparing frequency of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals and younger controls. We also compared demographic and eating disorder-related characteristics across diagnoses and age groups. Participants included 2,118 treatment-seeking adults who self-reported their eating-related symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Results showed that percent of patients with BN was significantly lower whereas percent of patients with BED and OSFED was significantly higher among midlife relative to younger patients. Percent of patients with AN did not differ between midlife and younger patients. Additionally, midlife and younger patients with BED and OSFED differed on several demographic (e.g., marital status) and eating disorder-related characteristics (e.g., BMI, compulsive exercising). This study suggests that BN is less common whereas BED and OSFED are more common among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals relative to younger controls. In addition, AN and BN present fairly similarly whereas BED and OSFED present fairly differently among midlife patients relative to younger controls. Attention to these differences and similarities is necessary to understand eating disorders in midlife.

  3. Alleged Approach-Avoidance Conflict for Food Stimuli in Binge Eating Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth J Leehr

    Full Text Available Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated.We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+ with an overweight sample without BED (BED- and with normal weight controls (NWC regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography valuation of food versus non-food stimuli.Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive and indirect (negative valuation of food stimuli.BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions.

  4. Association between binge eating disorder and changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Gunstad, John

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that both obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) may be associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a lifetime history of BED would be associated with changes in several domains of cognitive functioning (attention, executive function, language, and memory) following bariatric surgery. Participants were 68 bariatric surgery patients who completed a computerized battery of cognitive tests within 30 days prior to undergoing surgery and again at a 12-Month postoperative follow-up. Results revealed that on the whole, participants displayed improvements from baseline to follow-up in attention, executive function, and memory, even after controlling for diagnostic history of depression; no changes were observed for language. However, individuals with and without a history of BED did not differ in changes in body mass index or in the degree of improvement in cognitive functioning from baseline to follow-up. Such results suggest that a history of BED does not influence changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery. Future research will be needed to further clarify the role of BED in predicting cognitive function over time.

  5. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  6. Impaired Early-Response Inhibition in Overweight Females with and without Binge Eating Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Several studies report increased reward sensitivity towards food in overweight individuals. By contrast, data is inconclusive with respect to response inhibition in overweight individuals without binge eating disorder (BED. Hence, the latter was addressed in the present study in a group of overweight/obese females with and without BED and a normal-weight control group without eating disorders.A group of women with BED (n = 29, a group of overweight women without BED (n = 33 and normal-weight females (n = 30 participated in a pictorial priming paradigm, with food items (relevant primes and office utensils (neutral primes and color blobs (neutral primes as stimuli. Increased response priming effects (i.e. priming with switches between stimulus categories were taken as indicators of deficient behavioral inhibition.Priming effects for neutral primes were moderate and comparable across all groups. However, primes associated with the food task set lead to increased priming effects in both overweight groups. But, effects were comparable for overweight/obese participants with and without BED.Results suggest that early response inhibition in the context of food is impaired in overweight individuals compared to normal-weight individuals.

  7. Activin A is increased in the nucleus accumbens following a cocaine binge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Jun; Martin, Jennifer A.; Gancarz, Amy M.; Adank, Danielle N.; Sim, Fraser J.; Dietz, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a long-lasting disease characterized by compulsive drug intake mediated in part by neuronal and biological adaptations in key brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc). While we previously demonstrated involvement of the activin 2a receptor in drug taking, the role of its ligand, activin A, in cocaine relapse is unknown. Activin A levels in the NAc were assessed via ELISA and immunohistochemistry (in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) following a cocaine binge paradigm. Cocaine exposure significantly increased the levels of activin A in the NAc of animals that had self-administered cocaine prior to the 14-day withdrawal compared with levels in saline controls. This was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of IBA1+ microglia in the NAc that were immunopositive for activin A. In contrast, the proportions of NeuN+ neurons and GFAP+ astrocytes that were immunopositive for activin A remained unaltered. In conclusion, these data suggest that increased secretion of activin A, particularly from microglia, in the NAc represents a novel potential target for the treatment of cocaine relapse. PMID:28272550

  8. Relationship-focused therapy for bulimia and binge eating: Introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder commonly report co-occurring interpersonal problems, and treatment that focuses on relationships and relational functioning has shown benefit relative to other forms of treatment. Relational psychotherapy for eating disorders can vary on several important dimensions, such as how structured and symptom-focused versus exploratory and patient-directed it is, whether it focuses on past relationships and patterns in relationships over time versus focusing on current relationships, and whether it includes the relationship with the therapist as an explicit topic of conversation and mechanism for relational change. The cases in this special section provide the opportunity to closely compare 3 therapeutic approaches on each of these dimensions. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Bulimia Nervosa, Integrative Dynamic Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa, and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Prevention of Weight Gain and Eating Disorders are each highly distinct approaches. The authors of each case explain the intended mechanisms of treatment response, the measures that assess changes in eating disorder symptoms as well as the mechanisms of change, and provide extensive excerpts from case material to demonstrate and illustrate the particular evidence-based treatment. Therapists and researchers may usefully consider the process and outcome variables described in these interpersonal approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors.

  10. The prevalence of binge eating disorder and borderline personality symptomatology among gastric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Schumacher, David; Wiederman, Michael W; Routsong-Weichers, Lynn

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a sample of 121 candidates seeking surgery for obesity. In this predominantly female sample (85.9%), according to the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the prevalence of BED was 6.5%. As for the prevalence of BPD, 14.0% exceeded the clinical cut-off score on the Self-Harm Inventory (SHI), 14.0% exceeded the clinical cut-off score on the borderline personality scale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4), and 7.4% exceeded the clinical cut-off score on the McLean Screening Inventory for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD). Overall, 24.8% of the sample exceeded the clinical cut-off on at least one measure of BPD whereas only 3.3% exceeded the clinical cut-off on all three measures. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between the discrepancy between highest and lowest adult body mass index, and scores on the PDQ-4 and the MSI-BPD. The authors discuss the implications of these findings.

  11. Drug use, binge drinking and attempted suicide among homeless and potentially homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, B; Drinkwater, J; Gardner, K; Bammer, G

    1995-06-01

    In order to assess the need for drug-related services for at-risk youth, a survey was conducted among young people aged 12-17 years who, owing to severe family discord, were currently living away from home (homeless) or had experienced periods away from home in the past 12 months (potentially homeless). Prevalence of use and of potentially harmful levels of use of alcohol and other licit and illicit drugs were higher than in a comparative population. Of the 155 people interviewed, 54% reported past physical abuse, 28% reported past sexual abuse, and 73% had a family alcohol or other drug history. Of the total, 62% had been in a youth refuge at some time in the past 12 months. Twenty four per cent had been to hospital as a result of alcohol or other drug use and 45% had attempted suicide. Female sex and an interaction between sexual abuse and binge drinking predicted suicide attempts. This study points to the need for a comprehensive approach to interventions for troubled youth which gives greater recognition to mental health issues related to family circumstances, including abuse.

  12. C-B3-02: Association of FTO, INSIG2, MC4R, and PCSK1 Obesity SNPs With Binge Eating in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Glenn S; Still, Christopher D; Wood, G Craig; Chu, Xin; Erdman, Robert; Susek, Meghan; Gerst, Heather; Derr, Kim; AlAgha, Mouna; Hartman, Christina; Carey, David; Benotti, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Obesity has a strong genetic component. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near over a dozen genes that are related to body mass index (BMI). Despite the association of these SNPs with BMI, the mechanism by which they influence the determination of body weight is not yet known. Recently, the fat- mass and obesity-associated (FTO) obesity SNP was related to energy intake and preference for foods of high caloric density in children. FTO genotype was not associated with resting energy expenditure. We have extended this type of analysis to eating behaviors in the morbidly obese. Methods: DNA was obtained from approximately 900 morbidly obese (BMI>40 kg/m2) patients and used to genotype obesity SNPs in or near the FTO, INSIG2, MC4R, and PCSK1 genes. Binge eating status (normal, episodic overeating, or any binge eating) was determined using the validated Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP). Binge eating status was correlated with each individual genotype, the combined obesity allele burden, and the combined homozygous obesity gene burden. Results: Binge eating data was obtained from 640 patients who had completed the QEWP. Of these 640, 116 (18%) were classified as manifesting binge eating behavior. No association was present between heterozygous or homozygous FTO (P=0.59), MC4R (P=0.30), or PSK1 (P=0.77) obesity SNPs. However, 29% of those who were homozygous for the INSIG2 obesity SNP were classified as binge eaters, versus 17% of heterozygous or homozygous normal patients (P=0.006). Association was also found with binge eating status and the presence of 2 or more homozygous obesity genotypes (28% versus 17%, P=0.041), likely due to the INSIG2 gene. Cumulative obesity allele burden (0–8 alleles for the 4 genes) was not associated with binge eating status (P=0.42). Conclusions: The INSIG2 obesity SNP appears to influence binge eating behavior in morbidly obese adults. The

  13. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor inhibition blunts adolescent-typical increased binge alcohol and sucrose consumption in male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoglia, Abigail E; Holstein, Sarah E; Eastman, Vallari R; Hodge, Clyde W

    2016-04-01

    Increased binge alcohol consumption has been reported among adolescents as compared to adults in both humans and rodent models, and has been associated with serious long-term health consequences. However, the neurochemical mechanism for age differences in binge drinking between adolescents and adults has not been established. The present study was designed to evaluate the mechanistic role of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in adolescent and adult binge drinking. Binge consumption was established in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice by providing access to 20% alcohol or 1% sucrose for 4h every other day. Pretreatment with the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM-251 (0, 1, 3, and 10mg/kg) in a Latin square design dose-dependently reduced adolescent alcohol consumption to adult levels without altering adult intake. AM-251 (3mg/kg) also reduced adolescent but not adult sucrose consumption. Adolescent reductions in alcohol and sucrose were not associated with alterations in open-field locomotor activity or thigmotaxis. These findings point to age differences in CB1 receptor activity as a functional mediator of adolescent-typical increased binge drinking as compared to adults. Developmental alterations in endocannabinoid signaling in the adolescent brain may therefore be responsible for the drinking phenotype seen in this age group.

  14. The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in Family Functioning in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depestele, Lies; Claes, Laurence; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Lemmens, Gilbert M D

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate family functioning of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered adolescents with or without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as perceived by the patients and their parents (mothers and fathers). In total, 123 patients (between 14 and 24 years), 98 mothers and 79 fathers completed the Family Assessment Device. Patients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. No main effects were found of restrictive versus binge-eating/purging behaviour nor of presence/absence of NSSI. For the parents, a significant interaction between binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI emerged: Mothers and fathers reported worse family functioning in the binge-eating/purging group in presence of NSSI, whereas mothers reported worse family functioning in the restrictive group without NSSI. Parental perception of family functioning is affected by the combined presence of binge-eating/purging behaviour and NSSI. This finding should be taken into account when treating families living with eating disorders.

  15. Intermittent-access binge consumption of sweet high-fat liquid does not require opioid or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Sylvie; Kim, James J; Nicola, Saleem M

    2015-10-01

    Binge eating disorders are characterized by episodes of intense consumption of high-calorie food. In recently developed animal models of binge eating, rats given intermittent access to such food escalate their consumption over time. Consumption of calorie-dense food is associated with neurochemical changes in the nucleus accumbens, including dopamine release and alterations in dopamine and opioid receptor expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that binge-like consumption on intermittent access schedules is dependent on opioid and/or dopamine neurotransmission in the accumbens. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether injection of dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists into the core and shell of the accumbens reduced consumption of a sweet high-fat liquid in rats with and without a history of intermittent binge access to the liquid. Although injection of a μ opioid agonist increased consumption, none of the antagonists (including μ opioid, δ opioid, κ opioid, D1 dopamine and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists, as well as the broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone) reduced consumption, and this was the case whether or not the animals had a prior history of intermittent access. These results suggest that consumption of sweet, fatty food does not require opioid or dopamine receptor activation in the accumbens even under intermittent access conditions that resemble human binge episodes.

  16. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  17. Under the Influence: The Binge Drinking Epidemic on College Campuses. Hearing before the Committee on Governmental Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session (May 15, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs.

    A hearing was held to explore the problem of binge drinking on campus and to consider possible responses to this problem. Following an opening statement by Senator Joseph Lieberman, a panel of witness who have done research and work in the field gave testimony. These witnesses commented on the problem of binge drinking: (1) Raynard S. Kingston,…

  18. Prevalence of Obesity, Binge Eating, and Night Eating in a Cross-Sectional Field Survey of 6-Year-Old Children and Their Parents in a German Urban Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamerz, Andreas; Kuepper-Nybelen, Jutta; Bruning, Nicole; Wehle, Christine; Trost-Brinkhues, Gabriele; Brenner, Hermann; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related binge eating, non-obesity-related binge eating, and night eating in five- to six-year-old children and to examine the impact of parental eating disturbances. Methods: When 2020 children attended their obligatory health exam prior to school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany, 1979…

  19. The Role of Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in the Caregiving Experience Among Mothers and Fathers of Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depestele, Lies; Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the caregiving experiences of mothers and fathers of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered (ED) inpatients with and without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Sixty-five mothers and 65 fathers completed the Experience of Caregiving Inventory. All inpatients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related to assess NSSI and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale to assess eating disorder symptoms. Mothers reported significant more negative and more positive caregiving experiences compared with fathers. Mothers (but not fathers) of restrictive ED patients reported more positive caregiving experiences compared with mothers of binge-eating/purging patients. The presence of NSSI in ED patients was associated with more negative caregiving experiences of both parents. Mothers and fathers of ED inpatients differ in caregiving experiences, and both binge-eating behaviours and NSSI negatively affect their caregiving experience. Therefore, supportive interventions for parents of ED patients are necessary, especially of those patients who engage in NSSI.

  20. Selected psychological traits and body image characteristics in females suffering from binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper reports the results of the author’s own research aimed at diagnosing specific psychological (personality traits and body image characteristics in a population of selected females suffering from binge eating disorder (BED.Method. The methods applied in this research included an inventory (i.e. a Polish version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI devised by David Garner, Marion P. Olmsted, and Janet Polivy, adapted by Cezary Żechowski; and the Socio-cultural Attitudes towards the Body and Appearance Questionnaire, constructed by the author of this study, based on the results of factor analysis and subject literature, as well as projective techniques such as Thompson’s Silhouette Test and a thematic drawing: “body image”. Theinventories and projective techniques applied in the research procedures aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological traits in the examined females.Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained as a result of this research revealed that the examined females suffering from psychogenic overeating were overweight. Analysis of the study data concerning the subject’s evaluation of their body image pointed to a substantial discrepancy between the individuals’ perception of their current body shape, which they clearly did not approve of, and the ideal thin body that the females desired. The study data obtained as a result of the EDI inventory, aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological (personality traits exhibited by the examined females, revealed that the subjects received the highest (inappropriate score in the scale describing the individuals’ preoccupation with pursuit of thinness. It was also discovered that the study participants had a high level of internalization of socio-cultural norms about the ideal female body, promoting the “cult of thinness”, and they exhibited the feeling of insecurity and personal worthlessness, as well as a low level of interpersonal

  1. The EDE-Q, BULIT-R, and BEDT as self-report measures of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wal, Jillon S; Stein, Richard I; Blashill, Aaron J

    2011-12-01

    Binge eating disorder, currently classified as an eating disorder not otherwise specified, is a valid and clinically useful psychiatric diagnosis. Given its probable inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), identification of self-report measures with high levels of diagnostic utility should improve the likelihood and accuracy of screening. The aim of the current study was to assess the diagnostic utility of two widely used measures of eating disorder symptoms, namely the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDEQ) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R), as well as a factor of the BULIT-R (coined the Binge Eating Disorder Test or BEDT), newly created specifically for the assessment of BED. Participants included 15 individuals with BED and 26 non-BED controls, as determined via the diagnostic section of the Eating Disorder Examination, who met criteria for being overweight or obese. Results showed that the BEDT achieved 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. The BULIT-R and Eating Concern subscale of the EDE-Q evidenced strong sensitivity (100 vs 87), specificity (96 vs 100), positive predictive values (94 vs 100), and negative predictive values (100 vs 93), respectively. Results suggest that the BEDT is an excellent overall measure of BED in obese populations. The BULIT-R affords the advantage of ruling out compensatory behaviors, particularly of the non-purging variety (e.g., severe restriction outside of binges), while the brevity of the Eating Concern subscale of the EDE-Q makes it optimal for use in brief screening situations.

  2. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescent binge eating, purging, suicidal behavior, and non-suicidal self-injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sarah; Peterson, Claire

    2015-03-01

    There are few published randomized controlled trials examining treatment for symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) in adolescents. Additionally, many adolescents presenting for treatment for BN symptoms endorse co-occurring mood disturbances, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and may not meet full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for BN. In addition to the limited number of randomized controlled trials, published treatment studies of BN symptoms in adolescence do not specifically address the multiple comorbid symptoms that these adolescents often report. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of an outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for adolescents with symptoms of BN, suicide attempts, and NSSI. Ten eligible participants enrolled in the study; 3 dropped within 4 weeks of initiating treatment. In addition to binge eating and suicidal behavior, participants also endorsed a number of other comorbid mood disorders and substance abuse. Seven participants completed 6 months of treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Treatment included access to a crisis management system, individual therapy, skills training, and a therapist consultation team. At posttreatment, participants had significantly reduced self-harm; (Cohen's d = 1.35), frequency of objective binge episodes (Cohen's d = .46), frequency of purging (Cohen's d = .66), and Global Eating Disorder Examination scores (Cohen's d = .64). At follow-up, 6 participants were abstinent of NSSI; 3 participants were abstinent from binge eating. At follow-up, treatment gains were maintained and enhanced. Results indicate that it is feasible to address multiple forms of psychopathology during the treatment of BN symptoms in this age-group.

  3. A psychological typology of females diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The present paper reports the results of research aimed at identifying intra-group differences among females suffering from different eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder in terms of the subjects’ psychological traits, adoption of socio-cultural norms (through media pressure, internationalization of norms, and exposure to information concerning body image standards, and the level of body dissatisfaction. The following research question was asked: is it possible to distinguish specific profiles of psychological characteristics, as well as levels of body dissatisfaction, social pressure, media exposure and internalization of common standards of body image? Participants and procedure The clinical population consisted of 121 females aged 20-26. The research was conducted in the years 2007-2012. The following research methods and procedures were applied: 1 a clinical interview, 2 the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, 3 the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, 4 a Polish translation of the Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3. Results Cluster analysis of the research data allowed four significantly different clusters to be distinguished in the group of 121 examined females suffering from eating disorders. In the next step, analysis of variance (the ANOVA test was used to compare the differences between the examined clusters in terms of the investigated variables and their indicators. Conclusions Due to significant differences between the examined females in terms of the strength levels and the configuration of psychological and socio-cultural variables investigated in the present study, the females were classified into four different psychological types referred to as neurotic, perfectionist, impulsive and adolescent-narcissistic.

  4. Binge drinking during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with deficits in verbal episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. PMID:28152062

  5. Menopause and metabolic syndrome in obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; McKee, Sherry A; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Barnes, Rachel D; Grilo, Carlos M

    2014-04-01

    Menopausal transition has been associated with the emergence of metabolic abnormalities, which may increase risk for chronic medical conditions in women. This study compared metabolic function between premenopausal women (n = 152), postmenopausal women (n = 88), and men (n =9 8) recruited for treatment studies for obesity co-occurring with binge eating disorder (BED), a high-risk population for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). Postmenopausal women were more likely than premenopausal women to show elevated total cholesterol (OR = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.56-4.80) and poor glycemic control (OR = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.32-6.33) but were more likely to have lower HDL levels (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.68). These became non-significant after adjusting for age. Both pre- and postmenopausal women were less likely than age-matched men to show elevated levels of triglycerides (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.13-0.53 [postmenopausal], OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.16-0.53 [premenopausal]), blood pressure (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.25-0.91 [postmenopausal], OR=0.40; 95% CI = 0.23-0.69 [premenopausal]), and less likely to have MetS (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.21-0.78 [postmenopausal], OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.27-0.79 [premenopausal]). Premenopausal women were also less likely to have elevated fasting glucose level (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97) than age-matched men. Among obese women with BED, aging may have a more profound impact on metabolic abnormalities than menopause, suggesting the importance of early intervention of obesity and symptoms of BED. The active monitoring of metabolic function in obese men with BED may also be critical.

  6. Binge drinking during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with deficits in verbal episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, Carina; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montse

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.

  7. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Deitz, Anne C.; Hudson, James I.; Shahly, Victoria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; O’Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sasu, Carmen; Scott, Kate; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Little population-based data exist outside the United States on the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Cross-national data on BED are presented and compared to bulimia nervosa (BN) based on the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Methods Community surveys with 24,124 respondents (ages 18+) across 14 mostly upper-middle and high income countries assessed lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical disorders were assessed with a chronic conditions checklist. Results Country-specific lifetime prevalence estimates are consistently (median; inter-quartile range) higher for BED (1.4%;0.8–1.9%) than BN (0.8%;0.4–1.0%). Median age-of-onset is in the late teens to early 20s for both disorders but slightly younger for BN. Persistence is slightly higher for BN (6.5 years; 2.2–15.4) than BED (4.3 years; 1.0–11.7). Lifetime risk of both disorders is elevated for women and recent cohorts. Retrospective reports suggest that comorbid anxiety, mood, and disruptive behavior disorders predict subsequent onset of BN somewhat more strongly than BED and that BN predicts subsequent comorbid psychiatric disorders somewhat more strongly than does BED. Significant comorbidities with physical conditions are due almost entirely to BN and BED predicting subsequent onset of these conditions, again with BN somewhat stronger than BED. Role impairments are similar for BN and BED. Fewer than half of lifetime BN or BED cases receive treatment. Conclusions BED represents a public health problem at least equal to BN. Low treatment rates highlight the clinical importance of questioning patients about eating problems even when not included among presenting complaints. PMID:23290497

  8. Impact of obesity and binge eating disorder on patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Curone, Marcella; Bianchi Marzoli, Stefania; Chiapparini, Luisa; Ciasca, Paola; Ciceri, Elisa Fm; Erbetta, Alessandra; Faragò, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Matilde; D'Amico, Domenico

    2017-03-01

    Background Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is associated with obesity, and obesity is associated with binge eating disorder (BED). The aim of this paper is to address the presence and impact of BED in patients undergoing an IIH diagnostic protocol. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients suspected of IIH underwent neurological, neuro-ophthalmologic and psychological examinations, neuroimaging studies and intracranial pressure (ICP) measurements through lumbar puncture in the recumbent position. IIH diagnosis was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition criteria; BED diagnosis was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition criteria. The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid was also assessed. Results Forty-five patients were enrolled: 33 were diagnosed with IIH and five of them (15%) were obese with BED. Compared to non-obese patients, those who were obese, and particularly those who were obese with BED, were more likely to have an IIH diagnosis (χ(2 )= 14.3; p = 0.001), ICP > 200 mmH2O (χ(2 )= 12.7; p = 0.002) and history of abuse or neglect (χ(2 )= 11.2; p = 0.004). No association with OCBs was found. Conclusions We reported for the first time the presence of BED among patients with IIH and showed that BED is associated to IIH, ICP and history of abuse or neglect.

  9. Politiken, Alt om Ikast Brande (web), Lemvig Folkeblad (Web), Politiken (web), Dabladet Ringkjøbing Skjern (web)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Politiken 01.01.2014 14:16 Danskerne skød nytåret ind med et brag, men for enkeltes vedkommende gik det galt, da nytårskrudtet blev tændt. Skadestuerne har behandlet 73 personer for fyrværkeriskader mellem klokken 18 i aftes og klokken 06 i morges. Det viser en optælling, som Politiken har...... foretaget på baggrund af tal fra Ulykkes Analyse Gruppen på Odense Universitetshospital. Artiklen er også bragt i: Alt om Ikast Brande (web), Lemvig Folkeblad (web), Politiken (web), Dagbladet Ringkjøbing Skjern (web)....

  10. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population☆

    OpenAIRE

    Boggiano, M.M.; Burgess, E.E.; Turan, B.; Soleymani, T.; Daniel, S.; Vinson, L.D.; Lokken, K.L.; Wingo, B.C.; Morse, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyse...

  11. Interpersonal problems across restrictive and binge-purge samples: data from a community-based eating disorders clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykos, Bronwyn C; McEvoy, Peter M; Carter, Olivia; Fursland, Anthea; Nathan, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary models of eating disorders suggest that interpersonal problems contribute to the maintenance of eating disorders. This study examined whether baseline interpersonal problems differed across eating disorder diagnoses and across eating disorder subtypes ("restrictors" vs. "binge-purge" patients) in a large clinical sample. Patients with a primary eating disorder diagnosis (N=406) completed measures of interpersonal problems, eating disorder symptoms, and mood prior to treatment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Across the sample, more severe eating disorder psychopathology was associated with significantly greater difficulty socializing. Anorexia Nervosa (AN)/restrictor patients reported significantly greater difficulty socializing than Bulimia Nervosa (BN)/binge-purge patients. AN patients reported significantly greater difficulty on a measure of competitiveness/assertiveness compared to BN and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. All findings were significant after controlling for comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. Interpersonal problems appear to be unique risk factors for eating disorders. Specific interpersonal mechanisms include difficulties socializing and being assertive, which were most pronounced in AN patients. These findings provide potential avenues for enhancing interventions, such as adjunctive assertiveness training for AN.

  12. Change in attachment insecurity is related to improved outcomes 1-year post group therapy in women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Hilary; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    An interpersonal model of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) posits that difficulties with social functioning precipitate negative affect, which in turn causes binge eating as a means of coping. Thus, long-term decreases in attachment insecurity may be important for women with BED. No research has assessed if long-term change in attachment insecurity is associated with sustained change in other outcomes. In the current study, we hypothesized that changes in attachment anxiety and avoidance will decrease at posttreatment and will be maintained up to 12 months after Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). We further hypothesized that long-term stability of these changes in attachment insecurity will be related to other long-term outcomes. Women with BED (N = 102) attended 16 sessions of GPIP. Measures were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and the other outcome variables decreased significantly at 12 months posttreatment. Reductions in attachment anxiety and avoidance were significantly related to decreases in interpersonal problems up to 12 months posttreatment, and reduction in attachment anxiety was significantly related to decreases in depressive symptoms 12 months posttreatment. Further, the significant relationship between reduced attachment avoidance and decreased interpersonal problems strengthened over the long term. This is the first study to show an association between change in attachment insecurity and change in other outcomes in the long term, and to show an adaptive spiral in which greater reduction in attachment avoidance is increasingly associated with ongoing improvement of interpersonal problems.

  13. Effect of binge eating disorder on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo García Díaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies about the effect of binge eating disorder (BED on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGBP are controversial. These studies have not compared patients with and without BED according to the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS, which takes into account weight loss, correction of comorbidities, improvement in quality of life and complications. Objectives: To assess whether BED predicts worse outcomes after LGBP, according to BAROS parameters. Methods: We carried out a cohort study which included 45 morbidly obese patients operated with LGBP. Patients with preoperative BED were identified by Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised and results were evaluated by BAROS system. Results: Prevalence of BED was 21.4%. Median postoperative follow-up was 12 months. BED patients experienced after LGBP lower rates of resolution of hypertension (42.9% vs. 92.9%; p = 0.025 and were complicated by stenosis of the gastrojejunal anastomosis more frequently (70% vs. 17.1%; p = 0.003 than patients without binge eating. No differences in BAROS score, percentage of excess weight loss and quality of life were found. Conclusions: BED patients experienced after LGBP lower rates of resolution of hypertension and higher rates of anastomotic stenosis. BAROS score, weight loss and quality of life are comparable to that of patients without.

  14. Alterations of EEG functional connectivity in resting state obese and overweight patients with binge eating disorder: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Farina, Benedetto; Innamorati, Marco; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2015-10-21

    Alterations in brain functional connectivity have been detected in patients with eating disorders, but have not been studied in binge eating disorder (BED). We have investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity in thirteen overweight and obese patients with BED and thirteen overweight and obese patients without BED during RS condition. EEG analyzes were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Compared to patients without BED, patients with BED demonstrated an increase of lagged phase synchronization in the beta frequency band among the cortical areas explored by FC1-T3 (left superior frontal gyrus-left middle temporal gyrus), T5-O1 (left inferior temporal gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus), and C4-O1 (right postcentral gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus) electrodes (T=4.861, p<0.05). EEG connectivity values were also significantly related to binge eating symptomatology after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our results may reflect the impairment of frontal control network and visual processing networks, which lead patients with BED to be more vulnerable to food cues and lack of control with regards to over eating.

  15. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  16. Relations between pure dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity in binge eating individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Isabelle; Crépin, Christelle; Ceschi, Grazia; Golay, Alain; Van der Linden, Martial

    2012-01-01

    To investigate potential predictors of the severity of binge eating disorder (BED), two subtypes of patients with the disorder, a pure dietary subtype and a dietary-negative affect subtype, were identified. This study investigated the relationships between the two subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity. Ninety-two women meeting threshold and subthreshold criteria for BED diagnosis filled out questionnaires to determine eating disorder severity, impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity before and after participating in an online guided self-help program for BED. Cluster analyses revealed a pure dietary subtype (N=66, 71.7%) and a dietary-negative affect subtype (N=26, 28.3%). Compared to the pure dietary subtype, the dietary-negative affect subtype reported a higher frequency of objective binge episodes, more severe eating disorders, higher urgency scores (defined as a tendency to act rashly in the context of negative affect), a greater sensitivity to punishment, and a higher dropout rate during treatment. These findings suggest that BED patients in the dietary-negative affect subtype exhibit heightened anxiety and are highly impulsive, especially in contexts of negative affect. For these individuals, psychological interventions for BED should focus on inhibiting automatic responses to negative emotions.

  17. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  18. Cardiac Risk and Disordered Eating: Decreased R Wave Amplitude in Women with Bulimia Nervosa and Women with Subclinical Binge/Purge Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melinda; Rogers, Jennifer; Nguyen, Christine; Blasko, Katherine; Martin, Amanda; Hudson, Dominique; Fernandez-Kong, Kristen; Kaza-Amlak, Zauditu; Thimmesch, Brandon; Thorne, Tyler

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was threefold. First, we examined whether women with bulimia nervosa (n = 12) and women with subthreshold binge/purge symptoms (n = 20) showed decreased mean R wave amplitude, an indicator of cardiac risk, on electrocardiograph compared to asymptomatic women (n = 20). Second, we examined whether this marker was pervasive across experimental paradigms, including before and after sympathetic challenge tasks. Third, we investigated behavioural predictors of this marker, including binge frequency and purge frequency assessed by subtype (dietary restriction, excessive exercise, self-induced vomiting, and laxative abuse). Results of a 3 (ED symptom status) × 5 (experimental condition) mixed factorial ANCOVA (covariates: body mass index, age) indicated women with bulimia nervosa and women with subclinical binge/purge symptoms demonstrated significantly reduced mean R wave amplitude compared to asymptomatic women; this effect was pervasive across experimental conditions. Multiple regression analyses showed binge and purge behaviours, most notably laxative abuse as a purge method, predicted decreased R wave amplitude across all experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolz, I; Sauvaget, A; Granero, R; Mestre-Bach, G; Baño, M; Martín-Romera, V; Veciana de Las Heras, M; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Jansen, A; Roefs, A; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2017-01-01

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-indu

  20. A comparison of the accuracy of self reported intake vs. measured intake of a laboratory overeating episode in obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose was to: 1) Confirm that those with binge eating disorder (BED) consume significantly more kilocalories (kcal) than obese controls when instructed to overeat in the laboratory and 2) Compare dietary recall data with measured intake. Methods: Fifteen women fulfilling BED criteria and 17 c...

  1. Discounting of Various Types of Rewards by Women with and without Binge Eating Disorder: Evidence for General Rather than Specific Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, Jamie L.; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Strube, Michael J.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the extent to which obese women with binge eating disorder (BED), obese women without BED, and controls discounted delayed and probabilistic money and directly consumable rewards: food, massage time, and preferred sedentary activity. Of special interest was whether the BED group differed from the other groups in terms of…

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  3. Plasma ghrelin in anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder: relations with eating patterns and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alfonso; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Lega, Ilaria; Tesauro, Manfredi; Bertoli, Aldo; Leo, Roberto; Iantorno, Micaela; Pecchioli, Chiara; Rizza, Stefano; Turriziani, Mario; Lauro, Renato; Siracusano, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in healthy control women, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and plasma concentrations of thyreotropin (TSH), free T3 and free T4, and positively correlated with plasma concentrations of cortisol. The ghrelin concentrations of women with binge-eating and purging behavior were significantly lower than those of women with anorexia nervosa, restricting type, and there was a negative relation between the frequency and severity of binge-eating and purging behavior, as measured by the BULIT-R total score, and ghrelin concentrations. In a multivariate regression model controlling for the confounding effects of body mass index (BMI) and age, higher ghrelin concentrations were correlated with lower BULIT-R total scores. The results of this study did not confirm the hypothesis advanced in previous studies that ghrelin concentrations are higher in patients with binge-eating/purging forms of eating disorders. Based on these data, we suggest that, in women with eating disorders, ghrelin concentrations best reflect nutritional status rather than specific patterns of disordered eating behavior.

  4. Daily and Momentary Mood and Stress Are Associated with Binge Eating and Vomiting in Bulimia Nervosa Patients in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Heron, Kristin E.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Engel, Scott G.

    2007-01-01

    The relation of mood and stress to binge eating and vomiting in the natural environments of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) was examined using real-time data collection. Women (n = 131; mean age = 25.3 years) with BN carried a palmtop computer for 2 weeks and completed ratings of positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), anger/hostility (AH),…

  5. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  6. A randomized controlled trial for obesity and binge eating disorder: low-energy-density dietary counseling and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined a dietary approach - lowering energy density - for producing weight loss in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who also received cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to address binge eating. Fifty consecutive participants were randomly assigned to either a six-month individual treatment of CBT plus a low-energy-density diet (CBT+ED) or CBT plus General Nutrition counseling not related to weight loss (CBT+GN). Assessments occurred at six- and twelve-months. Eighty-six percent of participants completed treatment, and of these, 30% achieved at least a 5% weight loss with rates of binge remission ranging from 55% to 75%. The two treatments did not differ significantly in weight loss or binge remission outcomes. Significant improvements were found for key dietary and metabolic outcomes, with CBT+ED producing significantly better dietary outcomes on energy density, and fruit and vegetable consumption, than CBT+GN. Reductions in energy density and weight loss were significantly associated providing evidence for the specificity of the treatment effect. These favorable outcomes, and that CBT+ED was significantly better at reducing energy density and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption compared to CBT+GN, suggest that low-energy-density dietary counseling has promise as an effective method for enhancing CBT for obese individuals with BED.

  7. A Comment on "T2QM (Teaching and Total Quality Management) for Medical Teachers" by R.G. Bing-You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinster, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to R.G. Bing-You's argument for the application of total quality management (TQM) techniques to medical teaching. Argues that attempts to apply TQM to medical education are fundamentally flawed because medical education is not an intrinsically commercial transition. (DDR)

  8. The uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist memantine reduces binge-like eating, food-seeking behavior, and compulsive eating: role of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen L; Rao, Rahul R; Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Valenza, Marta; Giuliano, Chiara; Everitt, Barry J; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-03-13

    Binge-eating disorder is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable consumption of palatable food within brief periods of time. The role of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system in hedonic feeding is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on palatable food-induced behavioral adaptations using a rat model, which mimics the characteristic symptomatology observed in binge-eating disorder. For this purpose, we allowed male Wistar rats to respond to obtain a highly palatable, sugary diet (Palatable group) or a regular chow diet (Chow control group), for 1 h a day, under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Upon stabilization of food responding, we tested the effects of memantine on the Chow and Palatable food groups' intake. Then, we tested the effects of memantine on food-seeking behavior, under a second-order schedule of reinforcement. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of memantine on the intake of food when it was offered in an aversive, bright compartment of a light/dark conflict test. Finally, we evaluated the effects of memantine on FR1 responding for food, when microinfused into the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell or core. Memantine dose-dependently decreased binge-like eating and fully blocked food-seeking behavior and compulsive eating, selectively in the Palatable food group. The drug treatment did not affect performance of the control Chow food group. Finally, intra-NAcc shell, but not core, microinfusion of memantine decreased binge-like eating. Together, these findings substantiate a role of memantine as a potential pharmacological treatment for binge-eating disorder.

  9. A comparison of the metabolic complications and hospital course of severe anorexia nervosa by binge-purge and restricting subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Melanie; Brinton, John T; Sabel, Allison L; Mehler, Philip S; Gaudiani, Jennifer L

    2017-01-06

    This study examines adult patients with severe, life-threatening anorexia nervosa who were admitted to an inpatient, medical stabilization unit between October 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014. Specifically, the study compares anorexia nervosa, binge purge subtype (AN-BP) and anorexia nervosa, restricting subtype (AN-R) on admission measures, hospital course, and outcomes. Of the 232 patients, 46% (N = 108) had AN-BP. Patients with AN-R manifested a higher frequency of underweight-mediated medical complications, including bone marrow dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. Understanding the pathophysiologic differences between severe AN-R and AN-BP is essential to understanding the abnormalities seen on clinical presentation, guiding appropriate clinical treatment, and predicting medical complications during refeeding.

  10. OPRM1 and Diagnosis-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Binge-Drinking Patients Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Nicole R.; Lally, Michelle A.; Brown, Larry; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to numerous negative outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLH) and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms may play a role in maintaining alcohol use problems. The opioid receptor mu-1 (OPRM1) gene may play a role in both PTSD and alcohol use. We examined the association between PTSD and drinking motives as well as variation in the OPRM1 as a predictor of both PTSD and drinking motives in a sample of 201 PLH reporting recent binge drinking. Self-reported PTSD symptom severity was significantly associated with drinking motives for coping, enhancement, and socialization. OPRM1 variation was associated with decreased PTSD symptom severity as well as enhancement motives for drinking. PMID:22143634

  11. Trait and State Craving as Indicators of Validity of VR-based Software for Binge Eating Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Dakanalis, Antonios; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Fusté-Escolano, Adela; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Riva, Giuseppe; Saldaña, Carmina; Sánchez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether virtual reality (VR) exposure to food cues is able to produce craving levels consistent with state-craving and trait-craving as assessed by the Spanish and Italian versions of the State and Trait Food Craving Questionnaires (FCQ-T/S). The results were compared in 40 patients with eating disorders (17 with binge eating disorder, 23 with bulimia nervosa) and 78 healthy control subjects without eating disorders. Controls and patients with higher levels of trait-craving and state-craving both showed a greater desire to eat during VR exposure. Results also showed that trait and state craving assessed by FCQ-T/S were able to predict the total mean craving experienced during exposure to the VR software in both clinical and control samples. These findings present preliminary evidence about the validity of a new virtual reality-based application for cue-exposure treatment in patients with eating disorders.

  12. Loneliness mediates the relationship between emotion dysregulation and bulimia nervosa/binge eating disorder psychopathology in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southward, Matthew W; Christensen, Kara A; Fettich, Karla C; Weissman, Jessica; Berona, Johnny; Chen, Eunice Y

    2014-12-01

    Emotion dysregulation has been linked to binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) although the mechanisms by which it affects BN/BED psychopathology are unclear. This study tested loneliness as a mediator between emotion dysregulation and BN/BED psychopathology. A treatment-seeking sample of 107 women with BN or BED was assessed for loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale), and BN/BED psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination) before treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions and bootstrapping mediation models were run. Greater overall emotion dysregulation was associated with greater BN/BED psychopathology, mediated by loneliness (95 % CI 0.03, 0.09). Emotion dysregulation, however, did not mediate between loneliness and BN/BED psychopathology (95 % CI −0.01, 0.01). Targeting loneliness may effectively treat emotional aspects of BN/BED in women.

  13. Factor structure and clinical correlates of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Sawaoka, Takuya; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on the relations among eating behaviors and thought suppression is limited to a measure of general thought suppression, the White Bear Suppression Inventory. To address this limitation, researchers recently validated the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI). Analyses using this measure suggest that food thought suppression is distinct from and is more predictive of eating disorder psychopathology than is general thought suppression. The FTSI, however, has not yet been validated in clinical samples. The purpose of the current study is to examine the factor structure and clinical correlates of the FTSI within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; N=128). Analyses revealed a valid and reliable one-factor measure of food thought suppression that was related to higher levels of eating and general psychopathology. The findings provide evidence for the use of the FTSI with obese women with BED. Future research should examine the psychometric properties of the FTSI within larger and more diverse samples.

  14. Calorie estimation accuracy and menu labeling perceptions among individuals with and without binge eating and/or purging disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Haynos, Ann F; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D; White, Marney A

    2013-09-01

    Menu labeling is a public health policy that requires chain restaurants in the USA to post kilocalorie information on their menus to help consumers make informed choices. However, there is concern that such a policy might promote disordered eating. This web-based study compared individuals with self-reported binge eating disorder (N = 52), bulimia nervosa (N = 25), and purging disorder (N = 17) and those without eating disorders (No ED) (N = 277) on restaurant calorie information knowledge and perceptions of menu labeling legislation. On average, people answered 1.46 ± 1.08 questions correctly (out of 6) (25%) on a calorie information quiz and 92% of the sample was in favor of menu labeling. The findings did not differ based on eating disorder, dieting, or weight status, or race/ethnicity. The results indicated that people have difficulty estimating the calories in restaurant meals and individuals with and without eating disorders are largely in favor of menu labeling laws.

  15. Acute Stressors Reduce Neural Inhibition to Food Cues and Increase Eating Among Binge Eating Disorder Symptomatic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhenyong; Jackson, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Stressors can trigger binge-eating but researchers have yet to consider their effects on both neural responses to food cues and food consumption among those at risk. In this experiment, we examined the impact of acute stressors on neural activation to food images and subsequent food consumption within binge-eating disorder (BED) and non-eating disordered control groups. Eighteen women meeting DSM-IV BED criteria and 26 women serving as non-eating disordered controls were randomly assigned to unpleasant stressor (painful cold pressor test (CPT) followed by negative performance feedback) or less unpleasant stressor (non-painful sensory discrimination task followed by positive performance feedback) conditions. Subsequently, they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing food and neutral images. After the scans, participants completed a self-report battery in an environment conducive to snacking. During exposure to food images, BED-symptomatic women in the unpleasant stressor condition reported more liking of high calorie food images and showed less activation in one inhibitory area, the hippocampus, compared to controls in this condition. BED-symptomatic women exposed to unpleasant stressors also consumed more chocolate than any other group during the post-scan questionnaire completion. Crucially, reduced hippocampal activation to high calorie food images predicted more chocolate consumption following fMRI scans within the entire sample. This experiment provides initial evidence suggesting unpleasant acute stressors contribute to reduced inhibitory region responsiveness in relation to external food cues and later food consumption among BED-symptomatic women.

  16. Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

    2014-05-28

    The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (p<0.001). For DEAS total score, AN and BN patients were similar and all other were different (p<0.001). Similarities suggested between BN and BED were true just for the "Relationship with food" and "Idea of normal eating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes.

  17. Acute Stressors Reduce Neural Inhibition to Food Cues and Increase Eating Among Binge Eating Disorder Symptomatic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhenyong; Jackson, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Stressors can trigger binge-eating but researchers have yet to consider their effects on both neural responses to food cues and food consumption among those at risk. In this experiment, we examined the impact of acute stressors on neural activation to food images and subsequent food consumption within binge-eating disorder (BED) and non-eating disordered control groups. Eighteen women meeting DSM-IV BED criteria and 26 women serving as non-eating disordered controls were randomly assigned to unpleasant stressor (painful cold pressor test (CPT) followed by negative performance feedback) or less unpleasant stressor (non-painful sensory discrimination task followed by positive performance feedback) conditions. Subsequently, they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing food and neutral images. After the scans, participants completed a self-report battery in an environment conducive to snacking. During exposure to food images, BED-symptomatic women in the unpleasant stressor condition reported more liking of high calorie food images and showed less activation in one inhibitory area, the hippocampus, compared to controls in this condition. BED-symptomatic women exposed to unpleasant stressors also consumed more chocolate than any other group during the post-scan questionnaire completion. Crucially, reduced hippocampal activation to high calorie food images predicted more chocolate consumption following fMRI scans within the entire sample. This experiment provides initial evidence suggesting unpleasant acute stressors contribute to reduced inhibitory region responsiveness in relation to external food cues and later food consumption among BED-symptomatic women. PMID:27790097

  18. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  19. Bing-Neel syndrome, a rare complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia: analysis of 44 cases and review of the literature. A study on behalf of the French Innovative Leukemia Organization (FILO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurence; Fitsiori, Aikaterini; Lemal, Richard; Dupuis, Jehan; Carpentier, Benjamin; Boudin, Laurys; Corby, Anne; Aurran-Schleinitz, Thérèse; Gastaud, Lauris; Talbot, Alexis; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Mahe, Béatrice; Payet, Camille; Soussain, Carole; Bonnet, Charlotte; Vincent, Laure; Lissandre, Séverine; Herbrecht, Raoul; Kremer, Stéphane; Leblond, Véronique; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu

    2015-12-01

    Central nervous system involvement by malignant cells is a rare complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and this clinicopathological entity is referred to as the Bing-Neel syndrome. There is currently no consensus on the diagnostic criteria, therapeutic approaches and response evaluation for this syndrome. In this series, we retrospectively analyzed 44 French patients with Bing-Neel syndrome. Bing-Neel syndrome was the first manifestation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia in 36% of patients. When Waldenström macroglobulinemia was diagnosed prior to Bing-Neel syndrome, the median time interval between this diagnosis and the onset of Bing-Neel syndrome was 8.9 years. This study highlights the possibility of the occurrence of Bing-Neel syndrome without any other evidence of progression of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. The clinical presentation was heterogeneous without any specific signs or symptoms. Biologically, the median lymphocyte count in the cerebrospinal fluid was 31/mm(3). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in 78% of the cases. The overall response rate after first-line treatment was 70%, and the overall survival rate after the diagnosis of Bing-Neel syndrome was 71% at 5 years. Altogether, these results suggest that Bing-Neel syndrome should be considered in the context of any unexplained neurological symptoms associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. The diagnostic approach should be based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal axis. It still remains difficult to establish treatment recommendations or prognostic factors in the absence of large-scale, prospective, observational studies.

  20. Effects of CB1 and CRF1 receptor antagonists on binge-like eating in rats with limited access to a sweet fat diet: lack of withdrawal-like responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parylak, Sarah L; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina; Rice, Kenner C; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2012-09-10

    Positive reinforcement (e.g., appetitive, rewarding properties) has often been hypothesized to maintain excessive intake of palatable foods. Recently, rats receiving intermittent access to high sucrose diets showed binge-like intake with withdrawal-like signs upon cessation of access, suggesting negative reinforcement mechanisms contribute as well. Whether intermittent access to high fat diets also produces withdrawal-like syndromes is controversial. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that binge-like eating and withdrawal-like anxiety would arise in a novel model of binge eating based on daily 10-min access to a sweet fat diet (35% fat kcal, 31% sucrose kcal). Within 2-3 weeks, female Wistar rats developed binge-like intake comparable to levels seen previously for high sucrose diets (~40% of daily caloric intake within 10 min) plus excess weight gain and adiposity, but absent increased anxiety-like behavior during elevated plus-maze or defensive withdrawal tests after diet withdrawal. Binge-like intake was unaffected by pretreatment with the corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist R121919, and corticosterone responses to restraint stress did not differ between sweet-fat binge rats and chow-fed controls. In contrast, pretreatment with the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor antagonist SR147778 dose-dependently reduced binge-like intake, albeit less effectively than in ad lib chow or sweet fat controls. A priming dose of the sweet fat diet did not precipitate increased anxiety-like behavior, but rather increased plus-maze locomotor activity. The results suggest that CB(1)-dependent positive reinforcement rather than CRF(1)-dependent negative reinforcement mechanisms predominantly maintain excessive intake in this limited access model of sweet-fat diet binges.

  1. Bing-Neel syndrome, a rare complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia: analysis of 44 cases and review of the literature. A study on behalf of the French Innovative Leukemia Organization (FILO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurence; Fitsiori, Aikaterini; Lemal, Richard; Dupuis, Jehan; Carpentier, Benjamin; Boudin, Laurys; Corby, Anne; Aurran-Schleinitz, Thérèse; Gastaud, Lauris; Talbot, Alexis; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Mahe, Béatrice; Payet, Camille; Soussain, Carole; Bonnet, Charlotte; Vincent, Laure; Lissandre, Séverine; Herbrecht, Raoul; Kremer, Stéphane; Leblond, Véronique; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement by malignant cells is a rare complication of Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and this clinicopathological entity is referred to as the Bing-Neel syndrome. There is currently no consensus on the diagnostic criteria, therapeutic approaches and response evaluation for this syndrome. In this series, we retrospectively analyzed 44 French patients with Bing-Neel syndrome. Bing-Neel syndrome was the first manifestation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia in 36% of patients. When Waldenström macroglobulinemia was diagnosed prior to Bing-Neel syndrome, the median time interval between this diagnosis and the onset of Bing-Neel syndrome was 8.9 years. This study highlights the possibility of the occurrence of Bing-Neel syndrome without any other evidence of progression of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. The clinical presentation was heterogeneous without any specific signs or symptoms. Biologically, the median lymphocyte count in the cerebrospinal fluid was 31/mm3. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in 78% of the cases. The overall response rate after first-line treatment was 70%, and the overall survival rate after the diagnosis of Bing-Neel syndrome was 71% at 5 years. Altogether, these results suggest that Bing-Neel syndrome should be considered in the context of any unexplained neurological symptoms associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. The diagnostic approach should be based on cerebrospinal fluid analysis and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal axis. It still remains difficult to establish treatment recommendations or prognostic factors in the absence of large-scale, prospective, observational studies. PMID:26385211

  2. Short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder: long-term efficacy and predictors of long-term treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sophia; Meyer, Andrea H; Dremmel, Daniela; Schlup, Barbara; Munsch, Simone

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluates the long-term efficacy (four years after treatment) of a short-term Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CBT) of Binge Eating Disorder (BED). We examined patient characteristics, mostly measured at the end of treatment, for their predictive value of long-term success. Forty-one BED-patients between 18 and 70 years took part in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for a short-term treatment and were evaluated until 4 years after treatment. Assessments comprised structured interviews on comorbid mental disorder/eating disorder pathology and questionnaires on eating disorder pathology/general psychopathology. BED core symptoms and associated psychopathology improved substantially during treatment phase and further improved or at least remained stable during the follow-up period. End of treatment predictors for long term success were elevated weight and eating concern and higher frequency of objective binges. Tailoring additional interventions to patients' individual needs could further improve treatment efficacy.

  3. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem among treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology.

  4. Friendship clique and peer influences on body image concerns, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors, and binge eating in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, S J; Schutz, H K; Wertheim, E H; Muir, S L

    1999-05-01

    This study explored friendship variables in relation to body image, dietary restraint, extreme weight-loss behaviors (EWEBs), and binge eating in adolescent girls. From 523 girls, 79 friendship cliques were identified using social network analysis. Participants completed questionnaires that assessed body image concerns, eating, friendship relations, and psychological family, and media variables. Similarity was greater for within than for between friendship cliques for body image concerns, dietary restraint, and EWLBs, but not for binge eating. Cliques high in body image concerns and dieting manifested these concerns in ways consistent with a high weight/shape-preoccupied subculture. Friendship attitudes contributed significantly to the prediction of individual body image concern and eating behaviors. Use of EWLBs by friends predicted an individual's own level of use.

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of a 12-month computerized mindfulness-based intervention for obese patients with binge eating disorder: The MindOb study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffault, Alexis; Carette, Claire; Lurbe I Puerto, Kàtia; Juge, Nicolas; Beauchet, Alain; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Jean; Czernichow, Sébastien; Flahault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Background: Mindfulness-based interventions for healthy behaviors such as exercise and dietary modifications have aroused growing interest. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention for the reduction of impulsive eating and the improvement of motivation to exercise among obese individuals. Methods: One-hundred-and-twenty obese outpatients, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with a binge-eating disorder, will be randomly assigned to one o...

  7. Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) discriminates between obese and overweight patients with and without binge eating tendencies: the Italian version of the FCQ-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco; Imperatori, Claudio; Balsamo, Michela; Tamburello, Stella; Belvederi Murri, Martino; Contardi, Anna; Tamburello, Antonino; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2014-01-01

    Food craving (FC) might play an important role in the course of eating disorders and obesity. The question of its measurement has particular importance in relation to the dramatic growth in obesity rates and its relevance for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) in overweight and obese patients who were attending weight loss programs, and its efficiency in discriminating patients with binge eating. Participants were 497 (411 women, 86 men) overweight and obese patients in treatment with low-energy diet therapy. We used structural equation modeling to compare 3 factor models tested in previous studies (a 6-factor model, an 8-factor model, and a 9-factor model), which indicated that the 9-factor model has a better fit over the competing models. The FCQ-T had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of.96 for the total score, and between.76 and.92 for subfactors), and was able to discriminate patients with clinical-level binge eating from those with probable and without binge eating with an efficiency of.74 (sensitivity =.64, specificity =.78). FCQ-T scores were sensitive to changes associated with treatment only for patients who started dietary restriction between the baseline and the follow-up assessment, but not for patients who were already observing dietary restrictions at the time of the baseline assessment. These results suggest that the FCQ-T could be a potentially useful measure for the screening of binge eating problems in overweight and obese patients while in treatment.

  8. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT.

  9. Significance of Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Undue influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation — referred to as overvaluation — is a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge-eating disorder (BED). This study examined overvaluation of shape/weight in ethnically diverse obese patients with BED seeking treatment in primary care. Participants were a consecutive series of 142 (105 female and 37 male) participants with BED; 43% were Caucasian, 37% were African-American, 13% were Hispanic-American...

  10. Vokale Ausdrucksmuster im Kontext von Star-Images und kulturellen Stereotypen : eine exemplarische Analyse der Vokalstile von Bert Williams und Bing Crosby

    OpenAIRE

    Hähnel, Tilo

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that star images are interrelated with cultural stereotypes, the present article analyses vocal expression as a means to shape both, images and stereotypes, and control their relationship. An investigation into the vocal style of blackface comedian Bert Williams exemplifies how vocal expression counterpoints a stage persona in a way that allows the star persona to shine through. Bing Crosby is used as a second example to show how vocal expression is related to star images and stereot...

  11. Epistatic interactions involving DRD2, DRD4, and COMT polymorphisms and risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Howard; Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Labbe, Aurelie; Israel, Mimi; Kucer, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Substance abuse is common in individuals with bulimia-spectrum (binge-purge) eating disturbances, a co-occurrence that has been attributed to shared neurobiological substrates--notably alterations in dopaminergic activity. We examined the implications of variations of selected, dopamine-relevant polymorphisms (DRD2 Taq1A, DRD4 7R, and COMT) for risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating syndromes. We genotyped 183 women (66.1% showing full-threshold BN and 33.9% showing sub-syndromic variants), and assessed lifetime presence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and stimulant abuse or dependence using structured interviews. Tests for main and interaction effects of various allele combinations revealed that individuals who carried high function COMT and low-function DRD4 7R alleles (a combination expected to be associated with higher risk) did indeed show more lifetime substance abuse and, specifically, more cannabis abuse. Our findings suggest that a gene combination that, in theory, codes for low levels of dopaminergic neurotransmission coincides with sensitivity to substance abuse in a sample displaying binge-purge eating-disorder variants.

  12. Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E

    2012-07-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of restricted eating coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'.

  13. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, I; Sauvaget, A; Granero, R; Mestre-Bach, G; Baño, M; Martín-Romera, V; Veciana de Las Heras, M; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Jansen, A; Roefs, A; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2017-02-03

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-induced craving. To investigate the combined influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on craving, inhibitory control and motivated attention, 20 healthy controls and 19 individuals with binge-eating viewed chocolate and neutral pictures, primed by chocolate or neutral odours. Subjective craving and electroencephalogram activity were recorded during the task. N2 and Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were analysed. Patients reported higher craving than controls. Subjective craving, N2 and LPP amplitudes were higher for chocolate versus neutral pictures. Patients showed a higher relative increase in N2 amplitudes to chocolate versus neutral pictures than controls. Chocolate images induced significant increases in craving, motivated attention and measures of cognitive control. Chocolate odour might potentiate the craving response to visual stimuli, especially in patients with binge-eating.

  14. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, I.; Sauvaget, A.; Granero, R.; Mestre-Bach, G.; Baño, M.; Martín-Romera, V.; Veciana de las Heras, M.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Jansen, A.; Roefs, A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.

    2017-01-01

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-induced craving. To investigate the combined influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on craving, inhibitory control and motivated attention, 20 healthy controls and 19 individuals with binge-eating viewed chocolate and neutral pictures, primed by chocolate or neutral odours. Subjective craving and electroencephalogram activity were recorded during the task. N2 and Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were analysed. Patients reported higher craving than controls. Subjective craving, N2 and LPP amplitudes were higher for chocolate versus neutral pictures. Patients showed a higher relative increase in N2 amplitudes to chocolate versus neutral pictures than controls. Chocolate images induced significant increases in craving, motivated attention and measures of cognitive control. Chocolate odour might potentiate the craving response to visual stimuli, especially in patients with binge-eating. PMID:28155875

  15. A Cognitive-Behavioural Program (One Day a Week for Patients With Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short-Term Follow-up Data

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    An Adriaens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative cognitive behavioural program for the treatment of patients with binge eating disorder in the University Psychiatric Center K.U. Leuven Campus Kortenberg in Belgium. The program runs one day a week during 6 months and consists of 24 sessions. The most important therapeutic goals are: (1 normalization of eating habits and stopping the binge eating episodes; (2 promoting physical activity and a positive body experience; (3 learning specific skills such as assertivity, installing a functional self-evaluation system; learning to identify, tolerate and express negative emotions, promoting self-esteem and prevention of relapse. Overall, the goal is to promote both physical and psychological well-being and quality of life. Some preliminary research data on the effectiveness of this program are described. Despite a rather limited weight loss, the number of binges per week decreased significantly, which was the main therapeutic goal of the treatment. Furthermore, the results show some promising improvements on different psychological parameters in BED patients.

  16. Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption in female rats with a history of food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Rice, Kenner C; Ubaldi, Massimo; St Laurent, Robyn; Gaetani, Silvana; Massi, Maurizio; Shaham, Yavin; Cifani, Carlo

    2014-08-20

    We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model. We also assessed the role of CRF receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in stress responses and stress-induced drug seeking, in stress-induced binge eating. We used four groups that were first exposed or not exposed to repeated intermittent cycles of regular chow food restriction during which they were also given intermittent access to high-caloric palatable food. On the test day, we either exposed or did not expose the rats to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min (frustration stress) before assessing food consumption for 2 h. We found that systemic injections of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7 dipropylamino pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) (10-20 mg/kg) and BNST (25-50 ng/side) or ventricular (1000 ng) injections of the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41) decreased frustration stress-induced binge eating in rats with a history of food restriction. Frustration stress also increased Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in ventral and dorsal BNST. Results demonstrate a critical role of CRF receptors in BNST in stress-induced binge eating in our rat model. CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for bingeing-related eating disorders.

  17. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciencia" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

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    Zila M Sanchez

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  18. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciência" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Ribeiro, Karen J; Wagner, Gabriela A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%), the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4%) and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%). The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  19. Influence of negative affect on decision making in women with restrictive and binge-purge type anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A

    2016-05-30

    The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All women were asked to watch either a negative or a control film fragment, both followed by the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT). Before and after the fragments negative affect was measured. Additionally, relevant characteristics (e.g., overall depressive symptoms) were assessed. Differences in negative affect did not influence decision making performance. Independent of affective state, decision making was found to be impaired in women with ANBP (no learning effect on the BGT), but not in women with ANR. These findings highlight the importance of considering different AN subtypes when examining decision making processes. However, the role of negative affect on decision making remains uncertain. Since other affect related factors such as affect dysregulation may also play a role, future studies on decision making in AN should take the role of affect into account.

  20. Slowing down and taking a second look: Inhibitory deficits associated with binge eating are not food-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Goldstein, Stephanie P; Wyckoff, Emily; Forman, Evan M; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Ruocco, Anthony C; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Poor inhibitory control may contribute to the maintenance of binge eating (BE) among overweight and obese individuals. However, it is unknown whether deficits are general or specific to food (versus other attractive non-food stimuli), or whether observed deficits are attributable to increased depressive symptoms in BE groups. In the current study, we hypothesized that individuals with BE would display inhibitory control deficits, with more pronounced deficits occurring when food stimuli were used. Overweight or obese participants with (n = 25) and without (n = 65) BE completed a Stop Signal Task (SST) with distinct task blocks featuring food-specific stimuli, positive non-food stimuli, or neutral stimuli. The BE group exhibited poorer inhibitory control across SST stimuli types (p = .003, ηp(2)=.10), but deficits did not differ by stimuli type (p = .68, ηp(2) < .01). Including depression as a covariate did not significantly alter results. Results suggest individuals with BE display inhibitory control deficits compared to controls; however, deficits do not appear to be specific to stimuli type. Furthermore, inhibitory control deficits do not appear to be associated with mood disturbance in the BE group. Replication and further research is needed to guide treatment targets.

  1. Set-shifting abilities, mood and loss of control over eating in binge eating disorder: An experimental study.

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    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F

    2015-12-15

    Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED.

  2. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in morbidity obese candidates for bariatric surgery with and without binge eating disorder

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    V. Abilés

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze changes in the general and specific psychopathology of morbidly obese bariatric surgery (BS candidates after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and assess differences between patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED and between patients with obesity grades III and IV, studying their influence on weight loss. Methods: 110 consecutive morbidly obese BS candidates [77 females; aged 41 ± 9 yrs; body mass index 49.1 ± 9.0 kg/m²] entered a three-month CBT program (12 two-hour sessions before BS. Participants were assessed with general and specific psychopathology tests pre-and post-CBT. Data were analyzed according to the degree of obesity and presence/absence of BED. Results: At baseline, BED patients were more anxious and depressive with lower self-esteem and quality of life versus non-BED patients (p 10% in 61%, with no intergroup differences. Conclusions: CBT is effective to treat psychological comorbidity in BS candidates, regardless of the presence of BED and degree of obesity.

  3. Change in attachment to the therapy group generalizes to change in individual attachment among women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Gick, Mary; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Attachment to groups is analogous to attachment to individuals, and may play an important role in group functioning and in group psychotherapy outcomes. This study examined whether attachment to the therapy group can change during treatment, and whether such change predicts improvements in treatment outcomes, including individual attachment, up to 1 year posttreatment. Eighty-seven women with binge eating disorder (BED) attended Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). Participants were assigned to one of two conditions in which groups were homogeneously composed of women with either higher or lower individual attachment anxiety. Outcomes were assessed pre, post, 6 months, and 1 year posttreatment. Attachment to the group was assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of GPIP. Group attachment insecurity decreased significantly during treatment. Reductions in group attachment avoidance predicted decreases in individual attachment insecurity at 1 year posttreatment. Study condition did not moderate these associations. These results indicate that women with BED who receive GPIP are able to generalize improvements in group attachment security to their individual attachment relationships outside of therapy up to 1 year post group treatment.

  4. Chronic Binge Alcohol Administration Dysregulates Hippocampal Genes Involved in Immunity and Neurogenesis in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

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    John K. Maxi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUD exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+ patients. We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA administration (13–14 g EtOH/kg/wk prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. The underlying mechanisms of neurocognitive alterations due to alcohol and SIV are not known. This exploratory study examined the CBA-induced differential expression of hippocampal genes in SIV-infected (CBA/SIV+; n = 2 macaques in contrast to those of sucrose administered, SIV-infected (SUC/SIV+; n = 2 macaques. Transcriptomes of hippocampal samples dissected from brains obtained at necropsy (16 months post-SIV inoculation were analyzed to determine differentially expressed genes. MetaCore from Thomson Reuters revealed enrichment of genes involved in inflammation, immune responses, and neurodevelopment. Functional relevance of these alterations was examined in vitro by exposing murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs to ethanol (EtOH and HIV trans-activator of transcription (Tat protein. EtOH impaired NPC differentiation as indicated by decreased βIII tubulin expression. These findings suggest a role for neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in CBA/SIV neuropathogenesis and warrant further investigation of their potential contribution to CBA-mediated neurobehavioral deficits.

  5. Getting better byte by byte: a pilot randomised controlled trial of email therapy for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul; Serfaty, Marc

    2008-03-01

    One hundred and ten people in an university population responded to emailed eating disorder questionnaires. Ninty-seven fulfilling criteria for eating disorders (bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), EDNOS) were randomised to therapist administered email bulimia therapy (eBT), unsupported Self directed writing (SDW) or Waiting list control (WLC). Measures were repeated at 3 months. Diagnosis, Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Bulimia investigatory test (BITE) scores were recorded. Follow-up rate was 63% and results must be interpreted cautiously. However significantly fewer participants who had received eBT or SDW fulfilled criteria for eating disorders at follow up compared to WLC. There was no significant difference between eBT and SDW in the analysis of variance (ANOVA), although in separate analyses, eBT was significantly superior to WLC (p < 0.02) and the difference for SDW approached significance (p = 0.06). BDI and BITE scores showed no significant change. For eBT participants there was a significant positive correlation between words written and improvement in BITE severity score. BN, BED and EDNOS can be treated via email.

  6. A history of the identification of the characteristic eating disturbances of Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder and Anorexia Nervosa.

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    Heaner, Martica K; Walsh, B Timothy

    2013-06-01

    During the last 25 years, the careful examination of the eating behavior of individuals with eating disorders has provided critical insights into the nature of these disorders. Crucially, studies investigating components of different eating behaviors have documented that Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are characterized by objective disturbances in eating patterns that are significantly different than behaviors exhibited by individuals who do not have these eating disorders. The detailed description of the disturbances in eating behavior has helped to identify diagnostic criteria associated with each disorder, and has led to important hypotheses about the underlying pathophysiology. These advances in understanding have provided, and continue to provide, a foundation for translational research and for the development of novel treatment interventions. This review is based on a presentation given by B. Timothy Walsh, M.D. at the 40th anniversary symposium of the Columbia University Appetite talks outlining the evolution of the discovery of the characteristic eating disturbances seen with each disorder.

  7. Digital Media Platforms and the Use of TV Content: Binge Watching and Video-on-Demand in Germany

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    Lothar Mikos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancing digitalization and media convergence demands TV broadcasting companies to adjust their content to various platforms and distribution channels. The internet, as convergent carrier medium, is increasingly taking on a central role for additional media. Classical linear TV is still important, but for some audiences it has been developing from a primary medium to a secondary medium. Owing to the growing melding of classical-linear TV contents with online offerings (e.g. video-on-demand platforms or Web–TV, a great dynamic can be seen which has triggered numerous discussions about the future of TV for some time now. This article will summarize the results of two different audience studies. Film and television shows are meanwhile distributed online via Video-on-Demand platforms such as Netflix or Amazon Prime Video. The first audience study has dealt with the use of VoD-platforms in Germany investigating user rituals, user motivation to watch films and TV shows on these platforms, and the meaning of VoD in everyday life. Most of the participants in this study reported that they mainly watch TV drama series at Netflix or Amazon Prime. Therefore, the second audience study focused the online use of television drama series of individuals and couples elaborating the phenomenon of binge watching. In relating the audience practice to the new structures of the television market the article will shed light on the future of television.

  8. Childhood trauma in obese and overweight women with food addiction and clinical-level of binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Lamis, Dorian A; Farina, Benedetto; Pompili, Maurizio; Contardi, Anna; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2016-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is considered a major risk factor for several disorders as well as for the development of eating psychopathology and adult obesity. The main aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the independent association between CT and food addiction (FA), and (ii) CT in patients with both FA and clinical-level of binge eating (BE), versus patients who only engage in FA or BE. Participants were 301 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy. All of the patients were administered self-report measures investigating FA, BE, CT, anxiety and depressive symptoms. CT severity was moderately and positively associated with both FA (r=0.37; p<0.001) and BE (r=0.36; p<0.001) severity. The association between FA and CT remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables. Furthermore, compared to patients without dysfunctional eating patterns, the co-occurrence of FA and BE was associated with more severe CT as well as with more severe psychopathology (i.e., anxiety and depressive symptoms) and higher BMI. Our results suggest that clinicians should carefully assess the presence of CT in individuals who report dysfunctional eating patterns in order to develop treatment approaches specifically for obese and overweight patients with a history of CT.

  9. Adolescent binge drinking increases expression of the danger signal receptor agonist HMGB1 and Toll-like receptors in the adult prefrontal cortex.

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    Vetreno, R P; Crews, F T

    2012-12-13

    Adolescence is a critical developmental stage of life during which the prefrontal cortex (PFC) matures, and binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common. Recent studies have found that ethanol increases neuroinflammation via upregulated high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). HMGB1/TLR 'danger signaling' induces multiple brain innate immune genes that could alter brain function. To determine whether adolescent binge drinking persistently increases innate immune gene expression in the PFC, rats (P25-P55) were exposed to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE [5.0 g/kg, 2-day on/2-day off schedule]). On P56, HMGB1/TLR danger signaling was assessed using immunohistochemistry (i.e., +immunoreactivity [+IR]). In a separate group of subjects, spatial and reversal learning on the Barnes maze was assessed in early adulthood (P64-P75), and HMGB1/TLR danger signaling was measured using immunohistochemistry for +IR and RT-PCR for mRNA in adulthood (P80). Immunohistochemical assessment at P56 and 24 days later at P80 revealed increased frontal cortical HMGB1, TLR4, and TLR3 in the AIE-treated rats. Adolescent intermittent ethanol treatment did not alter adult spatial learning on the Barnes maze, but did cause reversal learning deficits and increased perseverative behavior. Barnes maze deficits correlated with the expression of danger signal receptors in the PFC. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that adolescent binge drinking leads to persistent upregulation of innate immune danger signaling in the adult PFC that correlates with adult neurocognitive dysfunction.

  10. Nutrigenomics of Neuradaptogen Amino-Acid-Therapy and Neurometabolic Optimizers: Overcoming carbohydrate bingeing and overeating through neurometabolic mechanisms

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    Eric R. Braverman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of obesity, the epidemic continues to rise worldwide. While pharmacological treatment of obesity may be effective, medications may have significant side effects and can be potentially fatal. This review will provide significant evidence to substantiate the existence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome in Obesity and the role of catecholaminergic pathways in aberrant substance seeking behavior, in particular cravings for carbohydrates. The genetic basis for generalized craving behavior will be established. Evidence to support the augmentation of precursor amino acid therapy and enkephalinase, MOA and COMT inhibition leading to enhanced levels of neurotransmitters: serotonin, enkephalins, GABA and dopamine/norepinephrine as well increasing insulin sensitivity (affecting dopamineFunctional Foods in Health and Disease: 9:310-378neuronal synthesis regulation through the use of certain neurometabolic optimizers will also be provided. This review article cites many published studies to support a conceptual paradigm shift towards the use of this proposed nutrigenomic formula. The analysis and research preceding this formulation is outlined. This formulation has a generalized anti-craving effect and can inhibit carbohydrate bingeing, inducing significant healthy fat loss and prevention of relapse. This is the first time that components of this formula have been combined, at the dosage levels indicated with the goal of promoting successful and sustainable body recomposition. We are encouraging other laboratories to further evaluate Neuroadtagen Amino-Acid Therapy (NAAT/Nurometabolic optimizers as a putative anti-obesity complex in larger controlled blinded studies and await interpretation of must these needed studies.

  11. Effects of binge ethanol exposure during first-trimester equivalent on corticothalamic neurons in Swiss Webster outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha A; Weber, Jennilyn N; Howard, Christopher D; Favero, Carlita B

    2015-12-16

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders range in severity depending on the amount, timing, and frequency of alcohol exposure. Regardless of severity, sensorimotor defects are commonly reported. Sensorimotor information travels through three tracts of the internal capsule: thalamocortical axons, corticothalamic axons, and corticospinal axons. Here we describe the effects of binge ethanol exposure during the first-trimester equivalent on corticothalamic neurons using Swiss Webster mice. We injected pregnant mice with ethanol (2.9 g/kg, intraperitoneal, followed by 1.45 g/kg, intraperitoneal, 2 h later) on embryonic days (E) 11.5, 12.5, and 13.5. Our paradigm resulted in a mean maternal blood ethanol content of 294.8±15.4 mg/dl on E12.5 and 258.3±22.2 mg/dl on E13.5. Control dams were injected with an equivalent volume of PBS. Bromodeoxyuridine birthdating was carried out on E11.5 to label S-phase neurons. The days of injection were chosen because they are at the onset of neurogenesis and axon extension for corticothalamic, thalamocortical, and corticospinal neurons. Ethanol-exposed pups exhibited no differences compared with controls on day of birth in litter size, body weight, or brain weight. Corticothalamic neurons labeled with bromodeoxyuridine and T-box brain 1 were located in the deep layers of the cortex and did not differ in number in both groups. These results contrast several studies demonstrating alcohol-related differences in these parameters using chronic ethanol exposure paradigms and inbred mouse strains. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of expanding the mouse strains used to model fetal alcohol spectrum disorder to enhance our understanding of its complex etiology.

  12. Substantial weight gains are common prior to treatment-seeking in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined weight trajectories in obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) during the year prior to treatment initiation and explored potential correlates of these weight changes. One hundred thirty (N=130) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. Eighty-three percent (83%; n=108) of treatment seeking obese BED patients gained weight, and 65% (n=84) gained a clinically significant amount of weight (greater than or equal to 5% body weight), in the year preceding treatment. Overall, participants reported a mean percent weight gain of 8% (16.6 pounds) during the 12months prior to treatment with a wide range of weight changes across participants (from a 52% weight gain to a 13% weight loss). A substantial proportion of patients (35%), categorized as High Weight Gainers (defined as gaining more than 10% of body weight during previous year), reported gaining an average of 16.7% of body weight. Low Weight Gainers (defined as gaining greater than 5%, but less than 10%) comprised 29% of the sample and were characterized by a mean gain of 6.9% of body weight. Weight Maintainers/Losers (defined as having maintained or lost weight during the 12months prior to treatment) comprised 17% of the sample and reported losing on average 2.8% of body weight. These three groups did not differ significantly in their current weight and eating behaviors or eating disorder psychopathology. The majority of treatment-seeking obese patients with BED reported having gained substantial amounts of weight during the previous year. These findings provide an important context for interpreting the modest weight losses typically reported in treatment studies of BED. Failure to produce weight loss in these studies may be reinterpreted as stabilization of weight and prevention of further weight gain.

  13. Interpersonal learning is associated with improved self-esteem in group psychotherapy for women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group.

  14. Hippocampal-dependent Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats exposed to binge-like doses of ethanol as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Derick H

    2013-04-01

    Binge-like postnatal ethanol exposure produces significant damage throughout the brain in rats, including the cerebellum and hippocampus. In the current study, cue- and context-mediated Pavlovian conditioning were assessed in adult rats exposed to moderately low (3E; 3g/kg/day) or high (5E; 5g/kg/day) doses of ethanol across postnatal days 4-9. Ethanol-exposed and control groups were presented with 8 sessions of trace eyeblink conditioning followed by another 8 sessions of delay eyeblink conditioning, with an altered context presented over the last two sessions. Both forms of conditioning rely on the brainstem and cerebellum, while the more difficult trace conditioning also requires the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also needed to gate or modulate expression of the eyeblink conditioned response (CR) based on contextual cues. Results indicate that the ethanol-exposed rats were not significantly impaired in trace EBC relative to control subjects. In terms of CR topography, peak amplitude was significantly reduced by both doses of alcohol, whereas onset latency but not peak latency was significantly lengthened in the 5E rats across the latter half of delay EBC in the original training context. Neither dosage resulted in significant impairment in the contextual gating of the behavioral response, as revealed by similar decreases in CR production across all four treatment groups following introduction of the novel context. Results suggest ethanol-induced brainstem-cerebellar damage can account for the present results, independent of the putative disruption in hippocampal development and function proposed to occur following postnatal ethanol exposure.

  15. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress-induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here, we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol we tested the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair-feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall, these results support the validity of our CSS to model BED allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food intake. PMID:25621284

  16. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BINGE EATING AND ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) IN TWO PEDIATRIC COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CLINICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Mahone, E. Mark; Forrester, Sarah; Wilcox, Holly C.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been linked with obesity; however its relationship with binge eating (BE) is less clear. We aimed to explore the associations among ADHD, weight and BE in pediatric mental health clinics. Method We retrospectively reviewed consecutive intakes in two pediatric mental health clinics (N=252). BE was assessed using the C-BEDS scale. Associations between ADHD, BE, and BMI-z score were assessed via regression. Results Mean age was 10.8 (3.7 SD) years. Twelve percent (n= 31) had BE. The association between ADHD and BE was statistically significant (OR 16.1, p < 0.001), and persisted after adjusting for comorbid diagnoses, medications, demographic variables and clinic. There was a statistically significant association between ADHD and BMI z-scores (β=0.54, p < 0.001). After adjusting for BE, the relationship between ADHD and BMI z-scores was attenuated (β=0.35, p=0.025), and the coefficient for BE was decreased (β=0.75, p=0.001). Although stimulant use was associated with a three-fold increase in odds of BE (OR 3.16, p=0.006), stimulants were not associated with greater BMI-z scores (β=0.18, p=0.32). Discussion There was a significant association between ADHD and BE in two pediatric mental health clinics. Although these data are cross-sectional, and cannot be used to make causal inferences, these findings are compatible with the hypothesis that BE partially mediates the association between ADHD and BMI z-scores. In mental health clinics, children with ADHD may present as overweight or obese. Further, children with ADHD may exhibit BE. Future prospective studies should elucidate the complex relationships among ADHD, weight, stimulants and BE. PMID:25130278

  17. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Selective and Sustained Attention in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... consumption, age, body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures  TEACh-5 attention scores. Results  There were no significant effects on test performance in children of mothers...

  18. Treatment of binge eating disorder in racially and ethnically diverse obese patients in primary care: randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of self-help and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D; Walsh, B Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N = 26), placebo (N = 27), shCBT + sibutramine (N = 26), or shCBT + placebo (N = 25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to placebo for treating BED in

  19. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge-like ethanol

  20. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Executive Function in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers......Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...

  1. Increased Synaptic Excitation and Abnormal Dendritic Structure of Prefrontal Cortex Layer V Pyramidal Neurons following Prolonged Binge-Like Consumption of Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Fogarty, Matthew J.; Shariff, Masroor; Belmer, Arnauld

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term alcohol use causes a multitude of neurochemical changes in cortical regions that facilitate the transition to dependence. Therefore, we used a model of long-term, binge-like ethanol consumption in rats to determine the effects on morphology and synaptic physiology of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer V pyramidal neurons. Following 10 weeks of ethanol consumption, we recorded synaptic currents from mPFC neurons and used neurobiotin filling to analyze their morphology. We then compared these data to measurements obtained from age-matched, water-drinking control rats. We found that long-term ethanol consumption caused a significant increase in total dendrite arbor length of mPFC layer V pyramidal neurons. Dendritic restructuring was primarily observed in basal dendrite arbors, with mPFC neurons from animals engaged in long-term ethanol drinking having significantly larger and more complex basal arbors compared with controls. These changes were accompanied by significantly increased total spine densities and spontaneous postsynaptic excitatory current frequency, suggesting that long-term binge-like ethanol consumption enhances basal excitatory synaptic transmission in mPFC layer V pyramidal neurons. Our results provide insights into the morphological and functional changes in mPFC layer V pyramidal neuronal physiology following prolonged exposure to ethanol and support changes in mPFC activity during the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:28032119

  2. Virtual-reality-based multidimensional therapy for the treatment of body image disturbances in binge eating disorders: a preliminary controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Monica; Baruffi, Margherita; Molinari, Enrico

    2002-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of a virtual-reality (VR)-based multidimensional approach in the treatment of body image attitudes and related constructs. The female binge eating disorder (BED) patients (n = 20), involved in a residential weight control treatment including low-calorie diet (1200 cal/day) and physical training, were randomly assigned either to the multidimensional VR treatment or to psychonutritional groups based on the cognitive-behavior approach. Patients were administered a battery of outcome measures assessing eating disorders symptomathology, attitudes toward food, body dissatisfaction, level of anxiety, motivation for change, level of assertiveness, and general psychiatric symptoms. In the short term, the VR treatment was more effective than the traditional cognitive-behavioral psychonutritional groups in improving the overall psychological state of the patients. In particular, the therapy was more effective in improving body satisfaction, self-efficacy, and motivation for change. No significant differences were found in the reduction of the binge eating behavior. The possibility of inducing a significant change in body image and its associated behaviors using a VR-based short-term therapy can be useful to improve the body satisfaction in traditional weight reduction programs. However, given the nature of this research that does not include a followup study, the obtained results are preliminary only.

  3. Virtual Reality for Enhancing the Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Obesity With Binge Eating Disorder: Randomized Controlled Study With One-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Gian Luca; Bacchetta, Monica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Conti, Sara; Gaggioli, Andrea; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Molinari, Enrico; Cárdenas-López, Georgina; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research identifies unhealthful weight-control behaviors (fasting, vomiting, or laxative abuse) induced by a negative experience of the body, as the common antecedents of both obesity and eating disorders. In particular, according to the allocentric lock hypothesis, individuals with obesity may be locked to an allocentric (observer view) negative memory of the body that is no longer updated by contrasting egocentric representations driven by perception. In other words, these patients may be locked to an allocentric negative representation of their body that their sensory inputs are no longer able to update even after a demanding diet and a significant weight loss. Objective To test the brief and long-term clinical efficacy of an enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy including a virtual reality protocol aimed at unlocking the negative memory of the body (ECT) in morbidly obese patients with binge eating disorders (BED) compared with standard cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and an inpatient multimodal treatment (IP) on weight loss, weight loss maintenance, BED remission, and body satisfaction improvement, including psychonutritional groups, a low-calorie diet (1200 kcal/day), and physical training. Methods 90 obese (BMI>40) female patients with BED upon referral to an obesity rehabilitation center were randomly assigned to conditions (31 to ECT, 30 to CBT, and 29 to IP). Before treatment completion, 24 patients discharged themselves from hospital (4 in ECT, 10 in CBT, and 10 in IP). The remaining 66 inpatients received either 15 sessions of ECT, 15 sessions of CBT, or no additional treatment over a 5-week usual care inpatient regimen (IP). ECT and CBT treatments were administered by 3 licensed psychotherapists, and patients were blinded to conditions. At start, upon completion of the inpatient treatment, and at 1-year follow-up, patients' weight, number of binge eating episodes during the previous month, and body satisfaction were assessed by self

  4. 李秉德教育思想研究%A Study of Li Bing-de's Educational Thoughts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海蕾; 胡慧睿

    2012-01-01

    As one of the explorers and founders of New China's pedagogy,the methodology for the study of the educational science,the education of the native language at elementary schools,Professor Li Bing-de has been committed to the research into curricular and pedagogy for years.Mr.Li proposed,in his autograph"Pedagogy," a new system of Pedagogy,which signifies the birth of the "Northwest School",with Mr.Li taking the lead.His main thoughts of teaching:First,the thoughts as to teaching in elementary and middle schools;Second,the thoughts as to the fundamental issues about teaching;Third,the thoughts as to the construction and development of concrete disciplines.Throughout his life,Mr.Li undergo the war of Anti-Japanese Aggression and the Cultural Revolution,he met with many frustrations and misfortunes yet achieved great accomplishment,and ultimately made a great expert in education.Based mainly on the theoretical fruits of Mr.Li,and through the reflection over the academic career of Mr.Li,this article aims to provide the teachers and scholars of a younger generation with exemplary experiences,and set up an exemplary figure for educational workers in modern society.%李秉德教授多年来一直致力于课程与教学论的研究,是新中国教学论、教育科学研究方法、小学语文教育等学科领域的开拓者和奠基人之一。李先生在《教学论》一书中提出了一种新的教学论体系,标志着以李秉德先生为首的西北学派的诞生。李先生的一生历经坎坷却取得了巨大的成就,最终成为一名教育大家。通过追思李先生的学术生涯过程,为年轻一代的教师、学者提供学习经验,为教育工作者标立榜样式的人物。

  5. Evidence that Melanocortin Receptor Agonist Melanotan-II Synergistically Augments the Ability of Naltrexone to Blunt Binge-Like Ethanol Intake in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Montserrat; Carvajal, Francisca; Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Cubero, Inmaculada; Picker, Mitchell J.; Thiele, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (NAL), reduces alcohol (ethanol) consumption in animals and humans and is an approved medication for treating alcohol abuse disorders. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin (MC) and opioid peptides are produced in the same neurons in the brain, and recent pre-clinical evidence shows that MC receptor (MCR) agonists reduce excessive ethanol drinking in animal models. Interestingly, there is a growing body of literature revealing interactions between the MC and opioid systems in the modulation of pain, drug tolerance, and food intake. Method In the present report, a mouse model of binge ethanol drinking was employed to determine if the MCR agonist, melanotan-II (MTII), would improve the effectiveness of NAL in reducing excessive binge-like ethanol drinking when these drugs were co-administered prior to ethanol access. Results Both NAL and MTII blunt binge-like ethanol drinking and associated blood ethanol levels, and when administered together, a low dose of MTII (0.26 mg/kg) produces a 7.6-fold increase in the effectiveness of NAL in reducing binge-like ethanol drinking. Using isobolographic analysis, it is demonstrated that MTII increases the effectiveness of NAL in a synergistic manner. Conclusions The current observations suggest that activators of MC signaling may represent a new approach to treating alcohol abuse disorders, and a way to potentially improve existing NAL-based therapies. PMID:26108334

  6. Gene expression changes in serotonin, GABA-A receptors, neuropeptides and ion channels in the dorsal raphe nucleus of adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats following binge-like alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintick, Jeanette N; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Edenberg, Howard J

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol binge-drinking during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of excessive adolescent ethanol binge-drinking on gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of alcohol preferring (P) rats. Repeated binges across adolescence (three 1h sessions across the dark-cycle per day, 5 days per week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session) significantly altered the expression of approximately one-third of the detected genes. Multiple neurotransmitter systems were altered, with the largest changes in the serotonin system (21 of 23 serotonin-related genes showed decreased expression) and GABA-A receptors (8 decreased and 2 increased). Multiple neuropeptide systems were also altered, with changes in the neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone systems similar to those associated with increased drinking and decreased resistance to stress. There was increased expression of 21 of 32 genes for potassium channels. Expression of downstream targets of CREB signaling was increased. There were also changes in expression of genes involved in inflammatory processes, axonal guidance, growth factors, transcription factors, and several intracellular signaling pathways. These widespread changes indicate that excessive binge drinking during adolescence alters the functioning of the DRN and likely its modulation of many regions of the central nervous system, including the mesocorticolimbic system.

  7. Aspectos ideativos no transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica: estudo com o Rorschach Ideational aspects of binge eating disorder: study with the Rorschach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Bailoni Martins Passos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pessoas com diagnóstico de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (DSM-IV são descritas como propensas a distúrbios nos processos de pensamento que são relevantes para a manutenção do quadro e para o tratamento. Este é um estudo exploratório visando avaliar o funcionamento cognitivo de sujeitos com o diagnóstico citado, sendo escolhido como instrumento o método de Rorschach, que permite acessar aspectos psicológicos menos sujeitos ao controle consciente do que os aferidos por escalas e auto-relatos. Foram selecionadas variáveis do Rorschach associadas ao funcionamento ideacional. A amostra constitui-se de 43 mulheres (média de 37,2 anos de idade, que, no Rorschach, evidenciam dificuldades na atividade ideativa, com predominância de um nível concreto e imaturo de ideação, perda dos limites da realidade e dos limites entre os eventos. Também há tendência a cognições de tom negativo. O uso defensivo de intelectualizações frágeis predispõe a sobrecargas emocionais. Mas também é observada a capacidade para pensar de forma flexível e construtiva, recurso associado a bom prognóstico em psicoterapias.Subjects with binge eating disorder (DSM-IV have been described as being prone to difficulties in thinking processes which are important for the maintenance of their psychopathological picture and their treatment. To assess the cognitive functioning of subjects diagnosed with binge eating disorder. The design was of an exploratory study, and the elected instrument was the Rorschach method, Comprehensive System, which allows us to access the psychological aspects with less conscious control than self-reports, questionnaires and scales. The selected Rorschach variables were those associated with the ideational functioning. The sample consisted of 43 adult women (mean= 37, 2 years with binge eating disorder. In the Rorschach they showed difficulties in the ideational activity, predominance of a more concrete and immature

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more chips to eat while he does his math. He hates that he's overweight, but he can' ... to have a healthy relationship with food. Nutrition specialists or dietitians can help teens and their families ...

  9. Binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 37. Read More Anorexia Appetite - increased Bulimia Depression - overview Electrolytes Esophagitis Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed Gas - flatulence Hemorrhoids Pharyngitis - sore throat Review Date 2/2/2016 Updated by: Fred K. ...

  10. Bing Bong Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Tham Yew

    1996-01-01

    The communication style of Asians is less "self exposing" than that of Americans, because Asian culture places more importance on the group than the individual. Integrating American-style adventure-education programs into Asian culture would require an understanding of adventure learning stripped of its cultural influences, understanding…

  11. Negative affect mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and binge-eating disorder symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample: a test of the interpersonal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women.

  12. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  13. 丙吉:身揣四宝的西汉贤相%BingJi:A Virtuous the Western Han Dynasty Prime Minister with Four Cowries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超

    2016-01-01

    BingJi is a brilliant ancient minister. We should learn positive qualities from his experience. Our harmonious society and families need these traditional virtues.%麒麟阁十一功臣之一的丙吉堪称古时贤臣的典范,他身上的“四宝”尤其值得我们践习。本文将丙吉的德操与今天的廉政文化、优良家风相结合,希望我们在和谐社会建设中能更好的传承先贤的优秀品质。

  14. Future-oriented emotions in the prediction of binge-drinking intention and expectation: the role of anticipated and anticipatory emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores

    2012-06-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) offers a parsimonious explanation of purposive behavior, but in the study of healthy and risk behaviors its sufficiency may be questioned. Working with binge-drinking, a very common risk behavior in Spanish undergraduate students, we used two strategies for improving predictions from TPB: using behavioral intention (BI) and behavioral expectation (BE) as proximal antecedents of behaviors and adding as new predictors two future-oriented emotions (anticipated and anticipatory). Hierarchical regression analyses show that while anticipated emotions improved TPB explanations of BI, anticipatory emotions improved the explanations of BE. The present results show the influence of future emotions in the prediction of behavioral intention and behavioral expectation.

  15. Uma revisão dos estudos latino-americanos sobre o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica A review of Latin American studies on binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Amorim Palavras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar o estado de arte da literatura latino-americana sobre o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODO: Foi feita uma busca sobre estudos realizados em países latino-americanos usando-se o termo "binge eating", nas seguintes bases eletrônicas: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO e PsycINFO. O critério de inclusão foi selecionar estudos desenvolvidos com amostras latino-americanas que preencheram critérios parciais ou completos do transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica pelo Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais-4ª Edição. RESULTADOS: Foram rastreados 8.123 artigos e 30 preencheram o critério de inclusão (18 estudos de corte transversal, cinco ensaios clínicos, quatro relatos de casos, dois estudos de validade, um estudo de coorte. A maioria dos estudos foi conduzida no Brasil (27, um na Argentina, um na Colômbia e um na Venezuela. A prevalência de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica em obesos em programas para perda de peso esteve entre 16% e 51,6%. A comparação entre obesos com e sem transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica mostrou uma maior tendência para peso mais alto, oscilação ponderal, preocupação com peso e forma corporal e associação com comorbidades psiquiátricas naqueles com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica mostra-se um fenômeno verificável na América Latina com características clínicas semelhantes às encontradas na literatura internacional. Esta revisão fornece subsídios para que o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica seja considerado uma categoria distinta de transtorno alimentar na Classificação Internacional de Doenças-11ª Edição.OBJECTIVE: To review the state of the art of the scientific literature on binge eating disorder in Latin America. METHOD: A literature search of studies conducted in Latin American countries using the term "binge eating" was performed

  16. The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents' negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed.

  17. Assessment of executive functions in obese individuals with binge eating disorder Avaliação de funções executivas em indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchesne Monica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess executive functions of obese individuals with binge eating disorder. METHOD: Thirty-eight obese individuals with binge eating disorder were compared to thirty-eight obese controls without binge eating disorder in terms of their executive functions. All individuals were assessed using the following instruments: Digit Span, Trail Making Tests A and B, Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. In addition, four subtests from the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome Battery were also used, namely the Zoo Map Test, the Modified Six Elements Test, the Action Program Test and the Rule Shift Cards Test. RESULTS: When compared to obese controls, obese individuals with binge eating disorder presented significant impairment in the following tests: Digit Span backward, Zoo Map Test, Modified Six Elements Test, and Action Program Test. Subjects with binge eating disorder also showed significant more set shifting and perseverative errors in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. In other measures such as the Digit Span Forward, the Trail Making Test, the Stroop Test and the Rule Shift Cards Test, obese subjects with binge eating disorder did not differ significantly from obese subjects without binge eating disorder. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, in the present sample, obese individuals with binge eating disorder presented executive deficits, especially impairments relating to problem-solving, cognitive flexibility and working memory.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as funções executivas de indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODO: Trinta e oito indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica foram comparados com 38 controles obesos sem transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica em termos de suas funções executivas. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados utilizando os seguintes instrumentos: Digit Span, Trail

  18. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed.

  19. Hodnocení automatického překladu SMT systémů (Google translate, Bing) z francouzštiny do češtiny: kolokace z oblasti "bezpečnost potravin"

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVARCOVÁ, Zora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to test and evaluate the translation quality of selected terminological collocations related to "food safety" using free available translators (Microsoft Bing Translator, Google Translate). The work is divided into two parts theoretical and practical. Theoretical part is divided into several chapters, which focus on the development, history and use of statistical machine translation, the basic strategies of machine translation systems (rule-based machine tra...

  20. Restudy of the Relationship between Bing Xin & Christianity and her Chinese & Western Cultural Thought%冰心与基督教及其中西文化观再议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世海

    2015-01-01

    The most fundamental influences from Christianity on Bing Xin are shown in her individual con-cept and her revelation writing.This not only demonstrated her unique individualistic writing,but also added ul-timate thought for Modern Chinese literature.However,by the influence of liberal theology and pantheism,Bing Xin gradually deviated herself from Christian sacred value system,and returned to the traditional Chinese mode of thinking.For this,Bing Xin misunderstood Christianity and made wrong judgment on the advantages and dis-advantages of Chinese and Western culture.Henceforth,an independent,unique writer named Bing Xin also disappeared.%冰心受基督教最根本的影响表现于其早期的个人主义观及注入式写作方式,这不但彰显了冰心独特的个体性,也为中国现代文学添加了难得的终极之思。但在自由主义神学和泛神论影响下,冰心逐渐偏离基督教神圣价值体系,回归中国传统思维理路,致使其对基督教产生误解并对中西文化判断失误,独特的、个性的冰心也由此消失。

  1. 学林人瑞粲若花--苏雪林与冰心、谢冰莹关系研究%The Beautiful Flowers of Literary Circles---Research on Su Xuelin's relationship with Bing Xin and Xie Bingying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李灵

    2013-01-01

    苏雪林、冰心、谢冰莹是名满文坛的三作家。苏雪林与冰心交往虽未频繁,但始终意气相投;自苏雪林入台后,与谢冰莹成为最亲密的朋友,为文坛留下一段佳话。人生艺术理想的相近,行文风格的趋同与接受心理的逆反,教义精魂的共同体认,使苏雪林与冰心、谢冰莹心灵相通,为真诚的友谊打开一扇门,也为新文学留下一段令人回味的佳话。%The three writers, Su Xuelin, Bing Xin, and Xie Bingying are famous for their literary achievements .The commun-ion of Su Xuelin with Bing Xin isn't frequent, but they always are congenial with each other; Since Su Xuelin went to Taiwan, Xie Bingying became her most intimate friend , leaving a much-told story for the literary world.The same artistic ideal, convergence of style, rebellious psychology, and the doctrine of spirit, all opened a door for the sincere friendship of Su Xuelin and Bing Xin , Xie Bingying, and also left a memorable story for the new literature .

  2. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) does not affect ethanol-reinforced responding in binge-drinking, nondependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Angela N; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2012-03-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) has been implicated as having a significant role in mediating alcohol-drinking behavior. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been investigated as a potential pharmacotherapeutic due to its ability to attenuate ethanol intake, particularly when administered into the CeA. Previous research suggests, though the evidence is somewhat conflicting, that the efficacy of NPY is contingent upon genetic background and/or prior history of ethanol dependence in rats. However, studies looking at the effects of NPY in nonselected animals lacking a history of ethanol dependence have two factors that could impact the interpretation of the results: ethanol history/selection AND relatively low baseline ethanol intakes as compared to ethanol-dependent and/or genetically selected controls. The purpose of the present study was to generate higher baseline ethanol intakes upon which to examine the effects of NPY on ethanol and sucrose drinking in nonselected rats using a binge drinking model. Long Evans rats were trained to complete a single response requirement resulting in access to either 2% sucrose (Sucrose Group) or 2% sucrose/10% ethanol (Ethanol Group) for a 20-min drinking session. On treatment days, rats were bilaterally microinjected into the CeA with aCSF or one of three doses of NPY (0.25μg, 0.50μg, or 1.00μg/.5μL). Subjects in the Ethanol Group were consuming an average of 1.2g/kg of ethanol (yielding BELs of ~90mg%) during the 20min access period following aCSF treatments. The results revealed that NPY had no effect on either sucrose or ethanol consumption or on appetitive responding (latency to respond). Overall, the findings indicate that even a history of binge-like ethanol consumption is not sufficient to recruit CeA NPY activity, and are consistent with previous studies showing that the role of NPY in regulating ethanol reinforcement in the CeA may be contingent upon a prior history of ethanol dependence.

  3. INTERBED: internet-based guided self-help for overweight and obese patients with full or subsyndromal binge eating disorder. A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Zwaan Martina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge eating disorder (BED is a prevalent clinical eating disorder associated with increased psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, overweight and obesity, and increased health care costs. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have suggested efficacy of book-based self-help interventions in the treatment of this disorder. However, evidence from larger RCTs is needed. Delivery of self-help through new technologies such as the internet should be investigated in particular, as these approaches have the potential to be more interactive and thus more attractive to patients than book-based approaches. This study will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program (GSH-I and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, which has been proven in several studies to be the gold standard treatment for BED, in a prospective multicenter randomized trial. Methods The study assumes the noninferiority of GSH-I compared to CBT. Both treatments lasted 4 months, and maintenance of outcome will be assessed 6 and 18 months after the end of treatment. A total of 175 patients with BED and a body mass index between 27 and 40 kg/m2 were randomized at 7 centers in Germany and Switzerland. A 20% attrition rate was assumed. As in most BED treatment trials, the difference in the number of binge eating days over the past 28 days is the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures include the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, body weight, quality of life, and self-esteem. Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome will be determined, and the cost-effectiveness of both treatment conditions will be evaluated. Results The methodology for the INTERBED study has been detailed. Conclusions Although there is evidence that CBT is the first-line treatment for BED, it is not widely available. As BED is still a recent diagnostic category, many cases likely remain

  4. Tradução e adaptação para o português da Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica Translation and adaptation into Portuguese of the Binge-Eating Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Freitas

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO/OBJETIVOS: Descreve-se o processo de tradução e adaptação, para a língua portuguesa, da Binge Eating Scale (BES -- Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica (ECAP --, que avalia a gravidade da compulsão alimentar periódica em indivíduos obesos. O objetivo foi traduzir, adaptar e avaliar a aplicabilidade da versão para o português da ECAP. MÉTODOS: Após cuidadoso processo de tradução e adaptação para a língua portuguesa, foi obtida uma versão final da ECAP. Para avaliar sua aplicabilidade, foi realizado um pré-teste em um grupo de 32 pacientes obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP e que procuravam tratamento para emagrecer. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes compreenderam adequadamente os itens da ECAP. A média de pontuação da ECAP nos pacientes obesos com TCAP foi de 31,2 (±5,8. CONCLUSÃO: A versão final para o português da ECAP foi considerada adequada para uso clínico.INTRODUCION/OBJECTIVE: We describe the translation into Portuguese and the adaptation of the Binge Eating Scale (BES - a scale to assess binge eating severity in obese individuals. The objective was to translate, adapt and evaluate the applicability of the Portuguese BES version. METHODS: A final Portuguese BES version was obtained after a careful translation and adaptation process. To verify the applicability of the instrument, a pre-test was conducted in a group of 32 obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED seeking treatment for obesity. RESULTS: All BES items were well understood and the mean BES scores of the obese binge eaters sample was 31,2 (±5,8. CONCLUSION: The Portuguese final version of BES was considered suitable for clinical purposes.

  5. Validation of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) in the obese with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouel, Melissa; Raman, Jayanthi; Hay, Phillipa; Smith, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    Obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) are both associated with deficiencies in executive function. The Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a self-report measure that assesses executive function. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese population, with and without BED, and to explore the differences on the BRIEF-A in the obese, with and without BED, compared to normative sample. 98 obese participants (70 BED) completed the BRIEF-A, DASS-21 and several performance-based measures of executive function. 30 participants completed a repeat assessment two months later. There was evidence of good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, however evidence for construct and convergent validity was mixed. Additionally, it was found that obese individuals report significantly more executive function difficulties on the BRIEF-A than the normative sample. Further, obese with BED report more executive function difficulties than those without. This study shows some evidence of sound psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese sample, however more research is required to understand the nature of executive function being measured.

  6. Blood levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide are increased in anorexia nervosa and in binge-eating disorder, but not in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Matias, Isabelle; Martiadis, Vassilis; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Maj, Mario; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2005-06-01

    The endocannabinoid system, consisting of two cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the endogenous ligands anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA)) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), has been shown to control food intake in both animals and humans, modulating either rewarding or quantitative aspects of the eating behavior. Moreover, hypothalamic endocannabinoids seem to be part of neural circuitry involved in the modulating effects of leptin on energy homeostasis. Therefore, alterations of the endocannabinoid system could be involved in the pathophysiology of eating disorders, where a deranged leptin signalling has been also reported. In order to verify this hypothesis, we measured plasma levels of AEA, 2-AG, and leptin in 15 women with anorexia nervosa (AN), 12 women with bulimia nervosa (BN), 11 women with binge-eating disorder (BED), and 15 healthy women. Plasma levels of AEA resulted significantly enhanced in both anorexic and BED women, but not in bulimic patients. No significant change occurred in the plasma levels of 2-AG in all the patients' groups. Moreover, circulating AEA levels were significantly and inversely correlated with plasma leptin concentrations in both healthy controls and anorexic women. These findings show for the first time a derangement in the production of the endogenous cannabinoid AEA in drug-free symptomatic women with AN or with BED. Although the pathophysiological significance of this alteration awaits further studies to be clarified, it suggests a possible involvement of AEA in the mediation of the rewarding aspects of the aberrant eating behaviors occurring in AN and BED.

  7. Association between A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene, harm avoidance and binge eating behavior in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Martiadis, Vassilis; Serino, Ismene; Di Filippo, Carmela; Maj, Mario

    2007-06-21

    Genes involved in serotonin transmission are likely involved in the biological predisposition to bulimia nervosa. We investigated whether the A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene was associated to bulimia nervosa and/or to some phenotypic aspects of the disorder. One hundred eighty Caucasian women (91 patients with bulimia nervosa and 89 healthy controls) were enrolled into the study. They underwent a blood sample collection for A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 genotyping and a clinical evaluation assessing comorbidity for Axis I and II psychiatric disorders, harm avoidance personality dimension and bulimic symptoms. The distribution of both tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C genotypes and alleles did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Bulimic women with the AA genotype exhibited a more severe binge eating behavior and higher harm avoidance scores than those with CC genotype. These findings support the idea that tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C polymorphism does not play a part in the genetic susceptibility to bulimia nervosa, but it seems to be involved in predisposing bulimic patients to a more disturbed eating behavior and higher harm avoidance.

  8. Rumination in Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder and Obesity: Associations with Eating-Disorder Psychopathology and Weight-bias Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley B; Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-03-01

    Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that rumination was associated with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization above and beyond the influence of overvaluation of shape/weight. Findings suggest that, among patients with BED/obesity, rumination is an important cognitive process associated with severity of eating-disorder psychopathology even after accounting for overvaluation of shape/weight. Patients with greater rumination might be more likely to dwell on weight-based discrimination experiences and internalize these negative attitudes. Additional controlled examination could determine whether rumination represents another potential target for BED/obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Synthesis and crystal structure of two tin fluoride materials: NaSnF 3 (BING-12) and Sn 3F 3PO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Tolulope O.; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Oliver, Scott R. J.

    2004-03-01

    A new compound, sodium tin trifluoride (NaSnF 3, which we denote BING-12 for SUNY at Binghamton, Structure No. 12), was synthesized solvothermally from a pyridine-water solvent system. The new compound crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/ c (No. 15), with a=11.7429(12) Å, b=17.0104(18) Å, c=6.8528(7) Å, β=100.6969(2)°, V=1345.1(2) Å 3 and Z=16. The layered structure consists of outer pyramidal SnF 3 units, where the fluorides surround a central layer of six- and seven-coordinate sodium atoms. The layers are stabilized by charged Na + galleries that reside in the center of the layers. Tin trifluorophosphate (Sn 3F 3PO 4, Compound 2) was isolated from a related synthetic system, and crystallized in the rhombohedral space group R3 (No. 146), with a=11.8647(11) Å, c=4.6291(6) Å, V=564.34(10) Å 3 and Z=3. The framework is made up of helical -Sn-F- chains, which are connected by phosphate groups. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), variable temperature PXRD (VT-PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. Is Binge Drinking Prevalent in Greece after the Emergence of the Economic Crisis? Assessment of This Idea Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vlontzos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact of the ongoing economic crisis in Greece on alcohol consumption and binge drinking. For this reason, the Theory of Planned Behavior is being applied by using a sample of nearly 900 questionnaires. The questionnaire consists of parts trying to identify the attitude of the interviewees towards alcohol, their subjective norms of social environment, and the perceived behavioral control. This research has been implemented on a national level. The most important finding is the considerable difference in alcohol consumption compared with other countries faced similar negative economic situations. Drinking is considered as a source of pleasure and socializing. The participants’ perception is that family environment and friends are not considering drinking as a non-desirable way of entertainment. As one of the major results of the survey, drinking was found to not be driven by a necessity to overcome problems related to it, which is the main difference with previous studies in others countries, like Argentina, Russia, USA, etc.

  11. Binge eating disorder, anxiety, depression and body image in grade III obesity patients Compulsão alimentar periódica, ansiedade, depressão e imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel R Matos

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE, anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. METHOD: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F with Body Mass Index (BMI between 40 and 81.7 Kg/m² (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg/m² and aging from 18 to 56 years (mean 38.5±9.7. Used instruments: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns ¾ Revised (QEWP-R for BED or BINGE assessment, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for depressive symptoms, State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-TRAIT and STAI-STATE for anxiety and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ for body image assessments. RESULTS: In this population BED and BINGE frequencies were 36% and 54%, respectively. Symptoms of depression were detected in 100% while severe symptomatology was found in 84% of the cases. The frequency of anxiety as a trait was 70%, as a state, 54% and 76% of all patients reported discomfort regarding body image. The frequency of BED was higher in patients with higher anxiety scores as a personality trait (>40 but not as a state (46% vs. 13%; p140 in the BSQ assessment. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a high frequency of binge eating episodes, severe depressive symptoms, anxiety and concern with body image in grade III obesity patients.INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar a freqüência de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP, episódios de compulsão alimentar periódica (CAP, ansiedade, depressão e distúrbios na imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III que procuram tratamento para obesidade. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes (10M e 40F com Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC de 40 a 81,7 Kg/m² (média =52,2±9,2 Kg/m² e idade entre 18 e 56 anos (média de 38,5±9,7. Instrumentos utilizados: Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso ("Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns - Revised" - QEWP

  12. The Impressive Friendship Between America Reportage Writer Helen Snow & Bing Xin%美国报告文学家海伦·斯诺与冰心的感人友谊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小鼎

    2012-01-01

    Helen Forster Snow and Bing Xin have met in Bei Ping in the 1930s.When they met they admired mutually and became the lifetime friends.They translated each other's works and reviewed and praised each other's achievements.They made valuable contribution to the Sino-US friendship and East-West cultural exchange.Helen highly praised the happy marriage of Bing Xin and the sociologist Wu Wenzao.She said their marriage accomplished each other's achievements.Bing Xin praised Edgar Snow's career is Helen Snow's career.Two Snows were inseparable in the career.%海伦.福斯特.斯诺与冰心上世纪三十年代在北平一见相知,彼此倾慕,结为终身挚友。俩人互译对方作品,评介推崇对方业绩,为中美友好和东西方文化交流作出可贵贡献。海伦盛赞冰心与著名社会学家吴文藻的结合是"工合"式幸福婚姻,成就了双方的事业;冰心赞扬斯诺与海伦"才均力敌",埃德加.斯诺的事业,也就是海伦.F.斯诺的事业。两个斯诺,在事业上是不可分的。

  13. Decrease of D2 receptor binding but increase in D2-stimulated G-protein activation, dopamine transporter binding and behavioural sensitization in brains of mice treated with a chronic escalating dose 'binge' cocaine administration paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, A; Metaxas, A; Yoo, J H; McGee, T; Kitchen, I

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the neurobiology of the transition from initial drug use to excessive drug use has been a challenge in drug addiction. We examined the effect of chronic 'binge' escalating dose cocaine administration, which mimics human compulsive drug use, on behavioural responses and the dopaminergic system of mice and compared it with a chronic steady dose (3 x 15 mg/kg/day) 'binge' cocaine administration paradigm. Male C57BL/6J mice were injected with saline or cocaine in an escalating dose paradigm for 14 days. Locomotor and stereotypy activity were measured and quantitative autoradiographic mapping of D(1) and D(2) receptors, dopamine transporters and D(2)-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding was performed in the brains of mice treated with this escalating and steady dose paradigm. An initial sensitization to the locomotor effects of cocaine followed by a dose-dependent increase in the duration of the locomotor effect of cocaine was observed in the escalating but not the steady dose paradigm. Sensitization to the stereotypy effect of cocaine and an increase in cocaine-induced stereotypy score was observed from 3 x 20 to 3 x 25 mg/kg/day cocaine. There was a significant decrease in D(2) receptor density, but an increase in D(2)-stimulated G-protein activity and dopamine transporter density in the striatum of cocaine-treated mice, which was not observed in our steady dose paradigm. Our results document that chronic 'binge' escalating dose cocaine treatment triggers profound behavioural and neurochemical changes in the dopaminergic system, which might underlie the transition from drug use to compulsive drug use associated with addiction, which is a process of escalation.

  14. Study on Shi Bing: This Chapter wasn't Plagiarized from Fu-niao Fu%《鹖冠子·世兵》篇非抄袭贾谊《服鸟鸟赋》辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆贵

    2009-01-01

    Liu Zongyuan considered that the Shi Bing Chapter of Ho-Kuan-Tzu was plagiarized from Jia Yi's Fu-niao Fu because there were some same sentences between these two essays. However, this article would reveal that these two essays have used the same quotations from some classics in pre-Qin and Han dynasty, regarding three aspects: writing skills, literature style, authors' and works' thoughts and their historical settings. Therefore, the conclusion should be that they have the same theoretical resources, and were created in a close period. Moreover, Jia Yi wrote the Fu-niao Fu after reading the Shi Bing Chapter. The Shi Bing chapter was probably finished during early Han dynasty according to the study of Cao Mo's tale.%篇有些句子和贾谊相同,柳宗元就认为是抄袭,并而断定是伪书.本文从文体研究、编纂者的思想背景、撰写手法三方面来论证篇与都引用先秦秦汉的典籍,不能证明篇抄袭.相反,两者所反映的思想却有共同的时代背景,且思想重点不同.另外,篇前部分记载曹沫一事,与后部分内容无涉.本文考证曹沫一事,推论本篇写成于战国末期与汉初之间.

  15. Assessment of Dysfunctional Cognitions in Binge-Eating Disorder: Factor Structure and Validity of the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Questionnaire-Revised (MAC-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Isabelle; Rothen, Stephane; Kruseman, Maaike; Khazaal, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dysfunctional cognitions regarding weight and shape and their implications for self-esteem are considered core features of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. However, they have also been associated with the severity of binge eating disorder (BED). Therefore, they should be screened with appropriate instruments to tailor treatment to individual patient needs. The Mizes Anorectic Cognitions-Revised (MAC-R) is a self-report questionnaire that lists dysfunctional cognitions related to three hypothesized core beliefs typical of the psychopathology of eating disorders: weight and eating as the basis of approval from others; the belief that rigid self-control is fundamental to self-worth; and the rigidity of weight- and eating-regulation efforts. Objectives: The goal of the study was to confirm the factor structure and to assess the validity of the MAC-R among a sample that met full-threshold and subthreshold criteria for BED. Methods: We used data of women meeting full-threshold (n = 94) and subthreshold (n = 22) criteria for BED to conduct confirmatory factor analyses and to compute Spearman's correlations, in order to assess factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity. Results: Two models having a structure of three factors with or without a total score proved to be acceptable. The MAC-R total score was correlated with questionnaires assessing dimensions related to eating disorder psychopathology, adding to the validity of the questionnaire. Conclusion: These results were similar to those found in studies on the psychometric properties of the MAC among samples with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, encouraging the use of the MAC-R as a research or clinical tool in order to further document the core beliefs underlying BED. PMID:28261139

  16. Molecular changes during neurodevelopment following second-trimester binge ethanol exposure in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: from immediate effects to long-term adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Katarzyna; Laufer, Benjamin I; Singh, Shiva M

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that refers to a wide range of behavioral and cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. It involves changes in brain gene expression that underlie lifelong FASD symptoms. How these changes are achieved from immediate to long-term effects, and how they are maintained, is unknown. We have used the C57BL/6J mouse to assess the dynamics of genomic alterations following binge alcohol exposure. Ethanol-exposed fetal (short-term effect) and adult (long-term effect) brains were assessed for gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) changes using Affymetrix mouse arrays. We identified 48 and 68 differentially expressed genes in short- and long-term groups, respectively. No gene was common between the 2 groups. Short-term (immediate) genes were involved in cellular compromise and apoptosis, which represent ethanol's toxic effects. Long-term genes were involved in various cellular functions, including epigenetics. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed the downregulation of long-term genes: Camk1g, Ccdc6, Egr3, Hspa5, and Xbp1. miRNA arrays identified 20 differentially expressed miRNAs, one of which (miR-302c) was confirmed. miR-302c was involved in an inverse relationship with Ccdc6. A network-based model involving altered genes illustrates the importance of cellular redox, stress and inflammation in FASD. Our results also support a critical role of apoptosis in FASD, and the potential involvement of miRNAs in the adaptation of gene expression following prenatal ethanol exposure. The ultimate molecular footprint involves inflammatory disease, neurological disease and skeletal and muscular disorders as major alterations in FASD. At the cellular level, these processes represent abnormalities in redox, stress and inflammation, with potential underpinnings to anxiety.

  17. Are There Common Familial Influences for Major Depressive Disorder and an Overeating-Binge Eating Dimension in both European-American and African-American Female Twins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE), phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups Method Participants included 3226 European-American (EA) and 550 African-American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. Results The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]) Discussion Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. PMID:24659561

  18. Peter Bing, The Scroll and the Marble. Studies in Reading and Reception in Hellenistic Poetry / The Well-Read Muse. Present and Past in Callimachus and the Hellenistic Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Acosta-Hughes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent figures in American Hellenistic poetry scholarship, Peter Bing, has long served as a model for acute criticism and careful reading. He has a marvelous ability to make readers rethink their preconceptions; his work is always beautifully argued and documented and his writing style is a pleasure to engage with. He was one of the scholars who figured prominently in the reawakening of interest in Hellenistic poetry that occured in the 1980’s and 1990’s; a consistent and e...

  19. Ambulanceudrykning i København, Odense og Ringkøbing Amt. Resultater fra Sundhedsministeriets og Amtsrådsforeningens stikprøveundersøgelse 1990. 1. Epidemiologiske data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, H; Larsen, C F

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, The Danish Ministry of Health and the County Council Association undertook a spot test investigation of the activities in connection with 3,182 emergency ambulance services (AU) in the Municipality of Copenhagen (a city), the Odense district (a large provincial town) and the County...... of Ringkøbing (a mixed rural and urban region). The investigation included data collected by the ambulance staff before hospitalization and the diagnoses on discharge from casualty and hospital departments. The frequency of AU per 1,000 population was found to be 101 annually in Copenhagen, 44 in Odense and 19...

  20. Compulsão alimentar antes e após a cirurgia bariátrica Binge eating before and after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Evangelista Machado

    2008-12-01

    órias, eram elas ingestão de doces em 12%; ingestão de petiscos em 2% e comer indiscriminadamente tudo que estivesse ao alcance em 64% dos pacientes. Após, 18%, 10% e 22%. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes apresentam indícios de compulsão alimentar antes e após a operação. Ela está relacionada a aspectos psicológicos. Os hábitos e preferências alimentares modificam-se após a operação, de modo que os pacientes passam a consumir alimentos de fácil ingestão frente a situações que os faziam comer compulsivamente, não sendo observado trocas de compulsão. O comportamento alimentar inadequado persiste ou é agravado após a operação.BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder which comprises psychological, social and biological aspects and requires a multidisciplinary approach. It is considered to be a risk factor for binge eating disorder, in that the emotional dynamic of the obese individual would contribute to trigger the compulsive act. AIM: To analyze the signs of binge eating in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, before and two years after the surgery. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 50 patients submitted to bariatric surgery by the Fobi-Capella technique. The instruments for psychological evaluation, applied before the surgery and two years after, were Max Pfister's Color Pyramid Test and a semi-structured clinical interview. The test was given before and after the surgery to identify evidence of compulsive behavior. The interview was conducted in the postoperative only. RESULTS: The data showed stability and ability to cope with conflicts in 16% of the patients before and in 10% after the surgery. In terms of control and adaptation, 36% of the patients exhibited strong evidence of an attitude of control and rigidity before the surgery, and 32% postoperatively. Regarding the indicators of impulsivity, agressiveness and irritability, there were strong signs of aggressive and impulsive attitudes in 28% of the patients before