WorldWideScience

Sample records for binging

  1. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental health What is binge eating disorder? What causes binge eating disorder? What are the health consequences of binge eating ... more often than men. Return to top What causes binge eating disorder? Researchers are unsure of the causes and nature ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  3. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  4. Binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  5. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us Health Information > Health Topics > Weight Management > Binge Eating Disorder | Share External Link Disclaimer Weight Management Binge Eating ...

  6. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to helpful sources of care. [ Top ] What causes binge eating disorder? No one knows for sure what causes binge ... Swendsen J, Merikangas KR. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in adolescents. Results from the national comorbidity survey replication adolescent ...

  7. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...... studies on binge drinking in pregnancy may have failed to find any association because of methodological problems. It is suggested that future studies should take into account the number of binge episodes as well as the time of binge drinking. This information may easily be obtained from most pregnant...

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  9. Binge drinking in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  10. Binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of binge eating is unknown. Things that may lead to this disorder include: Genes, such as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, such as feeling upset or ...

  11. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...

  12. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  13. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  14. Binge Drinking PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  15. Bing and Neel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jennane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report the case of a Bing and Neel syndrome revealed by an isolated left ptosis. Case Report. a 57-year-old man was followed up since October 2003 for a typical Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. A first complete remission was obtained with chlorambucil. In August 2004, he relapsed. A second complete remission was obtained with RFC chemotherapy regimen (rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide. In October 2009, the patient presented with an isolated left ptosis revealing a Bing and Neel syndrome. The diagnosis was suspected on MRI and confirmed by the detection in the CSF of a monoclonal IgM similar to the one found in the plasma. A quite good partial remission has been obtained after one course of RDHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin and 3 courses of RDHOx (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and oxaliplatin, in addition to ten intrahectal chemotherapy injections. The treatment was followed by intensification and autologous stem cell transplantation. At D58, the patient died due to a septic shock. Conclusion. BNS is a rare and potentially treatable complication of WM. It should be considered in patients with neurologic symptoms and a history of WM.

  16. Bing and neel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennane, S; Doghmi, K; Mahtat, E M; Messaoudi, N; Varet, B; Mikdame, M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We report the case of a Bing and Neel syndrome revealed by an isolated left ptosis. Case Report. a 57-year-old man was followed up since October 2003 for a typical Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. A first complete remission was obtained with chlorambucil. In August 2004, he relapsed. A second complete remission was obtained with RFC chemotherapy regimen (rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide). In October 2009, the patient presented with an isolated left ptosis revealing a Bing and Neel syndrome. The diagnosis was suspected on MRI and confirmed by the detection in the CSF of a monoclonal IgM similar to the one found in the plasma. A quite good partial remission has been obtained after one course of RDHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin) and 3 courses of RDHOx (rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and oxaliplatin), in addition to ten intrahectal chemotherapy injections. The treatment was followed by intensification and autologous stem cell transplantation. At D58, the patient died due to a septic shock. Conclusion. BNS is a rare and potentially treatable complication of WM. It should be considered in patients with neurologic symptoms and a history of WM. PMID:22988532

  17. Women, Girls, and Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-01

    Bob Brewer, CDC's Alcohol Program Director, goes on the air to discuss the problem of binge drinking among women and girls.  Created: 8/1/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/1/2013.

  18. Google Maps -selainsovelluksen toteutus Bing Mapsilla

    OpenAIRE

    Orava, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli kehitystyö Google Mapsin APIa käyttävään selainsovellukseen. Kehitystyön tarkoituksena oli lisätä sovellukseen tuki Bing Mapsille. Tuki Bing Mapsille haluttiin, koska osa Bing Mapsin satelliittikuvista on Google Mapsin satelliittikuvia parempia. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa kaikki alkuperäisen sovelluksen työkalut myös Bing Mapsin APIlla. Iso osa työstä koski polygonien piirtämistä kartalle sekä piirrettyjen polygonien muokkausta. Työ toteutettiin JavaScript-ohjelmo...

  19. Effect of eating rate on binge size in Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Kissileff, Harry R.; Zimmerli, Ellen J.; Torres, Migdalia I; Devlin, Michael J.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Effect of eating rate on binge size in bulimia nervosa. Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating. During binge eating episodes, patients often describe the rapid consumption of food, and laboratory studies have shown that during binges patients with BN eat faster than normal controls (NC), but the hypothesis that a rapid rate of eating contributes to the excessive intake of binge meals has not yet been experimentally tested. The aim of thi...

  20. Treatment of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G Terence

    2011-12-01

    The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues. Fairburn has subsequently developed a more elaborate and sophisticated form of treatment, namely, enhanced CBT (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Initial research suggests that CBT-E may be more effective than the earlier version with bulimia nervosa and Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified patients. CBT-E has yet to be evaluated for the treatment of BED, although it would currently be the recommended form of CBT. Of relevance in this regard is that the so-called broad form of the new protocol includes 3 optional treatment modules that could be used to address more complex psychopathology in BED patients. One of the modules targeted at interpersonal difficulties is IPT, as described earlier in this chapter. Thus, the broader protocol could represent a combination of the two currently most effective therapies for BED. Whether this combined treatment proves more effective than either of the components alone, particularly for a subset of BED patients with more complex psychopathology, remains to be tested. CBT-E also includes a module designed to address what Fairburn terms “mood intolerance” (problems in coping with negative affect) that can trigger binge eating and purging. The content and strategies of this mood intolerance module overlap with the emotional regulation and distress tolerance skills training of Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Two randomized controlled trials have tested the efficacy of an

  1. Fox reimbedding and Bing submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Let M be an orientable closed connected 3-manifold. We introduce the notion of amalgamated Heegaard genus of M with respect to a closed separating 2-manifold F, and use it to show that the following two statements are equivalent: (i) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that the exterior of the image of Y is a union of handlebodies; and (ii) a compact connected 3-manifold Y can be embedded in M so that every knot in M can be isotoped to lie within the image of Y . Our result can be regarded as a common generalization of the reimbedding theorem by Fox [Fox48] and the characterization of 3-sphere by Bing [Bin58], as well as more recent results of Hass and Thompson [HT89] and Kobayashi and Nishi [KN94].

  2. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  3. Which facets of impulsivity predict binge drinking?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Impulsive binge drinking is a serious public health issue, and to reveal predisposing factors to this consumption pattern is, therefore, required. Impulsivity-related traits are important predictors of alcohol use and abuse. Nonetheless, previous research in binge drinking has been confounded by various definitions and cut-off scores, implying that existing studies contributed to limited comprehension on the specific role of different impulsivity facets. The current study thus dise...

  4. Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.

    2011-11-01

    Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.

  5. Diagnosis and management of binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik, Cynthia M.; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Shapiro, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses current issues regarding the diagnosis and management of binge eating disorder (BED). Controversies in diagnosis include the lack of empirically validated criteria, the lack of a universally recognized operational definition of a "binge episode", and the lack of age-appropriate assessment instruments in light of growing reports of BED among children and adolescents. For adults with BED, several pharmacological and behavioral treatments have shown promise...

  6. Dietary Restraint Moderates Genetic Risk for Binge Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; IACONO, WILLIAM G.; McGue, Matt; Klump, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary restraint is a prospective risk factor for the development of binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Although many women engage in dietary restraint, relatively few develop binge eating. Dietary restraint may only increase susceptibility for binge eating in individuals who are at genetic risk. Specifically, dietary restraint may be a behavioral “exposure” factor that activates genetic predispositions for binge eating. We investigated this possibility in 1,678 young adolescent and adult sam...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Kelly J. Rohan; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals w...

  8. Evaluation of Extinction as a Functional Treatment for Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Amanda; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a serious behavior problem exhibited by individuals diagnosed with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Binge eating is thought to be maintained by automatic negative reinforcement in the form of relief from negative emotional responding. Current treatments produce only moderate abstinence, perhaps because they do not attempt…

  9. Topiramate: use in binge eating disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.

  10. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  11. Binge Drinking and the Independent School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, Rosemary; Wells, Peter

    2013-01-01

    When questioned about illegal, mood-altering substance use, 15,743 high school students surveyed in the last three years with the "Independent School Health Check" said alcohol is most commonly used. For the 30 days prior to filling out the survey, 33.9 percent of the students reported drinking, and 24.2 percent reported binge drinking…

  12. Preference for safe over risky options in binge eating

    OpenAIRE

    Neveu, Rémi; Fouragnan, Elsa; Barsumian, Franck; Carrier, Edouard; Lai, Massimo; Nicolas, Alain; Neveu, Dorine; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating has been usually viewed as a loss of control and an impulsive behavior. But, little is known about the actual behavior of binging patients (prevalently women) in terms of basic decision-making under risk or under uncertainty. In healthy women, stressful cues bias behavior for safer options, raising the question of whether food cues that are perceived as threatening by binging patients may modulate patients’ behaviors towards safer options. A cross-sectional study was conducted wi...

  13. Jocks, Gender, Binge Drinking, and Adolescent Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Farrell, Michael P.; Sabo, Donald F.; Barnes, Grace M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport/violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence (family vs. nonfamily), and gender, as well as examining the impact of binge drinking on the sport/violence relationship. Regression analyses using a s...

  14. Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be infor...

  15. Topiramate: use in binge eating disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Gentile; Giovanni Scanelli

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl)...

  16. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Cuzzolaro; Maurizio Bellini; Lorenzo Donini; Chiara Santomassimo

    2008-01-01

    Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED) and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a) to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological) of BED and b) to present the results of an original resear...

  17. Differential mesocorticolimbic responses to palatable food in binge eating prone and binge eating resistant female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Culbert, Kristen M; Gradl, Dana R; Richardson, Kimberlei A; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is a key symptom of many eating disorders (e.g. binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type), yet the neurobiological underpinnings of binge eating are poorly understood. The mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex, is likely involved because this circuit mediates the hedonic value and incentive salience of palatable foods (PF). Here we tested the hypothesis that higher propensity for binge eating is associated with a heightened response (i.e., Fos induction) of the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex to PF, using an animal model that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given intermittent access to PF (high fat pellets) 3×/week for 3 weeks. Based on a pattern of either consistently high or consistently low PF consumption across these feeding tests, 8 rats met criteria for categorization as BEP, and 11 rats met criteria for categorization as BER. One week after the final feeding test, BEP and BER rats were either exposed to PF in their home cages or were given no PF in their home cages for 1h prior to perfusion, leading to three experimental groups for the Fos analysis: BEPs given PF, BERs given PF, and a No PF control group. The total number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell, and the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex was estimated by stereological analysis. PF induced higher Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core and in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortex of BEP rats compared to No PF controls. Throughout the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, PF induced higher Fos expression in BEP than in BER rats, even after adjusting for differences in PF intake. Differences in the neural activation pattern between BEP and BER rats were more robust in prefrontal cortex

  18. Differential strain vulnerability to binge eating behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Britny A; Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2014-03-29

    Binge eating is a significantly heritable phenotype, but efforts to detect specific risk genes have fallen short. Identification of animal strain differences in risk for binge eating could highlight genetic differences across individuals of the same species that can be exploited in future animal and molecular genetic research. The current study aimed to explore strain differences in risk for binge eating in Sprague-Dawley versus Wistar female rats using the Binge Eating Resistant/Binge Eating Prone model. A sample of male Sprague-Dawley rats, a known low-risk group for binge eating, was included as a comparison group. A total of 83 rats (23 Wistar females, 30 Sprague-Dawley females, 30 Sprague-Dawley males) completed a protocol of intermittently administered, palatable food. Binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) rats were identified using a tertile approach. Sprague-Dawley female rats consumed the highest amount of palatable food and were more likely to be classified as BEP compared to Wistar female and Sprague-Dawley male rats. Wistar female rats were not significantly different from Sprague-Dawley male rats in their palatable food intake and tendency to be classified as BER rather than BEP. Sprague-Dawley female rats appear to be a particularly vulnerable genotype for binge eating. Comparisons between this group and others could help identify specific genetic/biological factors that differentiate it from lower risk groups. The reward system, linked to binge eating in humans, is a possible candidate to explore. Strain differences in the reward system could help increase understanding of individual differences in risk for binge eating in humans. PMID:24480076

  19. Binge or control? : assessment of the validity, treatment and underlying mechanisms of Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on patients with Binge Eating Disorder. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part the validity of the diagnosis of BED will be discussed. The results of two literature reviews and an empirical cross-sectional study suggested that BED is a distinct eating disorder and

  20. Alexithymia, Affect Regulation, and Binge Drinking in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, F. Diane

    2015-01-01

    Numerous programs have been instituted to address the widely recognized problem of binge drinking in college students, with some excellent results. Yet binge drinking is commonly still viewed as a socially acceptable form of relaxing and bonding with peers, often with the stated goal of getting as drunk as possible as quickly as possible. The…

  1. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  2. De oorsprong van Art Nouveau - Het Bing imperium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisberg, Gabriel P.; Becker, Edwin; Posseme, Evelyne

    2004-01-01

    The opening of Sigmund Bing's gallery L'Art Nouveau had been an eagerly expected event in the Paris art world throughout the latter half of 1895, since Bing first announced that he would be soon exhibiting artistic furniture. The doors finally opened on 26 December 1895 as visitors poured in at 22 R

  3. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  4. Binge Eating and Weight Control: The Role of Experiential Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Jason; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Two thirds of the adults in the United States are overweight or obese. Binge eating is a barrier to treatment adherence and sustained weight loss, and can be seen as a form of experiential avoidance. The current study analyzed the impact of binge eating on weight reduction in a previously published study of a 1-day acceptance and commitment…

  5. College Student Binge Eating: Insecure Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole

    2014-01-01

    Because college students who have accomplished developmental tasks less effectively may be at risk for detrimental behavior such as binge eating, we examined emotion regulation as a mediator of attachment insecurity and binge eating. Based on undergraduate and graduate student responses to a Web-based survey ("N" = 381), structural…

  6. Further Clinical Validation of the Binge-Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven M.; Todt, Ellen H.

    Previous research has shown significant correlations between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Cognitive Factors Scale (CFS) using obese subjects who were not selected based on criteria for eating disorders. To determine if similar relationships between binging severity and cognitive factors would hold for subjects who did meet the criteria for…

  7. Trauma, Binge Eating, and the "Strong Black Woman"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Ellen F.; Crowther, Janis H.; Shipherd, Jillian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to test a culturally specific model of binge eating in African American female trauma survivors, investigating potential mechanisms through which trauma exposure and distress were related to binge eating symptomatology. Method: Participants were 179 African American female trauma survivors who…

  8. Binging and Nonbinging Women's Emotional Reactions to Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Carol D.; And Others

    This examination of the reactions of women who are binge eaters to television advertising tested three hypotheses: (1) women who binge experience more negative emotional reactions to television ads, especially ads emphasizing food or weight control; (2) highly feminine women, or women with large real-ideal sex role gaps, react negatively; and (3)…

  9. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...... for the first time, an acknowledgement to its debilitating nature. This article explores the overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS: The bibliographic search was a computerized screen of PubMed databases from January 1990 to the present. Binge eating disorder, substance...... use disorder, binging, obesity, food addiction, comorbidity, dopamine, opioid, serotonin, glutamate, and pharmacological treatment were the keywords used in searching. RESULTS: BED shares similar phenomenology to SUD, including significant urges to engage in binging episodes, resulting in distress...

  10. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26621156

  11. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H. E.; Corwin, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regu...

  12. Change in Binge Eating and Binge Eating Disorder Associated with Migration from Mexico to the US

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Sonja A.; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the US. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N=2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mex...

  13. Neurobiological features of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, Iris M; Grilo, Carlos M; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED. PMID:26530404

  14. Cognitive behavior therapy of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Varsha

    2006-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of uncontrollable eating, even when not hungry, until uncomfortably full, occurring at least twice a week for a 6-month period. This is differentiated from bulimia nervosa (BN) by the lack of compensatory mechanisms such as purging/laxative abuse. There are significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BED as compared to those without BED. Furthermore, depressive symptomatology may increase the patient's vulnerability to binge eating as well as to relapse after treatment. Grazing is defined as eating small amounts of food continuously. BED in the pre-bariatric patient can manifest as 'grazing' about 2 years post-bariatric surgery. Treatment should be directed at eating behavior, associated psychopathology, weight and psychiatric symptoms. Cognitive behavior therapy is based on changing the patient's erroneous ways of thinking about themselves, the world and how others perceive them. This includes a focus on normalizing food intake as well as challenging dysfunctional thinking, identifying feelings, and developing non-food coping skills. It increases a sense of control and therefore helps the patient adhere to behavior change strategy, as well as improving mood and reducing associated psychopathology. Interpersonal therapy is based on the relationship between negative mood low self-esteem traumatic life events, interpersonal functioning and the patient's eating behavior. The rationale being that eating represents maladaptive coping with underlying difficulties. While psychotherapy either CBT or IPT leads to decrease in disordered eating behaviors and improved psychiatric symptoms, it has little effect on weight hence; its benefit is optimal when used in conjunction with bariatric surgery. PMID:16418545

  15. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge ...

  16. Determinants for binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Kragh Andersen, Per; Sabroe, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Binge drinking is a relatively common behavior among adolescents in Denmark. The aim of this study is to assess whether peer alcohol drinking, mothers’ and fathers’ attitudes toward alcohol drinking, and the adolescents’ own financial situations (e.g., the presence of...... pocket money) predict binge drinking among adolescents in Denmark. Methods: This study is based on the Danish data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, which took place in 2011. This cross-sectional survey obtained data from 2765 adolescents who were in grade 9 in Denmark...... at that time. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the outcome variable of binge drinking and the exposure variables of alcohol-drinking peers, pocket money, and mother’s/father’s approval of intoxication. Results: The risk of binge drinking increased with the number of...

  17. Preference for safe over risky options in binge eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi eNeveu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Binge eating has been usually viewed as a preference for risky over safe appetitive rewards although this view has been drawn without manipulating stressing-inducing food cues. In healthy women, stressful cues bias behavior for safer options, raising the question of whether food cues modulate binging patients’ behaviors towards safer options.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with binging patients (20 bulimia nervosa (BN and 23 binging anorexia nervosa (ANB patients and two control groups (22 non-binging restrictive (ANR anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy participants, without any concomitant impulsive disorder. We assessed decisions under risk with a gambling task with known probabilities and decisions under uncertainty with the balloon analog risk taking task (BART with unknown probabilities of winning, in three cued-conditions including neutral, binge food and stressful cues.Results: In the gambling task, binging patients and ANR patients adopted similar safer attitudes and coherently elicited a higher aversion to losses when primed by food as compared to neutral cues. This differential behavior was also observed in the BART in BN and ANR patients only, aligning with the behavior of healthy controls when primed with stressful cues. In ANB patients, similar safer behaviors were observed in food and neutral conditions in the BART but with a higher variability in their choices in food condition. This higher variability was associated with higher difficulties to discard irrelevant information. Conclusion: Decision making under risk and under uncertainty is not fundamentally altered in binging patients but might be disturbed by a concomitant task.

  18. Systemisk/Narrativ gruppebehandling af Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver gruppeterapi på systemisk/narrativt grundlag til patienter med Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Den beskriver, hvordan en problemmættet historie omkring BED-gruppen blev dekonstrueret ved at ændre behandlingens udformning og eksperimentere med socialkonstruktionistiske ideer og......, hvilket har fremmet konsolideringen af foretrukne historier i gruppens refleksioner og styrket terapeuternes evne til at facilitere processen. Nøgleord: Binge Eating Disorder, systemisk narrativ terapi, grupppe...

  19. Preference for Safe Over Risky Options in Binge Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Rémi; Fouragnan, Elsa; Barsumian, Franck; Carrier, Edouard; Lai, Massimo; Nicolas, Alain; Neveu, Dorine; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating has been usually viewed as a loss of control and an impulsive behavior. But, little is known about the actual behavior of binging patients (prevalently women) in terms of basic decision-making under risk or under uncertainty. In healthy women, stressful cues bias behavior for safer options, raising the question of whether food cues that are perceived as threatening by binging patients may modulate patients' behaviors towards safer options. A cross-sectional study was conducted with binging patients (20 bulimia nervosa (BN) and 23 anorexia nervosa binging (ANB) patients) and two control groups (22 non-binging restrictive (ANR) anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy participants), without any concomitant impulsive disorder. We assessed decisions under risk with a gambling task with known probabilities and decisions under uncertainty with the balloon analog risk taking task (BART) with unknown probabilities of winning, in three cued-conditions including neutral, binge food and stressful cues. In the gambling task, binging and ANR patients adopted similar safer attitudes and coherently elicited a higher aversion to losses when primed by food as compared to neutral cues. This held true for BN and ANR patients in the BART. After controlling for anxiety level, these safer attitudes in the food condition were similar to the ones under stress. In the BART, ANB patients exhibited a higher variability in their choices in the food compared to neutral condition. This higher variability was associated with higher difficulties to discard irrelevant information. All these results suggest that decision-making under risk and under uncertainty is not fundamentally altered in all these patients. PMID:27065829

  20. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  1. Preference for Safe Over Risky Options in Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Rémi; Fouragnan, Elsa; Barsumian, Franck; Carrier, Edouard; Lai, Massimo; Nicolas, Alain; Neveu, Dorine; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating has been usually viewed as a loss of control and an impulsive behavior. But, little is known about the actual behavior of binging patients (prevalently women) in terms of basic decision-making under risk or under uncertainty. In healthy women, stressful cues bias behavior for safer options, raising the question of whether food cues that are perceived as threatening by binging patients may modulate patients’ behaviors towards safer options. A cross-sectional study was conducted with binging patients (20 bulimia nervosa (BN) and 23 anorexia nervosa binging (ANB) patients) and two control groups (22 non-binging restrictive (ANR) anorexia nervosa patients and 20 healthy participants), without any concomitant impulsive disorder. We assessed decisions under risk with a gambling task with known probabilities and decisions under uncertainty with the balloon analog risk taking task (BART) with unknown probabilities of winning, in three cued-conditions including neutral, binge food and stressful cues. In the gambling task, binging and ANR patients adopted similar safer attitudes and coherently elicited a higher aversion to losses when primed by food as compared to neutral cues. This held true for BN and ANR patients in the BART. After controlling for anxiety level, these safer attitudes in the food condition were similar to the ones under stress. In the BART, ANB patients exhibited a higher variability in their choices in the food compared to neutral condition. This higher variability was associated with higher difficulties to discard irrelevant information. All these results suggest that decision-making under risk and under uncertainty is not fundamentally altered in all these patients. PMID:27065829

  2. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This podcast is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  3. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Noma, Shun’ichi; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Haruka; Hayashi, Takuji

    2008-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacip...

  4. Does Binge Drinking During Early Pregnancy Increase the Risk of Psychomotor Deficits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential effects of binge drinking during pregnancy on child motor function have only been assessed in a few, small studies. We aimed to examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including number of binge episodes and timing of binge drinking, on...... environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, participation in organized sport, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. RESULTS: There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers reporting isolated episodes of binge drinking and children of...... mothers with no binge episodes. No association was observed with respect to the number of binge episodes (maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found no systematic association between isolated episodes of binge drinking during early pregnancy and child motor function...

  5. Binge drinking at University: a social network study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Many university students engage in risky alcohol consumption behaviour during their stay at university. So far, however, most studies have relied on cross-sectional surveys and paid little attention to the role of social ties. University students, however, are socially connected, so it is likely that their alcohol consumption behaviour is also connected. We hypothesized that university students' social positions within their networks are related to their drinking behaviour. We carried out a social network analysis within a whole network approach with undergraduates in two faculties (n = 487), those of Engineering and Psychology, in a Belgian university. All students filled out a questionnaire recording their drinking behaviour and their social ties (friendship, working with, partying with and room-mate). For each individual, indicators of centrality, social capital, and cross-gender relationships were computed. We found that being socially close to binge drinkers was associated with a higher frequency of binge drinking. The risk of binge drinking increased with centrality but decreased with social capital. Having cross-gender relationships decreased the risk of binge drinking. We found indications that the effect of centrality and gender on binge drinking depends on the composition of the network. We conclude that social position has important effects on risky drinking behaviour and that the composition of the network may affect these factors. Those developing health promotion strategies could investigate the benefits of targeting central individuals in order to prevent binge drinking among university students. PMID:24622535

  6. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

  7. Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age: United States, 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Mortality Weekly Report ( MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing ... 44 years (N = 198,098) who reported any alcohol use or binge drinking, † by selected characteristics — Behavioral ...

  8. N-acetylcysteine decreases binge eating in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M M; Resch, J M; Maunze, B; Frenkel, M M; Baker, D A; Choi, S

    2016-07-01

    Binge-eating behavior involves rapid consumption of highly palatable foods leading to increased weight gain. Feeding in binge disorders resembles other compulsive behaviors, many of which are responsive to N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is a cysteine prodrug often used to promote non-vesicular glutamate release by a cystine-glutamate antiporter. To examine the potential for NAC to alter a form of compulsive eating, we examined the impact of NAC on binge eating in a rodent model. Specifically, we monitored consumption of standard chow and a high-fat, high carbohydrate western diet (WD) in a rodent limited-access binge paradigm. Before each session, rats received either a systemic or intraventricular injection of NAC. Both systemic and central administration of NAC resulted in significant reductions of binge eating the WD without decreasing standard chow consumption. The reduction in WD was not attributable to general malaise as NAC did not produce condition taste aversion. These results are consistent with the clinical evidence of NAC to reduce or reverse compulsive behaviors, such as, drug addiction, skin picking and hair pulling. PMID:26975440

  9. Binge drinking, drinking frequency, and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Eliasen, Marie; Ekholm, Ola;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a decreased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). However, drinking heavily and in binges has been suggested to increase IHD risk. This complexity makes the issue of binge drinking within the light-to-moderate alcohol range an...... important area for further investigation. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included 26,786 men and women who participated in the Danish National Cohort Study in 1994, 2000, and 2005. Binge drinking (defined >5 drinks/day) and risk of IHD and all-cause mortality was investigated among light...... during a mean follow up of 6.9 years. Among male light-to-moderate drinkers reporting occasional binge drinking, the hazard ratio (HR) of IHD was 0.81 (95% CI 0.61-1.08) compared to male light-to-moderate drinkers reporting no binge drinking. Corresponding HR for women was 0.97 (95% CI 0.54-1.76). For...

  10. Does the Interpersonal Model Generalize to Obesity Without Binge Eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Sutton, Rachel; Tasca, Giorgio A; Salerno, Laura; Oieni, Veronica; Compare, Angelo

    2016-09-01

    The interpersonal model has been validated for binge eating disorder (BED), but it is not yet known if the model applies to individuals who are obese but who do not binge eat. The goal of this study was to compare the validity of the interpersonal model in those with BED versus those with obesity, and normal weight samples. Data from a sample of 93 treatment-seeking women diagnosed with BED, 186 women who were obese without BED, and 100 controls who were normal weight were examined for indirect effects of interpersonal problems on binge eating psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Findings demonstrated the mediating role of negative affect for those with BED and those who were obese without BED. Testing a reverse model suggested that the interpersonal model is specific for BED but that this model may not be specific for those without BED. This is the first study to find support for the interpersonal model in a sample of women with obesity but who do not binge. However, negative affect likely plays a more complex role in determining overeating in those with obesity but who do not binge. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:27383030

  11. Overview of the treatment of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Munoz, Maura R; Keck, Paul E

    2015-12-01

    We performed a qualitative review of treatment studies of binge eating disorder (BED), focusing on randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Limited effectiveness has been demonstrated for self-help strategies, and substantial effectiveness has been shown for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT). CBT and IPT may each be more effective than behavior weight loss therapy (BWLT) for reducing binge eating over the long term. The stimulant pro-drug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is the only drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of BED in adults based on 2 pivotal RCTs. Topiramate also decreases binge eating behavior, but its use is limited by its adverse event profile. Antidepressants may be modestly effective over the short term for reducing binge eating behavior and comorbid depressive symptoms, but are not associated with clinically significant weight loss. A RCT presented in abstract form suggests that intranasal naloxone may decrease time spent binge eating. There is no RCT of obesity surgery in BED, but many patients with BED seek and receive such surgery. While some studies suggest patients with BED and obesity do just as well as patients with obesity alone, other studies suggest that patients with BED have more post-operative complications, less weight loss, and more weight regain. This evidence suggests that patients with BED would benefit from receiving highly individualized treatment. PMID:26594849

  12. Binge Eating Proneness Emerges during Puberty in Female Rats: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klump, Kelly L.; Suisman, Jessica L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Kashy, Deborah A.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Puberty is a critical risk period for binge eating and eating disorders characterized by binge eating. Previous research focused almost entirely on psychosocial risk factors during puberty to the relative exclusion of biological influences. The current study addressed this gap by examining the emergence of binge eating during puberty in a rat model. We predicted that there would be minimal differences in binge eating proneness during pre-early puberty, but significant differences would emerge...

  13. The Role of Anxiety in Binge Eating Behavior: A Critical Examination of Theory and Empirical Literature

    OpenAIRE

    White, Kamila S.; Rosenbaum, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to expand the understanding of binge eating by reviewing the role of aspects of negative affect. Specifically, this paper will present evidence for further investigation of the bearing that anxiety may have in binge eating development and maintenance. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the relation of binge eating and anxiety was performed. Valuable contributions have been made to the binge eating literature regarding some aspects of negative ...

  14. White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Histories of Marijuana Use and Binge Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobus, J.; McQueeny, T.; Bava, S.; Schweinsburg, B.C.; Frank, L.R.; Yang, T. T.; Tapert, S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities have been observed in adolescents with alcohol use disorders but less is known about neuropathological brain characteristics of teens with subdiagnostic binge drinking or the common pattern of binge drinking combined with marijuana use. The goal of this study was to examine white matter integrity in adolescents with histories of binge drinking and marijuana use.

  15. Estrogens stimulate serotonin neurons to inhibit binge-like eating in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binge eating afflicts approximately 5% of US adults, though effective treatments are limited. Here, we showed that estrogen replacement substantially suppresses binge-like eating behavior in ovariectomized female mice. Estrogen-dependent inhibition of binge-like eating was blocked in female mice spe...

  16. Neural and genetic correlates of binge drinking among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lance O; Ceballos, Natalie A

    2014-03-01

    Ninety-seven female students were assigned to groups consisting of 55 infrequent and 42 frequent binge drinkers. The groups were compared on self-report measures of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and alexithymia, as well as several measures relevant to neural and genetic mechanisms, such as brain activation during a time estimation task and selected genotypes. Analyses of stimulus-locked brain activity revealed a slow cortical potential over the right parietal cortex during time estimation that was more negative among frequent binge drinkers. This group also showed a greater prevalence of a CHRM2 genotype previously associated with substance dependence and Major Depressive Disorder as well as a modest elevation on a non-planning impulsiveness scale. We conclude that the enhanced brain activation shown by binge drinkers compensates for an underlying deficit. That deficit may be reflected in poor planning skills and a genetic difference indicating increased risk for problems in later life. PMID:24530440

  17. Binge Drinking During Pregnancy and Risk of Seizures in Childhood:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of >/=5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy, and...... febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...

  18. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cuzzolaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.

  19. Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  20. Associations between binge drinking frequency and tobacco use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubner, Noah R; Delucchi, Kevin L; Ramo, Danielle E

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco use is greater among young adults who binge drink; yet there is limited research on tobacco use characteristics among different types of binge drinkers based on frequency. We aimed to characterize this relationship among young adults (18-25years old) who used both substances in the past month (smoked ≥1 cigarette, and drank ≥1 alcoholic beverage) using an anonymous online survey. Participants (N=1405, 65.0% male) were grouped based on binge drinking frequency and compared for tobacco use characteristics and demographics using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Binge drinking frequency groups were: non-binge drinkers who consumed alcohol (0days; 27.5%); occasional (1-3days; 37.9%); intermediate (4-8days; 21.9%); and frequent (9+days; 12.7%) binge drinkers. Comparing each binge drinking group to non-binge drinkers: Both occasional and frequent binge drinkers smoked more cigarettes per day (p=0.001; p=0.002); frequent binge drinkers reported greater temptations to smoke in positive affective/social situations (p=0.02); intermediate binge drinkers were less likely to have a tobacco abstinence goal (p=0.03) but more likely to have made a serious tobacco quit attempt; all of the binge groups were more likely to be social smokers (all p<0.01). Overall, we also found a high rate of smoking on binge drinking days. Individuals smoked cigarettes on 85.7%±32.9% of days they binge drank. Extent of binge drinking (not just prevalence) is an important factor influencing smoking characteristics in young adults. PMID:27156220

  1. Correlates and Predictors of Binge Eating among Native American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…

  2. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Field; T. Schoenmakers; R.W. Wiers

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  3. Cognitive processes in alcohol binges : a review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, M.; Schoenmakers, T.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with a cluster of long-term changes in cognitive processes, as predicted by contemporary models of addiction. In this paper we review evidence which suggests that similar changes may occur during an alcohol binge, and as such they may play an important role in explaining

  4. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  5. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  6. Quit Binging (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    Too many people are overindulging in alcohol and putting themselves at risk for death from alcohol poisoning. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking, including alcohol poisoning death.  Created: 1/15/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  7. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun’ichi Noma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.Keywords: milnacipran, specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, binge eating, vomiting, eating disorder, pharmacotherapy

  8. Bingeing, Purging, and Estimates of Parental Attitudes regarding Female Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the relationship between perceived parental attitudes about female achievement and bingeing and purging. Surveys 326 female college students. Concludes that some eating disorders are related to feelings that being female is a disadvantage in some areas of intellectual/professional achievement. (FMW)

  9. Mesolimbic dopamine and its neuromodulators in obesity and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Lindsay; Pitman, Kimberley A; Borgland, Stephanie L

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic prevalence, and much research has focused on homeostatic and nonhomeostatic mechanisms underlying overconsumption of food. Mesocorticolimbic circuitry, including dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is a key substrate for nonhomeostatic feeding. The goal of the present review is to compare changes in mesolimbic dopamine function in human obesity with diet-induced obesity in rodents. Additionally, we will review the literature to determine if dopamine signaling is altered with binge eating disorder in humans or binge eating modeled in rodents. Finally, we assess modulation of dopamine neurons by neuropeptides and peripheral peptidergic signals that occur with obesity or binge eating. We find that while decreased dopamine concentration is observed with obesity, there is inconsistency outside the human literature on the relationship between striatal D2 receptor expression and obesity. Finally, few studies have explored how orexigenic or anorexigenic peptides modulate dopamine neuronal activity or striatal dopamine in obese models. However, ghrelin modulation of dopamine neurons may be an important factor for driving binge feeding in rodents. PMID:26514168

  10. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H E; Corwin, Rebecca L

    2005-09-15

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse. PMID:16140347

  11. The role of anxiety in binge eating behavior: a critical examination of theory and empirical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Rosenbaum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to expand the understanding of binge eating by reviewing the role of aspects of negative affect. Specifically, this paper will present evidence for further investigation of the bearing that anxiety may have in binge eating development and maintenance. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding the relation of binge eating and anxiety was performed. Valuable contributions have been made to the binge eating literature regarding some aspects of negative affect (i.e., depression; however, outside of bulimia nervosa studies, much of the theoretical and empirical binge eating research to date has not directly addressed the role of anxiety. Research supports expansion of investigations of negative emotionality and binge eating to include specific study of anxiety. Greater inclusivity and specificity in the unique contributions of various negative emotions may further the development of temporal models and intervention efforts.

  12. Do women give the same information on binge drinking during pregnancy when asked repeatedly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, K; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period in...... question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy...

  13. Translations of Sun Zi Bing Fa into English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is intended to introduce the English translation of Sun Zi Bing Fa, and carry on the preliminary discussion to what do the Chinese and foreign translators stress to about the translations of Sun Zi Bing Fa. At the very beginning, the thesis briefly makes a brief comment on the influence of Sun Zi Bing Fa on the ancient Chinese culture. It is known that the influences of the Confucianism and Taoism are profound to China, not only have they influenced the ideology, but also affect all aspects of the society. Sun Zi Bing Fa is an ancient Chinese military treatise. It is commonly known to be the definitive work on military strategy and tactics of its time. If anyone wants to have a deep understanding about Eastern military thinking, business tactics, legal strategy, all must begin from Sun Zi Bing Fa. This thesis makes a brief introduction about the English translations of Sun Zi Bing Fa, and some of the most influential versions of Sun Zi Bing Fa. The thesis also points out the different styles of each translation. The English translation of Sun Zi Bing Fa is a main part of the English translation of the Chinese Classics, and made great contributions to it. According to the analyses of this thesis, we make several proposes about the development of the translations of the Chinese Classics into English, and hope that it will benefit to the promotion of cultural exchange.%本文介绍了《孙子兵法》的英译情况,对中外译者关于先秦典籍的翻译的侧重进行了初步的探讨。文章首先简要介绍了《孙子兵法》在中国文化中的地位。《孙子兵法》对中国的影响深远,涉及社会生活的各个方面。《孙子兵法》是中国古代军事著作,是在军事战略和战术的权威著作。如果要深入理解东方的军事思路,商业策略,在很多问题上都必须回溯到《孙子兵法》。本文重点介绍了《孙子兵法》的英译情况。并对其中的重要译家和译本进行了

  14. Binge drinking: Burden of liver disease and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Susana; Arias-Loste, María Teresa; Puente, Angela; Cabezas, Joaquín; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2015-11-28

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages is harmful to human health. In recent years, consumption patterns of alcoholic beverages have changed in our society, and binge drinking has generalized. It is considered to be a socio-sanitary problem with few known consequences in terms of individual and third-party social impacts (in the form of violence or traffic accidents) and its organic impact (affects the liver and other organs and systems, such as the nervous and cardiovascular systems) and represents an important financial burden due to its increasing economic impact. This review provides a global approach to binge drinking and emphasizes its epidemiological character, the effect of this type of consumption and the possible management of a problem with an increasing tendency in our society. PMID:26644814

  15. Binge drinking: Burden of liver disease and beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susana; Llerena; María; Teresa; Arias-Loste; Angela; Puente; Joaquín; Cabezas; Javier; Crespo; Emilio; Fábrega

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages is harmful to human health. In recent years, consumption patterns of alcoholic beverages have changed in our society, and binge drinking has generalized. It is considered to be a socio-sanitary problem with few known consequences in terms of individual and third-party social impacts(in the form of violence or traffic accidents) and its organic impact(affects the liver and other organs and systems, such as the nervous and cardiovascular systems) and represents an important financial burden due to its increasing economic impact. This review provides a global approach to binge drinking and emphasizes its epidemiological character, the effect of this type of consumption and the possible management of a problem with an increasing tendency in our society.

  16. Underage Binge Drinking Adolescents: Sociodemographic Profile and Utilization of Family Doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Matthew P. Sheridan; Sorichetti, Cathy; Mehta, Rukshan

    2013-01-01

    Context. Binge drinking (more than five drinks on one occasion) is a major public health problem among teenagers in the US, Canada, and Europe. Negative outcomes to binge drinking include alcohol related injuries and accidental death. Family physicians are the main point of contact between binging adolescents and the health care system. Design and Setting. This study was based on a secondary analysis of 6,607 respondents aged 15–17 from the regionally representative data acquired through the ...

  17. Binge Drinking Induces Whole-Body Insulin Resistance by Impairing Hypothalamic Insulin Action

    OpenAIRE

    Lindtner, Claudia; Scherer, Thomas; Zielinski, Elizabeth; Filatova, Nika; Fasshauer, Martin; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Puchowicz, Michelle; Buettner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with a history of binge drinking have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Whether binge drinking impairs glucose homeostasis and insulin action is unknown. To test this, we treated Sprague-Dawley rats daily with alcohol (3 g/kg) for three consecutive days to simulate human binge drinking and found that these rats developed and exhibited insulin resistance even after blood alcohol concentrations had become undetectable. The animals were resis...

  18. Taussig-Bing Anomaly: From Original Description to the Current Era

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are revie...

  19. Explaining binge drinking among adolescent males using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dempster, Martin; G. Newell; Marley, John

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking among adolescents in Northern Ireland is prevalent and has detrimental eff ects on public health. Health education interventions, based on valid explanatory models of health behaviour, are required to reduce binge drinking behaviour among adolescents. " is paper examines the utility of the " eory of Planned Behaviour in explaining binge drinking behaviour among adolescent males. Using questionnaire responses from 94 adolescent boys attending secondary schools in the Belfast are...

  20. The study of food addiction using animal models of binge eating☆

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence of “food addiction” using animal models of binge eating. In our model of sucrose bingeing, behavioral components of addiction are demonstrated and related to neurochemical changes that also occur with addictive drugs. Evidence supports the hypothesis that rats can become dependent and “addicted” to sucrose. Results obtained when animals binge on other palatable foods, including a fat-rich food, are described and suggest that increased body weight can occur. How...

  1. Salivary Cortisol and Binge Eating Disorder in Obese Women After Surgery for Morbid Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Junilla K.; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Background Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol levels and the awakening cortisol response (ACR) in obese persons showing binge eating after surgery for morbid obesity. Method Sixteen obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) and 18 obese women with...

  2. A proteomic analysis of liver after ethanol binge in chronically ethanol treated rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aroor Annayya R; Roy Lowery J; Restrepo Ricardo J; Mooney Brian P; Shukla Shivendra D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Binge ethanol in rats after chronic ethanol exposure augments necrosis and steatosis in the liver. In this study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteomic profiles of liver of control, chronic ethanol, control-binge, and chronic ethanol- binge were compared. Results The proteomic analysis identified changes in protein abundance among the groups. The levels of carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3) were decreased after chronic ethanol and decreased further after chronic ethanol-bi...

  3. Binge Drinking and Risky Sex among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between binge drinking and sexual behavior in nationally representative data on age 18–24 four-year college students. For having sex, overall or without condoms, large and significant positive associations are eliminated upon holding constant proxies for time-invariant sexual activity and drinking preferences. However, strong relationships persist for sex with multiple recent partners, overall and without condoms, even controlling for substance use, risk a...

  4. Neural and Genetic Correlates of Binge Drinking Among College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Lance O.; Ceballos, Natalie A.

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-seven female students, aged 18–20 yrs, were assigned to groups consisting of 55 infrequent (less than monthly) and 42 frequent (at least monthly) binge drinkers. The groups were compared on self-report measures of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and alexithymia. The groups were also compared on several objective measures relevant to neural and genetic mechanisms, such as brain activation during a time estimation task and selected genotypes. Analyses of stimulus-locked brain activity re...

  5. Alexithymia, depression, anxiety and binge eating in obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Źak-Gołąb; Radosław Tomalski; Monika Bąk-Sosnowska; Michał Holecki; Piotr Kocełak; Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz; Jerzy Chudek; Barbara Zahorska-Markiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Alexithymia is a personality trait that may affect the development and course of obesity and effectiveness of treatment. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of alexithymia in obese women beginning a weight reduction program and determine the relationships between alexithymia and anxiety, depression, and binge eating. Methods: Obese women (n = 100; age 45 ± 13 yr) completed the following self-report inventories: Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 26), Hospit...

  6. Forced sexual intercourse, suicidality, and binge drinking among adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Behnken, Monic P.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Temple, Jeff R.; Berenson, Abbey B

    2009-01-01

    Although sexual assault victimization has been shown to predict suicidality, little is known about the mechanisms linking these two factors. Using cross-sectional data (N = 6364) from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, binge drinking significantly mediated the relationship between forced sexual intercourse and suicide for Hispanic (n = 1915) and Caucasian (n = 2928) adolescent females, but not for African American adolescent females (n = 1521). Results suggest the need for closer monitoring...

  7. Perceived expressed emotion in adolescents with binge-eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    A sizeable body of research has documented Expressed Emotion (EE) to predict clinical outcomes in various psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Patients’ perceptions of relative’s EE, however, were found to play an important role in the processing of EE. This study aimed to examine the level of perceived EE in adolescent binge-eating disorder (BED) and its impact on eating disorder psychopathology. Adolescents (12 – 20 years) seeking treatment for BED (n = 40) were compared to...

  8. Binge Drinking in Pregnancy and Risk of Fetal Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the frequency and timing of binge drinking episodes (intake of five or more drinks on one occasion) during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy increase the risk of fetal death. METHODS: The study is based upon data from 89,201 women who were enrolled in the Danish National...... Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002 and participated in an interview that took place in midpregnancy (n=86,752) or after a fetal loss (n=2,449). In total, 3,714 pregnancies resulted in fetal death. Data were analyzed by means of Cox regression models. RESULTS: Neither the frequency nor the timing of binge...... episodes was related to the risk of early (at or before 12 completed weeks) or late (13-21 completed weeks) spontaneous abortion. However, three or more binge episodes showed an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.01-2.40) for stillbirth (22 or more completed weeks) relative to...

  9. The relation of anxiety, depression, and stress to binge eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Diane L; White, Kamila S

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to extend the literature by examining several psychological factors (i.e. depression, anxiety, and stress) in relation to binge eating. Data were collected via online surveys from a community sample of men and women of diverse backgrounds. The main study hypotheses were supported, indicating a unique relation between anxiety and binge eating, and between stress and binge eating, independent of the impact of depression. Gender differences are discussed. The results of this study suggest a need for a more detailed examination of negative affect in binge eating. Furthermore, the role of anxiety may be important for future research. PMID:26032804

  10. Pharmacological interventions for binge eating: lessons from animal models, current treatments, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating behavior has been noted in some eating disorders as well as in obesity. The goal of this paper is to review current, non-serotonergic pharmaceutical approaches to treat binge eating. Further, using information derived from preclinical models, we discuss candidate neurotransmitter systems for study as targets for the treatment of binge eating. Dopaminergic circuits have been implicated in both laboratory animal models and human studies of binge eating, though existing medications specifically targeting the dopaminergic system have been found to have adverse side effects. Opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems also appear to be highly involved in aspects of binge eating; further, opioid antagonists, such as naloxone and naltrexone, and GABA agonists, such as baclofen, have all been shown to be effective in treating alcohol dependence and may be equally efficacious in attenuating binge eating. Preclinical evidence, and some clinical evidence, suggests that cannabinoid antagonism may also be useful in the treatment of binge eating, although the specific effect of antagonists, on binge consumption remains unclear. Overall, each of these neurotransmitter systems provides a promising avenue for new pharmacotherapy development for binge eating, and preclinical and human studies provide a strong rationale for the development of highly-selective drugs that target this neurocircuitry. PMID:21492094

  11. Therapeutic alliance and binge-eating outcomes in a group therapy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Compare, Angelo; Zarbo, Cristina; Brugnera, Agostino

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic alliance in individual and group psychotherapy is associated with treatment outcomes for a variety of disorders. However, debate persists about the centrality of the alliance in determining positive outcomes. We examined the alliance-outcome relationship across 20 sessions of emotionally focused group therapy (EFGT) for binge-eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that (1) previous session alliance increase will predict lower subsequent session binge eating level while controlling for previous session binge eating level; and (2) previous session binge eating decline will predict higher subsequent session alliance level while controlling previous session alliance level. Participants were 118 individuals with BED who received 20 sessions of EFGT in 8 groups. Levels of binge eating and therapeutic alliance to the therapist were measured weekly. Linear growth in alliance during group therapy was associated with reduced binge eating at 6 months' posttreatment. We also found that the group's and the individual's alliance scores and binge-eating episodes were significantly associated across treatment, suggesting a mutual influence of the group's and individual's experience of the alliance with the therapist. Regarding the first hypothesis, previous session alliance increase was significantly associated with lower subsequent session binge eating. Regarding the second hypothesis, previous session binge-eating decline was not significantly related to higher subsequent session alliance. The findings provide evidence in a group therapy context for a model in which alliance change influences subsequent symptom levels, but not the other way around. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27182894

  12. Change in binge eating and binge eating disorder associated with migration from Mexico to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sonja A; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the U.S. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N = 2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mexicans with no migrant family members, Mexicans with at least one migrant family member, Mexican return-migrants, Mexican-born migrants in the U.S., and two successive generations of Mexican-Americans in the U.S. The lifetime prevalence of BED was 1.6% in Mexico and 2.2% among Mexican-Americans. Compared with Mexicans in families with migrants, risk for BED was higher in US-born Mexican-Americans with two U.S.-born parents (aHR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.93). This effect was attenuated by 24% (aHR = 1.97, 95% CI 0.84-4.62) with adjustment for prior-onset depressive or anxiety disorder. Adjustment for prior-onset conduct disorder increased the magnitude of association (aHR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.22-6.20). A similar pattern was observed for binge eating. Among respondents reporting binge eating, onset in the U.S. (vs. Mexico) was not associated with prevalence of further eating disorder symptoms. Migration from Mexico to the U.S. is associated with an increased risk for BED that may be partially attributable to non-specific influences on internalizing disorders. Among respondents reporting binge eating in either country, similar levels of further symptoms were endorsed, suggesting some cross-cultural generalizability of criteria. PMID:22070904

  13. Pilot Study on the Homeopathic Treatment of Binge Eating in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Hertzog Johannes; Razlog, Radmila; Pellow, Janice

    2016-04-01

    Context • Frequent binge eating is often a symptom of an underlying eating disorder, such as bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED). The role of homeopathy in the treatment of binge eating remains poorly explored. Objective • The study intended to measure the efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment for binge eating in adult males. Design • This case study was a 9-wk pilot using an embedded, mixed-methods design. A 3-wk baseline period was followed by a 6-wk treatment period. Setting • The setting was the Homeopathic Health Clinic at the University of Johannesburg in Johannesburg, South Africa. Participants • Through purposive sampling, the research team recruited 15 Caucasian, male participants, aged 18-45 y, who were exhibiting binge eating. Intervention • Individualized homeopathic remedies were prescribed to each participant. Primary Outcome Measures • Participants were assessed by means of (1) a self-assessment calendar (SAC), recording the frequency and intensity of binging; (2) the Binge Eating Scale (BES), a psychometric evaluation of severity; and (3) case analysis evaluating changes with time. Results • Ten participants completed the study. The study found a statistically significant improvement with regard to the BES (P = .003) and the SAC (P = .006), with a large effect size, indicating that a decrease occurred in the severity and frequency of binging behavior during the study period. Conclusions • This small study showed the potential benefits of individualized homeopathic treatment of binge eating in males, decreasing both the frequency and severity of binging episodes. Follow-up studies are recommended to explore this treatment modality as a complementary therapeutic option in eating disorders characterized by binge eating. PMID:27089525

  14. The Mechanisms and Processes of Vegetation Dynamics on Oil-Shale Spoil Bings in West Lothian, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Harvie, Barbra

    2004-01-01

    The work establishes the ecological importance of shale bings at both a local and global scale by presenting the mechanisms and processes of succession. The bings are postindustrial spoil heaps, the result of retorting mineral oil from deep-mined carboniferous shale beds. The structure of vegetation on the shale bings was determined by a review of published data and a base-line survey of eight bings resulting in new floristic and environmental data from 340 quadrats and 261 ...

  15. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  16. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Applied to Binge Eating: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ruth A.; Fischer, Sarah; Huss, Debra B.

    2005-01-01

    Binge eating is a common problem associated with distress and dysfunction. Mindfulness-based interventions are attracting increasing attention, and the recent empirical literature suggests that they may be effective for a variety of disorders. Current theories about the etiology and maintenance of binge eating suggest that mindfulness training may…

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Guided Self-Help Treatment for Recurrent Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Dickerson, John F.; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating…

  18. A Controlled Evaluation of the Distress Criterion for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research has examined various aspects of the validity of the research criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the utility of Criterion C, "marked distress about binge eating." This study examined the significance of the marked distress criterion for BED using 2 complementary comparison groups. Method: A total of…

  19. The Utility of a Gender-Specific Definition of Binge Drinking on the AUDIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthuis, Janine V.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Van Tyne, Kathryne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although binge drinking is commonly defined as the consumption of at least 5 drinks in 1 sitting for men and 4 for women, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) defines binge drinking as the consumption of 6 or more drinks in 1 sitting for both men and women. This study examined the effect of using gender-specific binge…

  20. Beyond inhibition: A dual-process perspective to renew the exploration of binge drinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severine eLannoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is a widespread alcohol-consumption pattern in youth and is linked to cognitive consequences, mostly for executive functions. However, other crucial factors remain less explored in binge drinking and notably the emotional-automatic processes. Dual-process model postulates that addictive disorders are not only due to impaired reflective system (involved in deliberate behaviours, but rather to an imbalance between under-activated reflective system and over-activated affective-automatic one (involved in impulsive behaviours. This proposal has been confirmed in alcohol-dependence, but has not been tested in binge drinking. The observation of comparable impairments in binge-drinking and alcohol-dependence led to the continuum hypothesis, suggesting similar deficits across different alcohol-related disorders. In this perspective, applying the dual-process model to binge drinking might renew the understanding of this continuum hypothesis. A three-axes research agenda will be proposed, exploring: (1 the affective-automatic system in binge drinking; (2 the systems’ interactions and imbalance in binge drinking; (3 the evolution of this imbalance in the transition between binge drinking and alcohol-dependence.

  1. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  2. Metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in a sample of Italian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Fernie, Bruce A; Nikčević, Ana V; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Boccaletti, Fabio; Dallari, Giulia; Sassaroli, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    In this study, our principal aim was to investigate whether metacognitions about desire thinking predict the severity of binge eating in women and, if so, whether this relationship is independent of age, self-reported body mass index (BMI), negative affect, irrational food beliefs and craving. One hundred and four women, consisting of 32 consecutive patients with binge eating disorder undergoing initial assessment for cognitive therapy for eating disorders, 39 moderate binge eaters, and 33 non-binge eaters (both from the general population), completed the following measures: Self-reported BMI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Irrational Food Beliefs Scale, General Craving Scale, Metacognitions about Desire Thinking Questionnaire, and Binge Eating Scale. A series of Spearman's rho correlation analyses revealed that self-reported BMI, anxiety, depression, irrational food beliefs, craving, and all three factors of the metacognitions about desire thinking questionnaire were significantly associated with the severity of binge eating. A stepwise regression analysis identified self-reported BMI, craving, and negative metacognitions about desire thinking as significant predictors of the severity of binge eating. These results, taken together, highlight the possible role of metacognitions about desire thinking in predicting the severity of binge eating. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26143571

  3. Binge Eating as Related to Negative Self-Awareness, Depression, and Avoidance Coping in Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Nicole J.; Oliver, J. M.; Handal, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    In an investigation of Heatherton and Baumeister's (1991) theory of binge eating, 207 female undergraduate students were grouped as binge eaters (BE) or non-eating-disordered (NED) for analyses. The BE group scored significantly higher than the NED group on avoidance coping and substance use when depression was not controlled; however, after…

  4. Binge Eating and Weight-Related Quality of Life in Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Keil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exist regarding the association between binge eating and quality of life (QOL in obese adolescent girls and boys. We, therefore, studied binge eating and QOL in 158 obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile adolescents (14.5 ± 1.4 years, 68.0% female, 59% African-American prior to weight-loss treatment. Youth completed an interview to assess binge eating and a questionnaire measure of QOL. Controlling for body composition, binge eating youth (n = 35, overall, reported poorer QOL in domains of health, mobility, and self-esteem compared to those without binge eating ( ps < 0.05. Also, girls, overall, reported poorer QOL than boys in activities of daily-living, mobility, self-esteem, and social/interpersonal functioning (ps < 0.05. Girls with binge eating reported the greatest impairments in activities of daily living, mobility, self-esteem, social/interpersonal functioning, and work/school QOL (ps < 0.05. Among treatment-seeking obese adolescents, binge eating appears to be a marker of QOL impairment, especially among girls. Prospective and treatment designs are needed to explore the directional relationship between binge eating and QOL and their impact on weight outcomes.

  5. Young Adults' Food Selection Patterns: Relations with Binge Eating and Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Palmberg, Allison A.; Hill, Katherine Vatalaro; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Binge eating is increasingly prevalent in college students (White, Reynolds-Malear, & Cordero, 2011). Binge episodes involve eating an objectively large quantity of food in a discrete amount of time and a perceived lost control over eating (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Strong negative affect commonly precedes and follows each…

  6. Time Perspective and Psychosocial Positive Functioning among Italian Adolescents Who Binge Eat and Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Liga, Francesca; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of an association between binge eating and binge drinking and of related health consequences have stimulated investigators to examine and explore risk and protective factors plus the reasons why individuals engage in these risky behaviours (Benjamin & Wulfert, 2003; Ferriter & Ray, 2011). This study examined the relationship between binge…

  7. Binge Drinking and Rape: A Prospective Examination of College Women with a History of Previous Sexual Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the longitudinal relationships between binge drinking behavior and rape experiences among a multisite sample of college women with a history of prior attempted or completed rape (N = 228). Rates of binge drinking among this high-risk sample were high. Prospective analyses indicated that binge drinking…

  8. Characteristics of women who binge drink before and after they become aware of their pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Rod Nielsen, Naja; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2008-01-01

    Background Consumption of high doses of alcohol on a single occasion (binge drinking) may harm the developing foetus and pregnant women are advised to avoid binge drinking while pregnant. We present characteristics of Danish women who binge drank in the pre-and post recognised part of their...... pregnancy. Methods During the years 1996-2002 approximately 100,000 pregnant women were enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort. Women with information on binge drinking, time of recognition of pregnancy, age, reproductive history, marital status, smoking, occupational status, pre-pregnancy BMI......, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, and mental disorders (n = 85,334) were included in the analyses. Results Approximately one quarter of the women reported binge drinking at least once during pregnancy; most of these in the pre-recognised part of pregnancy. Weekly alcohol consumption before pregnancy...

  9. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included "binge eating disorder," DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and "shape and weight concerns." Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors' knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  10. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria.

  11. Alexithymia, depression, anxiety and binge eating in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Źak-Gołąb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Alexithymia is a personality trait that may affect the development and course of obesity and effectiveness of treatment. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of alexithymia in obese women beginning a weight reduction program and determine the relationships between alexithymia and anxiety, depression, and binge eating. Methods: Obese women (n = 100; age 45 ± 13 yr completed the following self-report inventories: Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS 26, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Binge Eating Scale (BES. Results: Alexithymia was found in 46 patients and was more frequent among women who had attained only primary and vocational education than in those with a higher education level (39.1% vs. 10.9%; p = 0.002 and in those >45 years old than in younger women (30.4% vs. 69.6%; p = 0.03. The frequency of severe depression symptoms was higher in alexithymic women than in non-alexithymic women (19.6% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03; however, the anxiety state was equally prevalent in both subgroups. The prevalence of alexithymia (52.6% vs. 44.4% and its level (73.2 ± 8.9 vs. 71.2 ± 11.3 points were similar in women with and without binge eating disorder. Multivariate mixed linear regression analysis revealed that higher body mass index was associated with primary and vocational education (odds ratio [OR] = 16.69 and severe depression symptoms (OR = 52.45, but not alexithymia. Conclusions: In addition to severe depression and low education level, obesity may predispose for the development of alexithymia. However, alexithymia does not affect the severity of obesity in women.

  12. Patterns of binge drinking at an international nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of substance use in young Danes while holidaying in the Bulgarian holiday resort of Sunny Beach (SB) to their patterns of substance use in Denmark. METHODS: Data were collected from visitors to SB in 2007 (n = 1011). Information on alcohol a...... nightlife resorts provide a context for excess in drug use and alcohol use. Alcohol poses a potentially severe threat to the short- and long-term health of young tourists, but little attention has been paid to form interventions targeting binge drinking in nightlife resorts....

  13. Using Classifiers to Identify Binge Drinkers Based on Drinking Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Giabbanelli, Philippe

    2013-08-21

    A representative sample of 2,844 Dutch adult drinkers completed a questionnaire on drinking motives and drinking behavior in January 2011. Results were classified using regressions, decision trees, and support vector machines (SVMs). Using SVMs, the mean absolute error was minimal, whereas performance on identifying binge drinkers was high. Moreover, when comparing the structure of classifiers, there were differences in which drinking motives contribute to the performance of classifiers. Thus, classifiers are worthwhile to be used in research regarding (addictive) behaviors, because they contribute to explaining behavior and they can give different insights from more traditional data analytical approaches. PMID:23964957

  14. Antecedent life events of binge-eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, Kathleen M; Wilfley, Denise; Hilbert, Anja; Fairburn, Christopher G.; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of life events preceding the onset of disturbed eating in binge-eating disorder (BED). In a case-control design, 162 matched pairs of black and white women with BED and women with no current psychiatric disorder, and 107 matched pairs of women with BED and a current general psychiatric disorder were recruited from the community for the New England Women's Health Project. Life events in the year before the onset of disturbed eating were assessed re...

  15. HUMAN METHAMPHETAMINE PHARMACOKINETICS SIMULATED IN THE RAT: BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF A 72- HOUR BINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S.; Melega, William P.; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    Bingeing is one pattern of high dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly-defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using dynamic infusion, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [3H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35% and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and following a METH binge suggest that for humans under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles. PMID:19571794

  16. Bulimics' responses to food cravings: is binge-eating a product of hunger or emotional state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A; Hill, A; Waller, G

    2001-08-01

    This study examined the roles of hunger, food craving and mood in the binge-eating episodes of bulimic patients, and identified the critical factors involved in the processes surrounding binge-eating episodes that follow cravings. This was a prospective study of the binge-eating behaviour of 15 women with bulimia nervosa. The participants used food intake diaries and Craving Records to self-monitor their nutritional behaviour, hunger levels and affective state. Cravings leading to a binge were associated with higher tension, lower mood and lower hunger than those cravings not leading to a binge. Levels of tension and hunger were the critical discriminating variables. The findings of the study support empirical evidence and models of emotional blocking in binge-eating behaviour and challenge the current cognitive starve-binge models of bulimia. The role of food cravings in the emotional blocking model is discussed in terms of a classically conditioned motivational state. Implications for treatment are addressed. PMID:11480829

  17. Baclofen reduces binge eating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Boan, Jarol; Peters, Kathryn F; Ulbrecht, Jan S

    2012-09-01

    Baclofen has shown promise in treating substance use disorders and also reduced binge frequency in an open-label trial. This placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study further assessed the effects of baclofen on binge eating. Twelve individuals who self-reported binge eating completed the study. Data were collected during a run-in period (no drug or placebo), placebo phase (48 days), and baclofen phase (titrated up to 60 mg daily or the maximum tolerated dose, 48 days). All the participants were exposed to all conditions. Participants completed a binge diary daily, and the Binge Eating Scale (BES), Food Craving Inventory-II (FCI-II), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at regular intervals throughout the study. Baclofen significantly reduced binge frequency relative to placebo and run-in (Peffects. Tiredness, fatigue, and upset stomach were the most commonly reported side-effects. These results indicate that baclofen may be a useful treatment for binge eating in some patients. PMID:22854310

  18. "Regaining control by losing control" : a qualitative study into the experience of binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to provide an insider’s perspective on the experience of Binge Eating Disorder as it is brought to light from interviews with eight women. Binge Eating Disorder is a recently described and proposed new category of eating disorders characterized by “recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviours characteristic of Bulimia Nervosa, and a sense of loss of control over eating during the episode.” Based on a phenomenolo...

  19. Pharmacological approaches to the management of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Peat, Christine M; La Via, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of ~3.5 % in adult women, 2.0 % in adult men, and 1.6 % in adolescents. BED is characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating that are accompanied by a sense of loss of control over eating and result in marked psychological distress. BED is highly co-morbid with obesity and with depression and other psychiatric conditions, and it is associated with substantial role impairment. Currently, there are no US FDA-approved pharmacological treatments for BED. Animal and human studies implicate underlying dysregulation in dopamine, opioid, acetylcholine, and serotonin neurocircuitry within brain reward regions in the pathogenesis and maintenance of BED. To date, the efficacy of various agents that target these and other neurotransmitter systems involved in motivated feeding behavior, mood regulation, and impulse control have been investigated in the treatment of BED. Several antidepressant and anticonvulsant agents have demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating frequency, but only in limited cases have these effects resulted in patients achieving abstinence, which is the primary goal of treatment; they also range from less (fluvoxamine) to more (topiramate) effective in achieving weight loss that is both clinically meaningful and significantly greater than placebo. Collectively, the literature on pharmacological treatment approaches to BED is limited in that very few agents have been studied in multiple, confirmatory trials with adequate follow up, and almost none have been evaluated in large patient samples that are diverse with respect to age, sex, and ethnicity. In addition, prior trials have not adequately addressed, through study design, the high placebo response commonly observed in this patient population. Several novel agents are in various phases of testing, and recent animal studies focusing on glutamate-signaling circuits linking the amygdala to the

  20. Binge eating disorder: from clinical research to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goracci, Arianna; Casamassima, Francesco; Iovieno, Nadia; di Volo, Silvia; Benbow, Jim; Bolognesi, Simone; Fagiolini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical course of a young woman suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) associated with obesity. It illustrates the efficacy of different medications in the treatment of BED and related conditions and is followed by the comments and clinical observations of 2 practicing psychiatrists. The issues described in this paper have important clinical implications and are topical, given that BED is now recognized as a specific disorder in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition classification system, but neither the US Food and Drug Administration nor any other regulatory agency has yet approved a drug for treatment of this disease, despite its very prevalent and disabling nature. Growing evidence from the fields of psychopathology and neurobiology, including preclinical and clinical studies, converges to support the idea that "overeating" has much in common with other behavioral addictions, and substance abuse treatment agents may show promise for the treatment of BED. PMID:25629882

  1. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. PMID:25268019

  2. Emotional eating moderates the relationship of night eating with binge eating and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Allison, Kelly C; Platte, Petra

    2014-03-01

    Night eating syndrome is marked by substantial evening or nocturnal food intake, insomnia, morning anorexia, and depressed mood. Night eating severity has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI), binge eating frequency, and emotional eating tendencies. We conducted an online questionnaire study among students (N=729) and explored possible interactive effects between those variables. Night eating severity, binge eating frequency, BMI and emotional eating were all positively correlated with each other. Regression analyses showed that night eating severity was particularly related to more frequent binge episodes and higher BMI at high levels of emotional eating but unrelated to those variables at low levels of emotional eating. Thus, eating as a means of emotion regulation appears to be an important moderator of the relationship between night eating and both binge eating and BMI. PMID:24293184

  3. Changing arenas of underage adolescent binge drinking in Swedish small towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Birgitta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – The study explores arenas of adolescent binge drinking in small Swedish towns and the meanings these have for young persons. The focus is thus on space and place, and on the geography of underage drinking.

  4. The relationship between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking among women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kaer, Susanne K; Munk, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the association between age at drinking onset and subsequent binge drinking, and to examine whether there are differences in this association between four countries. METHODS: The data consisted of 68,539 women aged 18-47 years randomly selected from the general population in...... Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Frequency of binge drinking, defined as consuming >6 U of alcohol at the same occasion once or more per month, and age at drinking debut were assessed through a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: Overall, 12-26% reported binge drinking once or more per month in the four...... countries. Median age for starting drinking was 16 years in all four countries. Women who started drinking at 14 years or younger were significantly more likely to binge drink than women who started drinking at 19 years or older with adjusted odds ratios of 2.9 (95% confidence intervals 2.3-3.7), 2.8 (2...

  5. News of CanalUGR tracked on Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Solana, V??ctor; Arboledas M??rquez, Luis; Leger??n-??lvarez, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Dataset contains 613 news of CanalUGR (University of Granada Communication Office) tracked on the main online news aggregators (Google News, Yahoo! News and Bing News). We include: number in CanalUGR, media, country, type.

  6. Vital Signs – Binge Drinking Among Women and Girls

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-08

    This podcast is based on the January 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which presents information about binge drinking among women and girls. Binge drinking is defined for women as four or more drinks in a short period of time. It puts women and girls at greater risk for breast cancer, sexual assault, heart disease, and unintended pregnancy.  Created: 1/8/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/8/2013.

  7. Nociceptin receptor antagonist SB 612111 decreases high fat diet binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, J Andrew; Jensen, Jennifer; Kim, Michelle; Mazzone, Christopher M; Sugam, Jonathan A; Diberto, Jeffrey F; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Hwa, Lara S; Pleil, Kristen E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    Binge eating is a dysregulated form of feeding behavior that occurs in multiple eating disorders including binge-eating disorder, the most common eating disorder. Feeding is a complex behavioral program supported through the function of multiple brain regions and influenced by a diverse array of receptor signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown the overexpression of the opioid neuropeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ, N/OFQ) can induce hyperphagia, but the role of endogenous nociceptin receptor (NOP) in naturally occurring palatability-induced hyperphagia is unknown. In this study we adapted a simple, replicable form of binge eating of high fat food (HFD). We found that male and female C57BL/6J mice provided with daily one-hour access sessions to HFD eat significantly more during this period than those provided with continuous 24h access. This form of feeding is rapid and entrained. Chronic intermittent HFD binge eating produced hyperactivity and increased light zone exploration in the open field and light-dark assays respectively. Treatment with the potent and selective NOP antagonist SB 612111 resulted in a significant dose-dependent reduction in binge intake in both male and female mice, and, unlike treatment with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, produced no change in total 24-h food intake. SB 612111 treatment also significantly decreased non-binge-like acute HFD consumption in male mice. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that high fat binge eating is modulated by NOP signaling and that the NOP system may represent a promising novel receptor to explore for the treatment of binge eating. PMID:27036650

  8. The Impact of Price, Availability, and Alcohol Control Policies on Binge Drinking in College

    OpenAIRE

    Frank J. Chaloupka; Henry Wechsler

    1995-01-01

    The effects of beer prices, alcohol availability, and policies related to driving under the influence of alcohol on drinking and binge drinking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Drinking participation, participation in binge drinking and level of drinking equations are estimated using appropriate econometric methods. The estimates indicate that the drinking practices of college students...

  9. Myocardial inflammation after binge drinking assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Aiche, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic alcohol abuse leads to inflammatory changes in myocardium. The aim of this study was to determine acute effects of excessive consumption of alcohol – binge drinking – and hangover on the heart especially in myocardium. We assumed that binge drinking leads to detectable changes in myocardium. Methods: Cardiac-MRI (CMR) was the diagnostic method. Evaluated parameters were T2-Ratio, relative enhancement, late enhancement and left ventricular function. Additionally humoral...

  10. Moderators of Post-Binge Eating Negative Emotion in Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Young, Kyle P.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B.; le Grange, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the impact of two variables on post-binge eating negative emotion in a combined sample of women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 47) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 121). Participants completed two weeks of an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they provided multiple daily ratings of overall negative affect and guilt and reported eating disorder behaviors including binge eating and self-induced vomiting. The results indicate that both overal...

  11. Trajectories of Early Binge Drinking: A Function of Family Cohesion and Peer Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, Kristy L; Kale Monk, J; Durtschi, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we tested latent growth models examining whether the number of friends using alcohol and family cohesion were linked with trajectories of binge drinking (N = 3,342) from adolescence (average age 15.06) into young adulthood (average age 27.93). Adolescents with higher family cohesion had lower rates of binge drinking in adolescence (b = -.07, p Group Interventions as a potential approach. PMID:25585579

  12. Binge-eating disorder diagnosis and treatment: a recap in front of DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Amianto, Federico; Ottone, Luisa; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Binge Eating Disorders is a clinical syndrome recently coded as an autonomous diagnosis in DSM-5. Individuals affected by Binge Eating Disorder (BED) show significantly lower quality of life and perceived health and higher psychological distress compared to the non-BED obese population. BED treatment is complex due to clinical and psychological reasons but also to high drop-out and poor stability of achieved goals. The purpose of this review is to explore the available data on th...

  13. Novel pharmacologic treatment in acute binge eating disorder – role of lisdexamfetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Guerdjikova, Anna I.; Mori, Nicole; Casuto, Leah S; McElroy, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior without the inappropriate compensatory weight loss behaviors of bulimia nervosa. BED affects both sexes and all age groups and is associated with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Until recently, self-help and psychotherapy were the primary tre...

  14. Evaluation of the DSM-5 Severity Indicator for Binge Eating Disorder in a Community Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Ivezaj, Valentina; White, Marney A.

    2015-01-01

    Research has examined various aspects of the diagnostic criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED) but has yet to evaluate the DSM-5 severity criterion. This study examined the DSM-5 severity criterion for BED based on binge-eating frequency and tested an alternative severity specifier based on overvaluation of shape/weight. 338 community volunteers categorized with DSM-5 BED completed a battery of self-report instruments. Participants were categorized first using DSM-5 severity levels and seco...

  15. Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associ...

  16. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders: Diagnosis and neurobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Liana R. N.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Grant, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5 for the first time, an acknowledgement to its debilitating nature. This article explores the overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). Methods: The bibliographic search was a ...

  17. The Cost Effectiveness of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ágh, Tamás; Pawaskar, Manjiri; Nagy, Balázs; Lachaine, Jean; Vokó, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Background Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) demonstrated efficacy in terms of reduced binge eating days per week in adults with binge eating disorder (BED) in two randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of LDX versus no pharmacotherapy (NPT) in adults with BED from a USA healthcare payer’s perspective. Study Design and Methods A decision-analytic Markov cohort model was developed using 1-week cycles and a 52-week time ho...

  18. BINGE EATING DISORDER AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF CANDIDATES TO BARIATRIC SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    COSTA, Ana Júlia Rosa Barcelos; PINTO, Sônia Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Background : Obesity decreases the quality of life, which is aggravated by the association of comorbidities, and the binge eating disorder is directly related to body image and predisposes to overweight. Aim: Evaluate association between the presence and the level of binge eating disorder and the quality of life of the obese candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods : Cross-sectional study analyzing anthropometric data (weight and height) and socioeconomics (age, sex, marital status, educatio...

  19. Bidirectional associations between binge eating and restriction in anorexia nervosa. An ecological momentary assessment study☆

    OpenAIRE

    De Young, Kyle P.; Lavender, Jason M.; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between restrictive eating behaviors and binge eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) using data collected in the natural environment. Women (N = 118) with DSM-IV full or sub-threshold AN reported eating disorder behaviors, including binge eating episodes, going ≥ 8 waking hours without eating, and skipping meals, during 2 weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Time-lagged generalized estimating equations tested the following hypotheses: 1) dietary restri...

  20. Binge Drinking – Nationwide Problem, Local Solutions PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the January 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. One in six adults binge drinks about four times a month. It's a problem nationwide but community-based strategies, such as reducing access to alcohol and increasing the price, can prevent binge drinking.  Created: 1/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/3/2012.

  1. Binge Drinking Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Peer Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most p...

  2. Nociceptin receptor antagonist SB 612111 decreases high fat diet binge eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, J. Andrew; Jensen, Jennifer; Kim, Michelle; Mazzone, Christopher M.; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Diberto, Jeffrey F.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Hwa, Lara S.; Pleil, Kristen E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is a dysregulated form of feeding behavior that occurs in multiple eating disorders including binge-eating disorder, the most common eating disorder. Feeding is a complex behavioral program supported through the function of multiple brain regions and influenced by a diverse array of receptor signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown the overexpression of the opioid neuropeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ, N/OFQ) can induce hyperphagia, but the role of endogenous nociceptin receptor (NOP) in naturally occurring palatability-induced hyperphagia is unknown. In this study we adapted a simple, replicable form of binge eating of high fat food (HFD). We found that male and female C57BL/6J mice provided with daily one-hour access sessions to HFD eat significantly more during this period than those provided with continuous 24 hour access. This form of feeding is rapid and entrained. Chronic intermittent HFD binge eating produced hyperactivity and increased light zone exploration in the open field and light-dark assays respectively. Treatment with the potent and selective NOP antagonist SB 612111 resulted in a significant dose-dependent reduction in binge intake in both male and female mice, and, unlike treatment with the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, produced no change in total 24-hour food intake. SB 612111 treatment also significantly decreased non-binge-like acute HFD consumption in male mice. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that high fat binge eating is modulated by NOP signaling and that the NOP system may represent a promising novel receptor to explore for the treatment of binge eating. PMID:27036650

  3. Appetite Sensations, Appetite Signaling Proteins, and Glucose in Obese Adolescents with Subclinical Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo, Kristi B; Wilson, Shanna L.; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Doucet, Éric; Gary S. Goldfield

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate potential differences in appetite sensations, ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucose and their relationship with energy and macronutrient intake in obese adolescents with subclinical binge eating disorder. Methods. Fifteen obese adolescents (six and nine individuals with and without subclinical binge eating disorder, resp.) qualified for this study. Visual analog scales and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaires were used to assess eating behaviours. Circulati...

  4. Adapted motivational interviewing for women with binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, Stephanie E; von Ranson, Kristin M; Heng, Kenneth; Brar, Joti; Wojtowicz, Amy E

    2008-09-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, 108 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) recruited from the community were assigned to either an adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) group (1 individual AMI session + self-help handbook) or control group (handbook only). They were phoned 4, 8, and 16 weeks following the initial session to assess binge eating and associated symptoms (depression, self-esteem, quality of life). Postintervention, the AMI group participants were more confident than those in the control group in their ability to change binge eating. Although both groups reported improved binge eating, mood, self-esteem, and general quality of life 16 weeks following the intervention, the AMI group improved to a greater extent. A greater proportion of women in the AMI group abstained from binge eating (27.8% vs. 11.1%) and no longer met the binge frequency criterion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) for BED (87.0% vs. 57.4%). AMI may constitute a brief, effective intervention for BED and associated symptoms. PMID:18778135

  5. Binge drinking impacts dorsal striatal response during decision making in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott A; Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a time of both increased risk taking and increased vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. However, it is unclear whether brain functioning abnormalities in adolescent binge drinkers are a result of alcohol use itself or whether they represent premorbid risk characteristics. The current study addresses this question by using a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) task, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), at both baseline, while all subjects were alcohol-naïve, and revisit, when half of the subjects had emerged into regular binge drinking (n=13) and half remained alcohol and substance-naïve (n=13). Region of interest (ROI) analysis revealed that during decision making, there was a significant binge-drinking related reduction in brain activation in the dorsal striatum, an effect associated with degree of recent use. Furthermore, whole-brain analysis revealed a decrease in fronto-parietal brain activation prior to initiation of alcohol use, in adolescents who went on to binge drink. Additionally, there were numerous regions, both cortical and subcortical, in which there was a significant time-related developmental change, across groups. These results demonstrate how abnormalities in decision-making related circuitry might both lead to and perpetuate alcohol drinking behavior. These findings help aid in our ability to disentangle consequences of binge drinking from potential risk markers for future binge drinking, and may help guide future prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:26826511

  6. Investigating the moderating role of emotional awareness in the association between urgency and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjrekar, Eishita; Berenbaum, Howard; Bhayani, Natasha

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating has been found to be associated with urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect) and emotional awareness (i.e., attention to emotions, clarity of emotions). The present study tested the hypothesis that the relation between binge eating and urgency would be moderated by emotional awareness, over and above negative affect. Participants were 249 female college students. Items from the Trait Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), the Urgency subscale of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Bulimia (B) subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-3) were administered. As predicted, emotional awareness moderated the link between urgency and binge eating. Both Urgency×Attention to emotions and Urgency×Clarity of emotions significantly predicted binge eating scores, even after taking into account negative affect. Consistent with past research, higher levels of urgency were associated with higher levels of binge eating, even after taking negative affect into account. However, the associations were particularly strong among individuals with low levels of attention to emotions and low levels of clarity of emotions. The findings from this study have implications for future research examining binge eating. PMID:25679369

  7. Functional and structural brain connectivity of young binge drinkers: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correas, A; Cuesta, P; López-Caneda, E; Rodríguez Holguín, S; García-Moreno, L M; Pineda-Pardo, J A; Cadaveira, F; Maestú, F

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of ongoing brain maturation characterized by hierarchical changes in the functional and structural networks. For this reason, the young brain is particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of alcohol. Nowadays, binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol consumption increasingly prevalent among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the evolution of the functional and anatomical connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) in young binge drinkers along two years. Magnetoencephalography signal during eyes closed resting state as well as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) were acquired twice within a 2-year interval from 39 undergraduate students (22 controls, 17 binge drinkers) with neither personal nor family history of alcoholism. The group comparison showed that, after maintaining a binge drinking pattern along at least two years, binge drinkers displayed an increased brain connectivity of the DMN in comparison with the control group. On the other hand, the structural connectivity did not show significant differences neither between groups nor over the time. These findings point out that a continued pattern of binge drinking leads to functional alterations in the normal brain maturation process, even before anatomical changes can be detected. PMID:27506835

  8. Bingöl Ağzı ve Folkloru Üzerine Bir İnceleme An Analysis On The Bingöl Dialect And Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek ALPAR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Located on the Eastern Anatolian Region, the province of Bingöl is known for its folkloric richness as much as it is known for its natural beauties. In his work Seyahatnâme ("Travel Book", Evliya Çelebi could not praise enough Bingöl's prosperous hills and mountains where the sun would set differently. According to today's understanding of folklore, anything that belongs to the people constitutes its culture, thus belonging to the area of folklore. Amongst the subjects of folklore are also dialects. Anatolian dialects have served as resources for the development of the Turkish language in Anatolia and have ensured it becomes a written language. While deciding on a linguistic issue, it is essential to remember the existence of a source and to analyse it via scientific methods. When such a work is not carried out, we inevitably face situations where historical, cultural and most importantly linguistic facts are biased through unsupported erroneous information. From this point of view, Bingöl's folkloric and linguistic specificities draw attention and deserve to be scrutinized. Language not only transfer what we want to say, but also gives us information about what we are and where we come from. Bingöl's cultural characteristics and dialect are seen as richness components for Turkey. In this work, it has been tried to show features belonging to Bingöl's folklore through sources who are themselves from Bingöl, and a thorough research of the Bingöl dialect has been carried out so to expose its internal as well as external (in accordance with other dialects variances. It is believed that the work will also be valuable in transferring Bingöl's folkloric features to the generations to come. Doğu Anadolu bölgesinde yer alan Bingöl ili, doğal güzellikleri yanında folklorik zenginliği ile de tanınır. Evliya Çelebi Seyahatnamesinde, güneşin bir başka doğduğu Bingöl dağlarını ve Bingöl’ün bereketli yaylalarını öve

  9. Negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between weight-based teasing and binge eating in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suisman, Jessica L; Slane, Jennifer D; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2008-12-01

    Previous research has established a link between weight-based teasing and binge eating, though the precise mechanisms that drive this relationship remain unknown. This study examined negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between weight-based teasing and binge eating. Participants included 265 adolescent female twins (aged 10-15 years). Self-report measures assessed binge eating, weight-based teasing, and negative affect. Mediation was tested within hierarchical linear models to control for the non-independence of the twin data. Significant positive associations were observed between binge eating, teasing, and negative affect. In the regression analyses, negative affect partially mediated associations between weight-based teasing and binge eating. Results suggest that increases in negative affect are one way in which weight-based teasing leads to binge eating in girls. Future studies should examine additional mediators and assess possible clinical applications of these findings. PMID:18928913

  10. Negative Affect as a Mediator of the Relationship between Weight-Based Teasing and Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Suisman, Jessica L.; Slane, Jennifer D.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has established a link between weight-based teasing and binge eating, though the precise mechanisms that drive this relationship remain unknown. This study examined negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between weight-based teasing and binge eating. Participants included 265 adolescent female twins (aged 10–15 years). Self-report measures assessed binge eating, weight-based teasing, and negative affect. Mediation was tested within hierarchical linear models to co...

  11. Binge Drinking among 12-to-14-Year-Old Canadians: Findings from a Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Esme Fuller-Thomson; Tamara Grundland; Sheridan, Matthew P.; Cathy Sorichetti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study’s objective is to document which factors are associated with binge drinking behaviour in a population-based sample of Canadian youth aged 12 to 14. Middle school is a key period in which binge drinking behaviour is initiated. Binge drinking is an important risk factor for alcohol-related injuries, accidental death, unsafe sexual behaviour, and substance abuse problems. Understanding the drinking patterns of this population can serve to better inform prevention programs and...

  12. Larger Mid-Dorsolateral Prefrontal Gray Matter Volume in Young Binge Drinkers Revealed by Voxel-Based Morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Doallo, Sonia; Cadaveira, Fernando; Corral, Montserrat; Mota, Nayara; López-Caneda, Eduardo; Holguín, Socorro Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory), processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9), less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the ef...

  13. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for binge eating disorder in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbert, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge eating disorder is a prevalent adolescent disorder, associated with increased eating disorder and general psychopathology as well as an increased risk for overweight and obesity. As opposed to binge eating disorder in adults, there is a lack of validated psychological treatments for this condition in adolescents. The goal of this research project is therefore to determine the efficacy of age-adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescents with binge eating disorder – the ...

  14. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating disorder and purging disorder have gained recognition as distinct eating disorder diagnoses, but risk factors for these conditions have not yet been established. This study aimed to evaluate a prospective, mediational model of risk for the full range of binge eating and purging eating disorders, with attention to possible diagnostic differences. Specific aims were to determine, first, whether eating, weight and shape concerns at age 14 would mediate the relationship between parent-perceived childhood overweight at age 10 and a binge eating or purging eating disorder between age 15 and 20, and, second, whether this mediational model would differ across bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder. Participants (N = 1,160; 51 % female) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, which has followed children from pre-birth to age 20. Eating disorders were assessed via self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 14, 17 and 20. There were 146 participants (82 % female) with a binge eating or purging eating disorder with onset between age 15 and 20 [bulimia nervosa = 81 (86 % female), binge eating disorder = 43 (74 % female), purging disorder = 22 (77 % female)]. Simple mediation analysis with bootstrapping was used to test the hypothesized model of risk, with early adolescent eating, weight and shape concerns positioned as a mediator between parent-perceived childhood overweight and later onset of a binge eating or purging eating disorder. Subsequently, a conditional process model (a moderated mediation model) was specified to determine if model pathways differed significantly by eating disorder diagnosis. In the simple mediation model, there was a significant indirect effect of parent-perceived childhood overweight on risk for a binge eating or purging eating disorder in late adolescence, mediated by eating, weight and shape concerns in early adolescence. In the conditional process model

  15. Challenging the collegiate rite of passage: a campus-wide social marketing media campaign to reduce binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glider, P; Midyett, S J; Mills-Novoa, B; Johannessen, K; Collins, C

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, on a large, southwestern university campus has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. The Core Alcohol and Drug Survey and the Health Enhancement Survey provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding alcohol and binge drinking. This study represents the first in-depth research on the impact of a media approach, based on a normative social influence model, to reduce binge drinking on a large university campus and has yielded promising initial results. PMID:11487995

  16. Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Joanne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively California Women's Health Survey (CWHS, a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mental health (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress, were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted. When adult mental health and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mental health status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mental health symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.

  17. BingEO: Enable Distributed Earth Observation Data for Environmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Yang, C.; Xu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Our planet is facing great environmental challenges including global climate change, environmental vulnerability, extreme poverty, and a shortage of clean cheap energy. To address these problems, scientists are developing various models to analysis, forecast, simulate various geospatial phenomena to support critical decision making. These models not only challenge our computing technology, but also challenge us to feed huge demands of earth observation data. Through various policies and programs, open and free sharing of earth observation data are advocated in earth science. Currently, thousands of data sources are freely available online through open standards such as Web Map Service (WMS), Web Feature Service (WFS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS). Seamless sharing and access to these resources call for a spatial Cyberinfrastructure (CI) to enable the use of spatial data for the advancement of related applied sciences including environmental research. Based on Microsoft Bing Search Engine and Bing Map, a seamlessly integrated and visual tool is under development to bridge the gap between researchers/educators and earth observation data providers. With this tool, earth science researchers/educators can easily and visually find the best data sets for their research and education. The tool includes a registry and its related supporting module at server-side and an integrated portal as its client. The proposed portal, Bing Earth Observation (BingEO), is based on Bing Search and Bing Map to: 1) Use Bing Search to discover Web Map Services (WMS) resources available over the internet; 2) Develop and maintain a registry to manage all the available WMS resources and constantly monitor their service quality; 3) Allow users to manually register data services; 4) Provide a Bing Maps-based Web application to visualize the data on a high-quality and easy-to-manipulate map platform and enable users to select the best data layers online. Given the amount of observation data

  18. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  19. Quality response of 'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries to low rose electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries were irradiated at doses of 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 and 0.90 kGy using a linear accelerator. Cherries were evaluated for quality immediately after treatment and again after 14 days storage at 1C. No variation in soluble solids, titratable acidity or flavor were noted at any of the irradiation doses. Defects were increased for 'Rainier' cherries at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy, but no change in defects of 'Bing' cherries were present regardless of irradiation doses. Objective color of 'Bing' cherries was lighter with more red at irradiation doses greater than 0.30 kGy, but this change in color was not evident visually. Objective color of 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. This reduction in 'Rainier' red color was evident visually at an irradiation dose of 0.90 kGy. No change in 'Bing' green stem color was evident, but 'Rainier' stem color improved at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy. Firmness of both 'Bing' and 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. By using the linear accelerator at doses of 0.60 kGy or less, 'Ring' and 'Rainier' cherries can be irradiated with no major quality loss to meet quarantine requirements

  20. Binge-pattern alcohol exposure during puberty induces long-term changes in HPA axis reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.

  1. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [11C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  2. URB597 inhibits oxidative stress induced by alcohol binging in the prefrontal cortex of adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelição, Renan; Santos, Matheus C; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Vasquez, Elisardo C; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester M; Rodrigues, Lívia C M

    2016-06-15

    Heavy episodic drinking (binging), which is highly prevalent among teenagers, results in oxidative damage. Because the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is not completely mature in adolescents, this brain region may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol during adolescence. As endocannabinoids may protect the immature PFC from the harmful effects of high doses of alcohol, this study investigated the effect of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 on oxidative stress induced by acute or chronic binge alcohol intake in adolescent rats. At 40min after intraperitoneal pre-treatment with URB597 (0.3mg/kg) or vehicle (Veh), ethanol (EtOH; 3 or 6g/kg, intragastrically) or distilled water (DW) was administered in 3 consecutive sessions (acute binging) or 3 consecutive sessions over 4 weeks (chronic binging). Oxidative stress in PFC slices in situ was measured by dihydroethidium fluorescence staining. At the higher EtOH dose (6g/kg), pre-treatment with URB597 significantly reduced (peffect of endocannabinoids to suppress acute and chronic binge alcohol intake-induced oxidative stress in the PFC of adolescent rats. PMID:27150075

  3. Alcohol binging causes peliosis hepatis during azathioprine therapy in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Elsing; Joerg Placke; Thomas Herrmann

    2007-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have normal life expectancy and, due to modern immunosuppressive therapies, also a normal quality of life. Since mostly young people are affected, their social behaviour suits this environment. Alcohol binging is an increasingly disturbing factor among young people. We describe a patient with Crohn's disease, treated with azathioprine,who developed peliosis hepatis after three epsiodes of alcohol binging. Liver toxicity was not observed previously during the course of the treatment.Azathioprine-induced peliosis hepatis is thought to be idiosyncratic in humans. From animal studies, however,it is clear that hepatic depletion of glutathione leads to azathioprine toxicity to the sinusoidal endothelial cells. Damage of these cells causes peliosis hepatis.Since alcohol binging leads to hepatic glutathione depletion, we conclude that in our patient the episodes of binging have reduced liver gluathione content and therefore this has increased azathioprine toxicity causing peliosis hepatis. The problem of alcohol binging has not yet been addressed in IBD patients undertaking immunosuppressive therapy. This should be reviewed in future considerations regarding patients advice.

  4. Effects of resistance training on binge eating, body composition and blood variables in type II diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Simão Santa Rosa de Sousa

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on binge eating, body composition and blood variables and their correlations in 34 sedentary adults with type II diabetes. The participants aged 58.94 ± 10.66, had body weight of 71.62 ± 11.85 and BMI of 29.64 ± 4.27. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum leptin, glucose, insulin, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride. The binge eating was assessed by the binge eating scale and the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. The training included three weekly sessions for 12 weeks, with three sets from 12 to 15 repetitions for the main muscle groups, and interval from 1 to 2 minutes between the sets. A significant decrease was found for the binge eating, body weight, BMI, fat percentage, and fat weight. As for the blood variables, there was a significant reduction in leptin; non-significant reductions in glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides; as well a significant increase in HDL and non-significant increase in insulin. In conclusion the 12 weeks of RT proved to be enough to decrease the binge eating, to positively adjust the body composition and to modify the blood profile, demonstrating an association at a lower or higher level between these variables.

  5. A Cognitive-Behavioral Mindfulness Group Therapy Intervention for the Treatment of Binge Eating in Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Crowther, Janis H.; Irwin, Sharon R.

    2008-01-01

    Binge eating is a negative indicator of post-surgical weight loss and health outcome in bariatric surgery patients (Hsu, Bentancourt, Sullivan, 1996). Cognitive-behavioral techniques and mindfulness-based practices have been shown to successfully treat binge eating (Agras, Telch, Arnow, Eldredge, & Marnell, 1997; Kristeller & Hallett, 1999). This…

  6. Challenging the Collegiate Rite of Passage: A Campus-Wide Social Marketing Media Campaign To Reduce Binge Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glider, Peggy; Midyett, Stephen J.; Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Johannessen, Koreen; Collins, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    A social marketing media campaign, based on a normative social influence model and focused on normative messages regarding binge drinking, has yielded positive preliminary results of an overall 29.2 percent decrease in binge drinking rates over a three-year period. Two surveys provided information on student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors…

  7. Zonisamide Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder: A One-year Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ricca, Valdo; Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients.

  8. Testing the perfectionism model of binge eating in mother-daughter dyads: a mixed longitudinal and daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushquash, Aislin R; Sherry, Simon B

    2013-04-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is tied to binge eating. This study extended and tested this emerging model by proposing daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving one's mother is harshly demanding perfection of oneself) and mothers' psychological control (i.e., a negative parenting style involving control and demandingness) contribute indirectly to daughters' binge eating by generating situations or experiences that trigger binge eating. These binge triggers include discrepancies (i.e., viewing oneself as falling short of one's mother's expectations), depressive affect (i.e., feeling miserable and sad), and dietary restraint (i.e., behaviors aimed at reduced caloric intake). This model was tested in 218 mother-daughter dyads studied using a mixed longitudinal and daily diary design. Daughters were undergraduate students. Results largely supported hypotheses, with bootstrapped tests of mediation suggesting daughters' socially prescribed perfectionism and mothers' psychological control contribute to binge eating through binge triggers. For undergraduate women who believe their mothers rigidly require them to be perfect and whose mothers are demanding and controlling, binge eating may provide a means of coping with or escaping from an unhealthy, unsatisfying mother-daughter relationship. PMID:23557815

  9. The Moderating Role of Father's Care on the Onset of Binge Eating Symptoms among Female Late Adolescents with Insecure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents…

  10. Reformulating and Testing the Perfectionism Model of Binge Eating among Undergraduate Women: A Short-Term, Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P.; Sherry, Simon B.; Graham, Aislin R.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Sherry, Dayna L.; Allen, Stephanie L.; Fitzpatrick, Skye; McGrath, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    The perfectionism model of binge eating (PMOBE) is an integrative model explaining why perfectionism is related to binge eating. This study reformulates and tests the PMOBE, with a focus on addressing limitations observed in the perfectionism and binge-eating literature. In the reformulated PMOBE, concern over mistakes is seen as a destructive…

  11. Understanding experiences and outcomes in treatment of binge eating disorder and obesity: A mixed method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Lene; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht;

    Background: Binge eating disorder (BED) has recently been recognized as a diagnosis in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders). BED is a severe eating disorder with physical, social and psychological consequences. The prevalence of BED is 2-3% and the majority develop weight problems...... and obesity. Treatment is found effective in reducing eating disorder symptomatology, but rarely leads to weight loss. It is still unknown how the issue of obesity can be addressed in BED treatment without increasing the risk of binge eating relapse. Objectives: The study is an explorative investigation...... of the outcome of a newly developed group based treatment that combines psychotherapy and either weight loss or well-being components for patients with binge eating disorders and obesity. Methods: The study uses a convergent mixed methods design. Qualitative and quantitative data are gathered using in...

  12. Stemming Mechanism of Search Engine Bing For Single-Plural Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmana Şentürk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, it has become really fast and easy to access information thanks to the developments in the internet world. Search engines have been developed to find desired information in this gigantic internet world. It is important to know how these search engines works so that searches are more efficient. This work provides results that could help end-users to access information faster. It could also help researchers to interpret results, provided by search engines, better. In this work we have tried to find the indexing algorithm of Bing for single-plural words. For this purpose, we first selected the suitable words and then send the constructed queries to the Bing. Afterwards, the returned results of the queries had been analyzed. We found out that there is a strong relation between single and plural form of the words in term of indexing by Bing. In addition, the frequencies of usage of the words also effect this relation.

  13. Post-Editing Error Correction Algorithm for Speech Recognition using Bing Spelling Suggestion

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    ASR short for Automatic Speech Recognition is the process of converting a spoken speech into text that can be manipulated by a computer. Although ASR has several applications, it is still erroneous and imprecise especially if used in a harsh surrounding wherein the input speech is of low quality. This paper proposes a post-editing ASR error correction method and algorithm based on Bing's online spelling suggestion. In this approach, the ASR recognized output text is spell-checked using Bing's spelling suggestion technology to detect and correct misrecognized words. More specifically, the proposed algorithm breaks down the ASR output text into several word-tokens that are submitted as search queries to Bing search engine. A returned spelling suggestion implies that a query is misspelled; and thus it is replaced by the suggested correction; otherwise, no correction is performed and the algorithm continues with the next token until all tokens get validated. Experiments carried out on various speeches in differen...

  14. Binge eating & childhood emotional abuse: The mediating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies reveal that childhood emotional abuse (CEA) is the trauma most clearly associated with adult eating pathology. Yet, relatively little is understood about psychological mechanisms linking these distal experiences. Anger's mediational role in the relationship between CEA and adult binge eating (BE) is explored in a community-based sample of 498 adult women (mean age 44). Detailed telephone interviews assess BE (7 items), CEA (single item), and unresolved anger (single item) along with self-criticism (modified Rosenberg self-esteem scale), depression and anxiety symptoms (BSI sub-scales). Statistical analyses include Pearson correlations, Baron and Kenny's steps for mediation, and Preacher and Hayes bootstrapping method to test proposed multiple mediators simultaneously. Findings reveal significantly more respondents (n = 476 with complete data) with serious BE behaviors report a history of CEA compared to women with considerable and/or minimal BE (53% vs 37%, p = 0.002 respectively). Significant correlations are found among all study variables. Mediation analyses focus on anger together with self-criticism, depression and anxiety. Findings reveal anger and self-criticism fully mediate the CEA-BE relationship. In contrast, depression and anxiety symptoms are not significant mediators in a model that includes anger and self-criticism. Although additional research is warranted to more fully understand complex causal processes, in the interim, treatment interventions should be broadened to include assessments of anger among adult women with BE behaviors, especially those with histories of childhood abuse. Additionally, prevention strategies that incorporate learning how to express anger directly and positively may be particularly effective in reducing various disordered eating behaviors among women and girls. PMID:27208594

  15. Executive performance and dysexecutive symptoms in binge drinking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hernandez, Soledad; Garcia-Moreno, Luis M

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol is probably the most common legal drug of abuse in Western countries. The prevalence of binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents is a worrisome phenomenon. Adolescents and university students who practice a BD pattern have difficulty performing tasks involving prefrontal cortex functions, such as working memory, planning, attention, and decision making. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between BD and executive functioning in adolescents. Two hundred twenty-three high-school students between 12 and 18 years old (15.19 ± 2.13) participated in our study. They were assigned to one of three groups according to their pattern of alcohol consumption: BD (subjects who consumed alcohol intensively, n = 48), MAC (subjects who consumed alcohol moderately, n = 53), and CTR (non-drinking subjects, n = 122). The students were evaluated with two groups of testing tools: a set of performance neuropsychological tests and two questionnaires of executive functioning. The results showed that the students who drank alcohol exhibited a more pronounced dysexecutive symptomatology (disinhibition, executive dysfunction, intentionality, executive memory), but they obtained better results than controls on some of the neuropsychological tests such as Spatial Location, Five Digit Tests, or Stroop Test. According to the results, we can deduce that heavy alcohol drinking in adolescents brings a certain dysfunction of prefrontal circuits. This prefrontal dysfunction is not so clearly demonstrated in the neuropsychological tests used, but it was observed in the performance of daily activities. In the Discussion section we raise issues about sociodemographic features of the sample and ecological validity of the traditional neuropsychological tests. The neurotoxic effects of BD on prefrontal cortex can be less evident throughout adolescence, but if alcohol consumption persists, the executive dysfunction would be exacerbated

  16. Binge Eating Disorder and Medical Comorbidities in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce; Flum, David R.; Spaniolas, Konstatinos; Bessler, Mark; Devlin, Michael; Marcus, Marsha D.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Engel, Scott; Khandelwal, Saurobh; Yanovski, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether binge eating disorder (BED) status is associated with medical comorbidities in obese adults scheduled for bariatric surgery. Method The study utilized Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 data obtained from 6 clinical centers around the United States. This is a well-phenotyped cohort of individuals who were evaluated within 30 days prior to their scheduled surgery using standardized protocols. In the cohort, 350 participants were classified as having BED and 1875 as not having BED (non-BED). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether BED status was independently related to medical comorbidities. As an exploratory analysis, significance was based on nominal P-values (p<.05). Holm-adjusted P-values were also reported. Results After adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index, BED status was independently associated with 4 of 15 comorbidities (i.e., impaired glucose levels (odds ratio [OR]=1.45 (95%CI: 1.12–1.87), high triglycerides (OR=1.28 (95%CI: 1.002–1.63) and urinary incontinence (OR=1.30 (95%CI: 1.02,1.66) all being more common among the BED sample, and severe walking limitations being less common in the BED sample (OR=0.53 (95%CI: 0.29–0.96)). With further adjustment for psychiatric/emotional health indicators, BED status was independently associated with 3 comorbidities (impaired glucose levels (OR=1.36 (95%CI: 1.04–1.79), cardiovascular disease (OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.30–0.86) and severe walking limitations (OR=0.38 (95%CI: 0.19–0.77)). However, Holm’s adjusted P-values for all variables were greater than .05. Discussion The results suggest the possibility of a contribution of BED to risk of specific medical comorbidities in severely obese adults. PMID:25778499

  17. Fear conditioning in mouse lines genetically selected for binge-like ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, John C; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Hack, Wyatt; Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Metten, Pamela; Lattal, K Matthew

    2016-05-01

    The comorbidity of substance- and alcohol-use disorders (AUD) with other psychiatric conditions, especially those related to stress such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is well-established. Binge-like intoxication is thought to be a crucial stage in the development of the chronic relapsing nature of the addictions, and self-medication through binge-like drinking is commonly seen in PTSD patients. We have selectively bred two separate High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1 and HDID-2) mouse lines to reach high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after a 4-h period of access to 20% ethanol starting shortly after the onset of circadian dark. As an initial step toward the eventual goal of employing binge-prone HDID mice to study PTSD-like behavior including alcohol binge drinking, we sought first to determine their ability to acquire conditioned fear. We asked whether these mice acquired, generalized, or extinguished conditioned freezing to a greater or lesser extent than unselected control HS/Npt mice. In two experiments, we trained groups of 16 adult male mice in a standard conditioned fear protocol. Mice were tested for context-elicited freezing, and then, in a novel context, for cue-induced freezing. After extinction tests, renewal of conditioned fear was tested in the original context. Mice of all three genotypes showed typical fear responding. Context paired with shock elicited freezing behavior in a control experiment, but cue unpaired with shock did not. These studies indicate that fear learning per se does not appear to be influenced by genes causing predisposition to binge drinking, suggesting distinct neural mechanisms. However, HDID mice are shown to be a suitable model for studying the role of conditioned fear specifically in binge-like drinking. PMID:27139234

  18. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone

  19. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among U.S-Born Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-01-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-hour sitting for men, or four or more drinks in a 2-hour sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the socio-cultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public un...

  20. Novel pharmacologic treatment in acute binge eating disorder – role of lisdexamfetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Guerdjikova, Anna I.

    2016-01-01

    Anna I Guerdjikova,1,2 Nicole Mori,1,2 Leah S Casuto,1,2 Susan L McElroy1,2 1Lindner Center of HOPE, Mason, OH, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior...

  1. Novel pharmacologic treatment in acute binge eating disorder – role of lisdexamfetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Guerdjikova AI; Mori N.; Casuto LS; McElroy SL

    2016-01-01

    Anna I Guerdjikova,1,2 Nicole Mori,1,2 Leah S Casuto,1,2 Susan L McElroy1,2 1Lindner Center of HOPE, Mason, OH, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior...

  2. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Carolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9% than for girls (47.5%. The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p p Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that

  3. The Round Table 03 圆桌: A Conversation with Xu Bing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eschenburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The following is an excerpt from a conversation between contemporary Chinese artist Xu Bing, Madeline Eschenburg, and Ellen Larson. Xu Bing curated an exhibition at the Central Academy of Fine Arts titled The Second CAFAM Future Exhibition, Observer-Creator: The Reality Representation of Chinese Young Art, on exhibition through March 2015. Our conversation centered around his thoughts on a new generation of young Chinese artists as well as reflection on his own early career and time in New York. The conversation was conducted in Chinese and has been translated into English.

  4. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    OpenAIRE

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Senso, Meghan M.; Kristin Oriogun; A. Lauren Crain; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2) who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the pa...

  5. Effects of resistance training on binge eating, body composition and blood variables in type II diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Simão Santa Rosa de Sousa; Victor Manuel Machado dos Reis; Jefferson da Silva Novaes; Josenaldo Mendes de Sousa; Divaldo Martins de Souza

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36n1.18048 This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on binge eating, body composition and blood variables and their correlations in 34 sedentary adults with type II diabetes. The participants aged 58.94 ± 10.66, had body weight of 71.62 ± 11.85 and BMI of 29.64 ± 4.27. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum leptin, glucose, insulin, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride. The binge eating was asses...

  6. Effects of memantine alone and with acute 'binge' cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Yuferov, V P; Spangler, R; Maggos, C E; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    1998-07-01

    The effects of memantine, a non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist used in the management of dementia, and its coadministration with acute 'binge' pattern cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity were investigated in the rat. Measurements 3 h after injections showed that memantine alone at 20 mg kg(-1) (i.p.), but not 10 mg kg(-1), increased corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and both adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in the blood, and decreased type I CRF receptor mRNA in the anterior pituitary. Our previous studies have shown that acute 'binge' cocaine increases CRF mRNA levels in the hypothalamus. In this study, pretreatment with memantine (10 and 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) did not alter the up-regulation of hypothalamic CRF mRNA induced by acute 'binge' cocaine (3 x 15 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Of interest, pretreatment with memantine at 10 mg kg(-1), which alone had no effect on corticosterone levels, caused a greater elevation of corticosterone levels in combination with 'binge' cocaine than acute 'binge' cocaine alone, indicating that memantine does not attenuate 'binge' cocaine-stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. These results indicate that both memantine and acute 'binge' cocaine stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity by activating CRF neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:9718269

  7. Escaping from body image shame and harsh self-criticism: exploration of underlying mechanisms of binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-12-01

    Shame has been highlighted as a key component of eating psychopathology. However, the specific impact of body image shame on binge eating and the mechanisms through which it operates remained unexplored. The current study tests a model examining the role that body image shame plays in binge eating and the mediator effect of self-criticism on this association, while controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms, in 329 women from the general population and college students. Correlation analyses showed that binge eating is positively associated with depressive symptoms, body image shame, and self-criticism, namely with a more severe form of self-criticism characterized by self-disgust, hating and wanting to hurt the self - hated self. Furthermore, results indicated that the path model explained 32% of binge eating behaviours and confirmed that body image shame has a significant direct effect on binge eating, and that this effect is partially mediated by increased hated self. These findings suggest that binge eating may emerge as a maladaptive way to cope with the threat of being negatively viewed by others because of one's physical appearance and the consequent engagement in a severe critical self-relating style marked by hatred, disgust and contempt towards the self. This study contributes therefore for the understanding of the processes underlying binge eating. Also, these findings have important research and clinical implications, supporting the relevance of developing eating disorder treatments that specifically target shame and self-criticism, through the development of self-compassionate skills. PMID:25248129

  8. Binge Drinking and College Students: An Investigation of Social Problem-Solving Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreer, Laura E.; Ronan, George F.; Ronan, Donna W.; Dush, David M.; Elliott, Timothy R.

    2004-01-01

    We examined social problem-solving skills and binge drinking among 286 undergraduate men (N = 90) and women (N = 196). The sample consisted of primarily first-year students (39%), sophomores (27%), juniors (21%), and seniors (13%), with an average age of 20. The makeup of the sample was predominantly Caucasian. Men were more likely than women to…

  9. Combining Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder: Current Status, Limitations, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; Reas, Deborah L; Mitchell, James E

    2016-06-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress about binge eating without the extreme compensatory behaviors for weight control that characterize other eating disorders. BED is prevalent, associated strongly with obesity, and is associated with heightened levels of psychological, psychiatric, and medical concerns. This article provides an overview of randomized controlled treatments for combined psychological and pharmacological treatment of BED to inform current clinical practice and future treatment research. In contrast to the prevalence and significance of BED, to date, limited research has been performed on combining psychological and pharmacological treatments for BED to enhance outcomes. Our review here found that combining certain medications with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or behavioral weight loss (BWL) interventions produces superior outcomes to pharmacotherapy only but does not substantially improve outcomes achieved with CBT/BWL only. One medication (orlistat) has improved weight losses with CBT/BWL albeit minimally, and only one medication (topiramate) has enhanced reductions achieved with CBT in both binge eating and weight. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27086316

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Guided Self-Help for the Treatment of Recurrent Binge Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy; Lynch, Frances; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite proven efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for treating eating disorders with binge eating as the core symptom, few patients receive CBT in clinical practice. Our blended efficacy-effectiveness study sought to evaluate whether a manual-based guided self-help form of CBT (CBT-GSH), delivered in 8 sessions in a health…

  11. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  12. Incidence and Weight Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder among Young Women in the Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans Wijbrand; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the population prevalence and incidence of binge eating disorder (BED) among young women. Method: In a nationwide longitudinal study of Finnish twins born 1975-1979, the women participated in five surveys from age 16 until their mid-thirties. At Wave 4 (mean age 24 years), the w

  13. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  14. Health services use in women with a history of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined health services use during the past 12 months in a sample of young women with a history of an adolescent eating disorder (bulimia nervosa [BN] or binge eating disorder [BED]). Method: A community sample of 1,582 young women (mean age = 21.5 years) was classified

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adults in Randomized Clinical Trials of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Thompson, Douglas R.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Davis, Angela; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Roehrig, James P.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin M.; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that binge eating disorder (BED) is as prevalent among African American and Hispanic Americans as among Caucasian Americans; however, data regarding the characteristics of treatment-seeking individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic…

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  17. Differences in College Greek Members' Binge Drinking Behaviors: A Dry/Wet House Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Furr, Susan

    2015-01-01

    College Greek life students self-report high rates of binge drinking and experience more alcohol-related problems than students who are not members of the Greek system. But little research has been conducted to measure differences in alcohol-free housing (dry) and alcohol-allowed housing (wet). The purpose of this quantitative study was to…

  18. Predicting Premature Termination within a Randomized Controlled Trial for Binge-Eating Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckiger, Christoph; Meyer, Andrea; Wampold, Bruce E.; Gassmann, Daniel; Messerli-Burgy, Nadine; Munsch, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the dropout rates of efficacious forms of psychotherapy for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) is an unsolved problem within this increasing population. Up until now the role of psychotherapy process characteristics as predictors of premature termination has not been investigated in the BED literature. Within a randomized…

  19. Experiential Learning in Marketing Communications Courses: The Demarketing of College Binge-Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensher, Susan G.; Seal, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The experiential learning approach has been gathering substantial momentum and support in educational circles. In the team-based experiential learning project presented here, which effectively integrated theory and application, students were charged with creating an integrated marketing communications plan to demarket binge drinking on the college…

  20. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  1. A Discrepancy of Definitions: Binge Drinking and Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugiah, Sera

    2012-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol than men. They get intoxicated more quickly and have a higher blood alcohol level than men, even when body weight and alcohol consumption are the same. Despite this we are seeing a convergence of the drinking patterns of young women and young men, including binge drinking. In this research, 20…

  2. Xu Bing, Ed Pien and Gu Xiong: Lost and Found in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The works of contemporary artists Xu Bing, Ed Pien and Gu Xiong are involved in bringing to light some of the factors inherent in social, cultural and linguistic translation. In doing so, each artist is also engaged in the nuanced activity of moving between historical and contemporary aesthetic strategies in order to interrogate the way meaning is…

  3. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  4. The Clinical Features of Binge Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa: What Are the Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Keri A.

    2001-01-01

    Compares the clinical characteristics of binge eating disorder (BED) and the related syndrome bulimia nervosa (BN). Findings suggest individuals with BED are distinguishable from those with BN on a number of traits, including higher rates of obesity and lower levels of eating concern and dietary restraint. (Contains 29 references and 2 tables.)…

  5. Does impulsivity predict outcome in treatment for binge eating disorder? A multimodal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Schumacher, Leah M; Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Zhang, Fengqing; Forman, Evan M; Juarascio, Adrienne S

    2016-10-01

    Multiple dimensions of impulsivity (e.g., affect-driven impulsivity, impulsive inhibition - both general and food-specific, and impulsive decision-making) are associated with binge eating pathology cross-sectionally, yet the literature on whether impulsivity predicts treatment outcome is limited. The present pilot study explored impulsivity-related predictors of 20-week outcome in a small open trial (n = 17) of a novel treatment for binge eating disorder. Overall, dimensions of impulsivity related to emotions (i.e., negative urgency) and food cues emerged as predictors of treatment outcomes (i.e., binge eating frequency and global eating pathology as measured by the Eating Disorders Examination), while more general measures of impulsivity were statistically unrelated to global eating pathology or binge frequency. Specifically, those with higher levels of negative urgency at baseline experienced slower and less pronounced benefit from treatment, and those with higher food-specific impulsivity had more severe global eating pathology at baseline that was consistent at post-treatment and follow-up. These preliminary findings suggest that patients high in negative urgency and with poor response inhibition to food cues may benefit from augmentation of existing treatments to achieve optimal outcomes. Future research will benefit from replication with a larger sample, parsing out the role of different dimensions of impulsivity in treatment outcome for eating disorders, and identifying how treatment can be improved to accommodate higher levels of baseline impulsivity. PMID:27230611

  6. Personality Traits in Obesity Associated with Binge Eating and/or Night Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Marchesini, Giulio

    2014-03-01

    Specific personality traits, as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), have been identified in individuals with obesity, but their association with binge and/or night eating has scarcely been reported. Indeed, our systematic search of Medline (1987 to 2013) yielded only five studies on the issue. Taken together, they suggest that personality traits do not have any significant role in determining body mass index, and therefore obesity class. However, obese individuals, in comparison with normal weight individuals, do seem to have a distinctive personality profile, characterized by low self-directedness and cooperativeness, and obese individuals with binge eating show lower self-directedness than those without. Moreover obese individuals with binge eating and/or night eating share a temperament profile characterized by high novelty-seeking and harm-avoidance, two traits also observed in other eating disorder categories and in clinical depression. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the role of personality traits in the onset of binge eating and night eating in obese individuals, and to clarify their influence, if any, on treatment outcomes. Such information will enable us to determine whether the evaluation of personality traits should be included in the comprehensive assessment of obese individuals. PMID:26626474

  7. Overeating and Binge Eating in Emerging Adulthood: 10-Year Stability and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Wall, Melanie M.; Zhang, Jun; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Overeating (eating an unusually large amount of food) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control [LOC]) predict adverse health consequences in adolescence. We aimed to characterize the stability of and risk factors for these distinct but interrelated constructs during critical developmental transitions. We used a population-based sample (n…

  8. Reduced cerebellar brain activity during reward processing in adolescent binge drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cservenka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to ongoing development, adolescence may be a period of heightened vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. Binge drinking may alter reward-driven behavior and neurocircuitry, thereby increasing risk for escalating alcohol use. Therefore, we compared reward processing in adolescents with and without a history of recent binge drinking. At their baseline study visit, all participants (age = 14.86 ± 0.88 were free of heavy alcohol use and completed a modified version of the Wheel of Fortune (WOF functional magnetic resonance imaging task. Following this visit, 17 youth reported binge drinking on ≥3 occasions within a 90 day period and were matched to 17 youth who remained alcohol and substance-naïve. All participants repeated the WOF task during a second visit (age = 16.83 ± 1.22. No significant effects were found in a region of interest analysis of the ventral striatum, but whole-brain analyses showed significant group differences in reward response at the second study visit in the left cerebellum, controlling for baseline visit brain activity (p/α < 0.05, which was negatively correlated with mean number of drinks consumed/drinking day in the last 90 days. These findings suggest that binge drinking during adolescence may alter brain activity during reward processing in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Effects of a 10-Minutes Peer Education Protocol to Reduce Binge Drinking among Adolescents during Holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planken, Martijn J. E.; Boer, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate a standard ten-minute peer education protocol to reduce binge drinking among Dutch adolescents at campsites during summer holidays. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effects of the peer education protocol as applied by trained peer educators. We collected data by telephone interviews fourteen…

  10. Faulty perceptions? The impact of binge drinking history on college women's perceived rape resistance efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L; Calhoun, Karen S

    2008-12-01

    College women who binge drink are at greater risk than their peers for experiencing an alcohol-involved rape. Evidence suggests that these women commonly underestimate their risk for assault. This study examines college women's perceptions of their rape resistance efficacy in two acquaintance rape scenarios (one involving the woman's alcohol consumption and one not) as a function of their binge drinking and alcohol-involved rape history. Alcohol-involved rape was inversely associated only with efficacy in situations involving alcohol. Binge drinking was differentially predictive of efficacy in the two scenarios, with regular binge drinkers being significantly more likely to have high perceived efficacy in rape scenarios in which they were drinking and significantly less likely than their peers to have high perceived efficacy in rape scenarios in which they weren't drinking. Findings have direct implications for both college drinking and rape risk reduction interventions, highlighting the need to address women's minimization of alcohol's impact on their rape resistance ability. PMID:18760879

  11. Binge-Eating Disorder: Between Eating Disorders and Obesity? A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Juanita Gempeler Rueda

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective.

  12. Predicting Binge Drinking in College Students: Rational Beliefs, Stress, or Loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a conceptual model to predict binge-drinking behavior among college students, based on the theory of planned behavior and the stress-coping hypothesis. A two-wave online survey was conducted with predictors and drinking behavior measured separately over 2 weeks' time. In the Wave 1 survey, 279 students at a public university in the…

  13. A narrative review of binge eating and addictive behaviors: Shared associations with seasonality and personality factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the

  14. Usefulness of Heavy Drinking and Binge Drinking for the Diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Sung, Han Na

    2016-01-01

    Background This research investigated the sensitivity and specificity of heavy and binge drinking for screening of alcohol use disorder. Methods This retrospective study was conducted with 976 adults who visited the Sun Health Screening Center for health screenings in 2015. Daily drinking amount, drinking frequency per week, and weekly drinking amount were investigated. Using criteria from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, participants were classified as normal drinkers, heavy drinkers, or binge drinkers, and grouped by age and sex. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of heavy and binge drinking were compared for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 4th edition-text revision and alcohol use disorder using the DSM 5th edition. Results The sensitivity of heavy and binge drinking for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and alcohol use disorder were 51.7%, 43.8%, and 35.3%, and 69.0%, 62.5%, and 48.2%, respectively. The specificity of these were 90.1%, 91.7%, and 95.5%, and 84.3%, 86.8%, and 91.2%, respectively. The PPV of these were 24.8%, 40.5%, and 72.7%, and 21.7%, 38.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. The NPV of these were 96.7%, 92.6%, and 81.2%, and 97.8%, 94.7%, and 83.7%, respectively. Conclusion Heavy and binge drinking did not show enough diagnostic power to screen DSM alcohol use disorder although they did show high specificity and NPV. PMID:27468339

  15. Do Orexins contribute to impulsivity-driven binge consumption of rewarding stimulus and transition to drug/food dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2015-07-01

    Orexins (OX) are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamic region which play a fundamental role in a wide range of physiological and psychological functions including arousal, stress, motivation or eating behaviors. This paper reviews under the addiction cycle framework (Koob, 2010), the role of the OX system as a key modulator in compulsivity-driven consumption of rewarding stimulus including ethanol, palatable food and drugs and their role in impulsivity and binge-like consumption in non dependent organisms as well. We propose here that drug/food binge-like consumption in vulnerable organisms increases OX activity which, in turn, elicits enhanced impulsivity and further impulsivity-driven binge consumption in a positive loop that would promote compulsive-driven binge-consumption and the transition to drug/food disorders over time. PMID:25931265

  16. Impact of binge eating on metabolic and leptin dynamics in normal young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A E; Hubbard, J; Anderson, E J

    1999-02-01

    Well defined eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia are associated with significant known health risks. Although binge eating behavior is increased in unsuccessfully dieting obese women, other health implications of this common eating pattern are unknown. We hypothesized that ingestion of an entire day's calories at one time in the evening, a common eating practice among Americans, would lead to disruptions in glucose, insulin, and leptin metabolism and in menstrual cyclicity, even in healthy young women. Seven lean women without a history of eating disorders were studied on two occasions separated by one or two menstrual cycles. During one admission, they ate three regular meals plus a snack on each of 3 days. On the other admission, they ate the same number of calories, macronutrient matched to the normal diet, in a single evening meal. Glucose, insulin, and leptin were measured frequently for 12-14 h beginning at 0800 h on the third day of each diet, and an insulin tolerance test was performed while the subjects were fasting on the fourth day. Daily blood samples were obtained until ovulation was documented to assess any impact on menstrual function. Ingestion of an entire day's calories at dinner resulted in a significant increase in fasting glucose levels and a dramatic increase in insulin responses to the evening meal. The diurnal pattern of leptin secretion was altered, such that the gradual rise in leptin from 0800 h observed during the normal diet was abolished, and leptin did not begin to rise during the binge diet until at least 2 h after the evening meal. No changes were demonstrated in insulin sensitivity, follicular growth, or ovulation between the two diets. We conclude that 1) ingestion of a large number of calories at one time (binge eating) impacts metabolic parameters even when total calories and macronutrients are appropriate for weight; 2) the timing of energy intake is an independent determinant of the diurnal rhythm of leptin

  17. Binge Eating Disorder Mediates Links between Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Caloric Intake in Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann E. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    . The associations between internalizing symptoms and food intake are best described as operating indirectly through a BED diagnosis. This suggests that symptoms of depression and anxiety influence whether one engages in binge eating, which influences kcal intake. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying the associations between mood, binge eating, and food intake will facilitate the development of more effective prevention and treatment strategies for both BED and obesity.

  18. Stress and Binge Drinking: A Daily Process Examination of Stressor Pile-up and Socioeconomic Status in Affect Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Almeida, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to enhance understanding of the interconnections between stress, negative mood, and alcohol use. To achieve this goal, daily diary data collected over eight consecutive nights from a nationally representative adult cohort were used to identify if: 1) both daily stress and stress pile-up were associated with increased risk of binge drinking, 2) negative affect mediated associations between stressor variables and binge drinking, and 3) associations among stress, negat...

  19. Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: Developmental Trajectories of Eating and Weight-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...

  20. Socioeconomic patterning of excess alcohol consumption and binge drinking: a cross-sectional study of multilevel associations with neighbourhood deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Fone, David L.; Farewell, Daniel M; White, James; Lyons, Ronan A.; Dunstan, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The influence of neighbourhood deprivation on the risk of harmful alcohol consumption, measured by the separate categories of excess consumption and binge drinking, has not been studied. The study objective was to investigate the effect of neighbourhood deprivation with age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on (1) excess alcohol consumption and (2) binge drinking, in a representative population survey. Design Cross-sectional study: multilevel analysis. Setting Wales, UK, adult...

  1. Binge drinking and interpersonal violence in the North-West Province : a social perspective / N.G. Phetlho-Thekisho

    OpenAIRE

    Phetlho-Thekisho, Nomonde Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    This study forms part of a larger study funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) -FA 2006041100003, stretching across five years within AUTHeR (Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Research), in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus. The aim of the larger study is to gain a better understanding of alcohol consumption patterns and causes as well as consequences of binge drinking. While the link between binge drinking and interpersonal...

  2. Shared and unique mechanisms underlying binge eating disorder and addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-03-01

    Scientific interest in "food addiction" is growing, but the topic remains controversial. One critique of "food addiction" is its high degree of phenotypic overlap with binge eating disorder (BED). In order to examine associations between problematic eating behaviors, such as binge eating and "food addiction," we propose the need to move past examining similarities and differences in symptomology. Instead, focusing on relevant mechanisms may more effectively determine whether "food addiction" contributes to disordered eating behavior for some individuals. This paper reviews the evidence for mechanisms that are shared (i.e., reward dysfunction, impulsivity) and unique for addiction (i.e., withdrawal, tolerance) and eating disorder (i.e., dietary restraint, shape/weight concern) frameworks. This review will provide a guiding framework to outline future areas of research needed to evaluate the validity of the "food addiction" model and to understand its potential contribution to disordered eating. PMID:26879210

  3. Ringkøbing-Skjern Energy Atlas for municipal energy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Ringkøbing-Skjern is Denmark's largest municipality, located in the west part of Central Denmark Region. Its medium-term goal is to achieve 100 % self-sufficiency in renewable energy supply by 2020. To achieve this ambitious goal, future courses of action have been outlined in the municipality......'s energy strategy "Energy2020" and divided into five groups: increasing production from wind, bioenergy and other renewable energy sources, reducing heat demand in buildings and converting transportation sector to renewable energy. The analysis of technical, economic and environmental impacts...... of such a variety of technologies on the municipality's energy system requires highly detailed decision support system. For that purpose, GIS-based energy atlas has been developed for Ringkøbing-Skjern municipality. The data about energy supply and demand, transmission and distribution infrastructure, energy...

  4. Novel pharmacologic treatment in acute binge eating disorder - role of lisdexamfetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Casuto, Leah S; McElroy, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior without the inappropriate compensatory weight loss behaviors of bulimia nervosa. BED affects both sexes and all age groups and is associated with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Until recently, self-help and psychotherapy were the primary treatment options for patients with BED. In early 2015, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug stimulant marketed for attention deficit hyperactive disorder, was the first pharmacologic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate or severe BED in adults. This article summarizes BED clinical presentation, and discusses the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of BED in adults. PMID:27143885

  5. Novel pharmacologic treatment in acute binge eating disorder – role of lisdexamfetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; Mori, Nicole; Casuto, Leah S; McElroy, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior without the inappropriate compensatory weight loss behaviors of bulimia nervosa. BED affects both sexes and all age groups and is associated with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Until recently, self-help and psychotherapy were the primary treatment options for patients with BED. In early 2015, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug stimulant marketed for attention deficit hyperactive disorder, was the first pharmacologic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate or severe BED in adults. This article summarizes BED clinical presentation, and discusses the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of BED in adults. PMID:27143885

  6. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElroy SL

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan L McElroy, Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Anne M O'MeliaLindner Center of HOPE, Mason, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED, an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of BED and review the rationales and data supporting the effectiveness of specific medications or medication classes in treating patients with BED. We conclude by summarizing these data, discussing the role of pharmacotherapy in the BED treatment armamentarium, and suggesting future areas for research.Keywords: binge eating disorder, pharmacotherapy, medication management

  7. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture –A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  8. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...... familiar to this age group. Two different versions, one with coloured fruits and one with black and white wild animals, were tried out. One version displayed rows of 1, 2 and 3 pictures and the other of 2, 3, and 4 pictures. For the development of the test 60 children, 39 girls and 21 boys, were selected...

  9. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on child’s general intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...... education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity...

  10. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pain interference than men. Among women, eating behaviour and metabolic markers were not associated with pain. Among men, however, binge frequency was significantly associated with pain, as was high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose. In sum, while women in this sample had more pain than men, the presence of pain in men was associated with increased behavioural and metabolic risk factors. Findings have clinical implications for the assessment of comorbid pain and obesity-related health risks among individuals with BED. PMID:26841114

  11. Validation of the portuguese version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns: revised (QEWP-R) for the screening of binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Maria Beatriz Ferrari; Morgan Christina M; Claudino Angélica M; Silveira Dartiu Xavier da

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present paper describes the validation of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) designed for the diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED) and sub-clinical binge eating. METHODS: 89 overweight women seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity were assessed with the Portuguese version of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns and were, subsequently, interviewed with the eating disorders module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-...

  12. Sugar and Fat Bingeing Have Notable Differences in Addictive-like Behavior1–3

    OpenAIRE

    AVENA, NICOLE M.; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2009-01-01

    Ingestion of different nutrients, such as fats and sugars, normally produces different effects on physiology, the brain, and behavior. However, they do share certain neural pathways for reinforcement of behavior, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. When these nutrients are consumed in the form of binges, this can release excessive DA, which causes compensatory changes that are comparable to the effects of drugs of abuse. In this article, we review data obtained with animal models o...

  13. Review: Jörg Strübing (2005). Pragmatistische Wissenschafts- und Technikforschung. Theorie und Methode

    OpenAIRE

    Lehn, Dirk Vom

    2006-01-01

    Die deutschsprachige Soziologie hat dem Interaktionismus bisher relativ wenig Beachtung geschenkt. Zwar ist der Symbolische Interaktionismus zentraler Bestandteil des Lehrprogramms einer jeden Theorieveranstaltung, doch bleiben theoretische und empirische Entwicklungen des Interaktionismus, die über die Arbeiten von George Herbert MEAD und Herbert BLUMER hinausgehen, häufig unberücksichtigt. Jörg STRÜBINGs Buch rekonstruiert die Entwicklung des Interaktionismus und erläutert seine Bedeutung f...

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Kauhanen; Janne Leino; Hanna-Maaria Lakka; Lynch, John W.; Jussi Kauhanen

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n = 2682) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (K...

  15. A psychological typology of females diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2015-01-01

    Background The present paper reports the results of research aimed at identifying intra-group differences among females suffering from different eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder) in terms of the subjects’ psychological traits, adoption of socio-cultural norms (through media pressure, internationalization of norms, and exposure to information concerning body image standards), and the level of body dissatisfaction. The following research question...

  16. A Narrative Review of Binge Eating and Addictive Behaviors: Shared Associations with Seasonality and Personality Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline eDavis

    2013-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in...

  17. The Possible Influence of Impulsivity and Dietary Restraint on Associations between Serotonin Genes and Binge Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2009-01-01

    Although serotonin (5-HT) genes are thought to be involved in the etiology of bulimia nervosa and binge eating, findings from molecular genetic studies are inconclusive. This may be due to limitations of past research, such as a failure to consider the influence of quantitative traits and gene-environment interactions. The current study investigated these issues by examining whether quantitative traits (i.e., impulsivity) and environmental exposure factors (i.e., dietary restraint) moderate 5...

  18. Fasting Increases Risk for Onset of Binge Eating and Bulimic Pathology: A 5-Year Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stice, Eric; Davis, Kendra; Miller, Nicole P.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent girls with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future binge eating and bulimic pathology, they do not eat less than those with lower restraint scores. The fact that only a small proportion of individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores develop bulimic pathology suggests that some extreme but rare form of dietary restriction may increase risk for this disturbance. We tested the hypothesis that fasting (going without eating for 24-hours for wei...

  19. Childhood sexual abuse and adult binge drinking among Kanak women in New Caledonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Sitta, Rémi; Gueguen, Alice; Cyr, Diane; Lert, France

    2009-01-01

    International audience The long-term consequences of violence against women are poorly documented within the context of political domination, economic inequalities and rapid social change of indigenous communities. Using data from the first population study on violence against women and their consequences on health in New Caledonia, South Pacific, this article investigates the association between childhood sexual abuse and binge drinking among 441 adult Kanak women. Face-to-face standardis...

  20. Psychotic phenomena in Binge Eating Disorder: an exploratory MMPI-2 study

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To study putative psychotic phenomena in patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Subject or material and methods Sixty patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of BED were studied. Scores at the Sc, Pa and other subscales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) were used to assess possible psychotic features. Eating phenomena were assessed by the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2). The relationship between them was studied. Results Mean BMI w...

  1. Sex Differences and Correlates of Pain in Patients with Comorbid Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences and correlates of pain were examined in a sample of patients with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity. One hundred fifty-two treatment-seeking patients with BED completed the Brief Pain Inventory. Analysis of covariance was utilized to compare women and men on pain, and correlational analysis, overall and by sex, was performed to examine relationships among pain, eating behaviour and metabolic risk factors. Women reported significantly greater pain severity and pa...

  2. Selected psychological traits and body image characteristics in females suffering from binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2013-01-01

    Aim. This paper reports the results of the author’s own research aimed at diagnosing specific psychological (personality) traits and body image characteristics in a population of selected females suffering from binge eating disorder (BED).Method. The methods applied in this research included an inventory (i.e. a Polish version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) devised by David Garner, Marion P. Olmsted, and Janet Polivy, adapted by Cezary Żechowski; and the Socio-cultural Attitudes towar...

  3. An empirical comparison of atypical bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fontenelle L.F.; Mendlowicz M.V.; Moreira R.O.; Appolinario J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) defines atypical bulimia nervosa (ABN) as an eating disorder that encompasses several different syndromes, including the DSM-IV binge eating disorder (BED). We investigated whether patients with BED can be differentiated clinically from patients with ABN who do not meet criteria for BED. Fifty-three obese patients were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the ICD-10 criteria for eating disorders. Al...

  4. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Bulimia Nervosa: Does Dietary Restriction Predict Binge Eating?

    OpenAIRE

    Zunker, Christie; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between caloric restriction (CR) and binge eating (BE) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants included 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) who completed an EMA protocol for 2 weeks. Logistic regression analyses tested whether CR increased the probability of BE episodes. The results revealed that the odds of BE increased on the day that restriction occurred as well as on the following day. In addition, both restrictio...

  5. Food Thought Suppression: A Matched Comparison of Obese Individuals with and without Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies of non-clinical samples suggest that purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, referred to as food thought suppression, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in obese individuals. Despite possible implications for the treatment of obesity and eating disorders, little research has examined food thought suppression in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). This study compared food thought suppression in 60...

  6. Pharmacological management of binge eating disorder: current and emerging treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy SL; Guerdjikova AI; Mori N; O’Melia AM

    2012-01-01

    Susan L McElroy, Anna I Guerdjikova, Nicole Mori, Anne M O'MeliaLindner Center of HOPE, Mason, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Growing evidence suggests that pharmacotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with binge eating disorder (BED), an eating disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of uncontrollable consumption of abnormally large amounts of food without inappropriate weight loss behaviors. In th...

  7. A History of Bingeing on Fat Enhances Cocaine Seeking and Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Puhl, Matthew D.; Cason, Angie M.; Wojnicki, Francis H. E.; Corwin, Rebecca L.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating and substance dependence are disorders characterized by a loss of control over consummatory behaviors. Given the common characteristics of these two types of disorders, it is not surprising that the comorbidity between eating disorders and substance abuse disorders is high (20–40%; Conason et al., 2006). It is unknown, however, whether loss of control in one disorder predisposes an individual to loss of control in the other. The present study, therefore, used a rodent model to te...

  8. Ringkøbing-Skjern Energy Atlas for municipal energy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Ringkøbing-Skjern is Denmark's largest municipality, located in the west part of Central Denmark Region. Its medium-term goal is to achieve 100 % self-sufficiency in renewable energy supply by 2020. To achieve this ambitious goal, future courses of action have been outlined in the municipality's energy strategy "Energy2020" and divided into five groups: increasing production from wind, bioenergy and other renewable energy sources, reducing heat demand in buildings and converting transportatio...

  9. The freshness of Persian Information: the case of Persian Newspapers indexed in Google, Yahoo and Bing

    OpenAIRE

    maryam yaghtin; zohre Honarjooyan; Hajar Sotudeh

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to study the freshness of Persian information, the study attempted to explore the indexing speed of Persian newspapers in Google, Yahoo and Bing. The present study was conducted using a webometric method. The population study comprised all the online newspapers published in Persian. The study sample was identified using a targeted method. It included those Persian newspapers listed on the Magiran database with their electronic versions regularly published on their respective websites. ...

  10. Is the relationship between binge eating episodes and personality attributable to genetic factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Rachel; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of disordered eating and personality traits, such as neuroticism are correlated and, individually, heritable. We examined the phenotypic correlation between binge eating episodes and indices of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness and control/impulsivity). For correlations ≥ |0.20|, we estimated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contributed to this correlation. Participants included 3446 European-American ...

  11. Binge Drinking in youth: evaluation of a test based in the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Luque, Leticia E.; Gómez, Raúl A.; Cortés Tomás, María T.; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Giménez Costa, José A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first stage of the construction of a questionnaire that explores cognitive determinants of binge drinking in young subjetcs (16-25 years old), from Cordoba-Argentina. The test – with hundred ten items – including all cognitive determinants, considered by the Theory of Planning Behavior, proposed by I.Azjen. Exploratory factor analyzes indicate that the intensity scales beliefs have two components; the importance of beliefs items were grouped according to such components. Intern...

  12. Paradox effects of binge drinking on response inhibition processes depending on mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Riegler, Lea; Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Binge drinking is an increasing problem in Western societies, but we are still only beginning to unravel the effects of binge drinking on a cognitive level. While common sense suggests that all cognitive functions are compromised during high-dose ethanol intoxication, several studies suggest that the effects might instead be rather specific. Moreover, some results suggest that the degrees of automaticity and complexity of cognitive operations during response control modulate effects of binge drinking. However, this has not been tested in detail. In the current study, we therefore parametrically modulate cognitive/"mental" workload during response inhibition and examine the effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication (~1.1 ‰) in n = 18 male participants. The results suggest that detrimental effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication strongly depend on the complexity of processes involved in response inhibition. The results revealed strong effects (η (2) = .495) and are in line with findings showing that even high doses of ethanol have very specific effects on a cognitive level. Opposed to common sense, more complex cognitive operations seem to be less affected by a high-dose ethanol intoxication. Complementing this, high-dose ethanol intoxication is increasingly detrimental for action control, as stronger automated response tendencies are in charge and need to be controlled. Binge-like ethanol intoxication may take a heavier toll on cognitive control processes than on automated responses/response tendencies. Therefore, ethanol effects are more pronounced in supposedly "easier" control conditions because those facilitate the formation of automated response tendencies. PMID:26126633

  13. The Efficacy of Overeaters Anonymous in Fostering Abstinence in Binge-Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Kriz, Kerri-Lynn Murphy

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to identify the variables associated with abstinence from binge-eating disorder and Bulimia Nervosa in the twelve-step recovery program of Overeaters Anonymous. The data were gathered through the completion of a survey by 231 active members of Overeaters Anonymous in the Washington metropolitan area. In addition to assessing the demographic composition of the aforementioned population, the variables that were assessed comprise the â toolsâ of Overeaters ...

  14. Bulimia nervosa, binge eating, and psychogenic vomiting: a controlled treatment study and long term outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Lacey

    1983-01-01

    An "epidemic" prevalence of binge eating and vomiting (bulimia nervosa) has been reported, and treatment has been claimed to be difficult. This paper describes a short term outpatient treatment programme of eclectic orientation capable of being conducted by non-specialist staff, under medical supervision, in local centres. The treatment programme was evaluated in a controlled trial and in long term follow up. In 30 women with severe bulimia the treatment programme significantly reduced their ...

  15. Neurofeedback Against Binge Eating: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Female Subclinical Threshold Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Brain-directed treatment techniques, such as neurofeedback, have recently been proposed as adjuncts in the treatment of eating disorders to improve therapeutic outcomes. In line with this recommendation, a cue exposure EEG-neurofeedback protocol was developed. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the specific efficacy of neurofeedback to reduce subjective binge eating in a female subthreshold sample. A total of 75 subjects were randomized to EEG-neurofeedback, mental imagery with a comparable treatment set-up or a waitlist group. At post-treatment, only EEG-neurofeedback led to a reduced frequency of binge eating (p = .015, g = 0.65). The effects remained stable to a 3-month follow-up. EEG-neurofeedback further showed particular beneficial effects on perceived stress and dietary self-efficacy. Differences in outcomes did not arise from divergent treatment expectations. Because EEG-neurofeedback showed a specific efficacy, it may be a promising brain-directed approach that should be tested as a treatment adjunct in clinical groups with binge eating. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:27121224

  16. Novel pharmacologic treatment in acute binge eating disorder – role of lisdexamfetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerdjikova AI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anna I Guerdjikova,1,2 Nicole Mori,1,2 Leah S Casuto,1,2 Susan L McElroy1,2 1Lindner Center of HOPE, Mason, OH, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Binge eating disorder (BED is the most common eating disorder and an important public health problem. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of excessive food consumption accompanied by a sense of loss of control over the binge eating behavior without the inappropriate compensatory weight loss behaviors of bulimia nervosa. BED affects both sexes and all age groups and is associated with medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Until recently, self-help and psychotherapy were the primary treatment options for patients with BED. In early 2015, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug stimulant marketed for attention deficit hyperactive disorder, was the first pharmacologic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate or severe BED in adults. This article summarizes BED clinical presentation, and discusses the pharmacokinetic profile, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in the treatment of BED in adults. Keywords: binging, overeating, Vyvanse, stimulant, approved medication

  17. The freshness of Persian Information: the case of Persian Newspapers indexed in Google, Yahoo and Bing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam yaghtin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to study the freshness of Persian information, the study attempted to explore the indexing speed of Persian newspapers in Google, Yahoo and Bing. The present study was conducted using a webometric method. The population study comprised all the online newspapers published in Persian. The study sample was identified using a targeted method. It included those Persian newspapers listed on the Magiran database with their electronic versions regularly published on their respective websites. The results revealed that Google outperforms the two other search engines in terms of timely indexing the Persian newspapers. Furthermore, it generally enjoys a more consistent and stable indexing model. Yahoo and Bing are not only slower in indexing the newspapers, but also experience a comparably lower consistency level in their indexing models. Yahoo and Bing show to be comparable in their indexing speeds. In this study, the indexing status of Persian newspapers on different internet search engines was investigated for the first time. Results showed that those accessing these newspapers using internet search engines will have a higher chance of accessing their most updated versions using Google.

  18. Piscivorous fish exhibit temperature-influenced binge feeding during an annual prey pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B; Hinch, Scott G; Mesa, Matthew G; Beauchamp, David A

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the limits of consumption is important for determining trophic influences on ecosystems and predator adaptations to inconsistent prey availability. Fishes have been observed to consume beyond what is sustainable (i.e. digested on a daily basis), but this phenomenon of hyperphagia (or binge-feeding) is largely overlooked. We expect hyperphagia to be a short-term (1-day) event that is facilitated by gut volume providing capacity to store consumed food during periods of high prey availability to be later digested. We define how temperature, body size and food availability influence the degree of binge-feeding by comparing field observations with laboratory experiments of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), a large freshwater piscivore that experiences highly variable prey pulses. We also simulated bull trout consumption and growth during salmon smolt outmigrations under two scenarios: 1) daily consumption being dependent upon bioenergetically sustainable rates and 2) daily consumption being dependent upon available gut volume (i.e. consumption is equal to gut volume when empty and otherwise 'topping off' based on sustainable digestion rates). One-day consumption by laboratory-held bull trout during the first day of feeding experiments after fasting exceeded bioenergetically sustainable rates by 12- to 87-fold at low temperatures (3 °C) and by  ˜1·3-fold at 20 °C. The degree of binge-feeding by bull trout in the field was slightly reduced but largely in agreement with laboratory estimates, especially when prey availability was extremely high [during a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolt outmigration and at a counting fence where smolts are funnelled into high densities]. Consumption by bull trout at other settings were lower and more variable, but still regularly hyperphagic. Simulations demonstrated the ability to binge-feed increased cumulative consumption (16-32%) and cumulative growth (19-110%) relative to only feeding at

  19. Lateral hypothalamic melanocortin receptor signaling modulates binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprow, Gretchen M; Rinker, Jennifer A; Lowery-Gointa, Emily G; Sparrow, Angela M; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E

    2016-07-01

    Binge ethanol drinking is a highly pervasive and destructive behavior yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent work suggests that overlapping neurobiological mechanisms modulate feeding disorders and excessive ethanol intake, and converging evidence indicates that the melanocortin (MC) system may be a promising candidate. The aims of the present work were to examine how repeated binge-like ethanol drinking, using the 'drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol, impacts key peptides within the MC system and if site-specific manipulation of MC receptor (MCR) signaling modulates binge-like ethanol drinking. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to one, three or six cycles of binge-like ethanol, sucrose or water drinking, after which brain tissue was processed via immunohistochemistry (IHC) for analysis of key MC peptides, including alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and agouti-related protein (AgRP). Results indicated that α-MSH expression was selectively decreased, while AgRP expression was selectively increased, within specific hypothalamic subregions following repeated binge-like ethanol drinking. To further explore this relationship, we used site-directed drug delivery techniques to agonize or antagonize MCRs within the lateral hypothalamus (LH). We found that the nonselective MCR agonist melanotan-II (MTII) blunted, while the nonselective MCR antagonist AgRP augmented, binge-like ethanol consumption when delivered into the LH. As these effects were region-specific, the present results suggest that a more thorough understanding of the MC neurocircuitry within the hypothalamus will help provide novel insight into the mechanisms that modulate excessive binge-like ethanol intake and may help uncover new therapeutic targets aimed at treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:25975524

  20. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  1. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  2. Comparing cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders integrated with behavioural weight loss therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy-enhanced alone in overweight or obese people with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Palavras, Marly Amorim; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen; Sainsbury, Amanda; da Luz, Felipe; Swinbourne, Jessica; Estella, Nara Mendes; Claudino, Angélica

    2015-01-01

    Background Around 40 % of individuals with eating disorders of recurrent binge eating, namely bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder, are obese. In contrast to binge eating disorder, currently there is no evidence base for weight management or weight loss psychological therapies in the treatment of bulimia nervosa despite their efficacy in binge eating disorder. Thus, a manualised therapy called HAPIFED (Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders) has been developed...

  3. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, C H;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  4. Body Dissatisfaction, Living Away from Parents, and Poor Social Adjustment Predict Binge Eating Symptoms in Young Women Making the Transition to University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Erin T.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored how body dissatisfaction and challenges associated with the transition to university predicted symptoms of binge eating. Participants were 101 female full-time first-year university students (M=18.3 years of age; SD=0.50) who completed a background questionnaire and a web-based daily checklist assessing binge eating.…

  5. Bingöl Ağzı ve Folkloru Üzerine Bir İnceleme
    An Analysis On The Bingöl Dialect And Folklore

    OpenAIRE

    ALPAR, Melek

    2013-01-01

    Located on the Eastern Anatolian Region, the province of Bingöl is known for its folkloric richness as much as it is known for its natural beauties. In his work Seyahatnâme ("Travel Book"), Evliya Çelebi could not praise enough Bingöl's prosperous hills and mountains where the sun would set differently. According to today's understanding of folklore, anything that belongs to the people constitutes its culture, thus belonging to the area of folklore. Amongst the subjects of folklore are also d...

  6. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy....... Since the introduction of the recommendation of total abstinence, no studies have examined pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with this behaviour in a Danish context. The aims of this study were therefore to describe the prevalence of weekly alcohol consumption and binge...... drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics...

  7. Binge drinking among gay, and lesbian youths: The role of internalized sexual stigma, self-disclosure, and individuals' sense of connectedness to the gay community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2010-10-01

    We examined the prevalence of binge drinking among lesbian and gay (LG) youths, and evaluated whether experiences such as internalized sexual stigma, the experience of "coming out" to family and friends, and the individuals' sense of "connectedness" to the gay community could be associated with alcohol abuse. The research involved 119 gay (58.9%) and 83 lesbian (41.1%) Italian youths (18 to 24 years old). According to previous research, youths were categorized in non-drinkers, social, binge and heavy drinkers. Results showed that the estimated percentage of binge drinking among gay and lesbian youths is 43.6%. The survey revealed that social, binge, and heavy drinkers differ in terms of some drinking variables, internalized sexual stigma, family and peer self-disclosure, and connectedness gay community. Implications for the prevention of binge drinking in LG youths are currently under discussion even if further investigation is urgently needed. PMID:20584573

  8. A comparative analysis of Type 2 diabetes and binge eating disorder in a bariatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Applegate, Katherine L; Grant, John P

    2011-08-01

    An emerging literature has illuminated an important link between Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and binge eating disorder (BED) within obese cohorts. However, prior work has not examined this relationship specifically in a weight loss surgery (WLS) sample or fully explored potential psychosocial factors associated with this co-occurrence. Therefore, the present investigation sought to identify socio-demographic (i.e. age, education, BMI, ethnicity, gender, age of obesity onset) and psychological (i.e. depressive symptoms, hedonic hunger/food locus of control beliefs, severity of binge eating-related cognitions) correlates of the co-occurrence of Type 2 DM and BED among bariatric surgery candidates. An archival sample of 488 patients seeking surgical treatment for clinical obesity completed a standard battery of pre-operative psychosocial measures. The presence of BED was evaluated using a semi-structured clinical interview based on the DSM-IV TR (APA, 2000) and was further corroborated by responses on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R; Spitzer, Yanovski, & Marcus, 1993). Results indicated that 8.2% of the sample was classified as having both Type 2 DM and BED concurrently. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that in addition to other psychological (e.g., binge eating-related cognitions, hedonic hunger) and demographic variables (i.e. male gender), African American ethnicity (OR=3.3: 1.41-7.73) was a particularly robust indicator of comorbid status. Findings support and extend previous health disparity research urging greater attention to the needs of traditionally underserved, at-risk populations seeking treatment for obesity complicated by dysregulated eating and metabolism. Additionally, these preliminary results underscore the relevance of considering the potential benefits of providing quality comprehensive pre- and post-operative psychological care among bariatric patients towards optimizing both short- and long

  9. Evaluating the indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity through cognitive-affective self-regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Forman, Mallory J

    2013-04-01

    Current theory and evidence point to disruptions in self-concept and difficulties with emotion regulation as contributing to the severity of binge eating. Alternatively, contemporary perspectives on self-compassion suggest that individual differences in this adaptive approach to self-regulation may serve to counteract these cognitive-affective triggers presumably resulting in reductions in binge eating severity. Accordingly, the present cross-sectional analysis examined an indirect effect model of positive dimensions of self-compassion on binge eating severity through both emotional tolerance and unconditional self-acceptance pathways. Two hundred fifteen undergraduate students (78% female) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest; BMI was calculated from self-reported heights and weights. Pearson's correlations revealed a positive linear association between self-compassion and unconditional self-acceptance; negative links were observed between self-compassion and emotional intolerance along with the severity of binge eating symptoms. A subsequent multiple mediator analysis utilizing both normal test theory and robust non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures confirmed the presence of a significant total indirect effect of self-compassion on binge eating severity (-.15, pself-acceptance (-.11, p<0.01) which were preserved in a model adjusted for BMI. Preliminary results underscore the need to further evaluate the tenability of this model in both prospective cohort and intervention-based research. Findings additionally invite considering the value of integrating self-compassion training into college health promotion efforts towards mitigating the appreciable levels of binge eating behavior prevalent in this at-risk population. PMID:23557826

  10. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate for Adults with Moderate to Severe Binge Eating Disorder: Results of Two Pivotal Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Hudson, James; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Whitaker, Timothy; Gasior, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) vs placebo in binge eating disorder (BED) was evaluated in two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Adults (study 1, n=383; study 2, n=390) meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized (1:1) to placebo or LDX (50 or 70 mg/day) dose titration; optimized doses were maintained to the end of double-blind treatment (week 12/early termination). Change from baseline in binge eating days/week at weeks 11-12 (primary efficacy endpoint) was assessed with mixed-effects models for repeated measures. Secondary endpoints related to binge eating and medical parameters, safety, and treatment compliance were also assessed. Least squares mean (95% CI) treatment differences for change from baseline binge eating days/week at weeks 11-12 significantly favored LDX (study 1: -1.35 [-1.70, -1.01]; study 2: -1.66 [-2.04, -1.28]; both P<0.001). In both studies, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) reported by ⩾10% of LDX participants were dry mouth, insomnia, and headache. Serious TEAEs occurred in two (1.1%) placebo participants in each study and in three (1.6%) and one (0.6%) LDX participants in study 1 and study 2, respectively. Across studies, mean increases from baseline at week 12/early termination with LDX for pulse and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ranged from 4.41-6.31 b.p.m. and 0.2-1.45 and 1.06-1.83 mm Hg, respectively. LDX (50 and 70 mg/day) was superior to placebo in decreasing binge eating days/week from baseline and improving binge eating-related key secondary endpoints. Safety results appear consistent with the known safety profile of LDX. PMID:26346638

  11. Tolerance to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Rats Exposed to Single High-Dose Binges

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michael H.; Clark, Robert D; Franken, Frederick H.; Rutter, John J.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) stimulates the transporter-mediated release of monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT). High-dose exposure to MDMA causes persistent 5-HT deficits (e.g., depletion of brain 5-HT) in animals, yet the functional and clinical relevance of such deficits are poorly defined. Here we examine functional consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT depletions in rats. Male rats received binges of 3 ip injections of MDMA or saline, one injection every 2 h; MDMA w...

  12. [Obesity, alexithymia, psychopathology and binge eating: a comparative study of 40 obese patients and 32 controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Chouly De Lenclave, M B; Florequin, C; Bailly, D

    2001-01-01

    Alexithymia may be considered as a personality feature characterized by poorness of imaginary life, speech focused on actual facts and physical sensations, general inaccuracy in or paucity of the words used to express emotions, and recourse to acting out to avoid intrapsychic conflicts. The possible link between alexithymia and psychosomatic or psychopathological disorders is now well documented. In particular, studies suggested that alexithymia may be frequently observed in obese or bulimic patients. This study was designed to investigate the link between obesity and alexithymia according to the presence or not of binge eating problems; 40 obese female patients (BMI > or = 27.3) seeking obesity treatment and 32 normal weight women used as controls were included in the study. In the obese group, 11 patients (27.5%) exhibited binge-eating disorder according to the DSM IV criteria. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), and past and current mental disorders were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM III-R (SCID). In addition, current depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean TAS score was found significantly higher in obese patients than in controls (72.6 +/- 11.8 vs 65.2 +/- 9.3, respectively; p or = 74) was found significantly more frequent in obese patients than in controls (52.5% vs 21.8%, respectively; p eating disorder. Current major depression was also found significantly more frequent in obese patients than in controls (15% vs 0%, respectively; p eating disorder showed that only past major depression was found significantly more frequent in those with binge-eating disorder (81.8% vs 10.3%, respectively; p eating disorder (18.5 +/- 11.7 vs 9.8 +/- 5.9, respectively; p or = 74: low educational level (odds ratio: 3.56), past and/or current major depression (odds ratio: 2.77), and BDI score > or = 8 (odds ratio: 2.18). Obesity in itself had no significant effect on TAS scores

  13. Mouse Strain- and Age-dependent Effects of Binge Methamphetamine on Dopaminergic Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Renee L.; Liang, Li-Ping; Patel, Manisha; Radcliffe, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    We have shown that a single “binge” dose of methamphetamine (Meth) in mice has long-lasting effects on open-field behavior dependent on mouse strain and age. Here we further investigated the impact of genotype and age on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) loss and dopamine (DA) metabolism due to a high binge dose of Meth (4 × 5 mg/kg × 2 hours × 2 days). Administration of high dose Meth or saline (Sal) to adolescent (PND 40) and adult (PND 80) C57BL/6 (B6), DBA/2 (DBA), and 129S6SvEv/Tac (129) mice wa...

  14. Validation of the portuguese version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns: revised (QEWP-R for the screening of binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Maria Beatriz Ferrari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present paper describes the validation of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R designed for the diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED and sub-clinical binge eating. METHODS: 89 overweight women seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity were assessed with the Portuguese version of the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns and were, subsequently, interviewed with the eating disorders module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/P. Rates of binge eating disorder and sub-clinical cases of binge eating obtained with the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised were then compared to those obtained with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. RESULTS: In the identification of binge eating, irrespective of the presence of all criteria for binge eating disorder the QEWP-R Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised yielded a sensitivity value of 0.88, a specificity value of 0.63 and a positive predictive value of 0.825. Rates for the identification of the full syndrome of binge eating disorder were: sensitivity value of 0.548, a specificity value of 0.8 and a positive predictive value of 0.793. CONCLUSIONS: The Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised can be useful in a first-step screening procedure to identify probable cases of binge eating. It can be useful as a screening tool and as a first step of clinical assessment of patients seeking treatment for binge eating and/or obesity.

  15. Treatment of obese patients with binge eating disorder using topiramate: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Leombruni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Leombruni, Luca Lavagnino, Secondo FassinoDepartment of Neurosciences, Psychiatry Section, University of Torino, Centre for Eating Disorders and Obesity, Torino, ItalyAbstract: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and prophylaxis of migraine. Some authors have proposed its use as a mood stabilizer and have reported its efficacy in reducing impulsiveness and improving mood regulation, possibly via its antagonism to glutamatergic transmission in the lateral hypothalamus, although this indication is still controversial. Weight loss is a side effect consistently reported in the medical literature in patients treated with topiramate. Given its potential role in stabilizing mood and reducing impulse control problems and weight, topiramate has been proposed as a treatment for obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this paper is to review published data on the efficacy and safety of topiramate for the treatment of obese subjects with BED. Although the evidence is preliminary, topiramate appears to be a relatively safe and effective treatment for obese subjects with BED. Limitations of the studies and future directions for research are discussed.Keywords: topiramate, binge eating disorder, obesity

  16. Visual attentional bias for food in adolescents with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ricarda; Lüthold, Patrick; Kittel, Rebekka; Tetzlaff, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that adults with binge-eating disorder (BED) are prone of having their attention interfered by food cues, and that food-related attentional biases are associated with calorie intake and eating disorder psychopathology. For adolescents with BED experimental evidence on attentional processing of food cues is lacking. Using eye-tracking and a visual search task, the present study examined visual orienting and disengagement processes of food in youth with BED. Eye-movement data and reaction times were recorded in 25 adolescents (12-20 years) with BED and 25 controls (CG) individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and socio-economic status. During a free exploration paradigm, the BED group showed a greater gaze duration bias for food images than the CG. Groups did not differ in gaze direction biases. In a visual search task, the BED group showed a greater detection bias for food targets than the CG. Group differences were more pronounced for personally attractive than unattractive food images. Regarding clinical associations, only in the BED group the gaze duration bias for food was associated with increased hunger and lower body mass index, and the detection bias for food targets was associated with greater reward sensitivity. The study provided first evidence of an attentional bias to food in adolescents with BED. However, more research is needed for further specifying disengagement and orienting processes in adolescent BED, including overt and covert attention, and their prospective associations with binge-eating behaviors and associated psychopathology. PMID:27267318

  17. The effect of suppressing negative emotions on eating behavior in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Martijn, Carolien; Jansen, Anita T M; van Furth, Eric F

    2009-02-01

    Overeating may be a consequence of the suppression of negative emotions, by depleting self-control resources. This experiment investigated whether (a) there is a causal relationship between the suppression of negative emotions, negative mood, and overeating in people with binge eating disorder (BED) and whether (b) this relationship is increased in depressed people with BED. Sixty-six women with (full and sub-threshold) BED were shown an upsetting movie and then asked either to suppress their emotions or to react naturally. Subsequently, everyone participated in a taste task. After a decline, initial mood before watching the movie was restored after eating. Depressive symptomatology was positively correlated with caloric intake. Within the clinically depressed (Beck Depression Inventory-score>19) BED group, those who were most affected by the negative mood induction consumed the most calories. No differences were found between the two conditions with regard to caloric intake. No interaction effect was found between depressive symptoms and mood suppression. The hypothesis that suppression of negative emotion leads to overeating in (depressed) binge eaters was not born out. Overeating may serve as a means to (temporary) repair negative mood. PMID:18778742

  18. City of Bingöl in May 2003: Assessment of strong ground motion records

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Çeken; G Beyhan; H H Selim

    2014-03-01

    The main shock of Bingöl earthquake ( = 6.4) recorded by six accelerometers in the area occurred at 03:27 local time on May 1, 2003. The largest acceleration value of north–south component was recorded as 545.5 cm/s2 at the nearest station which is 12 km away from the epicenter of earthquake. Especially, 0.15 s short period was observed when high spectral acceleration value occurred. An acceleration value greater than 50 gal was recorded at the BNG (Bingöl) station and structural damage occurred within 6.5 s was very important for the near source and strong ground motion seismology. The recorded peak acceleration values were greater than the estimated empirical acceleration values. However, the structural damage was not as high and widespread as expected. This occurrence was explained by considering the factors of earthquake source, frequency content, effective duration, effective acceleration value, local soil conditions, rupture direction and attenuation.

  19. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  20. Does Interpersonal Therapy Help Patients with Binge Eating Disorder Who Fail to Respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of group interpersonal therapy (IPT) in treating overweight, binge-eating patients. Participants were randomly allocated to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or to an assessment-only group. After 12 weeks, those who did not respond to CBT were assigned 12 weeks of IPT. IPT led to no further improvement. (JPS)

  1. Adenosinergic regulation of binge-like ethanol drinking and associated locomotor effects in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    We recently observed that the addition of caffeine (a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist) to a 20% ethanol solution significantly altered the intoxication profile of male C57BL/6J (B6) mice induced by voluntary binge-like consumption in the ‘Drinking-in-the-Dark’ (DID) paradigm. In the current study, the roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor subtypes, specifically, in binge-like ethanol consumption and associated locomotor effects were explored. Adult male B6 mice (PND 60-70) were allowed to consume 20% ethanol (v/v) or 2% sucrose (w/v) for 6 days via DID. On day 7, mice received a systemic administration (i.p.) of the A1 antagonist DPCPX (1, 3, 6 mg/kg), the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (1, 2, 4 mg/kg), or vehicle immediately prior to fluid access in DID. Antagonism of the A1 receptor via DPCPX was found to dose-dependently decrease binge-like ethanol intake and associated blood ethanol concentrations (p’s < 0.05), although no effect was observed on sucrose intake. Antagonism of A2A had no effect on ethanol or sucrose consumption, however, MSX-3 elicited robust locomotor stimulation in mice consuming either solution (p’s < 0.05). Together, these findings suggest unique roles for the A1 and A2A adenosine receptor subtypes in binge-like ethanol intake and its associated locomotor effects. PMID:26033424

  2. Predictors and Moderators of Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Medication for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors and moderators of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method: 108 BED patients in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial testing CBT and fluoxetine treatments were assessed prior, throughout, and posttreatment. Demographic factors,…

  3. The prevalence of DSM-IV personality pathology among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, PV; Van Furth, EF; Lacey, JH; Waller, G

    2003-01-01

    Background. There are numerous reports of personality disorder pathology in different eating disorders. However, few studies have directly compared personality pathology in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity. The present study examines group differences in DSM-IV personality patholog

  4. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  5. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  6. Psychiatric Disorders Associated with the Onset and Persistence of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…

  7. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Dunlop

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating.

  8. Message Formats, Numeracy, Risk Perceptions of Alcohol-Attributable Cancer, and Intentions for Binge Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Yang, Z. Janet

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to examine whether risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer influence college students' binge-drinking intention and to explore how message formats (text, table, and graph) and numeracy influence risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer. We found that a majority of participants (87%) perceive some risks of…

  9. Attachment Styles and Changes among Women Members of Overeaters Anonymous Who Have Recovered from Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Pnina; Addad, Moshe; Ronel, Natti

    2012-01-01

    In Overeaters Anonymous (OA), the 12-step self-help program for compulsive overeaters, binge eating is regarded as a physical, spiritual, and emotional disorder. Consequently, the program proposes recovery through the adoption of a lifestyle that leads to physical, spiritual, and emotional well-being. A qualitative phenomenological study that…

  10. Binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours decrease from adolescence to adulthood: A population-based, longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Dawit; Lien Lars; Torgersen Leila; von Soest Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Background Subclinical forms of eating disorders (ED) are highly prevalent, but relatively little is known about age trends, gender differences and distinctions among symptoms. This study investigates age trends and gender difference in binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours (CB) and the relationship of such behaviours to psychosocial problems. Methods Data from the national rep...

  11. Computed tomography assessment of peripubertal craniofacial morphology in a sheep model of binge alcohol drinking in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sharla M; Lenox, Mark W; Kornegay, Joe N; Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Ren, Xiaowei; Goodlett, Charles R; Cudd, Tim A; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Identification of facial dysmorphology is essential for the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, most children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) do not meet the dysmorphology criterion. Additional objective indicators are needed to help identify the broader spectrum of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Computed tomography (CT) was used in a sheep model of prenatal binge alcohol exposure to test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of craniofacial bone volumes and linear distances could identify alcohol-exposed lambs. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups: heavy binge alcohol, 2.5 g/kg/day (HBA); binge alcohol, 1.75 g/kg/day (BA); saline control (SC); and normal control (NC). Intravenous alcohol (BA; HBA) or saline (SC) infusions were given three consecutive days per week from gestation day 4-41, and a CT scan was performed on postnatal day 182. The volumes of eight skull bones, cranial circumference, and 19 linear measures of the face and skull were compared among treatment groups. Lambs from both alcohol groups showed significant reduction in seven of the eight skull bones and total skull bone volume, as well as cranial circumference. Alcohol exposure also decreased four of the 19 craniofacial measures. Discriminant analysis showed that alcohol-exposed and control lambs could be classified with high accuracy based on total skull bone volume, frontal, parietal, or mandibular bone volumes, cranial circumference, or interorbital distance. Total skull volume was significantly more sensitive than cranial circumference in identifying the alcohol-exposed lambs when alcohol-exposed lambs were classified using the typical FAS diagnostic cutoff of ≤10th percentile. This first demonstration of the usefulness of CT-derived craniofacial measures in a sheep model of FASD following binge-like alcohol exposure during the first trimester suggests that volumetric measurement of cranial bones may be a novel biomarker

  12. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p risk behavior and was actually associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (aOR = 2.8, p risk behavior (and may even be associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months) lends further support to the suggestion that these individuals with healthy concepts of the self (as indicated by high levels of disclosure and low levels of risky sexual behavior) may engage in binge drinking because of the influence of the social environment. Further research is needed to establish the pathways linking stigma-related stress to heavy alcohol use so that points of intervention can be identified. PMID:25591660

  13. Evaluating a selective prevention programme for binge drinking among young adolescents: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiers Reinout

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to other Europe countries, Dutch adolescents are at the top in drinking frequency and binge drinking. A total of 75% of the Dutch 12 to 16 year olds who drink alcohol also engage in binge drinking. A prevention programme called Preventure was developed in Canada to prevent adolescents from binge drinking. This article describes a study that aims to assess the effects of this selective school-based prevention programme in the Netherlands. Methods A randomized controlled trial is being conducted among 13 to 15-year-old adolescents in secondary schools. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention condition consisted of two 90 minute group sessions, carried out at the participants' schools and provided by a qualified counsellor and a co-facilitator. The intervention targeted young adolescents who demonstrated personality risk for alcohol abuse. The group sessions were adapted to four personality profiles. The control condition received no further intervention above the standard substance use education sessions provided in the Dutch national curriculum. The primary outcomes will be the percentage reduction in binge drinking, weekly drinking and drinking-related problems after three specified time periods. A screening survey collected data by means of an Internet questionnaire. Students have completed, or will complete, a post-treatment survey after 2, 6, and 12 months, also by means of an online questionnaire. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention programme. We expect that a significantly lower number of adolescents will binge drink, drink weekly, and have drinking-related problems in the intervention condition compared to the control condition, as a result of this intervention. Trial registration This trial is registered in the Dutch

  14. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders. PMID:26178486

  15. Transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica Binge eating disorder

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    Alexandre Pinto de Azevedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP foi descrito pela primeira vez nos anos 1950. Contudo, sua elevação à categoria diagnóstica apenas ocorreu em 1994, quando foi incluído no apêndice B do DSM IV, com critérios provisórios para seu diagnóstico. Trata-se de uma síndrome caracterizada por episódios recorrentes de compulsão alimentar, sem qualquer comportamento de compensação para evitar um possível ganho de peso. Incertezas quanto a seus parâmetros diagnósticos como caracterização da quantidade de alimentos ingeridos, duração de um episódio de comer compulsivo, ou mesmo o valor da perda de controle sobre a ingestão alimentar, tornam difíceis uma homogeinização de um grupo sindrômico. Desta forma, estudos epidemiológicos podem revelar diferentes dados de caracterização da população portadora deste transtorno. Isto reforça a necessidade da manutenção de estudos para avaliação desta patologia.Binge eating disorder was first described in 1955. However, its upgrade to a diagnostic category only occurred in 1994, when it was included in appendix B of DSM IV, with provisory criteria. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, without any compensatory behavior to prevent a possible weight gain. Uncertainties about the diagnostic criteria like the amount of food ingested, the duration or the value of the loss of control during a binge eating episode make its characterization difficult. Then, epidemiological studies may reveal the characterization of this disorder. This means that more studies are needed for an appropriate evaluation of this pathology.

  16. An empirical comparison of atypical bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder

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    Fontenelle L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10 defines atypical bulimia nervosa (ABN as an eating disorder that encompasses several different syndromes, including the DSM-IV binge eating disorder (BED. We investigated whether patients with BED can be differentiated clinically from patients with ABN who do not meet criteria for BED. Fifty-three obese patients were examined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the ICD-10 criteria for eating disorders. All volunteers completed the Binge Eating Scale (BES, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90. Individuals fulfilling criteria for both ABN and BED (N = 18, ABN without BED (N = 16, and obese controls (N = 19 were compared and contrasted. Patients with ABN and BED and patients with ABN without BED displayed similar levels of binge eating severity according to the BES (31.05 ± 7.7 and 30.05 ± 5.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than those found in the obese controls (18.32 ± 8.7; P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. When compared to patients with ABN and BED, patients with ABN without BED showed increased lifetime rates of agoraphobia (P = 0.02 and increased scores in the somatization (1.97 ± 0.85 vs 1.02 ± 0.68; P = 0.001, obsessive-compulsive (2.10 ± 1.03 vs 1.22 ± 0.88; P = 0.01, anxiety (1.70 ± 0.82 vs 1.02 ± 0.72; P = 0.02, anger (1.41 ± 1.03 vs 0.59 ± 0.54; P = 0.005 and psychoticism (1.49 ± 0.93 vs 0.75 ± 0.55; P = 0.01 dimensions of the SCL-90. The BED construct may represent a subgroup of ABN with less comorbities and associated symptoms.

  17. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issues, so an alternative could be a trusted friend or older sibling who is easy to talk to. Drinking too much can be the result of social pressures, and sometimes it helps to know there ... for help. A supportive friend or adult could help you to avoid pressure ...

  18. The Association of Binge Eating Disorder with Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Fatih Canan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED in individuals with type 2 diabetes and to investigate whether a comorbidity with BED would affect glycemic control in these patients. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled. The participants were assessed for eating disorders by a psychiatrist. Blood samples were drawn and HbA1c and other biochemical parameters were measured. Results: Of the 82 subjects, 27 (34.1% met the criteria for BED. No other types of eating disorders were detected. HbA1c was significantly higher in individuals with BED (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that BED is highly prevalent among type 2 diabetic patients and it impairs glycemic control. Thus, patients with type 2 diabetes should be assessed carefully for eating disorders. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 26-7

  19. Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancarz-Kausch, Amy M; Adank, Danielle N; Dietz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by compulsive drug-taking behaviors and a high propensity to relapse following drug cessation. Drug craving and seeking can increase during a period of abstinence, but this phenomenon is not observed in drug-induced reinstatement models. To investigate the effect of withdrawal on cocaine relapse, rats were exposed to extended-access cocaine self-administration and subjected to either 1 or 30 d of withdrawal. When tested during 12 h unlimited access to cocaine (binge), the duration of the withdrawal did not influence cocaine intake. However, using a histamine punishment procedure that greatly suppresses drug-taking behavior, we demonstrate that longer periods of abstinence from cocaine induce a greater persistence in responding for drug in the face of negative consequences. PMID:25363133

  20. Binge Drinking in youth: evaluation of a test based in the theory of planned behavior

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    Luque, Leticia E.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first stage of the construction of a questionnaire that explores cognitive determinants of binge drinking in young subjetcs (16-25 years old, from Cordoba-Argentina. The test – with hundred ten items – including all cognitive determinants, considered by the Theory of Planning Behavior, proposed by I.Azjen. Exploratory factor analyzes indicate that the intensity scales beliefs have two components; the importance of beliefs items were grouped according to such components. Internal consistency coefficient’s (Cronbach's Alpha range between .61 and .94. The correlation element-total of all items is greater than .30. We suggest the creation of new items associated with perceived control and studies related to subjective norm and normative beliefs.

  1. Overlapping neurobehavioral circuits in ADHD, obesity, and binge eating: evidence from neuroimaging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Karen E; Reinblatt, Shauna P; Benson, Leora; Carnell, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conditions involving excessive eating (eg, obesity, binge/loss of control eating) are increasingly prevalent within pediatric populations, and correlational and some longitudinal studies have suggested inter-relationships between these disorders. In addition, a number of common neural correlates are emerging across conditions, eg, functional abnormalities within circuits subserving reward processing and executive functioning. To explore this potential cross-condition overlap in neurobehavioral underpinnings, we selectively review relevant functional neuroimaging literature, specifically focusing on studies probing (i) reward processing, (ii) response inhibition, and (iii) emotional processing and regulation, and we outline 3 specific shared neurobehavioral circuits. Based on our review, we also identify gaps within the literature that would benefit from further research. PMID:26098969

  2. The role of cortisol in chronic binge alcohol-induced cerebellar injury: Ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Shannon E; Tress, Ursula; Lunde, Emilie R; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-02-01

    Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy are at high risk of giving birth to children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that third trimester equivalent binge alcohol exposure at a dose of 1.75 g/kg/day results in significant fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in fetal sheep and that both maternal and fetal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels are elevated in response to alcohol treatment. In this study, we hypothesized that repeated elevations in cortisol from chronic binge alcohol are responsible at least in part for fetal neuronal deficits. Animals were divided into four treatment groups: normal control, pair-fed saline control, alcohol and cortisol. The magnitude of elevation in cortisol in response to alcohol was mimicked in the cortisol group by infusing pregnant ewes with hydrocortisone for 6 h on each day of the experiment, and administering saline during the first hour in lieu of alcohol. The experiment was conducted on three consecutive days followed by four days without treatment beginning on gestational day (GD) 109 until GD 132. Peak maternal blood alcohol concentration in the alcohol group was 239 ± 7 mg/dl. The fetal brains were collected and processed for stereological cell counting on GD 133. The estimated total number of fetal cerebellar Purkinje cells, the reference volume and the Purkinje cell density were not altered in response to glucocorticoid infusion in the absence of alcohol. These results suggest that glucocorticoids independently during the third trimester equivalent may not produce fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. However, the elevations in cortisol along with other changes induced by alcohol could together lead to brain injury seen in the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23218665

  3. Evaluation of Spirulina Supplementation on Intermittent Binge Ethanol - Induced Neurotoxicity in Dentate Gyrus of Rats

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    M A Asari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Spirulina is a widely used nutritional supplement which is rich in antioxidants and proteins.  Studies have shown that intermittent binge-like ethanol consumption during adolescent period caused neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. It has been suggested that antioxidant therapy may provide some level of protection against neurotoxicity of ethanol at cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effects of spirulina supplementation on ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given ethanol (10 g/kg/day, intermittent binge model, or spirulina platensis (1000 mg/kg/day or both from postnatal day 30 for two weeks duration. The cerebral hemispheres were processed for routine histological staining and immunohistochemistry with anti-GFAP antibody.  Ethanol-treated group showed significant deficit in the numbers of granule cells and hilar neurons of the dentate gyrus when compared to the control group. Spirulina supplementation failed to provide protection against ethanol-induced neuronal loss. Spirulina supplementation also failed to alter increased expression of GFAP immunoreactivity induced by ethanol exposure. In conclusion, these findings indicate that spirulina supplementation is not effective in reducing the ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. Industrial Relevance. Spirulina is one of the widely used nutritional supplements particularly in Asian population. Being a strong antioxidant, spirulina has been shown to have many therapeutic effects in human. However, the question of whether spirulina supplementation is able to mitigate the effect of ethanol neurotoxicity is largely unknown. Therefore, the study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that spirulina supplementation is able to provide some protection against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a rat model

  4. Cognitive biases in binge eating disorder: the hijacking of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common of eating disorders and is characterized by excessive, out-of-control, rapid food intake. This review focuses on cognitive impairments in BED, which represent an endophenotype that mediates brain function and behavior. Here we focus on reviewing impulsivity, compulsivity, attentional biases to food cues, and executive function. Behavioral regulation in BED appears to be influenced by the context of motivationally salient food cues and the degree of obesity. Deficits in delay discounting and risk taking under ambiguity are impaired in obesity irrespective of BED status. However, in BED subjects with milder obesity, greater risk seeking under explicit probabilistic risk is observed to monetary rewards, whereas this shifts to risk aversion and enhanced delay discounting in more severe obesity. Relative to non-BED obese subjects, BED is characterized by enhanced behavioral inflexibility or compulsivity across multiple domains, with subjects selecting the same choices despite change in relevance (set shifting), being no longer rewarding (habit formation), or irrespective of outcome (perseveration). The context of food cues was associated with multiple attentional and early and late inhibitory impairments and enhanced memory bias, although BED patients also have generalized cognitive interference in working memory. These findings may help explain the phenotype of binge eating. Motivationally salient food cues provoke attentional and memory biases along with impairing response inhibitory processes. Those with BED are also more susceptible to cognitive interference and have impaired decisional impulsivity, with the tendency to inflexibly stick with the same choices irrespective of changes in context. These findings suggest critical cognitive domains that may guide therapeutic interventions. PMID:26594850

  5. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  6. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes.

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    Brian Suffoletto

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive

  7. Comparing the Detection of Transdermal and Breath Alcohol Concentrations during Periods of Alcohol Consumption Ranging from Moderate Drinking to Binge Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Mr. Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R. Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol tes...

  8. Adolescent binge drinking leads to changes in alcohol drinking, anxiety, and amygdalar corticotropin releasing factor cells in adulthood in male rats.

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    Nicholas W Gilpin

    Full Text Available Heavy episodic drinking early in adolescence is associated with increased risk of addiction and other stress-related disorders later in life. This suggests that adolescent alcohol abuse is an early marker of innate vulnerability and/or binge exposure impacts the developing brain to increase vulnerability to these disorders in adulthood. Animal models are ideal for clarifying the relationship between adolescent and adult alcohol abuse, but we show that methods of involuntary alcohol exposure are not effective. We describe an operant model that uses multiple bouts of intermittent access to sweetened alcohol to elicit voluntary binge alcohol drinking early in adolescence (~postnatal days 28-42 in genetically heterogeneous male Wistar rats. We next examined the effects of adolescent binge drinking on alcohol drinking and anxiety-like behavior in dependent and non-dependent adult rats, and counted corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF cell in the lateral portion of the central amygdala (CeA, a region that contributes to regulation of anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors. Adolescent binge drinking did not alter alcohol drinking under baseline drinking conditions in adulthood. However, alcohol-dependent and non-dependent adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol binge drinking did exhibit increased alcohol drinking when access to alcohol was intermittent. Adult rats that binged alcohol during adolescence exhibited increased exploration on the open arms of the elevated plus maze (possibly indicating either decreased anxiety or increased impulsivity, an effect that was reversed by a history of alcohol dependence during adulthood. Finally, CRF cell counts were reduced in the lateral CeA of rats with adolescent alcohol binge history, suggesting semi-permanent changes in the limbic stress peptide system with this treatment. These data suggest that voluntary binge drinking during early adolescence produces long-lasting neural and behavioral effects

  9. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating. PMID:27149410

  10. A Comparative Study of Google and Bing Search Engines in Context of Precision and Relative Recall Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauqeer Ahmad Usmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compared the retrieval effectiveness in context of precision and relative recall of Google and Bing search engine for evaluating the effectiveness of both search engine. The queries usedare related to general and some computer science field. The queries are divided into three categories. The categories were simple one word, simple multi word and complex multi word queries. The results showed that the precision of Google was high for simple one word queries(0.76 and Bing had comparatively high precision of simple multi word queries(0.96 and Complex multi word queries(0.89. Relative recall of Google were high for all simple one word queries(0.94, simple multi word queries(0.70 and complex multi word queries(0.80.

  11. The prevalence of binge eating disorder in a sample of college students in the north of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mónica; Conceição, Eva; Vaz, Ana Rita; Machado, Paulo P P

    2014-05-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) has important associated comorbidities and has been recently considered as a diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition. This study investigates the prevalence of BED in a sample of college students using a two-stage design. Between October 2008 and July 2009, 805 students attending a public college campus completed the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns - Revised to screen for possible cases. Eighty-five students meeting key criteria for BED were invited for a second stage interview using the Eating Disorder Examination. At stage 1, 9.6% of the subjects reported binge eating episodes. At stage 2, a prevalence rate of 0.5% for BED was found, and 1% if the criterion for large amount of food was excluded. PMID:24729194

  12. Evidence and potential mechanisms for mindfulness practices and energy psychology for obesity and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojcher, Renee; Gould Fogerite, Susan; Perlman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic. Chronic stress produces endocrine and immune factors that are contributors to obesity's etiology. These biochemicals also can affect appetite and eating behaviors that can lead to binge-eating disorder. The inadequacies of standard care and the problem of patient noncompliance have inspired a search for alternative treatments. Proposals in the literature have called for combination therapies involving behavioral or new biological therapies. This manuscript suggests that mind-body interventions would be ideal for such combinations. Two mind-body modalities, energy psychology and mindfulness meditation, are reviewed for their potential in treating weight loss, stress, and behavior modification related to binge-eating disorder. Whereas mindfulness meditation and practices show more compelling evidence, energy psychology, in the infancy stages of elucidation, exhibits initially promising outcomes but requires further evidence-based trials. PMID:22938745

  13. Neonatal Binge Alcohol Exposure Produces Dose Dependent Deficits in Interstimulus Interval Discrimination Eyeblink Conditioning in Juvenile Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kevin L.; Burman, Michael A.; Duong, Huan B.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in neonatal rats produces cerebellar damage and is widely used to model 3rd-trimester human fetal alcohol exposure. Neonatal “binge-like” exposure to high doses of alcohol (5 g/kg/day or more) impairs acquisition of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC), a cerebellar-dependent Pavlovian motor learning task. We have recently found impairments in interstimulus interval (ISI) discrimination – a complex task variant of EBC - in adult rats following postnatal day (PD) 4–9 alcoh...

  14. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria eRazzoli; Valentina eSanghez; Alessandro eBartolomucci

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  15. Chronic Subordination Stress Induces Hyperphagia and Disrupts Eating Behavior in Mice Modeling Binge-Eating-Like Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Razzoli, Maria; Sanghez, Valentina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We devel...

  16. Inhibition of long myosin light-chain kinase activation alleviates intestinal damage after binge ethanol exposure and burn injury

    OpenAIRE

    Zahs, Anita; Bird, Melanie D.; Ramirez, Luis; Turner, Jerrold R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests that intestinal permeability is elevated following either binge ethanol exposure or burn injury alone, and this barrier dysfunction is further perturbed when these insults are combined. We and others have previously reported a rise in both systemic and local proinflammatory cytokine production in mice after the combined insult. Knowing that long myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) is important for epithelial barrier maintenance and can be activated by proinflammatory...

  17. Altered Attention and Prefrontal Cortex Gene Expression in Rats after Binge-Like Exposure to Cocaine during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Yolanda D.; Maclaren, Fair R.; Naydenov, Alipi V.; Carlezon, William A.; Baxter, Mark G.; Konradi, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Illicit use of drugs frequently begins and escalates during adolescence, with long-term adverse consequences. Because it is increasingly accepted that neural development continues through adolescence, addiction research has become more invested in understanding the behavioral and molecular consequences of early exposure to drugs of abuse. In a novel binge administration paradigm designed to model the pattern of human adolescent drug use, we administered ascending doses of cocaine or saline du...

  18. Treatment-seeking patients with binge-eating disorder in the Swedish national registers: clinical course and psychiatric comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Elisabeth; Jangmo, Andreas; Thornton, Laura M.; Norring, Claes; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne; Herman, Barry K.; Pawaskar, Manjiri; Larsson, Henrik; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background We linked extensive longitudinal data from the Swedish national eating disorders quality registers and patient registers to explore clinical characteristics at diagnosis, diagnostic flux, psychiatric comorbidity, and suicide attempts in 850 individuals diagnosed with binge-eating disorder (BED). Method Cases were all individuals who met criteria for BED in the quality registers (N = 850). We identified 10 controls for each identified case from the Multi-Generation Register matched ...

  19. Binge Eating Disorder Mediates Links between Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Caloric Intake in Overweight and Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Roseann E.; Latendresse, Shawn J.; Bartholome, Lindsay T.; Warren, Cortney S; Nancy C. Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable comorbidity between mood disorders, binge eating disorder (BED), and obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine models by which internalizing behaviors of depression and anxiety influence food intake in overweight/obese women. Thirty-two women (15 BED, 17 controls) participated in a laboratory eating-episode and completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety and depression. Path analysis was used to te...

  20. Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in Binge Eating Disorder and Overweight Controls: Refinement of a Diagnostic Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Hrabosky, Joshua I.; White, Marney A.; Allison, Kelly C.; Stunkard, Albert J.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2008-01-01

    Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED) as a diagnosis as opposed to simply reflecting a useful marker for psychopathology. Contention also exists regarding the specific criteria for the BED diagnosis, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by overvaluation of shape/weight. The authors compared features of eating disorders, psychological distress, and weight among overweight BED participants who overval...

  1. Attitudes toward obesity in obese persons: A matched comparison of obese women with and without binge eating

    OpenAIRE

    Puhl, R.M.; Masheb, R.M.; White, M.A.; Grilo, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    No research has compared expressions of weight bias across different subgroups of obese individuals. This study compared attitudes toward and beliefs about obesity in women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and examined whether these attitudes are related to psychological factors. Fifty obese women with BED were compared with an age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 50 obese women without BED on a battery of established measures of anti-fat attitudes and beliefs about wei...

  2. Accuracy of Self-reported Weight and Height in Binge Eating Disorder: Misreport is Not Related to Psychological Factors

    OpenAIRE

    White, M.A.; Masheb, R.M.; Grilo, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the degree of misreport in weight, height, and BMI among overweight adults (n=392) with binge eating disorder (BED) and tested whether the degree of misreport was associated with eating disorder psychopathology and psychological variables. Male (n=97) and female (n=295) participants self-reported height and weight and were subsequently measured by clinic staff. Participants also completed a series of diagnostic interviews and self-report assessments. Discrepancies between ...

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Program for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Birgit; Nagl, Michaela; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Hilbert, Anja; Kersting, Anette

    2016-07-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait-lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n=69) or a wait-list condition (n=70). Binge-eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology were measured with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination administered over the telephone. Additionally, body weight and body mass index, depression, and anxiety were assessed before and immediately after treatment. Three-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data were recorded in the treatment group. Immediately after the treatment the number of binge-eating episodes showed significant improvement (d=1.02, between group) in the treatment group relative to the wait-list condition. The treatment group had also significantly reduced symptoms of all eating psychopathology outcomes relative to the wait-list condition (0.82≤d≤1.11). In the treatment group significant improvement was still observed for all measures 1year after the intervention relative to pretreatment levels. The Internet-based intervention proved to be efficacious, significantly reducing the number of binge-eating episodes and eating disorder pathology long term. Low-threshold e-health interventions should be further evaluated to improve treatment access for patients suffering from BED. PMID:27423166

  4. High Self-reported Rates of Neglect and Emotional Abuse, by Persons with Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared rates of self-reported childhood maltreatment in three groups diagnosed using semi-structured interviews: binge eating disorder (BED; n = 176), night eating syndrome (NES, n = 57), and overweight/obese comparison (OC, n = 38). We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to assess childhood maltreatment and the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depression levels. Reports of maltreatment were common in patients with BED (82%), NES (79%), and OC (71%). The BED group...

  5. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. PMID:26462112

  6. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrayee Banerjee

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals or dextrose (Control. Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4, leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART.

  7. Non-normative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients with binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; De Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Objectives: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of non-normative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Setting: Within a c...

  8. Neural and Behavioral Effects of a Novel Mu Opioid Receptor Antagonist in Binge-Eating Obese People

    OpenAIRE

    Cambridge, Victoria C; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Subramaniam, Naresh; Dodds, Chris; Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Koch, Annelize; Maltby, Kay; Skeggs, Andrew L.; Napolitano, Antonella; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Bullmore, Edward T; Paul C Fletcher

    2013-01-01

    Background Binge eating is associated with obesity and has been conceptualized as “food addiction.” However, this view has received only inconsistent support in humans, and limited evidence relates key neurocircuitry to the disorder. Moreover, relatively few studies have used pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe the underlying basis of altered eating behaviors. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, we explored the effects of a potent mu-o...

  9. Ovarian Hormone Influences on Dysregulated Eating: A Comparison of Associations in Women with versus without Binge Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Klump, Kelly L.; Racine, Sarah E.; Hildebrandt, Britny; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael,; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Boker, Steven; Keel, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. However, prior studies have not examined whether the nature of associations varies across dysregulated eating severity. The current study determined whether the strength and/or nature of hormone/dysregulated eating associations differ based on the presence of clinically diagnosed binge episodes (BEs). Participants included 28 women with BEs and 417 women without BEs who provided salivary hormone sample...

  10. An Exploratory Study of Clinical Measures Associated with Subsyndromal Pathological Gambling in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Sarah W.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Both binge eating disorder (BED) and pathological gambling (PG) are characterized by impairments in impulse control. Subsyndromal levels of PG have been associated with measures of adverse health. The nature and significance of PG features in individuals with BED is unknown. Ninety-four patients with BED (28 men and 66 women) were classified by gambling group based on inclusionary criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) PG and compared on a range of behavioral, psychologica...

  11. Epidemiology, health-related quality of life and economic burden of binge eating disorder: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ágh, Tamás; Kovács, Gábor; Pawaskar, Manjiri; Supina, Dylan; Inotai, András; Vokó, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To perform a systematic review on the epidemiology, the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden of binge eating disorder (BED). Methods A systematic literature search of English-language articles was conducted using Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, Business Source Premier and Cochrane Library. Literature search on epidemiology was limited to studies published between 2009 and 2013. Cost data were inflated and converted ...

  12. Is there an association between traumatic dental injury and social capital, binge drinking and socioeconomic indicators among schoolchildren?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Neves de Paiva

    Full Text Available Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother's schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively.The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588. Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010, those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001 and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235-6.466, p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654-8.535, p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21-3.06, p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury.The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended.

  13. Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Nancy Romero Abstract Research suggests that the associations between femininity, body image and eating disorders are intricate. How these constructs are linked to each other still needs to be determined. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of these links, examining the mediational relationship among these constructs. Also...

  14. Cognitive behaviour therapy response and dropout rate across purging and nonpurging bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder: DSM-5 implications

    OpenAIRE

    Agüera, Zaida; Riesco, Nadine; Jiménez Murcia, Susana; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; Granero, Roser; Vicente, Enrique; Peñas Lledó, Eva; Arcelus, Jon; Sánchez, Isabel; Menchón Magriñá, José Manuel; Fernández Aranda, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the imminent publication of the new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), there has been a growing interest in the study of the boundaries across the three bulimic spectrum syndromes [bulimia nervosa-purging type (BN-P), bulimia nervosa-non purging type (BN-NP) and binge eating disorder (BED)]. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine differences in treatment response and dropout rates following Cognitive Behavioural Therapy ...

  15. Functional regulation of PI3K-associated signaling in the accumbens by binge alcohol drinking in male but not female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzoli, Debra K; Kaufman, Moriah N; Nipper, Michelle A; Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M; Finn, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that binge alcohol consumption produces alterations in Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus) and related signaling cascades in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of adult male mice, but female and adolescent mice have not been examined. Thus, the first set of studies determined whether repeated binge alcohol consumption produced similar alterations in protein and mRNA levels of Group 1 mGlu-associated signaling molecules in the NAC of male and female adult and adolescent mice. The adult (9 weeks) and adolescent (4 weeks) C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 7 binge alcohol sessions every 3rd day while controls drank water. Repeated binge alcohol consumption produced sexually divergent changes in protein levels and mRNA expression for Group 1 mGlus and downstream signaling molecules in the NAC, but there was no effect of age. Binge alcohol intake decreased mGlu5 levels in females, whereas it decreased indices of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-binding protein 1, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase in males. Expression of genes encoding mGlu1, mGlu5, the NR2A subunit of the NMDA receptor, and Homer2 were all decreased by binge alcohol consumption in males, while females were relatively resistant (only phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 was decreased). The functional implication of these differences was investigated in a separate study by inhibiting mTOR in the NAC (via infusions of rapamycin) before binge drinking sessions. Rapamycin (50 and 100 ng/side) significantly decreased binge alcohol consumption in males, while consumption in females was unaffected. Altogether these results highlight that mTOR signaling in the NAC was necessary to maintain binge alcohol consumption only in male mice and that binge drinking recruits sexually divergent signaling cascades downstream of PI3K and presumably, Group 1 mGlus. Importantly, these findings emphasize that sex should be considered in the development

  16. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  17. Perceptions of the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone application for the treatment of binge eating disorders: Qualitative feedback from a user population and clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stephanie P.; Manasse, Stephanie M.; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Binge eating, a major public health problem, is characterized by recurrent episodes of out-of-control eating in which an individual consumes an unusually large amount of food in a discrete time period. Limitations of existing treatments for binge eating (both in-person psychotherapy and guided self-help) indicate that smartphone applications (apps) may be an ideal alternative or enhancement. An app for binge eating could aid treatment dissemination, engagement, and/or compliance. However, no research to date has examined user perceptions of a therapeutic app for binge eating, which is critical for development. Objectives The purposes of the current study were to conceptualize a potential app for binge eating and obtain feedback regarding feasibility and acceptability from target users (i.e., individuals with binge eating) and clinicians specializing in the treatment of binge eating. Methods Our team conceptualized a smartphone app that contained self-help material, functions to monitor behavior, and provisions of in-the-moment interventions. We presented this app (e.g., feature explanations, mock screen shots) through phone interviews with clinicians who specialize in the treatment of binge eating (n=10), and focus groups with individuals experiencing binge eating (n=11). Participants were asked to discuss customization, user burden, terminology, attrition, data visualization, comprehensiveness, reminders, feasibility, acceptability, and perceived effectiveness of the proposed app. Thematic analyses were conducted from qualitative data (e.g., audio recordings and interview notes) obtained via the focus groups and interviews. Results Results indicated that our proposed app would be highly feasible and acceptable to users and clinicians, though concerns about the degree of personalization and customizability were noted. Conclusions The current study details highly specific feedback and ideas regarding essential app features from target users and clinicians

  18. Binge Drinking of Ethanol during Adolescence Induces Oxidative Damage and Morphological Changes in Salivary Glands of Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Paraense, Ricardo Sousa de Oliveira; de Farias-Junior, Paulo Mecenas Alves; Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Alves-Junior, Sergio Melo; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates morphological and biochemistry effects of binge ethanol consumption in parotid (PG) and submandibular (SG) salivary glands of rats from adolescence to adulthood. Female Wistar rats (n = 26) received ethanol at 3 g/kg/day (20% w/v) for 3 consecutive days/week from the 35th until the 62nd day of life. Animals were treated in two periods: 1 week (G1) and 4 weeks (G2), with a control (treated with distilled water) and an ethanol group to each period. In morphological analysis, morphometric and immunohistochemistry evaluation for smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and vimentin (VIM) were made. Biochemical changes were analyzed by concentration of nitrites and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). The difference between groups in each analysis was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test or Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). PG showed, at one week of ethanol exposure, lower CK-18 and α-SMA expression, as well as MDA levels. After four weeks, lower CK-18 and higher MDA levels were observed in PG exposed to ethanol, in comparison to control group. SG showed lower α-SMA expression after 1 and 4 weeks of ethanol exposure as well as higher MDA levels after 1 week. Ethanol binge consumption during adolescence promotes tissue and biochemical changes with only one-week binge in acinar and myoepithelial PG cells. PMID:27579155

  19. The effects of gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on open field behaviour in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wensheng; Kang, Jie; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shuangcheng; Kang, Yunxiao; Wang, Lei; Shi, Geming

    2015-09-14

    Binge drinking ethanol exposure during adolescence can lead to long-term neurobehavioural damage. It is not known whether the pubertal surge in testosterone that occurs during adolescence might impact the neurobehavioural effects of early ethanol exposure in adult animals. We examined this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries on Sprague-Dawley rats around postnatal day (P) 23. From P28-65,the rats were administered 3.0g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure. Dependent measurements included tests of open field behaviour, blood ethanol concentrations, and testosterone levels. As adults, significant decreases in open field activity were observed in the GX rats. The open field behaviour of the GX rats was restored after testosterone administration. Binge-like ethanol exposure altered most of the parameters of the open field behaviour, suggestive of alcohol-induced anxiety, but rats treated with alcohol in combination with gonadectomy showed less motor behaviour and grooming behaviour and an increase in immobility, suggesting ethanol-induced depression. These results indicated that testosterone is required for ethanol-induced behavioural changes and that testicular hormones are potent stimulators of ethanol-induced behaviours. PMID:26238258

  20. Reciprocal associations between negative affect, binge eating, and purging in the natural environment in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-04-01

    Although negative affect (NA) has been identified as a common trigger for bulimic behaviors, findings regarding NA following such behaviors have been mixed. This study examined reciprocal associations between NA and bulimic behaviors using real-time, naturalistic data. Participants were 133 women with bulimia nervosa (BN) according to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment protocol in which they recorded bulimic behaviors and provided multiple daily ratings of NA. A multilevel autoregressive cross-lagged analysis was conducted to examine concurrent, first-order autoregressive, and prospective associations between NA, binge eating, and purging across the day. Results revealed positive concurrent associations between all variables across all time points, as well as numerous autoregressive associations. For prospective associations, higher NA predicted subsequent bulimic symptoms at multiple time points; conversely, binge eating predicted lower NA at multiple time points, and purging predicted higher NA at 1 time point. Several autoregressive and prospective associations were also found between binge eating and purging. This study used a novel approach to examine NA in relation to bulimic symptoms, contributing to the existing literature by directly examining the magnitude of the associations, examining differences in the associations across the day, and controlling for other associations in testing each effect in the model. These findings may have relevance for understanding the etiology and/or maintenance of bulimic symptoms, as well as potentially informing psychological interventions for BN. PMID:26692122

  1. "openness of search engine": A critical flaw in search systems; a case study on google, yahoo and bing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, Katuru SM Kalyana

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that Search Engines are playing a great role in Internet usage. But all the top search engines Google, Yahoo and Bing are having a critical flaw called "Openness of a Search Engine". An Internet user should be allowed to get the search results only when requested through Search engine's web page but the user must not be allowed to get the search results when requested through any web page that does not belong to the Search Engine. Only results of a search engine should be available to the Internet user but not the Search Engine. This paper explains the critical flaw called "Openness of Search Engine" with a case study on top 3 search engines 'Google', 'Yahoo' and 'Bing'. This paper conducts an attack based test using J2EE framework and proves that 'Google' passed the test and it strongly protects its Critical Search System, where 'Yahoo' and 'Bing' are failed to protect their Search Engines. But previously 'Google' also had other high severity issues with the Openness of search engine; this ...

  2. Binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours decrease from adolescence to adulthood: A population-based, longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Dawit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subclinical forms of eating disorders (ED are highly prevalent, but relatively little is known about age trends, gender differences and distinctions among symptoms. This study investigates age trends and gender difference in binge eating, purging and non-purging compensatory behaviours (CB and the relationship of such behaviours to psychosocial problems. Methods Data from the national representative longitudinal study "Young in Norway" (ages 14-34 years were analysed using χ2 tests, logistic random intercept models and analyses of covariance. Results For both genders, a decrease was found in the prevalence of CB from age 14-16 years to 23 years and over. For binging, however, a significant decrease was found only for females, whose binge eating also declined more markedly over time than did males'. A significant gender difference was detected for purging, with females at higher risk. Purging was related to particularly serious symptoms of psychosocial problems: Those who purged had significantly higher levels of appearance dissatisfaction, anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, self-concept instability and loneliness than those with symptoms of other forms of disordered eating. Conclusions Individuals affected by purging need to be targeted as a high-risk group. The distinction in severity among the subclinical ED may indicate the need for the reformulation of the eating disorder not otherwise specified category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V.

  3. Binge ethanol exposure increases the Krüppel-like factor 11-monoamine oxidase (MAO) pathway in rats: Examining the use of MAO inhibitors to prevent ethanol-induced brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jeremy W; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Niping; Johnson, Shakevia; Harris, Sharonda; Udemgba, Chinelo; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Youdim, Moussa B; Stockmeier, Craig A; Wang, Jun Ming

    2016-06-01

    Binge drinking induces several neurotoxic consequences including oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Because of these effects, drugs which prevent ethanol-induced damage to the brain may be clinically beneficial. In this study, we investigated the ethanol-mediated KLF11-MAO cell death cascade in the frontal cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a modified Majchowicz 4-day binge ethanol model and control rats. Moreover, MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) were investigated for neuroprotective activity against binge ethanol. Binge ethanol-treated rats demonstrated a significant increase in KLF11, both MAO isoforms, protein oxidation and caspase-3, as well as a reduction in BDNF expression in the frontal cortex compared to control rats. MAOIs prevented these binge ethanol-induced changes, suggesting a neuroprotective benefit. Neither binge ethanol nor MAOI treatment significantly affected protein expression levels of the oxidative stress enzymes, SOD2 or catalase. Furthermore, ethanol-induced antinociception was enhanced following exposure to the 4-day ethanol binge. These results demonstrate that the KLF11-MAO pathway is activated by binge ethanol exposure and MAOIs are neuroprotective by preventing the binge ethanol-induced changes associated with this cell death cascade. This study supports KLF11-MAO as a mechanism of ethanol-induced neurotoxicity and cell death that could be targeted with MAOI drug therapy to alleviate alcohol-related brain injury. Further examination of MAOIs to reduce alcohol use disorder-related brain injury could provide pivotal insight to future pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. PMID:26805422

  4. [Structural equation model in the study of risk factors in the maintenance of binge eating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, A; Vicentini, M; Spoto, A; Vidotto, G

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated, in a sample of 483 adolescent girls, a number of risk factors associated with Binge Eating (BE) disorder, i.e. negative feelings, dieting behaviour, social influence and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the following questionnaires: Bulimia Test, Depression Questionnaire, Dieting Self-Efficacy Measure, Dieting Success, Dieting Status Measure, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Scale Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used in the data analysis to verify the hypothesized relations among the variables, with the aim of identifying the main predictors of BE. This methodology explains the correlation between the considered variables, and determines, using quantitative good fit indexes, both the strength of the correlations and the plausibility of the causal links between the hypothesized factors. Our findings confirm that negative feelings (Negative Affect) are the primary predictor for the maintenance of BE and highlight the significant role played by Social Influence. While Dieting Behaviour is not a primary predictor for the maintenance of BE it appears to influence it through its link with Negative Affect. PMID:18575358

  5. The Specificity of Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating in Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287

  6. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  7. Alleged Approach-Avoidance Conflict for Food Stimuli in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehr, Elisabeth J.; Schag, Kathrin; Brinkmann, Amelie; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E.; Dresler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Food stimuli are omnipresent and naturally primary reinforcing stimuli. One explanation for the intake of high amounts of food in binge eating disorder (BED) is a deviant valuation process. Valuation of food stimuli is supposed to influence approach or avoidance behaviour towards food. Focusing on self-reported and indirect (facial electromyography) valuation process, motivational aspects in the processing of food stimuli were investigated. Methods We compared an overweight sample with BED (BED+) with an overweight sample without BED (BED-) and with normal weight controls (NWC) regarding their self-reported and indirect (via facial electromyography) valuation of food versus non-food stimuli. Results Regarding the self-reported valuation, the BED+ sample showed a significantly stronger food-bias compared to the BED- sample, as food stimuli were rated as significantly more positive than the non-food stimuli in the BED+ sample. This self-reported valuation pattern could not be displayed in the indirect valuation. Food stimuli evoked negative indirect valuation in all groups. The BED+ sample showed the plainest approach-avoidance conflict marked by a diverging self-reported (positive) and indirect (negative) valuation of food stimuli. Conclusions BED+ showed a deviant self-reported valuation of food as compared to BED-. The valuation process of the BED+ sample seems to be characterized by a motivational ambivalence. This ambivalence should be subject of further studies and may be of potential use for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27045169

  8. Binge eating disorder and obesity: preliminary evidence for distinct cardiovascular and psychological phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated cardiovascular functioning, mood, and eating-related psychological factors at rest and in response to mental stress in three groups of women: 1) Obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; n=9); 2) obese non-BED women (n=15); and 3) normal weight (NW) non-BED women (n=15). Compared to both obese and NW non-BED women, obese women with BED showed heightened overall blood pressure and reported greater depression symptoms, perceived stress, and eating-related psychopathology. Additionally, obese women with BED reported greater overall negative affect and state anxiety compared to obese non-BED women. The heart rate response to stress was blunted in the obese BED group compared to the other groups, but this effect was no longer significant after controlling for baseline differences in depression. Correlational analyses revealed a positive association between stress-induced changes in hunger and cardiovascular measures only in obese women with BED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if stress dysregulation and stress-induced increases in hunger contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of BED. In particular, studies utilizing an additional NW BED control group are warranted in order to further examine the impact of BED above and beyond the impact of obesity on psychophysiological functioning and to inform the growing literature regarding stress-related factors that distinguish the BED and obesity phenotypes. PMID:25600469

  9. Reduction of Nfia gene expression and subsequent target genes by binge alcohol in the fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyung Tae; Seo, Hyemyung; Chung, Il Yup; Choi, Ihn Geun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-06-26

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in gene expression in the fetal brain (forebrain and hippocampus) caused by maternal binge alcohol consumption. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with distilled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ethanol (2.9 g/kg) from embryonic day (ED) 8-12. Microarray analysis revealed that a significant number of genes were altered at ED 18 in the developing brain. Specifically, in hippocampus, nuclear factor one alpha (Nfia) and three N-methyl-D-aspartate (Nmda) receptors (Nmdar1, Nmdar2b, and Nmdar2d) were down-regulated. The transcription factor Nfia controls gliogenesis, cell proliferation and Nmda-induced neuronal survival by regulating the expression of target genes. Some of the Nfia-target gene (Aldh1a, Folh1, Gjb6, Fgf1, Neurod1, Sept4, and Ntsr2) expressions were also altered as expected. These results suggest that the altered expression of Nfia and Nmda receptors may be associated with the etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The data presented in this report will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of alcohol in FASD individuals. PMID:25982323

  10. Radiation-induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ) cvs Napoleon and Bing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saamin, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using gamma radiation to determine radiosensitivities of main and accessory buds, to increase the proportion of mutant tissue, and to determine the type of damage and mode of recovery in irradiated shoot spices of sweet cherry cvs Napoleon and Bin. Survival, growth, and the types of mutations of V/sub 1/ (primary) shoots and V/sub 2/ plants were observed. LD/sub 50/ values, based on survival of forced buds were about 5kR for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air, 5.5kR for acute exposure in water, and 6kR for fractionated dose in water. 0.39-0.69 accessory buds/site on non-irradiated Napoleon had forced after 30 days in the glasshouse. In the Bing field experiment with main buds, the LD/sub 50/ for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air was 3.5kR. In water, the LD/sub 50/ was 5kR for acute treatment and 6.5kR for fractionated dose. The overall mutation frequency in Napoleon V/sub 2/ shoots derived from main buds was 7.6%: 0.04% growth-reduced mutants, 0.4% total leaf mutants, and7.1% partial leaf mutants.

  11. Massive gastric dilatation caused by eating binges demanding surgical intervention: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemke, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of an acute abdomen is frequently encountered in emergency medicine. In most cases abdominal pathologies underlie this condition, however, also extra-abdominal diseases may present or cause an acute abdomen. The fact that this condition is potentially life-threatening highlights the importance of instant action. Here, we report on the case of a young woman that presented with an acute abdomen in our clinic. Imaging revealed a massively distended stomach reaching the lesser pelvis. Initially, the etiology for the gastric dilatation remained unsolved. On the same day we performed an explorative laparotomy in which massive amounts of clotted, undigested food was recovered via a gastrotomy. Postoperatively, upon psychiatric consultation, an eating disorder with daily eating binges could be revealed as being the cause for the acute and dramatic gastric dilatation. The patient fully recovered from surgery and psychiatric co-treatment was initiated. This unique case report demonstrates how a psychiatric condition may lead to an acute abdomen, however, it also emphasizes the importance of prompt diagnosis and adequate therapy to avoid complications and allowing for full recovery.

  12. Conditioned insulin and blood sugar responses in humans in relation to binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, J; Jansen, A

    1997-04-01

    This study proposed to demonstrate a classically conditioned blood sugar decrease in humans and to clarify its relevance for binge eating. Six conditioning trials were run in healthy females. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a compound peppermint flavor/fragrance, whereas the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) consisted of 50 g of oral glucose. Control subjects received an aspartame drink as the UCS. Ad lib glucose intake, blood parameters, and subjective craving were monitored before and after conditioning. Results showed that the experimental group failed to show conditioned blood sugar and glucagon decreases or C-Peptide increases. Although an increased insulin response was found in the experimental group, the effect size did not exceed that of spontaneous fluctuations. No increases in craving for sweet substances were found. An impressive increase (mean: 78%) in glucose intake after conditioning was found in both conditions, as well as in a subsequently run third condition with plain water as the UCS. The increased glucose intake probably resulted from an initial neophobia to the laboratory setting that subsided as subjects had experienced more lab sessions. Importantly, because no conditioned hypoglycemia occurred in the present study, its relationship with subjectively experienced craving for sweet substance could not be determined. PMID:9108577

  13. Relationship-focused therapy for bulimia and binge eating: Introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder commonly report co-occurring interpersonal problems, and treatment that focuses on relationships and relational functioning has shown benefit relative to other forms of treatment. Relational psychotherapy for eating disorders can vary on several important dimensions, such as how structured and symptom-focused versus exploratory and patient-directed it is, whether it focuses on past relationships and patterns in relationships over time versus focusing on current relationships, and whether it includes the relationship with the therapist as an explicit topic of conversation and mechanism for relational change. The cases in this special section provide the opportunity to closely compare 3 therapeutic approaches on each of these dimensions. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Bulimia Nervosa, Integrative Dynamic Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa, and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Prevention of Weight Gain and Eating Disorders are each highly distinct approaches. The authors of each case explain the intended mechanisms of treatment response, the measures that assess changes in eating disorder symptoms as well as the mechanisms of change, and provide extensive excerpts from case material to demonstrate and illustrate the particular evidence-based treatment. Therapists and researchers may usefully consider the process and outcome variables described in these interpersonal approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267502

  14. The Enduring Impact of Parents' Monitoring, Warmth, Expectancies, and Alcohol Use on Their Children's Future Binge Drinking and Arrests: a Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Candice D; Handren, Lindsay M; Crano, William D

    2016-07-01

    Binge drinking is associated with many health and financial costs and is linked to risks of legal consequences. As alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, the current study assessed the relationship between parental behaviors and strategies in forecasting adolescents' likelihood of binge drinking and later arrest. Restricted data from waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to assess hypotheses. A weighted path analytic model (N = 9421) provided a multifaceted picture of variables linked to later antisocial behavior. Low parental monitoring, low parental warmth, parent alcohol use, and parent expectancies regarding their children's alcohol use were associated with higher incidence of adolescent binge drinking. In turn, low monitoring, low warmth, parent alcohol use, parent expectancies, and underage consumption were associated with binge drinking in early adulthood. Binge drinking during both adolescence and young adulthood were predictive of respondents' likelihood of arrest 8-14 years later. Findings demonstrated the substantial, enduring effects of parental behaviors on child alcohol-related actions and have implications for parent-targeted interventions designed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. They suggest campaigns focus on parenting strategies that involve setting effective and strict alcohol-related rules and guidelines, while maintaining a warm and supportive family environment. PMID:27178008

  15. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor inhibition blunts adolescent-typical increased binge alcohol and sucrose consumption in male C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoglia, Abigail E.; Holstein, Sarah E.; Eastman, Vallari R.; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2016-01-01

    Increased binge alcohol consumption has been reported among adolescents as compared to adults in both humans and rodent models, and has been associated with serious long-term health consequences. However, the neurochemical mechanism for age differences in binge drinking between adolescents and adults has not been established. The present study was designed to evaluate the mechanistic role of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in adolescent and adult binge drinking. Binge consumption was established in adolescent and adult male C57BL/6J mice by providing access to 20% alcohol or 1% sucrose for 4 h every other day. Pretreatment with the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM-251 (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) in a Latin square design dose-dependently reduced adolescent alcohol consumption to adult levels without altering adult intake. AM-251 (3 mg/kg) also reduced adolescent but not adult sucrose consumption. Adolescent reductions in alcohol and sucrose were not associated with alterations in open-field locomotor activity or thigmotaxis. These findings point to age differences in CB1 receptor activity as a functional mediator of adolescent-typical increased binge drinking as compared to adults. Developmental alterations in endocannabinoid signaling in the adolescent brain may therefore be responsible for the drinking phenotype seen in this age group. PMID:26800788

  16. The use of a manual-driven group cognitive behavior therapy in a Brazilian sample of obese individuals with binge-eating disorder Utilização de terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo baseada em manual em uma amostra brasileira de indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Duchesne; José Carlos Appolinario; Bernard Pimentel Rangé; Julia Fandiño; Tatiana Moya; Silvia R. Freitas

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a manual-based cognitive behavior therapy adapted to a group format in a sample of Brazilian obese subjects with binge-eating disorder. METHOD: In an open trial, 21 obese subjects with binge-eating disorder received a group cognitive-behavioral therapy program. Changes in binge-eating frequency, weight, body shape concerns, and depressive symptoms were compared between baseline and the end of the study. RESULTS: The mean frequency of binge-eating epis...

  17. Prevalence of Obesity, Binge Eating, and Night Eating in a Cross-Sectional Field Survey of 6-Year-Old Children and Their Parents in a German Urban Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamerz, Andreas; Kuepper-Nybelen, Jutta; Bruning, Nicole; Wehle, Christine; Trost-Brinkhues, Gabriele; Brenner, Hermann; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related binge eating, non-obesity-related binge eating, and night eating in five- to six-year-old children and to examine the impact of parental eating disturbances. Methods: When 2020 children attended their obligatory health exam prior to school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany, 1979…

  18. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, A; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Wimberley, Theresa;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine the...... effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, and the child's gender were considered core confounding factors. The full model also included maternal binge drinking or low to moderate alcohol consumption, maternal age, parity, maternal...

  19. Selected psychological traits and body image characteristics in females suffering from binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper reports the results of the author’s own research aimed at diagnosing specific psychological (personality traits and body image characteristics in a population of selected females suffering from binge eating disorder (BED.Method. The methods applied in this research included an inventory (i.e. a Polish version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI devised by David Garner, Marion P. Olmsted, and Janet Polivy, adapted by Cezary Żechowski; and the Socio-cultural Attitudes towards the Body and Appearance Questionnaire, constructed by the author of this study, based on the results of factor analysis and subject literature, as well as projective techniques such as Thompson’s Silhouette Test and a thematic drawing: “body image”. Theinventories and projective techniques applied in the research procedures aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological traits in the examined females.Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained as a result of this research revealed that the examined females suffering from psychogenic overeating were overweight. Analysis of the study data concerning the subject’s evaluation of their body image pointed to a substantial discrepancy between the individuals’ perception of their current body shape, which they clearly did not approve of, and the ideal thin body that the females desired. The study data obtained as a result of the EDI inventory, aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological (personality traits exhibited by the examined females, revealed that the subjects received the highest (inappropriate score in the scale describing the individuals’ preoccupation with pursuit of thinness. It was also discovered that the study participants had a high level of internalization of socio-cultural norms about the ideal female body, promoting the “cult of thinness”, and they exhibited the feeling of insecurity and personal worthlessness, as well as a low level of interpersonal

  20. The Australian national binge drinking campaign: campaign recognition among young people at a music festival who report risky drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks-Davis Rachel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Government launched a mass media campaign in 2009 to raise awareness of the harms and costs associated risky drinking among young Australians. The aim of this study was to assess if young people attending a music festival who report frequent risky single occasions of drinking (RSOD recognise the key message of the campaign, "Binge drinking can lead to injuries and regrets", compared to young people who report less frequent RSOD. Methods A cross-sectional behavioural survey of young people (aged 16-29 years attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, was conducted in January 2009. We collected basic demographics, information on alcohol and other drug use and sexual health and behaviour during the previous 12 months, and measured recognition of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign key message. We calculated the odds of recognition of the key slogan of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign among participants who reported frequent RSOD (defined as reported weekly or more frequent RSOD during the previous 12 months compared to participants who reported less frequent RSOD. Results Overall, three-quarters (74.7% of 1072 participants included in this analysis recognised the campaign message. In the adjusted analysis, those reporting frequent RSOD had significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message compared to those not reporting frequent RSOD (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, whilst females had significantly greater odds of recognising the campaign message compared to males (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1. Conclusions Whilst a high proportion of the target group recognised the campaign, our analysis suggests that participants that reported frequent RSOD - and thus the most important group to target - had statistically significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message.

  1. A psychological typology of females diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The present paper reports the results of research aimed at identifying intra-group differences among females suffering from different eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder in terms of the subjects’ psychological traits, adoption of socio-cultural norms (through media pressure, internationalization of norms, and exposure to information concerning body image standards, and the level of body dissatisfaction. The following research question was asked: is it possible to distinguish specific profiles of psychological characteristics, as well as levels of body dissatisfaction, social pressure, media exposure and internalization of common standards of body image? Participants and procedure The clinical population consisted of 121 females aged 20-26. The research was conducted in the years 2007-2012. The following research methods and procedures were applied: 1 a clinical interview, 2 the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, 3 the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI, 4 a Polish translation of the Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3. Results Cluster analysis of the research data allowed four significantly different clusters to be distinguished in the group of 121 examined females suffering from eating disorders. In the next step, analysis of variance (the ANOVA test was used to compare the differences between the examined clusters in terms of the investigated variables and their indicators. Conclusions Due to significant differences between the examined females in terms of the strength levels and the configuration of psychological and socio-cultural variables investigated in the present study, the females were classified into four different psychological types referred to as neurotic, perfectionist, impulsive and adolescent-narcissistic.

  2. The prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Berglund, Patricia A.; Chiu, Wai Tat; Deitz, Anne C.; Hudson, James I.; Shahly, Victoria; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; O’Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sasu, Carmen; Scott, Kate; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Little population-based data exist outside the United States on the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Cross-national data on BED are presented and compared to bulimia nervosa (BN) based on the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Methods Community surveys with 24,124 respondents (ages 18+) across 14 mostly upper-middle and high income countries assessed lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical disorders were assessed with a chronic conditions checklist. Results Country-specific lifetime prevalence estimates are consistently (median; inter-quartile range) higher for BED (1.4%;0.8–1.9%) than BN (0.8%;0.4–1.0%). Median age-of-onset is in the late teens to early 20s for both disorders but slightly younger for BN. Persistence is slightly higher for BN (6.5 years; 2.2–15.4) than BED (4.3 years; 1.0–11.7). Lifetime risk of both disorders is elevated for women and recent cohorts. Retrospective reports suggest that comorbid anxiety, mood, and disruptive behavior disorders predict subsequent onset of BN somewhat more strongly than BED and that BN predicts subsequent comorbid psychiatric disorders somewhat more strongly than does BED. Significant comorbidities with physical conditions are due almost entirely to BN and BED predicting subsequent onset of these conditions, again with BN somewhat stronger than BED. Role impairments are similar for BN and BED. Fewer than half of lifetime BN or BED cases receive treatment. Conclusions BED represents a public health problem at least equal to BN. Low treatment rates highlight the clinical importance of questioning patients about eating problems even when not included among presenting complaints. PMID:23290497

  3. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Matthew M; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E; Frenkel, Mogen M; Reilly, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive. PMID:27597817

  4. Palatable Eating Motives Scale in a college population: Distribution of scores and scores associated with greater BMI and binge-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, Mary M

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to provide distributive data for the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) on a large (N=1947) ethnically-diverse college student population along with motive scores characteristic of obesity and binge-eating severity. Students completed the PEMS, or a revised version of the PEMS, the Binge Eating Scale, and reported height and weight for a body mass index (BMI). The PEMS identified Coping, Reward Enhancement, Social, and Conformity motives for eating tasty but unhealthy foods for reasons other than hunger. The revised PEMS (included here) had better goodness-of-fit with the motives. Percentile rankings are presented for each of the motive scores. Separate Coping scores are presented for females and males given a modest effect size for females to score higher. Generally, scores on Coping, Reward Enhancement, Conformity, and a total PEMS score in the 70th percentile (those scoring higher than 70% of the sample) were associated with obesity and severe binge-eating. Unlike these motives, Social scores were the highest at each percentile rank but unassociated with BMI or binge-eating, reflecting the culturally-normative intake of these foods for social reasons. These distribution scores on PEMS motives in college students along with scores linked to higher BMI and binge-eating severity represent the first reported data of this type. Knowledge of these scores can be used to individualize and correspondingly improve current strategies aimed at preventing and treating obesity, binge-eating, maladaptive use of food to regulate internal and external pressures, and to improve overall nutritional health. PMID:26826648

  5. OPRM1 and Diagnosis-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Binge-Drinking Patients Living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Nicole R.; Lally, Michelle A; Brown, Larry; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to numerous negative outcomes in persons living with HIV (PLH) and there is evidence that PTSD symptoms may play a role in maintaining alcohol use problems. The opioid receptor mu-1 (OPRM1) gene may play a role in both PTSD and alcohol use. We examined the association between PTSD and drinking motives as well as variation in the OPRM1 as a predictor of both PTSD and drinking motives in a sample of 201 PLH reporting recent binge drinking. Se...

  6. Inhibition of Opioid Transmission at the μ-Opioid Receptor Prevents Both Food Seeking and Binge-Like Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, Chiara; Robbins, Trevor W.; Nathan, Pradeep J; Bullmore, Edward T.; Everitt, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous opioids, and in particular μ-opioid receptors, have been linked to hedonic and rewarding mechanisms engaged during palatable food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GSK1521498, a novel μ-opioid receptor antagonist, on food-seeking behavior and on binge-like eating of a highly preferred chocolate diet. Food seeking was measured in rats trained to respond for chocolate under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which prolonged periods of food-seek...

  7. "openness of search engine": A critical flaw in search systems; a case study on google, yahoo and bing

    OpenAIRE

    Katuru SM Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that Search Engines are playing a great role in Internet usage. But all the top search engines Google, Yahoo and Bing are having a critical flaw called “Openness of a Search Engine”. An Internet user should be allowed to get the search results only when requested through Search engine’s web page but the user must not be allowed to get the search results when requested through any web page that does not belong to the Search Engine. Only results of a search engi...

  8. Politiken, Alt om Ikast Brande (web), Lemvig Folkeblad (Web), Politiken (web), Dabladet Ringkjøbing Skjern (web)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Politiken 01.01.2014 14:16 Danskerne skød nytåret ind med et brag, men for enkeltes vedkommende gik det galt, da nytårskrudtet blev tændt. Skadestuerne har behandlet 73 personer for fyrværkeriskader mellem klokken 18 i aftes og klokken 06 i morges. Det viser en optælling, som Politiken har foreta...... foretaget på baggrund af tal fra Ulykkes Analyse Gruppen på Odense Universitetshospital. Artiklen er også bragt i: Alt om Ikast Brande (web), Lemvig Folkeblad (web), Politiken (web), Dagbladet Ringkjøbing Skjern (web)....

  9. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were....../internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N...

  10. Removal of high-fat diet after chronic exposure drives binge behavior and dopaminergic dysregulation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jesse L; McKee, Sarah E; Hill-Smith, Tiffany; Grissom, Nicola M; George, Robert; Lucki, Irwin; Reyes, Teresa M

    2016-06-21

    A significant contributor to the obesity epidemic is the overconsumption of highly palatable, energy dense foods. Chronic intake of palatable foods is associated with neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system adaptations which may lead to behavioral changes, such as overconsumption or bingeing. We examined behavioral and molecular outcomes in mice that were given chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD; 12weeks), with the onset of the diet either in adolescence or adulthood. To examine whether observed effects could be reversed upon removal of the HFD, animals were also studied 4weeks after a return to chow feeding. Most notably, female mice, particularly those exposed to HFD starting in adolescence, demonstrated the emergence of binge-like behavior when given restricted access to a palatable food. Further, changes in dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine content in the prefrontal cortex were observed. Some of these HFD-driven phenotypes reversed upon removal of the diet, whereas others were initiated by removal of the diet. These findings have implications for obesity management and interventions, as both pharmacological and behavioral therapies are often combined with dietary interventions (e.g., reduction in calorie dense foods). PMID:27063418

  11. Effect of binge eating disorder on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo García Díaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies about the effect of binge eating disorder (BED on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGBP are controversial. These studies have not compared patients with and without BED according to the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS, which takes into account weight loss, correction of comorbidities, improvement in quality of life and complications. Objectives: To assess whether BED predicts worse outcomes after LGBP, according to BAROS parameters. Methods: We carried out a cohort study which included 45 morbidly obese patients operated with LGBP. Patients with preoperative BED were identified by Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised and results were evaluated by BAROS system. Results: Prevalence of BED was 21.4%. Median postoperative follow-up was 12 months. BED patients experienced after LGBP lower rates of resolution of hypertension (42.9% vs. 92.9%; p = 0.025 and were complicated by stenosis of the gastrojejunal anastomosis more frequently (70% vs. 17.1%; p = 0.003 than patients without binge eating. No differences in BAROS score, percentage of excess weight loss and quality of life were found. Conclusions: BED patients experienced after LGBP lower rates of resolution of hypertension and higher rates of anastomotic stenosis. BAROS score, weight loss and quality of life are comparable to that of patients without.

  12. Escalating dose-multiple binge methamphetamine exposure results in degeneration of the neocortex and limbic system in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Everall, Ian P; Crews, Leslie; Adame, Anthony; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer

    2007-09-01

    Abuse of stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine (METH) and cocaine has been associated with long-lasting persistent behavioral alterations. Although METH-induced changes in the striatal dopaminergic system might play a role in these effects, the potential underlying neuroanatomical substrate for the chronic cognitive dysfunction in METH users is unclear. To investigate the involvement of non-dopaminergic systems in the neurotoxic effects of METH, we treated rats with an escalating dose-multiple binge regimen, which we have suggested may more closely simulate human METH exposure profiles. Combined neuropathological and stereological analyses showed that 30 days after the last binge, there was shrinkage and degeneration in the pyramidal cell layers of the frontal cortex and in the hippocampal CA3 region. Further immunocytochemical analysis showed that METH exposure resulted in loss of calbindin interneurons in the neocortex and selective damage to pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and granular cells in the dentate gyrus that was accompanied by microglial activation. Taken together, these studies suggest that selective degeneration of pyramidal neurons and interneurons in the neocortex and limbic system might be involved in the cognitive alterations in METH users. PMID:17603040

  13. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  14. Mapping Submarine Groundwater Discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, J. A.; Binley, A.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.; Haider, K.

    2011-12-01

    Accounting for submarine groundwater discharge (SGWD), as a fraction of the total water budget of a catchment, is a challenging task due to the diffuse nature of the process in the coastal zone. Geophysical techniques, however, provide an effective means of gathering spatial data that relate to the potential for upwelling at the groundwater-surface water interface. This study attempts to map SGWD, using terrain conductivity geophysical techniques, in the shallow, brackish water Ringkøbing Fjord lagoon in western Jutland, Denmark. This will help assess whether the groundwater input is a significant part of the water budget for the Skjern River catchment (the largest catchment in Denmark), which flows into the lagoon. Previous surveys using conventional techniques (e.g. seepage meters) have revealed the potential for localised upwelling, however, these methods offered limited ability to map extensive areas. With the geophysical method however, high resolution mapping of the terrain conductivity was achieved, using a Geonics EM31 device in a water-borne configuration, coupled with measurements of water depth and fluid electrical conductivity. The EM31 measurements have been interpreted using a two layer model: the upper layer represents the surface water body with known depth and conductivity; the lower layer represents the fjord bed sediments. It is assumed that areas of the fjord associated with fresh groundwater upwelling from the catchment are evidenced by bed sediments with relatively low electrical conductivity. The results (figure 1) show a rapid increase in conductivity within 25m of the shoreline from values around 20mS/m at the shore, to peaks of around 225mS/m. Beyond 25m offshore the conductivity decreases slightly and then increases steadily up to ~450m offshore in a region that is relatively homogenous compared to the sharp gradient close to the shore. The results suggest that most of the upwelling of fresh groundwater, from the Skjern catchment into

  15. A history of adolescent binge drinking in humans is associated with impaired self-movement cue processing on manipulatory scale navigation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Philip A; Blackwell, Ashley A; Ebrahimi, Nader; Benson, James D; Wallace, Douglas G

    2016-07-01

    A binge drinking pattern of alcohol consumption has been shown to have an impact on brain structures that continue to develop into late adolescence. These same brain structures have been implicated in processing self-movement cues. The current study applies an array of existing and novel kinematic analysis techniques to characterize performance on manipulatory scale tasks to assess spatial orientation deficits associated with a history of adolescent binge drinking. Using kinematic analysis techniques, a history of adolescent binge drinking in university students was associated with disruptions in outward segment movement organization and less accurate direction and distance estimation in a dead reckoning task. Similar disruptions in performance were found in the bead maze task in the first training block; however, no group differences were observed on subsequent blocks of place training. This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between adolescent binge drinking in humans and impaired processing of self-movement cues. This pattern of results demonstrates the potential of manipulatory-scale spatial tasks to detect differences in information processing associated with factors known to disrupt normal central nervous system development. PMID:27102710

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  17. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Soleymani, T; Daniel, S; Vinson, L D; Lokken, K L; Wingo, B C; Morse, A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyses revealed that eating tasty foods to forget worries and problems and help alleviate negative feelings (i.e., the 4-item Coping motive) was associated with binge-eating independently of any variance in BES scores due to sex, age, ethnicity, BMI, other PEMS motives, and YFAS scores in both students (R² = .57) and patients (R² = .55). Coping also was associated with higher BMI in students (p food motive or motives can potentially be used to thwart the development of BED and obesity, especially if the motive is Coping. Identifying one's PEMS motives should also help personalize conventional treatments for binge-eating and obesity toward improved outcomes. PMID:25169880

  18. A comparison of the accuracy of self reported intake vs. measured intake of a laboratory overeating episode in obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose was to: 1) Confirm that those with binge eating disorder (BED) consume significantly more kilocalories (kcal) than obese controls when instructed to overeat in the laboratory and 2) Compare dietary recall data with measured intake. Methods: Fifteen women fulfilling BED criteria and 17 c...

  19. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  20. A Comment on "T2QM (Teaching and Total Quality Management) for Medical Teachers" by R.G. Bing-You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinster, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to R.G. Bing-You's argument for the application of total quality management (TQM) techniques to medical teaching. Argues that attempts to apply TQM to medical education are fundamentally flawed because medical education is not an intrinsically commercial transition. (DDR)

  1. Daily and Momentary Mood and Stress Are Associated with Binge Eating and Vomiting in Bulimia Nervosa Patients in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Heron, Kristin E.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Engel, Scott G.

    2007-01-01

    The relation of mood and stress to binge eating and vomiting in the natural environments of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) was examined using real-time data collection. Women (n = 131; mean age = 25.3 years) with BN carried a palmtop computer for 2 weeks and completed ratings of positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), anger/hostility (AH),…

  2. A Cognitive- Behavioral Therapeutic Program for Patients with Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short- and Long- Term Follow-Up Data of a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…

  3. Differential neural correlates of set-shifting in the bingeing-purging and restrictive subtypes of anorexia nervosa : An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Autreve, Sara; De Baene, W.; Baeken, Chris; van Heeringen, Kees; Vancayseele, Nikita; Vervaet, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    In this study, possible differences in the neural correlates of set-shifting abilities between the restrictive (AN-R) and bingeing/purging (AN-BP) subtypes of anorexia nervosa have been explored. Three groups of participants performed a set-shifting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging:

  4. Binge eating disorder, anxiety, depression and body image in grade III obesity patients Compulsão alimentar periódica, ansiedade, depressão e imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel R Matos; Luciana S Aranha; Alessandra N. Faria; Sandra R.G. Ferreira; Josué Bacaltchuck; Maria Teresa Zanella

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE), anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. METHOD: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F) with Body Mass Index (BMI) between 40 and 81.7 Kg/m² (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg/m²) and aging from 18 to 56 years (mean 38.5±9.7). Used instruments: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns ¾ Rev...

  5. The role of weight self-stigma on the quality of life of women with overweight and obesity: A multi-group comparison between binge eaters and non-binge eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Lara; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cunha, Marina

    2016-10-01

    Weight self-stigma is conceptualized as a multidimensional concept involving experiences of shame, self-devaluation and the perception of being discriminated against in social situations due to one's weight. It has been associated with experiential avoidance, unhealthy eating behaviors, binge eating and diminish quality-of-life (QoL). The current study aims to explore the mediation effect of weight-related experiential avoidance on the relationship between weight self-stigma and obesity-related QoL in women with and without binge eating (BE). The sample comprised 282 women with overweight or obesity, from which 100 presented BE symptoms. Sample's mean age was 44.24 years (SD = 11.30), with a mean BMI of 31.40 kg/m(2) (SD = 4.53). Participants completed a set of self-reported measures regarding BE symptoms, weight self-stigma, weight-related experiential avoidance and QoL. Results from path analysis supported the mediation of weight-related experiential avoidance on the relationship between weight self-stigma and QoL, even when controlling for BMI. The model accounted 58% of QoL variance. Furthermore, the multi-group analysis revealed that the model was not invariant for both groups. The analysis of the critical ratios showed that the path from weight-related experiential avoidance to QoL was stronger for the BE group. Also the model only explained 39% of QoL for the group without BE and 65% of QoL for the BE group. This study highlights the pervasive role of weigh self-stigma, particularly fear of being discriminated and weigh-related experiential avoidance on obesity-related quality-of-life, especially for those women with BE. Additionally, it supports that interventions should focus not only in weight loss but also in improving individual's QoL, promoting the development of adaptive emotional regulation strategies. PMID:27423819

  6. From big bang to bing bang - From the origin of the universe to the origin of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.

    An outline is given of the evolution of the Galaxy between the Big Bang and the Bing Bang (explosions of supernovae billions of years ago, providing materials and possibly the impetus for the formation of the solar system). During the long interval prior to the birth of the sun, the Galaxy evolved by converting gas to stars and by enriching the gas with heavy elements created in the stars. Some radioactive nuclides suggest that the interval between their production in stellar sources and the accumulation of planets of at least a few kilometers in size was only a few million years. The formation of the sun may have taken place in a stellar association and may have been preceded immediately by SN-type explosions, which may even have been the triggering mechanism of the formation process.

  7. Ovarian Hormone Influences on Dysregulated Eating: A Comparison of Associations in Women with versus without Binge Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Racine, Sarah E; Hildebrandt, Britny; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Sisk, Cheryl L; Boker, Steven; Keel, Pamela K

    2014-09-01

    Changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle. However, prior studies have not examined whether the nature of associations varies across dysregulated eating severity. The current study determined whether the strength and/or nature of hormone/dysregulated eating associations differ based on the presence of clinically diagnosed binge episodes (BEs). Participants included 28 women with BEs and 417 women without BEs who provided salivary hormone samples, ratings of emotional eating, and BE frequency for 45 days. Results revealed stronger associations between dysregulated eating and ovarian hormones in women with BEs as compared to women without BEs. The nature of associations also differed, as progesterone moderated the effects of lower estradiol levels on dysregulated eating in women with BEs only. Although hormone/dysregulated eating associations are present across the spectrum of pathology, the nature of associations may vary in ways that have implications for etiological models and treatment. PMID:25343062

  8. Chronic subordination stress induces hyperphagia and disrupts eating behavior in mice modeling binge-eating-like disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRazzoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are associated with physical morbidity and appear to have causal factors like stressful life events and negative affect. Binge eating disorder (BED is characterized by eating in a discrete period of time a larger than normal amount of food, a sense of lack of control over eating, and marked distress. There are still unmet needs for the identification of mechanisms regulating excessive eating, which is in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. We developed a naturalistic murine model of subordination stress induced hyperphagia associated with the development of obesity. Here we tested the hypotheses that the eating responses of subordinate mice recapitulate the BED and that limiting hyperphagia could prevent stress-associated metabolic changes. Methods: Adult male mice were exposed to a model of chronic subordination stress associated with the automated acquisition of food intake and we performed a detailed meal pattern analysis. Additionally, using a pair-feeding protocol was test the hypothesis that the manifestation of obesity and the metabolic syndrome could be prevented by limiting hyperphagia. Results: The architecture of feeding of subordinate mice was disrupted during the stress protocol due to disproportionate amount of food ingested at higher rate and with shorter satiety ratio than control mice. Subordinate mice hyperphagia was further exacerbated in response to either hunger or to the acute application of a social defeat. Notably, the obese phenotype but not the fasting hyperglycemia of subordinate mice was abrogated by preventing hyperphagia in a pair feeding paradigm. Conclusion: Overall these results support the validity of our chronic subordination stress to model binge eating disorder allowing for the determination of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the generation of testable predictions for innovative therapies, based on the understanding of the regulation and the control of food

  9. Social defeat stress in rats: Escalation of cocaine and “speedball” binge self-administration, but not heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fabio C.; Quadros, Isabel M.; Hogenelst, Koen; Planeta, Cleopatra S.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Exposure to intermittent episodes of social defeat stress can increase drug seeking and leads to intense drug taking in rats. Objectives This study investigated the consequences of repeated, intermittent social defeat stress on patterns of drug self-administration in rats with access to heroin, cocaine, or a heroin-cocaine combination (“speedball”). Methods Male Long-Evans rats were either handled (controls) or subjected to 25 min social defeat stress episodes on days 1, 4, 7 and 10 during confrontations with an aggressive resident. Ten days following the last defeat, rats were assessed for locomotor cross-sensitization in response to heroin or cocaine. Animals were then prepared with intrajugular catheters for drug self-administration. Separate groups of controls and defeated rats were examined for self-administration of heroin (Experiment 1), a heroin-cocaine combination (Experiment 2), or cocaine (Experiment 3). Drug self-administration patterns were evaluated using fixed or progressive ratio schedules (FR, PR respectively) of reinforcement during limited access sessions or a 24-h unlimited access binge. Results Rats with a history of intermittent social defeat stress showed sensitized locomotor behavior when challenged with heroin or cocaine relative to controls. During the 24-h binge session, defeated rats escalated cocaine taking behavior (ca. 110 mg/kg vs. 66 mg/kg in controls), persisted in self-administering cocaine or the heroin-cocaine mixture for more hours, and showed a tendency for increased heroin-cocaine intake, but no effects on heroin taking. Conclusions A history of social defeat stress seems to preferentially promote escalated intake of cocaine but not heroin, unless a heroin-cocaine combination is available. PMID:21197616

  10. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Berner, Laura A.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets...

  11. The iTreAD project: a study protocol for a randomised controlled clinical trial of online treatment and social networking for binge drinking and depression in young people

    OpenAIRE

    Kay-Lambkin, F. J.; Baker, A L; Geddes, J.; Hunt, S. A.; Woodcock, K. L.; Teesson, M.; Oldmeadow, C; Lewin, T.J.; Bewick, B. M.; Brady, K; Spring, B; Deady, M.; Barrett, E.; Thornton, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and binge drinking behaviours are common clinical problems, which cause substantial functional, economic and health impacts. These conditions peak in young adulthood, and commonly co-occur. Comorbid depression and binge drinking are undertreated in young people, who are reluctant to seek help via traditional pathways to care. The iTreAD project (internet Treatment for Alcohol and Depression) aims to provide and evaluate internet-delivered monitoring and treatment program...

  12. High preoperative depression, phobic anxiety, and binge eating scores and low medium-term weight loss in sleeve gastrectomy obese patients: a preliminary cohort study. : Psychiatric factors and weight loss in obesity surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Brunault, Paul; Jacobi, David; Miknius, Vaïda; Bourbao-Tournois, Céline; Huten, Noël; Gaillard, Philippe; Couet, Charles; Camus, Vincent; Ballon, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although depression, anxiety, and binge eating are prevalent in candidates for bariatric surgery, their impact on weight loss is unknown following sleeve gastrectomy. This study assesses the associations between weight loss and preoperative depression, anxiety, and binge eating scores in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity. METHOD: This cohort study included 34 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity between May 2006 and February 2010 in a...

  13. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem among treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. PMID:24852114

  14. Complex motivated behaviors for natural rewards following a binge-like regimen of morphine administration: mixed phenotypes of anhedonia and craving after short-term withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Yunjing eBai; Yingying eLi; Yaodi eLv; Zhengkui eLiu; Xigeng eZheng

    2014-01-01

    The anhedonia-like behaviors following about 1-week withdrawal from morphine were examined in the present study. Male rats were pretreated with either a binge-like morphine paradigm or daily saline injection for 5 days. Three types of natural reward were used, food reward (2.5, 4, 15, 30, 40, and 60% sucrose solutions), social reward (male rat) and sexual reward (estrous female rat). For each type of natural stimulus, consummatory behavior and motivational behaviors under varied testing condi...

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant promotes intestinal barrier function, balances Treg and TH17 cells and ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic-binge alcohol feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Cong; Xu, Lan-Man; Du, Shan-Jie; Huang, Si-Si; Wu, He; Dong, Jia-Jia; Huang, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Wen-Ke; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-22

    Impaired intestinal barrier function plays a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic injury, and the subsequent excessive absorbed endotoxin and bacterial translocation activate the immune response that aggravates the liver injury. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant (LGG-s) has been suggested to improve intestinal barrier function and alleviate the liver injury induced by chronic and binge alcohol consumption, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, chronic-binge alcohol fed model was used to determine the effects of LGG-s on the prevention of alcoholic liver disease in C57BL/6 mice and investigate underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% alcohol for 10 days, and one dose of alcohol was gavaged on Day 11. In one group, LGG-s was supplemented along with alcohol. Control mice were fed isocaloric diet. Nine hours later the mice were sacrificed for analysis. Chronic-binge alcohol exposure induced an elevation in liver enzymes, steatosis and morphology changes, while LGG-s supplementation attenuated these changes. Treatment with LGG-s significantly improved intestinal barrier function reflected by increased mRNA expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and villus-crypt histology in ileum, and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein level in liver. Importantly, flow cytometry analysis showed that alcohol reduced Treg cell population while increased TH17 cell population as well as IL-17 secretion, which was reversed by LGG-s administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate that LGG-s is effective in preventing chronic-binge alcohol exposure-induced liver injury and shed a light on the importance of the balance of Treg and TH17 cells in the role of LGG-s application. PMID:26617183

  16. Chronic binge-like alcohol consumption in adolescence causes depression-like symptoms possibly mediated by the effects of BDNF on neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Teresita L.; Woods, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigated whether changes in neurogenesis and BDNF expression are possible mechanisms involved in the depression-like symptom during the withdrawal/abstinence period after chronic binge-pattern alcohol consumption given the limited number of studies addressing the link between these factors in the adolescent brain. Forty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study and the experimental protocol started when rats were 25-days old. Rats were assigned to either: (a) ethanol o...

  17. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem Among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variabl...

  18. Significance of Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Undue influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation — referred to as overvaluation — is a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge-eating disorder (BED). This study examined overvaluation of shape/weight in ethnically diverse obese patients with BED seeking treatment in primary care. Participants were a consecutive series of 142 (105 female and 37 male) participants with BED; 43% were Caucasian, 37% were African-American, 13% were Hispanic-American...

  19. Suprathreshold Duloxetine for Treatment-Resistant Depression, Anorexia Nervosa Binge-Purging type, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Safer, Debra L.; Arnow, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Duloxetine, a serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) indicated for the treatment of depression, is used for off-label purposes such as treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder, bulimia, and binge eating disorder. Although establishing a dose-response relationship for antidepressants in the treatment of depression is difficult, it is possible that for certain patterns of comorbidity, suprathreshold doses may be important to achieve remission. There is currently a paucity o...

  20. The socio-economic effects of binge drinking on support networks in the North-West Province : a social perspective / B.M.P. Setlalentoa

    OpenAIRE

    Setlalentoa, Boitumelo Marilyn Patience

    2009-01-01

    Binge drinking as one of the alcohol consumption patterns, affects the quality of life of the drinker, significant others and the society in general. It contributes to negative social, economic and health effects on social support networks. This sub-study of the five year trans-disciplinary Alcohol study analysed the existing quantitative data of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The broad aim of the Alcohol study is to gain a better understanding of the alcohol c...

  1. Affective decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in 10th grade Chinese adolescent binge drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C Anderson; Xiao, Lin; Palmer, Paula; Sun, Ping; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Bechara, Antoine

    2008-01-31

    The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescent binge drinkers, but not lighter drinkers, would show signs of impairment on tasks of affective decision-making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT), when compared to adolescents who never drank. We tested 207 10th grade adolescents in Chengdu City, China, using two versions of the IGT, the original and a variant, in which the reward/punishment contingencies were reversed. This enables one to distinguish among different possibilities of impaired decision-making, such as insensitivity to long-term consequences, or hypersensitivity to reward. Furthermore, we tested working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Paper and pencil questionnaires were used to assess drinking behaviors and school academic performance. Results indicated that relative to never-drinkers, adolescent binge drinkers, but not other (ever, past 30-day) drinkers, showed significantly lower net scores on the original version of the IGT especially in the latter trials. Furthermore, the profiles of behavioral performance from the original and variant versions of the IGT were consistent with a decision-making impairment attributed to hypersensitivity to reward. In addition, working memory and school academic performance revealed no differences between drinkers (at all levels) and never-drinkers. Logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for demographic variables, working memory, and school academic performance, the IGT significantly predicted binge-drinking. These findings suggest that a "myopia" for future consequences linked to hypersensitivity to reward is a key characteristic of adolescents with binge-drinking behavior, and that underlying neural mechanisms for this "myopia" for future consequences may serve as a predisposing factor that renders some adolescents more susceptible to future addictive behaviors. PMID:17996909

  2. Targeting binge eating through components of dialectical behavior therapy: preliminary outcomes for individually supported diary card self-monitoring versus group-based DBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Angela S; Skinner, Jeremy B; Hawley, Kristin M

    2013-12-01

    The current study examined two condensed adaptations of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for binge eating. Women with full- or sub-threshold variants of either binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa were randomly assigned to individually supported self-monitoring using adapted DBT diary cards (DC) or group-based DBT, each 15 sessions over 16 weeks. DC sessions focused on problem-solving diary card completion issues, praising diary card completion, and supporting nonjudgmental awareness of eating-related habits and urges, but not formally teaching DBT skills. Group-based DBT included eating mindfulness, progressing through graded exposure; mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills; and coaching calls between sessions. Both treatments evidenced large and significant improvements in binge eating, bulimic symptoms, and interoceptive awareness. For group-based DBT, ineffectiveness, drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and perfectionism also decreased significantly, with medium to large effect sizes. For DC, results were not significant but large in effect size for body dissatisfaction and medium in effect size for ineffectiveness and drive for thinness. Retention for both treatments was higher than recent trends for eating disorder treatment in fee-for-service practice and for similar clinic settings, but favored DC, with the greater attrition of group-based DBT primarily attributed to its more intensive and time-consuming nature, and dropout overall associated with less pretreatment impairment and greater interoceptive awareness. This preliminary investigation suggests that with both abbreviated DBT-based treatments, substantial improvement in core binge eating symptoms is possible, enhancing potential avenues for implementation beyond more time-intensive DBT. PMID:24295464

  3. Vokale Ausdrucksmuster im Kontext von Star-Images und kulturellen Stereotypen : eine exemplarische Analyse der Vokalstile von Bert Williams und Bing Crosby

    OpenAIRE

    Hähnel, Tilo

    2014-01-01

    Assuming that star images are interrelated with cultural stereotypes, the present article analyses vocal expression as a means to shape both, images and stereotypes, and control their relationship. An investigation into the vocal style of blackface comedian Bert Williams exemplifies how vocal expression counterpoints a stage persona in a way that allows the star persona to shine through. Bing Crosby is used as a second example to show how vocal expression is related to star images and stereot...

  4. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex. PMID:26428091

  5. Epistatic interactions involving DRD2, DRD4, and COMT polymorphisms and risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Howard; Thaler, Lea; Gauvin, Lise; Joober, Ridha; Labbe, Aurelie; Israel, Mimi; Kucer, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Substance abuse is common in individuals with bulimia-spectrum (binge-purge) eating disturbances, a co-occurrence that has been attributed to shared neurobiological substrates--notably alterations in dopaminergic activity. We examined the implications of variations of selected, dopamine-relevant polymorphisms (DRD2 Taq1A, DRD4 7R, and COMT) for risk of substance abuse in women with binge-purge eating syndromes. We genotyped 183 women (66.1% showing full-threshold BN and 33.9% showing sub-syndromic variants), and assessed lifetime presence of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and stimulant abuse or dependence using structured interviews. Tests for main and interaction effects of various allele combinations revealed that individuals who carried high function COMT and low-function DRD4 7R alleles (a combination expected to be associated with higher risk) did indeed show more lifetime substance abuse and, specifically, more cannabis abuse. Our findings suggest that a gene combination that, in theory, codes for low levels of dopaminergic neurotransmission coincides with sensitivity to substance abuse in a sample displaying binge-purge eating-disorder variants. PMID:26950642

  6. Differential caloric intake in overweight females with and without binge eating: effects of a laboratory-based emotion-regulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, J; Tuschen-Caffier, B; Trentowska, M; Caffier, D; Naumann, E

    2014-05-01

    Negative emotions are among the best predictors for the occurrence of binge eating attacks in binge eating disorder (BED). Evidence from self-report and experimental studies suggests that this link may be mediated by deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to experimentally test the effects of a short laboratory-based ER training on caloric intake in BED. Thirty-nine women with BED and 42 overweight females without BED were randomly assigned to a laboratory-based ER training focusing on either expressive suppression or cognitive reappraisal. They were then given a negative mood induction with the instruction to adopt the learned ER strategy, which was followed by a bogus taste-test. Independent of group membership, caloric intake was significantly higher in the suppression compared to the reappraisal condition. Furthermore, the BED group displayed significantly higher habitual suppression and significantly lower habitual reappraisal scores than the overweight group. The data suggest that therapeutic interventions focusing on the mediation of more adaptive affect-regulation skills may be useful for the reduction of binge eating episodes. PMID:24650627

  7. A Cognitive-Behavioural Program (One Day a Week for Patients With Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder: Short-Term Follow-up Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Adriaens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative cognitive behavioural program for the treatment of patients with binge eating disorder in the University Psychiatric Center K.U. Leuven Campus Kortenberg in Belgium. The program runs one day a week during 6 months and consists of 24 sessions. The most important therapeutic goals are: (1 normalization of eating habits and stopping the binge eating episodes; (2 promoting physical activity and a positive body experience; (3 learning specific skills such as assertivity, installing a functional self-evaluation system; learning to identify, tolerate and express negative emotions, promoting self-esteem and prevention of relapse. Overall, the goal is to promote both physical and psychological well-being and quality of life. Some preliminary research data on the effectiveness of this program are described. Despite a rather limited weight loss, the number of binges per week decreased significantly, which was the main therapeutic goal of the treatment. Furthermore, the results show some promising improvements on different psychological parameters in BED patients.

  8. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  9. The Role of Non-suicidal Self-Injury and Binge-Eating/Purging Behaviours in the Caregiving Experience Among Mothers and Fathers of Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depestele, Lies; Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Dierckx, Eva; Baetens, Imke; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the caregiving experiences of mothers and fathers of restrictive and binge-eating/purging eating disordered (ED) inpatients with and without non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Sixty-five mothers and 65 fathers completed the Experience of Caregiving Inventory. All inpatients completed the Self-Injury Questionnaire-Treatment Related to assess NSSI and the Eating Disorder Evaluation Scale to assess eating disorder symptoms. Mothers reported significant more negative and more positive caregiving experiences compared with fathers. Mothers (but not fathers) of restrictive ED patients reported more positive caregiving experiences compared with mothers of binge-eating/purging patients. The presence of NSSI in ED patients was associated with more negative caregiving experiences of both parents. Mothers and fathers of ED inpatients differ in caregiving experiences, and both binge-eating behaviours and NSSI negatively affect their caregiving experience. Therefore, supportive interventions for parents of ED patients are necessary, especially of those patients who engage in NSSI. PMID:26640156

  10. Binge Drinking Associations with Patrons' Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Effects after Leaving a Nightclub: Sex Differences in the "Balada com Ciencia" Portal Survey Study in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M Sanchez

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of binge drinking detected at the exit of nightclubs and risk behaviors and alcohol effects just after leaving the venue in a representative sample of Brazilian nightclub patrons according to sex. For this purpose, a portal survey study called Balada com Ciência was conducted in 2013 in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, using a two-stage cluster sampling survey design. Individual-level data were collected in 2422 subjects at the entrance and 1822 subjects at the exit of 31 nightclubs, and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC was measured using a breathalyzer. The following day, 1222 patrons answered an online follow-up survey that included questions about risk behaviors and alcohol effects practiced just after leaving the nightclub. Weighted logistic regressions were used to analyze binge drinking associated with risk behaviors by sex. For both sexes, the most prevalent risk behaviors practiced after leaving a nightclub were drinking and driving (men=27.9%; women=20.4%, the use of illicit drugs (men=15.8%; women=9.4% and risky sexual behavior (men=11.4%; women=6.8%. The practice of binge drinking increased the behavior of illicit drug use after leaving the nightclub by 2.54 times [95% CI: 1.26-5.09] among men who drank and increased the risk of an episode of new alcohol use by 5.80 times [95% CI: 1.50-22.44] among women who drank. Alcoholic blackouts were more prevalent among men [OR=8.92; 95% CI: 3.83-20.80] and women [OR= 5.31; 95% CI: 1.68-16.84] whose BrAC was equivalent to binge drinking compared with patrons with a lower BrAC. Public policies aiming to reduce patrons' BrAC at the exit of nightclubs, such as staff training in responsible beverage service and legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals, would be useful to protect patrons from the risk behaviors associated with binge drinking in nightclubs.

  11. Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in morbidity obese candidates for bariatric surgery with and without binge eating disorder

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    V. Abilés

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze changes in the general and specific psychopathology of morbidly obese bariatric surgery (BS candidates after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and assess differences between patients with and without binge eating disorder (BED and between patients with obesity grades III and IV, studying their influence on weight loss. Methods: 110 consecutive morbidly obese BS candidates [77 females; aged 41 ± 9 yrs; body mass index 49.1 ± 9.0 kg/m²] entered a three-month CBT program (12 two-hour sessions before BS. Participants were assessed with general and specific psychopathology tests pre-and post-CBT. Data were analyzed according to the degree of obesity and presence/absence of BED. Results: At baseline, BED patients were more anxious and depressive with lower self-esteem and quality of life versus non-BED patients (p 10% in 61%, with no intergroup differences. Conclusions: CBT is effective to treat psychological comorbidity in BS candidates, regardless of the presence of BED and degree of obesity.

  12. Calorie estimation accuracy and menu labeling perceptions among individuals with and without binge eating and/or purging disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Haynos, Ann F; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D; White, Marney A

    2013-09-01

    Menu labeling is a public health policy that requires chain restaurants in the USA to post kilocalorie information on their menus to help consumers make informed choices. However, there is concern that such a policy might promote disordered eating. This web-based study compared individuals with self-reported binge eating disorder (N = 52), bulimia nervosa (N = 25), and purging disorder (N = 17) and those without eating disorders (No ED) (N = 277) on restaurant calorie information knowledge and perceptions of menu labeling legislation. On average, people answered 1.46 ± 1.08 questions correctly (out of 6) (25%) on a calorie information quiz and 92% of the sample was in favor of menu labeling. The findings did not differ based on eating disorder, dieting, or weight status, or race/ethnicity. The results indicated that people have difficulty estimating the calories in restaurant meals and individuals with and without eating disorders are largely in favor of menu labeling laws. PMID:23760909

  13. Influence of negative affect on decision making in women with restrictive and binge-purge type anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Unna N; Sternheim, Lot; Bijsterbosch, Jojanneke M; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Evers, Catharine; van Elburg, Annemarie A

    2016-05-30

    The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All women were asked to watch either a negative or a control film fragment, both followed by the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT). Before and after the fragments negative affect was measured. Additionally, relevant characteristics (e.g., overall depressive symptoms) were assessed. Differences in negative affect did not influence decision making performance. Independent of affective state, decision making was found to be impaired in women with ANBP (no learning effect on the BGT), but not in women with ANR. These findings highlight the importance of considering different AN subtypes when examining decision making processes. However, the role of negative affect on decision making remains uncertain. Since other affect related factors such as affect dysregulation may also play a role, future studies on decision making in AN should take the role of affect into account. PMID:27137960

  14. Specificity of psychological treatments for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder? A meta-analysis of direct comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmans, Glen I; Benish, Steven G; Marin, Catherine; Bowman, Wesley M; Menster, Maria; Wheeler, Anthony J

    2013-04-01

    Treatment guidelines state that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy are the best-supported psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa (BN) and that CBT is the preferred psychological treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). However, no meta-analysis which both examined direct comparisons between psychological treatments for BN and BED and considered the role of moderating variables, such as the degree to which psychotherapy was bona fide, has previously been conducted Thus, such an analysis was undertaken. We included 77 comparisons reported in 53 studies. The results indicated that: (a) bona fide therapies outperformed non-bona fide treatments, (b) bona fide CBT outperformed bona fide non-CBT interventions by a statistically significant margin (only approaching statistical significance for BN and BED when examined individually), but many of these trials had confounds which limited their internal validity, (c) full CBT treatments offered no benefit over their components, and (d) the distribution of effect size differences between bona fide CBT treatments was homogeneously distributed around zero. These findings provide little support for treatment specificity in psychotherapy for BN and BED. PMID:23454220

  15. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with simultaneous nutritional and physical activity education in obese patients with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, M; Amati, F; Painot, D; Reiner, M; Haenni, C; Golay, A

    2004-06-01

    An important problem with obese patients suffering from binge eating disorders (BED) is to treat their dysfunctional eating patterns while initiating a weight loss. We propose to assess a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity program. Our purpose is to verify that the addition of a nutritional and a physical program leads to a significant weight loss and enables psychological improvement. The patients (n=61) participated in a 12 weekly sessions group treatment of either a purely cognitive-behavioral therapy, or a cognitive-behavioral therapy associated to a nutritional approach mainly focused on fat restriction, or to a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with a nutritional and a physical activity approach. The mean weight loss is significant (pDepression scores decrease in the three approaches, anxiety (pEating disorders improved significantly in all three approaches even if improvements in subscales seem more important in the combined approach. Finally, exercise seems to be a positive addition to the nutritional cognitive-behavioral therapy since it decreases negative mood, improves eating disorders and leads to an effective body weight loss. PMID:15330081

  16. [Neurocognitive anomalies associated with the binge drinking pattern of alcohol consumption in adolescents and young people: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Velasquez, Teresa; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is the most common problematic drinking pattern during adolescence and youth. At the same time, it is a period marked by profound structural and functional brain changes, which may be affected by heavy alcohol consumption. In recent years, a considerable number of studies that attempt to characterize the effects of BD on the brain has been published. However, to date there is not any critical review in Spanish language on neurostructural, neurophysiological and cognitive consequences that may result from the maintenance of a BD pattern of alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth. The purpose of this review is to critically summarize the main research results on the effects of BD on the brain. To this end, a literature search in databases Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycINFO for the period 2000-2013 was performed. In general, studies agree that BD is associated with 1) lower performance on tasks assessing cognitive processes such as attention, memory and executive functions, 2) structural changes (in white matter and gray matter) in different brain regions and 3) neurophysiological abnormalities (hyper/hypoactivation) linked to different cognitive processes. These results, although still need to be contrasted, warn about important consequences that could result from the persistence of BD on a young and still maturing brain. PMID:25578003

  17. Examining the effect of binge eating and disinhibition on compensatory changes in energy balance following exercise among overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Rebecca L; Levine, Michele D; Jakicic, John M

    2016-08-01

    Some women behaviorally compensate for the energy expended during exercise by increasing their energy intake or becoming more sedentary, thereby decreasing their energy expenditure. Although behavioral compensation can attenuate or even reverse the energy deficit generated by exercise, few data are available on predictors of compensatory responses to exercise. The present study aimed to identify eating-related predictors of compensatory changes in energy balance following exercise. Overweight and obese, physically inactive women (N=48) completed self-report measures of disinhibition and binge eating and participated in two experimental conditions, exercise and rest, in counterbalanced order. Energy intake and expenditure were measured for 24-hours following each experimental condition to estimate energy balance. On average, women were 21.33±2.09years old and 63% were white. Of the sample, 63% compensated for the energy expended during exercise by increasing their energy intake or decreasing their energy expenditure. Linear mixed effects modeling with repeated measurement showed that disinhibition was not predictive of behavioral compensation. However, there was a significant difference between the negative energy balance observed following the rest condition and the positive energy balance observed following the exercise condition among women who reported binge eating, which was driven by a tendency to spend less time being physically active and more time being sedentary following exercise. These findings indicate that women who binge eat may be at greatest risk of compensating for exercise. Future research is needed to better understand psychosocial predictors and common mechanisms through which behavioral compensation is promoted. PMID:27064752

  18. Nutrigenomics of Neuradaptogen Amino-Acid-Therapy and Neurometabolic Optimizers: Overcoming carbohydrate bingeing and overeating through neurometabolic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Braverman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of obesity, the epidemic continues to rise worldwide. While pharmacological treatment of obesity may be effective, medications may have significant side effects and can be potentially fatal. This review will provide significant evidence to substantiate the existence of Reward Deficiency Syndrome in Obesity and the role of catecholaminergic pathways in aberrant substance seeking behavior, in particular cravings for carbohydrates. The genetic basis for generalized craving behavior will be established. Evidence to support the augmentation of precursor amino acid therapy and enkephalinase, MOA and COMT inhibition leading to enhanced levels of neurotransmitters: serotonin, enkephalins, GABA and dopamine/norepinephrine as well increasing insulin sensitivity (affecting dopamineFunctional Foods in Health and Disease: 9:310-378neuronal synthesis regulation through the use of certain neurometabolic optimizers will also be provided. This review article cites many published studies to support a conceptual paradigm shift towards the use of this proposed nutrigenomic formula. The analysis and research preceding this formulation is outlined. This formulation has a generalized anti-craving effect and can inhibit carbohydrate bingeing, inducing significant healthy fat loss and prevention of relapse. This is the first time that components of this formula have been combined, at the dosage levels indicated with the goal of promoting successful and sustainable body recomposition. We are encouraging other laboratories to further evaluate Neuroadtagen Amino-Acid Therapy (NAAT/Nurometabolic optimizers as a putative anti-obesity complex in larger controlled blinded studies and await interpretation of must these needed studies.

  19. Interpersonal learning is associated with improved self-esteem in group psychotherapy for women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group. PMID:23398038

  20. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethano...

  1. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Selective and Sustained Attention in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Landrø, Nils Inge;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... consumption, age, body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures  TEACh-5 attention scores. Results  There were no significant effects on test performance in children of mothers...

  2. A cognitive-behavioural therapeutic program for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder: short- and long term follow-up data of a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5 years after the start of the CBT treatment) was used. A total of 56 patients with obesity and BED (age = 39.7 ± 10-9 years; body mass index [BMI] = 38.5...

  3. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge-like ethanol

  4. Bulimia Nervosa und Binge Eating Disorder unter extrem adipösen Jugendlichen, und Prädiktoren des Langzeiterfolgs einer konventionellen stationären Langzeittherapie von extremer Adipositas im Jugendalter

    OpenAIRE

    Mieg, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Einleitung 5 1.1 Beschreibung des Krankheitsbildes 7 1.1.1 Was ist eine Essstörung ? 7 1.1.2 Historische Gesichtspunkte 9 1.1.3 Klinisches Bild 10 1.1.3.1 Essattacken (Binge Eating) 10 1.1.3.2 Gegensteuernde Maßnahmen 13 1.1.3.3 Weitere medizinische Aspekte/Komplikationen 15 1.1.4 Klassifikation und Diagnose 18 1.1.4.1 Diagnosekriterien für Bulimia Nervosa und Binge Eating Disorder 18 1.1.4.2 Atypische Essstör...

  5. Virtual Reality for Enhancing the Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Obesity With Binge Eating Disorder: Randomized Controlled Study With One-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Gian Luca; Bacchetta, Monica; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Conti, Sara; Gaggioli, Andrea; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Molinari, Enrico; Cárdenas-López, Georgina; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research identifies unhealthful weight-control behaviors (fasting, vomiting, or laxative abuse) induced by a negative experience of the body, as the common antecedents of both obesity and eating disorders. In particular, according to the allocentric lock hypothesis, individuals with obesity may be locked to an allocentric (observer view) negative memory of the body that is no longer updated by contrasting egocentric representations driven by perception. In other words, these patients may be locked to an allocentric negative representation of their body that their sensory inputs are no longer able to update even after a demanding diet and a significant weight loss. Objective To test the brief and long-term clinical efficacy of an enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy including a virtual reality protocol aimed at unlocking the negative memory of the body (ECT) in morbidly obese patients with binge eating disorders (BED) compared with standard cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and an inpatient multimodal treatment (IP) on weight loss, weight loss maintenance, BED remission, and body satisfaction improvement, including psychonutritional groups, a low-calorie diet (1200 kcal/day), and physical training. Methods 90 obese (BMI>40) female patients with BED upon referral to an obesity rehabilitation center were randomly assigned to conditions (31 to ECT, 30 to CBT, and 29 to IP). Before treatment completion, 24 patients discharged themselves from hospital (4 in ECT, 10 in CBT, and 10 in IP). The remaining 66 inpatients received either 15 sessions of ECT, 15 sessions of CBT, or no additional treatment over a 5-week usual care inpatient regimen (IP). ECT and CBT treatments were administered by 3 licensed psychotherapists, and patients were blinded to conditions. At start, upon completion of the inpatient treatment, and at 1-year follow-up, patients' weight, number of binge eating episodes during the previous month, and body satisfaction were assessed by self

  6. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure alters brain and systemic responses to reach sodium and water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, A; Abate, P; Amigone, J L; Vivas, L; Molina, J C

    2015-12-17

    The aim of the present work is to analyze how prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure to a moderate dose (2.0 g/kg; group Pre-EtOH) during gestational days (GD) 17-20 affects hydroelectrolyte regulatory responses. This type of exposure has been observed to increase ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal day 30-32). In this study we analyzed basal brain neural activity and basal-induced sodium appetite (SA) and renal response stimulated by sodium depletion (SD) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption as a function of vehicle or ethanol during late pregnancy. In adolescent offspring, SD was induced by furosemide and a low-sodium diet treatment (FURO+LSD). Other animals were analyzed in terms of immunohistochemical detection of Fra-like (Fra-LI-ir) protein and serotonin (5HT) and/or vasopressin (AVP). The Pre-EtOH group exhibited heightened voluntary ethanol intake and a reduction in sodium and water intake induced by SD relative to controls. Basal Na and K concentrations in urine were also reduced in Pre-EtOH animals while the induced renal response after FURO treatment was similar across prenatal treatments. However, the correlation between urine volume and water intake induced by FURO significantly varied across these treatments. At the brain level of analysis, the number of basal Fra-LI-ir was significantly increased in AVP magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in 5HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in Pre-EtOH pups. In the experimental group, we also observed a significant increase in Fra-LI along the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the central extended amygdala nuclei. In summary, moderate Pre-EtOH exposure produces long-lasting changes in brain organization, affecting basal activity of central extended amygdala nuclei, AVP neurons and the inhibitory areas of SA such as the NTS and the 5HT-DRN. These changes possibly modulate the above described variations in basal-induced drinking behaviors and renal

  7. Aspectos ideativos no transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica: estudo com o Rorschach Ideational aspects of binge eating disorder: study with the Rorschach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Bailoni Martins Passos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pessoas com diagnóstico de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (DSM-IV são descritas como propensas a distúrbios nos processos de pensamento que são relevantes para a manutenção do quadro e para o tratamento. Este é um estudo exploratório visando avaliar o funcionamento cognitivo de sujeitos com o diagnóstico citado, sendo escolhido como instrumento o método de Rorschach, que permite acessar aspectos psicológicos menos sujeitos ao controle consciente do que os aferidos por escalas e auto-relatos. Foram selecionadas variáveis do Rorschach associadas ao funcionamento ideacional. A amostra constitui-se de 43 mulheres (média de 37,2 anos de idade, que, no Rorschach, evidenciam dificuldades na atividade ideativa, com predominância de um nível concreto e imaturo de ideação, perda dos limites da realidade e dos limites entre os eventos. Também há tendência a cognições de tom negativo. O uso defensivo de intelectualizações frágeis predispõe a sobrecargas emocionais. Mas também é observada a capacidade para pensar de forma flexível e construtiva, recurso associado a bom prognóstico em psicoterapias.Subjects with binge eating disorder (DSM-IV have been described as being prone to difficulties in thinking processes which are important for the maintenance of their psychopathological picture and their treatment. To assess the cognitive functioning of subjects diagnosed with binge eating disorder. The design was of an exploratory study, and the elected instrument was the Rorschach method, Comprehensive System, which allows us to access the psychological aspects with less conscious control than self-reports, questionnaires and scales. The selected Rorschach variables were those associated with the ideational functioning. The sample consisted of 43 adult women (mean= 37, 2 years with binge eating disorder. In the Rorschach they showed difficulties in the ideational activity, predominance of a more concrete and immature

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  9. Moderate and Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a pattern of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08 g/dL. This typically occurs after 4 drinks for women and 5 drinks for men—in about 2 hours. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), which conducts ...

  10. Bing Bong Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Tham Yew

    1996-01-01

    The communication style of Asians is less "self exposing" than that of Americans, because Asian culture places more importance on the group than the individual. Integrating American-style adventure-education programs into Asian culture would require an understanding of adventure learning stripped of its cultural influences, understanding of Asian…

  11. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Eating Disorders What Can I Do About Overeating? Body Image and Self-Esteem How Much Food Should I Eat? I Think My Friend May Have an Eating Disorder. What Should I Do? Contact Us Print Resources ...

  12. Removal of Gangue Minerals Containing Major Elements from Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl) Lignite Using a Reverse Flotation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Halime Abakay

    2015-12-01

    The removal of gangue minerals containing major elements was investigated using a reverse flotation method. Experiments were conducted on lignite samples, with high-ash and low-sulphur contents taken from a lignite field in Karlıova-Derinçay (Bingöl), Turkey. Predominant gangue minerals in the samples were found to be quartz, gypsum, feldspar minerals, mica minerals, and clays (smectite group). Preliminary flotation studies showed that gangue materials are more buoyant than the lignite sample. Some parameters that markedly influence the effectiveness of reverse flotation, such as grinding time, pH, collector type and volume, frother type and volume, and salt, were investigated. Quartz was found to cause a major problem in terms of reverse flotation. Flotation measurements showed that anionic collectors in an acidic medium result in the following element reduction order: sulphur trioxide > ferric oxide > magnesium oxide > calcium oxide > silicon dioxide > aluminium oxide.

  13. Self-criticism, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and over-evaluation of shape and weight in binge eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that negative self-evaluations are widely considered to be prominent in eating disorders, the role of self-criticism has received little empirical attention. The vast majority of research on the construct of self-criticism has focused on its role as a specific personality vulnerability factor in depression-related phenomena. In this study of 236 patients with binge eating disorder, confirmatory factor analysis supported self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and over-evaluation of shape and weight as distinct, albeit related, constructs. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the relation between self-criticism and over-evaluation of shape and weight was partly mediated or explained by low self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Continued efforts to understand the role of self-criticism in eating disorders appear warranted. PMID:16530723

  14. The effects of prepubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K.; Koss, Wendy A.; Foreman, Emily S.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long Evans rats around postnatal day (P) 20. From P35–45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5–20% w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  15. The effects of pre-pubertal gonadectomy and binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence on ethanol drinking in adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K; Koss, Wendy A; Foreman, Emily S; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-01-20

    The pubertal surge in gonadal hormones that occurs during adolescence may impact the long-term effects of early alcohol exposure and sex differences in drinking behavior in adulthood. We investigated this hypothesis by performing sham or gonadectomy surgeries in Long-Evans rats around post-natal day (P) 20. From P35-45, males and females were given saline or 3.0 g/kg ethanol using a binge-like model of exposure (8 injections total). As adults (P100), they were trained to self-administer ethanol via a sucrose-fading procedure and then given access to different unsweetened concentrations (5-20%, w/v) for 5 days/concentration. We found that during adolescence, ethanol-induced intoxication was similar in males and females that underwent sham surgery. In gonadectomized males and females, however, the level of intoxication was greater following the last injection compared to the first. During adulthood, females drank more sucrose per body weight than males and binge-like exposure to ethanol reduced sucrose consumption in both sexes. These effects were not seen in gonadectomized rats. Ethanol consumption was higher in saline-exposed females compared to males, with gonadectomy reversing this sex difference by increasing consumption in males and decreasing it in females. Exposure to ethanol during adolescence augmented ethanol consumption in both sexes, but this effect was statistically significant only in gonadectomized females. Together, these results support a role for gonadal hormones during puberty in the short- and long-term effects of ethanol on behavior and in the development of sex differences in consummatory behavior during adulthood. PMID:20816899

  16. Binge ethanol withdrawal: Effects on post-withdrawal ethanol intake, glutamate-glutamine cycle and monoamine tissue content in P rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sujan C; Althobaiti, Yusuf S; Alshehri, Fahad S; Sari, Youssef

    2016-04-15

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a medical emergency situation which appears after abrupt cessation of ethanol intake. Decreased GABA-A function and increased glutamate function are known to exist in the AWS. However, the involvement of glutamate transporters in the context of AWS requires further investigation. In this study, we used a model of ethanol withdrawal involving abrupt cessation of binge ethanol administration (4g/kg/gavage three times a day for three days) using male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. After 48h of withdrawal, P rats were re-exposed to voluntary ethanol intake. The amount of ethanol consumed was measured during post-withdrawal phase. In addition, the expression of GLT-1, GLAST and xCT were determined in both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We also measured glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and the tissue content of glutamate, glutamine, dopamine and serotonin in both mPFC and NAc. We found that binge ethanol withdrawal escalated post-withdrawal ethanol intake, which was associated with downregulation of GLT-1 expression in both mPFC and NAc. The expression of GLAST and xCT were unchanged in the ethanol-withdrawal (EW) group compared to control group. Tissue content of glutamate was significantly lower in both mPFC and NAc, whereas tissue content of glutamine was higher in mPFC but unchanged in NAc in the EW group compared to control group. The GS activity was unchanged in both mPFC and NAc. The tissue content of DA was significantly lower in both mPFC and NAc, whereas tissue content of serotonin was unchanged in both mPFC and NAc. These findings provide important information of the critical role of GLT-1 in context of AWS. PMID:26821293

  17. Effect of repeated ('binge') dosing of MDMA to rats housed at normal and high temperature on neurotoxic damage to cerebral 5-HT and dopamine neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Veronica; O'shea, Esther; Saadat, Kathryn S; Elliott, J Martin; Colado, M Isabel; Green, A Richard

    2004-09-01

    The technique of 'binge' dosing (several doses in one session) by recreational users of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) requires evaluation in terms of its consequences on the acute hyperthermic response and long-term neurotoxicity. We examined the neurotoxic effects of this dosing schedule on 5-HT and dopamine neurones in the rat brain. When repeated (three) doses of MDMA (2, 4 and 6 mg/kg i.p.) were given 3 h apart to rats housed at 19 degrees C, a dose-dependent acute hyperthermia and long-term loss of 5-HT was observed in several brain regions (hippocampus, cortex and striatum), with an approximate 50% loss following 3 x 4 mg/kg and 65% decrease following 3 x 6 mg/kg. No decrease in striatal dopamine content was detected. When MDMA (4 mg/kg i.p.) was given repeatedly to rats housed at 30 degrees C, a larger acute hyperthermic response than that observed in rats treated at 19 degrees C environment was seen (maximum response 2.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C versus 1.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C). A long-term cerebral 5-HT loss of approximately 65% was also detected in both the cortex and hippocampus, but no loss in striatal dopamine content occurred. These data emphasize the increased acute hyperthermic response and neurotoxicity which occurs when MDMA is administered in a hot room environment compared to normal room temperature conditions, and support the view that MDMA is a selective 5-HT neurotoxin, even when a binge dosing schedule is employed and the rats are present in a hot environment. PMID:15358986

  18. The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents' negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:25416025

  19. Uma revisão dos estudos latino-americanos sobre o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica A review of Latin American studies on binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly Amorim Palavras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar o estado de arte da literatura latino-americana sobre o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODO: Foi feita uma busca sobre estudos realizados em países latino-americanos usando-se o termo "binge eating", nas seguintes bases eletrônicas: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO e PsycINFO. O critério de inclusão foi selecionar estudos desenvolvidos com amostras latino-americanas que preencheram critérios parciais ou completos do transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica pelo Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais-4ª Edição. RESULTADOS: Foram rastreados 8.123 artigos e 30 preencheram o critério de inclusão (18 estudos de corte transversal, cinco ensaios clínicos, quatro relatos de casos, dois estudos de validade, um estudo de coorte. A maioria dos estudos foi conduzida no Brasil (27, um na Argentina, um na Colômbia e um na Venezuela. A prevalência de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica em obesos em programas para perda de peso esteve entre 16% e 51,6%. A comparação entre obesos com e sem transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica mostrou uma maior tendência para peso mais alto, oscilação ponderal, preocupação com peso e forma corporal e associação com comorbidades psiquiátricas naqueles com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica mostra-se um fenômeno verificável na América Latina com características clínicas semelhantes às encontradas na literatura internacional. Esta revisão fornece subsídios para que o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica seja considerado uma categoria distinta de transtorno alimentar na Classificação Internacional de Doenças-11ª Edição.OBJECTIVE: To review the state of the art of the scientific literature on binge eating disorder in Latin America. METHOD: A literature search of studies conducted in Latin American countries using the term "binge eating" was performed

  20. 清以前以“禀”为词素的先天体质术语研究%Study on Congenital Constitution Terms Consist of "Bing" Before Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚叙莹; 梁嵘; 李丹溪; 田丁; 王召平; 陈东宁; 王盛花

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the congenital constitution terms consist of "Bing" and connotation in medical books before Qing dynasty. By searching the character "Bing" as a keyword in the Encyclopedia of Tradi-tional Chinese Medicine (TCM), 6480 articles were retrieved. Through reading each of the articles, 9 congenital con-stitution terms were concluded. The results showed that Sui dynasty recorded the earliest congenital constitution term. And till the end of Ming dynasty, altogether 9 terms, which were "Bing Qi", "Bing Zhi", "Bing Shou", "Bing Fu", "Suo Bing", "Fu Bing", "Qi Bing", "Bing Ti" and "Su Bing", appeared in sequence. The terms appeared with high frequency were "Bing Shou" ( 33 . 27%) and "Bing Fu" ( 32 . 99%) . There were 5 congenital constitution relat-ed factors altogether , which were physique , parental heredity , life span , qi and blood as well as region , ap-peared in sequence . And the term appeared with high frequency was physique ( 32.11%) . It was concluded that before Qing dynasty, all congenital constitution terms occurred with the character of "Bing" (endowment). The usage of different terms to state congenital constitution was intended to describe different associated factors . It reflected the understanding of congenital constitution process. The first known congenital constitution factor was not parental heredity but physique . Qi and blood was the second most appeared factor . This indicated that con-genital constitution does not only involve the structure of the body ( physique ) , but also the function of the body (qi and blood). The investigation about congenital constitution of ancient TCM brings a positive practical signifi-cance for the modern health cognition and health maintenance .%目的:对清以前医籍中以“禀”为词素的先天体质术语及其内涵进行研究。方法:以《中华医典》光盘为检索对象,以“禀”为关键字检索,共检索出6480篇,逐篇阅读后

  1. Assessment of executive functions in obese individuals with binge eating disorder Avaliação de funções executivas em indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchesne Monica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess executive functions of obese individuals with binge eating disorder. METHOD: Thirty-eight obese individuals with binge eating disorder were compared to thirty-eight obese controls without binge eating disorder in terms of their executive functions. All individuals were assessed using the following instruments: Digit Span, Trail Making Tests A and B, Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. In addition, four subtests from the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome Battery were also used, namely the Zoo Map Test, the Modified Six Elements Test, the Action Program Test and the Rule Shift Cards Test. RESULTS: When compared to obese controls, obese individuals with binge eating disorder presented significant impairment in the following tests: Digit Span backward, Zoo Map Test, Modified Six Elements Test, and Action Program Test. Subjects with binge eating disorder also showed significant more set shifting and perseverative errors in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. In other measures such as the Digit Span Forward, the Trail Making Test, the Stroop Test and the Rule Shift Cards Test, obese subjects with binge eating disorder did not differ significantly from obese subjects without binge eating disorder. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that, in the present sample, obese individuals with binge eating disorder presented executive deficits, especially impairments relating to problem-solving, cognitive flexibility and working memory.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as funções executivas de indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODO: Trinta e oito indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica foram comparados com 38 controles obesos sem transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica em termos de suas funções executivas. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados utilizando os seguintes instrumentos: Digit Span, Trail

  2. Mothers and Fathers with Binge Eating Disorder and Their 18–36 Months Old Children: A Longitudinal Study on Parent–Infant Interactions and Offspring’s Emotional–Behavioral Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Silvia; Cerniglia, Luca; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra; Ronconi, Lucia; Ballarotto, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Maternal Binge Eating Disorder (BED) has been suggested to be associated with poor parent–infant interactions during feeding and with children’s emotional and behavioral problems during infancy (Blissett and Haycraft, 2011). The role of fathers has received increasing consideration in recent years, yet the research has not focused on interactional patterns between fathers with BED and their children. The present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the influence of BED diagnosis, in one ...

  3. Participation and outcome in manualized self-help for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder - a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beintner, Ina; Jacobi, Corinna; Schmidt, Ulrike H

    2014-03-01

    There is a growing body of research on manualized self-help interventions for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Study and treatment dropout and adherence represent particular challenges in these studies. However, systematic investigations of the relationship between study, intervention and patient characteristics, participation, and intervention outcomes are lacking. We conducted a systematic literature review using electronic databases and hand searches of relevant journals. In metaregression analyses, we analyzed study dropout as well as more specific measures of treatment participation in manualized self-help interventions, their association with intervention characteristics (e.g. duration, guidance, intervention type [bibliotherapy, CD-ROM or Internet based intervention]) and their association with treatment outcomes. Seventy-three publications reporting on 50 different trials of manualized self-help interventions for binge eating and bulimia nervosa published through July 9th 2012 were identified. Across studies, dropout rates ranged from 1% to 88%. Study dropout rates were highest in CD-ROM interventions and lowest in Internet-based interventions. They were higher in samples of BN patients, samples of patients with higher degrees of dietary restraint at baseline, lower age, and lower body mass index. Between 6% and 88% of patients completed the intervention to which they had been assigned. None of the patient, study and intervention characteristics predicted intervention completion rates. Intervention outcomes were moderated by the provision of personal guidance by a health professional, the number of guidance sessions as well as participants' age, BMI, and eating disorder related attitudes (Restraint, Eating, Weight and Shape Concerns) at baseline (after adjusting for study dropout and intervention completion rates). Guidance particularly improved adherence and outcomes in samples of patients with bulimia nervosa; specialist guidance led

  4. INTERBED: internet-based guided self-help for overweight and obese patients with full or subsyndromal binge eating disorder. A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Zwaan Martina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge eating disorder (BED is a prevalent clinical eating disorder associated with increased psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, overweight and obesity, and increased health care costs. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have suggested efficacy of book-based self-help interventions in the treatment of this disorder. However, evidence from larger RCTs is needed. Delivery of self-help through new technologies such as the internet should be investigated in particular, as these approaches have the potential to be more interactive and thus more attractive to patients than book-based approaches. This study will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program (GSH-I and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, which has been proven in several studies to be the gold standard treatment for BED, in a prospective multicenter randomized trial. Methods The study assumes the noninferiority of GSH-I compared to CBT. Both treatments lasted 4 months, and maintenance of outcome will be assessed 6 and 18 months after the end of treatment. A total of 175 patients with BED and a body mass index between 27 and 40 kg/m2 were randomized at 7 centers in Germany and Switzerland. A 20% attrition rate was assumed. As in most BED treatment trials, the difference in the number of binge eating days over the past 28 days is the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures include the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, body weight, quality of life, and self-esteem. Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome will be determined, and the cost-effectiveness of both treatment conditions will be evaluated. Results The methodology for the INTERBED study has been detailed. Conclusions Although there is evidence that CBT is the first-line treatment for BED, it is not widely available. As BED is still a recent diagnostic category, many cases likely remain

  5. Differential Neural Correlates of Set-Shifting in the Bingeing-Purging and Restrictive Subtypes of Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Autreve, Sara; De Baene, Wouter; Baeken, Chris; van Heeringen, Kees; Vancayseele, Nikita; Vervaet, Myriam

    2016-07-01

    In this study, possible differences in the neural correlates of set-shifting abilities between the restrictive (AN-R) and bingeing/purging (AN-BP) subtypes of anorexia nervosa have been explored. Three groups of participants performed a set-shifting task during functional magnetic resonance imaging: patients with AN-R (N = 16), AN-BP (N = 13) and healthy control participants (N = 15). As in a typical set-shifting experiment, participants had to switch between two easy tasks (i.e. 'Is the presented number odd/even' or 'Is the presented number smaller/larger than 5'). The trials in which the task was repeated (repeat trials) were compared with trials in which the task was switched (switch trials). With regards to the level of task performance, no significant group differences could be established. However, when comparing switch specific brain activity across study groups, a stronger activation was found in the insula and the precuneus in AN-R when compared to AN-BP and HC. These results suggest that the both subtypes of AN might have different neurobiological correlates, and thus, might benefit from different treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:26856396

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure of two tin fluoride materials: NaSnF 3 (BING-12) and Sn 3F 3PO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Tolulope O.; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Oliver, Scott R. J.

    2004-03-01

    A new compound, sodium tin trifluoride (NaSnF 3, which we denote BING-12 for SUNY at Binghamton, Structure No. 12), was synthesized solvothermally from a pyridine-water solvent system. The new compound crystallized in the monoclinic space group C2/ c (No. 15), with a=11.7429(12) Å, b=17.0104(18) Å, c=6.8528(7) Å, β=100.6969(2)°, V=1345.1(2) Å 3 and Z=16. The layered structure consists of outer pyramidal SnF 3 units, where the fluorides surround a central layer of six- and seven-coordinate sodium atoms. The layers are stabilized by charged Na + galleries that reside in the center of the layers. Tin trifluorophosphate (Sn 3F 3PO 4, Compound 2) was isolated from a related synthetic system, and crystallized in the rhombohedral space group R3 (No. 146), with a=11.8647(11) Å, c=4.6291(6) Å, V=564.34(10) Å 3 and Z=3. The framework is made up of helical -Sn-F- chains, which are connected by phosphate groups. The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), variable temperature PXRD (VT-PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  7. Binge eating disorder, anxiety, depression and body image in grade III obesity patients Compulsão alimentar periódica, ansiedade, depressão e imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel R Matos

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of Binge Eating Disorder (BED or Binge Eating episodes (BINGE, anxiety, depression and body image disturbances in severely obese patients seeking treatment for obesity. METHOD: We assessed 50 patients (10M and 40F with Body Mass Index (BMI between 40 and 81.7 Kg/m² (mean 52.2±9.2 Kg/m² and aging from 18 to 56 years (mean 38.5±9.7. Used instruments: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns ¾ Revised (QEWP-R for BED or BINGE assessment, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for depressive symptoms, State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-TRAIT and STAI-STATE for anxiety and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ for body image assessments. RESULTS: In this population BED and BINGE frequencies were 36% and 54%, respectively. Symptoms of depression were detected in 100% while severe symptomatology was found in 84% of the cases. The frequency of anxiety as a trait was 70%, as a state, 54% and 76% of all patients reported discomfort regarding body image. The frequency of BED was higher in patients with higher anxiety scores as a personality trait (>40 but not as a state (46% vs. 13%; p140 in the BSQ assessment. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a high frequency of binge eating episodes, severe depressive symptoms, anxiety and concern with body image in grade III obesity patients.INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar a freqüência de transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica (TCAP, episódios de compulsão alimentar periódica (CAP, ansiedade, depressão e distúrbios na imagem corporal em pacientes com obesidade grau III que procuram tratamento para obesidade. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes (10M e 40F com Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC de 40 a 81,7 Kg/m² (média =52,2±9,2 Kg/m² e idade entre 18 e 56 anos (média de 38,5±9,7. Instrumentos utilizados: Questionário sobre Padrões de Alimentação e Peso ("Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns - Revised" - QEWP

  8. Study on Shi Bing: This Chapter wasn't Plagiarized from Fu-niao Fu%《鹖冠子·世兵》篇非抄袭贾谊《服鸟鸟赋》辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆贵

    2009-01-01

    Liu Zongyuan considered that the Shi Bing Chapter of Ho-Kuan-Tzu was plagiarized from Jia Yi's Fu-niao Fu because there were some same sentences between these two essays. However, this article would reveal that these two essays have used the same quotations from some classics in pre-Qin and Han dynasty, regarding three aspects: writing skills, literature style, authors' and works' thoughts and their historical settings. Therefore, the conclusion should be that they have the same theoretical resources, and were created in a close period. Moreover, Jia Yi wrote the Fu-niao Fu after reading the Shi Bing Chapter. The Shi Bing chapter was probably finished during early Han dynasty according to the study of Cao Mo's tale.%篇有些句子和贾谊相同,柳宗元就认为是抄袭,并而断定是伪书.本文从文体研究、编纂者的思想背景、撰写手法三方面来论证篇与都引用先秦秦汉的典籍,不能证明篇抄袭.相反,两者所反映的思想却有共同的时代背景,且思想重点不同.另外,篇前部分记载曹沫一事,与后部分内容无涉.本文考证曹沫一事,推论本篇写成于战国末期与汉初之间.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals adolescent binge ethanol-induced brain structural integrity alterations in adult rats that correlate with behavioral dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Yaxley, Richard; Paniagua, Beatriz; Crews, Fulton T

    2016-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by considerable brain maturation that coincides with the development of adult behavior. Binge drinking is common during adolescence and can have deleterious effects on brain maturation because of the heightened neuroplasticity of the adolescent brain. Using an animal model of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE; 5.0 g/kg, intragastric, 20 percent EtOH w/v; 2 days on/2 days off from postnatal day (P)25 to P55], we assessed the adult brain structural volumes and integrity on P80 and P220 using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). While we did not observe a long-term effect of AIE on structural volumes, AIE did reduce axial diffusivity (AD) in the cerebellum, hippocampus and neocortex. Radial diffusivity (RD) was reduced in the hippocampus and neocortex of AIE-treated animals. Prior AIE treatment did not affect fractional anisotropy (FA), but did lead to long-term reductions of mean diffusivity (MD) in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum. AIE resulted in increased anxiety-like behavior and diminished object recognition memory, the latter of which was positively correlated with DTI measures. Across aging, whole brain volumes increased, as did volumes of the corpus callosum and neocortex. This was accompanied by age-associated AD reductions in the cerebellum and neocortex as well as RD and MD reductions in the cerebellum. Further, we found that FA increased in both the cerebellum and corpus callosum as rats aged from P80 to P220. Thus, both age and AIE treatment caused long-term changes to brain structural integrity that could contribute to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25678360

  10. A comparative analysis of role attainment and impairment in binge-eating disorder and bulimia nervosa: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R C; Shahly, V; Hudson, J I; Supina, D; Berglund, P A; Chiu, W T; Gruber, M; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Graaf, R; Florescu, S E; Haro, J M; Murphy, S D; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K; Xavier, M

    2014-03-01

    Background. Cross-national population data from the WHO World Mental Health surveys are used to compare role attainments and role impairments associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Methods. Community surveys assessed 23 000 adults across 12 countries for BED, BN and ten other DSM-IV mental disorders using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Age-of-onset was assessed retrospectively. Ten physical disorders were assessed using standard conditions checklists. Analyses examined reciprocal time-lagged associations of eating disorders (EDs) with education, associations of early-onset (i.e., prior to completing education) EDs with subsequent adult role attainments and cross-sectional associations of current EDs with days of role impairment. Results. BED and BN predicted significantly increased education (females). Student status predicted increased risk of subsequent BED and BN (females). Early-onset BED predicted reduced odds of current (at time of interview) marriage (females) and reduced odds of current employment (males). Early-onset BN predicted increased odds of current work disability (females and males). Current BED and BN were both associated with significantly increased days of role impairment (females and males). Significant BED and BN effects on adult role attainments and impairments were explained by controls for comorbid disorders. Conclusions. Effects of BED on role attainments and impairments are comparable with those of BN. The most plausible interpretation of the fact that these associations are explained by comorbid disorders is that causal effects of EDs are mediated through secondary disorders. Controlled treatment effectiveness studies are needed to trace out long-term effects of BED-BN on secondary disorders. PMID:24054053

  11. Complex motivated behaviors for natural rewards following a binge-like regimen of morphine administration: mixed phenotypes of anhedonia and craving after short-term withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjing eBai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The anhedonia-like behaviors following about one-week withdrawal from morphine were examined in the present study. Male rats were pretreated with either a binge-like morphine paradigm or daily saline injection for 5 days. Three types of natural reward were used, food reward (2.5%, 4%, 15%, 30%, 40% and 60% sucrose solutions, social reward (male rat and sexual reward (estrous female rat. For each type of natural stimulus, consummatory behavior and motivational behaviors under varied testing conditions were investigated. The results showed that the morphine-treated rats significantly reduced their consumption of 2.5% sucrose solution during the 1-hour consumption testing and their operant responding for 15%, 30% and 40% sucrose solutions under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1 schedule. However, performance under a progressive ratio (PR schedule increased in morphine-treated rats reinforced with 60% sucrose solution, but not in those reinforced with sucrose concentrations lower than 60%. Pretreatment with morphine significantly decreased the male rats’ ejaculation frequency during the 1-hour copulation testing, and impaired the maintenance of appetitive motivations to sexual and social stimuli under a free-approach condition. Moreover, the morphine-treated rats demonstrated a diminished motivation to approach social stimulus in the effort-based appetitive behavior test but showed a remarkable increase in motivation to approach sexual stimulus in the risky appetitive behavior test. These results demonstrated some complex motivated behaviors following about one week of morphine withdrawal: (1 The anhedonia-like behavior was consistently found in animals withdrawn from morphine. However, for a given reward, there was often a dissociation of the consummatory behaviors from the motivational behaviors, and whether the consummatory or the motivational anhedonia-like behaviors could be discovered heavily depended on the type and magnitude of the reward and the type

  12. A Novel Nociceptin Receptor Antagonist LY2940094 Inhibits Excessive Feeding Behavior in Rodents: A Possible Mechanism for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statnick, Michael A; Chen, Yanyun; Ansonoff, Michael; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Rorick-Kehn, Linda; Suter, Todd M; Song, Min; Hu, Charlie; Lafuente, Celia; Jiménez, Alma; Benito, Ana; Diaz, Nuria; Martínez-Grau, Maria Angeles; Toledo, Miguel A; Pintar, John E

    2016-02-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), a 17 amino acid peptide, is the endogenous ligand of the ORL1/nociceptin-opioid-peptide (NOP) receptor. N/OFQ appears to regulate a variety of physiologic functions including stimulating feeding behavior. Recently, a new class of thienospiro-piperidine-based NOP antagonists was described. One of these molecules, LY2940094 has been identified as a potent and selective NOP antagonist that exhibited activity in the central nervous system. Herein, we examined the effects of LY2940094 on feeding in a variety of behavioral models. Fasting-induced feeding was inhibited by LY2940094 in mice, an effect that was absent in NOP receptor knockout mice. Moreover, NOP receptor knockout mice exhibited a baseline phenotype of reduced fasting-induced feeding, relative to wild-type littermate controls. In lean rats, LY2940094 inhibited the overconsumption of a palatable high-energy diet, reducing caloric intake to control chow levels. In dietary-induced obese rats, LY2940094 inhibited feeding and body weight regain induced by a 30% daily caloric restriction. Last, in dietary-induced obese mice, LY2940094 decreased 24-hour intake of a high-energy diet made freely available. These are the first data demonstrating that a systemically administered NOP receptor antagonist can reduce feeding behavior and body weight in rodents. Moreover, the hypophagic effect of LY2940094 is NOP receptor dependent and not due to off-target or aversive effects. Thus, LY2940094 may be useful in treating disorders of appetitive behavior such as binge eating disorder, food choice, and overeating, which lead to obesity and its associated medical complications and morbidity. PMID:26659925

  13. Compulsão alimentar antes e após a cirurgia bariátrica Binge eating before and after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Evangelista Machado

    2008-12-01

    órias, eram elas ingestão de doces em 12%; ingestão de petiscos em 2% e comer indiscriminadamente tudo que estivesse ao alcance em 64% dos pacientes. Após, 18%, 10% e 22%. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes apresentam indícios de compulsão alimentar antes e após a operação. Ela está relacionada a aspectos psicológicos. Os hábitos e preferências alimentares modificam-se após a operação, de modo que os pacientes passam a consumir alimentos de fácil ingestão frente a situações que os faziam comer compulsivamente, não sendo observado trocas de compulsão. O comportamento alimentar inadequado persiste ou é agravado após a operação.BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder which comprises psychological, social and biological aspects and requires a multidisciplinary approach. It is considered to be a risk factor for binge eating disorder, in that the emotional dynamic of the obese individual would contribute to trigger the compulsive act. AIM: To analyze the signs of binge eating in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, before and two years after the surgery. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 50 patients submitted to bariatric surgery by the Fobi-Capella technique. The instruments for psychological evaluation, applied before the surgery and two years after, were Max Pfister's Color Pyramid Test and a semi-structured clinical interview. The test was given before and after the surgery to identify evidence of compulsive behavior. The interview was conducted in the postoperative only. RESULTS: The data showed stability and ability to cope with conflicts in 16% of the patients before and in 10% after the surgery. In terms of control and adaptation, 36% of the patients exhibited strong evidence of an attitude of control and rigidity before the surgery, and 32% postoperatively. Regarding the indicators of impulsivity, agressiveness and irritability, there were strong signs of aggressive and impulsive attitudes in 28% of the patients before

  14. Feasibility of producing Bio-fuel Nordic in sugar factory Nykøbing, from their biological residues, environmental and economic impacts on the factory and Guldborgsund municipality energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Boor Boor, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Current energy system in Nordic Sugar factory Nykøbing , which was designed and built few decades ago like many other heavy industry is based on fossil fuel.Nowadays these heavy they have to revise their energy policy, in order to survive in the market in Europe. With the pressure from European environmental regulation, economical urge in term of CO2 payment and high and fluctuating fossil fuel prices. In this paper it been investigated how current supply fuel oil and coke can be substitu...

  15. Anomalías en el funcionamiento cerebral ligadas al mantenimiento de un patrón de consumo intensivo de alcohol (binge drinking) en jóvenes: un estudio mediante potenciales evocados

    OpenAIRE

    López Caneda, Eduardo Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    El binge drinking (BD), un patrón de consumo de alcohol caracterizado por la ingesta de grandes cantidades de alcohol en un corto espacio de tiempo y que se alterna con períodos de abstinencia entre los episodios de consumo, presenta una alta prevalencia entre los jóvenes y adolescentes. Recientes estudios en animales y humanos han puesto de manifiesto las importantes consecuencias que el BD puede tener sobre la estructura y el funcionamiento cerebral, especialmente durante per...

  16. Peter Bing, The Scroll and the Marble. Studies in Reading and Reception in Hellenistic Poetry / The Well-Read Muse. Present and Past in Callimachus and the Hellenistic Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Acosta-Hughes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent figures in American Hellenistic poetry scholarship, Peter Bing, has long served as a model for acute criticism and careful reading. He has a marvelous ability to make readers rethink their preconceptions; his work is always beautifully argued and documented and his writing style is a pleasure to engage with. He was one of the scholars who figured prominently in the reawakening of interest in Hellenistic poetry that occured in the 1980’s and 1990’s; a consistent and e...

  17. Complex motivated behaviors for natural rewards following a binge-like regimen of morphine administration: mixed phenotypes of anhedonia and craving after short-term withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunjing; Li, Yingying; Lv, Yaodi; Liu, Zhengkui; Zheng, Xigeng

    2014-01-01

    The anhedonia-like behaviors following about 1-week withdrawal from morphine were examined in the present study. Male rats were pretreated with either a binge-like morphine paradigm or daily saline injection for 5 days. Three types of natural reward were used, food reward (2.5, 4, 15, 30, 40, and 60% sucrose solutions), social reward (male rat) and sexual reward (estrous female rat). For each type of natural stimulus, consummatory behavior and motivational behaviors under varied testing conditions were investigated. The results showed that the morphine-treated rats significantly reduced their consumption of 2.5% sucrose solution during the 1-h consumption testing and their operant responding for 15, 30, and 40% sucrose solutions under a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule. However, performance under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule increased in morphine-treated rats reinforced with 60% sucrose solution, but not in those reinforced with sucrose concentrations lower than 60%. Pretreatment with morphine significantly decreased the male rats' ejaculation frequency (EF) during the 1-h copulation testing, and impaired the maintenance of appetitive motivations to sexual and social stimuli under a free-approach condition. Moreover, the morphine-treated rats demonstrated a diminished motivation to approach social stimulus in the effort-based appetitive behavior test but showed a remarkable increase in motivation to approach sexual stimulus in the risky appetitive behavior test. These results demonstrated some complex motivated behaviors following about 1 week of morphine withdrawal: (1) The anhedonia-like behavior was consistently found in animals withdrawn from morphine. However, for a given reward, there was often a dissociation of the consummatory behaviors from the motivational behaviors, and whether the consummatory or the motivational anhedonia-like behaviors could be discovered heavily depended on the type and magnitude of the reward and the type of testing task; (2) These

  18. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder in adults: systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of publicly available placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Solmi, Marco; Perna, Giampaolo; De Berardis, Domenico; Veronese, Nicola; Orsolini, Laura; Ganança, Licinia; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Background Preliminary placebo-controlled evidence paved the ground to the US Food and Drug Administration approval extension of lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder (BED) in adults. Objectives To provide a preliminary qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) considering the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in the acute and/or maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe BED in adults. Methods A preliminary, yet comprehensive, systematic review was performed by accessing a broad range of resources providing publicly available data about lisdexamfetamine at the time of inquiry (March 2016). Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions were considered focusing on major clinical and functional outcomes of either efficacy or tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe BED in adults. Results Meta-analysis of data pooled from three acute RCTs significantly favored lisdexamfetamine over placebo in the reduction of binge eating days/week, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Binge Eating total score, weight, response, and remission rates (all, P≤0.01). In contrast, discontinuation rates due to treatment-emergent adverse events were significantly higher among patients in receipt of lisdexamfetamine (relative risk 2.19, P=0.04) versus placebo. Limitations Publication, selection, performance, attrition, reporting, sponsorship, and “diagnostic shift” biases. Lack of inclusion of adverse event effects other than those requiring discontinuation of the trial(s), as well as lack of information about clinically relevant psychiatric or other medical comorbidities, limits the overall generalizability of pooled results. Conclusion Across the included acute phase RCTs, lisdexamfetamine (at 30, 50, or 70 mg/day) led to significant reduction in a number of clinically relevant outcomes compared to placebo. Moreover

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Current issue Infographic Topics Covered Alcohol Cancer Cardiovascular ...

  20. Tradução e adaptação para o português da Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica Translation and adaptation into Portuguese of the Binge-Eating Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Freitas; Claudia S. Lopes; Walmir Coutinho; Jose C Appolinario

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO/OBJETIVOS: Descreve-se o processo de tradução e adaptação, para a língua portuguesa, da Binge Eating Scale (BES) -- Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica (ECAP) --, que avalia a gravidade da compulsão alimentar periódica em indivíduos obesos. O objetivo foi traduzir, adaptar e avaliar a aplicabilidade da versão para o português da ECAP. MÉTODOS: Após cuidadoso processo de tradução e adaptação para a língua portuguesa, foi obtida uma versão final da ECAP. Para avaliar sua aplicabi...

  1. Development and quality assessment of ‘Bei Bing Hong ’sparkling wine%山葡萄‘北冰红’起泡葡萄酒研发与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 张莉; 丁吉星; 李华; 段琪; 崔长伟

    2015-01-01

    Sparkling wine was developed using vitis amurensis ‘ Bei Bing Hong’ as raw material through new technology.Quality assessment system for ‘ Bei Bing Hong’ sparkling wine was established through four aspects including the basic physicochemical index,phenolic compounds,aroma compounds and sensory characteristics.Basic physiochemieal composition of the sparkling wine met the requirements of National Standard.The total phenol,tannis and total flavonoids were higher,while total anthocyanins and flavanol were lower.17 kinds mono-phenolics were detected including 6 flavonoids (17.70 mg/L,32.47%) and 11 non-flanvonoids (36.81 mg/L,67.53%).By SBSE-GC-MS analysis,72 aroma compounds were identified in the sparkling wines,and the aroma profile was mainly contributed by esters,carbonyls,alcohols,and terpenes.Typical aroma characters of Bei Bing Hong sparkling wine were fruity aroma such as apple,apricot,pear,strawberry,cherry and sweet melon.The results showed that the sparkling wine had slight structure,potation to age,high antioxidant activity,and intense flavors,which indicated that the quality of sparkling wine made from ‘ Bei Bing Hong’ was good.%以山葡萄‘北冰红’为原料,采用新工艺研发了山葡萄起泡酒,并从基本理化指标、酚类物质、特征香气、感官分析4个方面构建了抗寒酿酒葡萄新品种‘北冰红’起泡葡萄酒质量评价体系.结果表明:北冰红起泡葡萄酒各项基本理化指标均符合国家标准要求;总酚、单宁和总类黄酮含量较高,分别为868.02、1 340.76和828.38 mg/L;总花色苷和总黄烷-3-醇含量较低,分别为9.05 mg/L和36.03 mg/L.‘北冰红’起泡酒中共检测出17种单体酚:其中类黄酮类单体6种,总量为17.71 mg/L,占单体酚总量的32.47%;非类黄酮类11种,总量为36.81 mg/L,占总量的67.53%.通过SBSE-GC/MS分析,‘北冰红’起泡酒中检测到72种香气物质,对起泡酒香气影响较大的是酯类、醛酮类、醇

  2. Lisdexamfetamine in the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder in adults: systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of publicly available placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaro M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Michele Fornaro,1,2 Marco Solmi,3–5 Giampaolo Perna,2,6 Domenico De Berardis,2,7 Nicola Veronese,5,8 Laura Orsolini,2,9 Licinia Ganança,1,10 Brendon Stubbs11,12 1New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York City, NY, USA; 2Polyedra Research Group®, Ascoli, 3Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, 4Department of Mental Health, National Health Service, Padova, 5IREM Institute for Clinical Research and Education in Medicine, Padova, 6Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hermanas Hospitalarias – Villa San Benedetto Menni Hospital, FoRiPsi, Albese con Cassano, Como, 7Department of Mental Health, Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment, National Health Service, Hospital “G Mazzini”, Teramo, 8Department of Medicine (DIMED, University of Padua, Padova, Italy; 9Psychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Research Unit, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts, UK; 10Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 11Department of Health Service and Population Research, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, 12Department of Physiotherapy, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Background: Preliminary placebo-controlled evidence paved the ground to the US Food and Drug Administration approval extension of lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe binge eating disorder (BED in adults.Objectives: To provide a preliminary qualitative and quantitative synthesis of the placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs considering the efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine in the acute and/or maintenance treatment of moderate-to-severe BED in adults.Methods: A preliminary, yet comprehensive, systematic review was performed by accessing a broad range of resources providing publicly available data about lisdexamfetamine at the time of inquiry (March 2016. Study

  3. 暴食症的诊断、治疗及其疗效%The Diagnosis,Therapy and Therapeutic Potency of Binge Eating Disorder(BED)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衍; 席居哲

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder(BED) has been proved to be one of the three most prevalent eating disorders in the world.In China, the number of those who are suffering from BED is not small and on the rise.BED patients are suffering with an irresistible desire and behavior to eat whatever food at any time and any place,until they feel painful to eat any more.BED patients also have false conviction in their weight and body shape as other eating disorder patients do.But they don't try to control their weight using methods as vomitting as bulimia nervosa patients will.Systematically,this article reviews the syndromes that symbolize BED and the criteria for diagnosing BED,with an introduction of three commonly-used therapeutic methods for BED(i.e.,the behavioral therapy,the cognitive therapy, and the therapy for improving other concomitant symptoms of BED),and a discussion of clients' personal factors that could affect the therapeutic potency.The diagnosis of BED mainly depends on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM -Ⅳ), Eating Disorder Examination(EDE)(investigator/interviewer-based) and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire(EDE-Q) (clients/interviewee - based).A clients' medical history and concomitant symptoms are also considered as supplementary evidences to diagnose BED.Each of the three therapies places emphasis on different parts in theory and in practice,and has its own advantages and disadvantages.The key concept of the behavioral therapy is to change the unhealthy eating behavior using methods such as Behavioral Weight Loss(BWL) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy(DBT);while the cognitive therapy is to change the false conviction,such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy(CBT),Art Therapy(AT) and Experiential Cognitive Therapy(Experiential CT);and the therapy for improving other concomitant symptoms is to help BED patients solve other problems like maladjustment or depression using methods

  4. The STRATOB study: design of a randomized controlled clinical trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Brief Strategic Therapy with telecare in patients with obesity and binge-eating disorder referred to residential nutritional rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesa Gian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are linked with Binge Eating Disorder (BED. Effective interventions to significantly reduce weight, maintain weight loss and manage associated pathologies like BED are tipically combined treatment options (dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, pharmacological, surgical. Significant difficulties with regard to availability, costs, treatment adherence and long-term efficacy are present. Particularly Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT is the therapeutic approach indicated both in in-patient and in out-patient settings for BED. In recent years systemic and systemic-strategic psychotherapies have been implemented to treat patients with obesity and BED involved in familiar problems. Particularly a brief protocol for the systemic-strategic treatment of BED, using overall the strategic dialogue, has been recently developed. Moreover telemedicine, a new promising low cost method, has been used for obesity with BED in out-patient settings in order to avoid relapse after the in-patient step of treatment and to keep on a continuity of care with the involvement of the same clinical in-patient team. Methods The comparison between CBT and Brief Strategic Therapy (BST will be assessed in a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial. Due to the novelty of the application of BST in BED treatment (no other RCTs including BST have been carried out, a pilot study will be carried out before conducting a large scale randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT. Both CBT and BST group will follow an in-hospital treatment (diet, physical activity, dietitian counseling, 8 psychological sessions plus 8 out-patient telephone-based sessions of psychological support and monitoring with the same in-patient psychotherapists. Primary outcome measure of the randomized trial will be the change in the Global Index of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45.2. Secondary outcome measures will be the percentage of BED

  5. Fetal alcohol exposure and temporal vulnerability regional differences in alcohol-induced microencephaly as a function of the timing of binge-like alcohol exposure during rat brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S E; Chen, W J; Miller, J A; West, J R

    1997-11-01

    In humans, microcephaly (small head for body size) is a common feature of fetal alcohol syndrome. An analogous measure, termed microencephaly (small brain for body size), can be used for evaluating the detrimental effects of the differential timing of alcohol exposure on brain development in animal model systems. Timed-pregnant rats were exposed to binge-like alcohol during either the first 10 days (first trimester equivalent) or second 10 days of gestation (second trimester equivalent), or the combination of first and second trimesters equivalent for prenatal treatments. Offspring from some of the animals exposed to alcohol during the combined first and second trimesters equivalent were raised artificially from postnatal day (P) 4 through P9 (part of the third trimester equivalent), and also received binge-like alcohol during this period, producing animals that were exposed to alcohol during all three trimesters equivalent. Offspring from untreated dams were also raised artificially and received alcohol only from P4 to P9, thus creating animals that were exposed to alcohol only during part of the third trimester equivalent. All pups were perfused on P10. Appropriate controls (nutritional and normally reared) were used for every alcohol treatment combination. Peak blood alcohol concentrations were not different among the treatment groups for a given sampling time. Significant somatic growth deficits occurred in offspring exposed to alcohol for the equivalent of all three trimesters, compared with offspring exposed to alcohol during other periods. Brain growth in offspring also was significantly affected by the timing of alcohol exposure. The whole brain, forebrain, and cerebellum to body weight ratios of pups exposed to alcohol during the third trimester had more significant brain growth deficits than pups in groups exposed to alcohol during other times of brain development. Although alcohol exposure during the third trimester had a significant detrimental impact

  6. Expectativas positivas com o uso de álcool e o beber se embriagando: diferenças de gênero em estudo do Projeto GENACIS, São Paulo, Brasil Positive expectations towards alcohol use and binge drinking: gender differences in a study from the GENACIS project, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Braga Cavariani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as expectativas de homens e mulheres com relação ao uso do álcool e a associação dessas com o comportamento de beber com embriaguez. Foi realizado inquérito epidemiológico, domiciliar, transversal, de base populacional, com amostra probabilística estratificada por conglomerados, na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram entrevistadas 2.083 pessoas de ambos os sexos utilizando-se o questionário GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study. Beber com embriaguez foi considerada variável dependente, e foram construídos modelos de regressão logística para cada sexo, ajustando-se os modelos para idade, escolaridade e renda. Todas as expectativas, exceto achar mais fácil falar com companheiro, associaram-se ao comportamento de beber com embriaguez. Nosso estudo mostrou que beber com embriaguez pode estar associado a expectativas com uso do álcool. Compreender essas expectativas pode contribuir para elaboração de estratégias mais efetivas de prevenção do beber excessivo.The objective was to investigate expectations towards alcohol use among men and women and the association between these expectations and binge drinking (or heavy episodic drinking. An epidemiological cross-sectional population-based household survey with a stratified probabilistic sample was conducted in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Males and females were interviewed (n = 2,083 with the GENACIS questionnaire (Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study. The dependent variable was binge drinking, and logistic regression models were constructed for each gender, adjusting for age, schooling, and income. All expectations, with the exception of increased ease in talking with one's partner, were associated with binge drinking. The study shows that binge drinking can be associated with expectations towards alcohol use. Understanding such expectations can contribute to the design of

  7. 从《分》看冰心小说创作风格的转变%On the Conversion of Bing Xin's Writing Style from the Novel Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于倩

    2011-01-01

    《分》是冰心创作突破青春期的感伤,开始走向社会直面人生的标志。其创作风格也由早期的热烈率真而趋向宁静沉潜。而《分》的文本价值不仅在于它的现实性和阶级性,更在于其独特的儿童视角和温柔细腻的母性风范。%Separation is a novel by Bing started to face social realities in her writings. earlier age to serenity and profoundness. The class nature but also in the unique Children's Xin symbolizing that she has abandoned the adolescent sentiment and Her writing style began to change from passion and sincerity at the value of the text in the novel does not exist only in its actuality and perspective and her mild and subtle style of motherhood.

  8. A polymethoxy flavonoids-rich Citrus aurantium extract ameliorates ethanol-induced liver injury through modulation of AMPK and Nrf2-related signals in a binge drinking mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong-Keun; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Jung, Woon-Ha; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Jung, Ju-Young; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-10-01

    Nobiletin and tangeretin are polymethoxy flavonoids (PMFs), found in rich quantities in the peel of citrus fruits. In the present study, we assessed the biological effect of the PMFs on liver damage using a mouse model of binge drinking. First, we extracted PMFs from the peels of Citrus aurantium to make Citrus aurantium extract (CAE). Male C57BL/6 mice were orally treated with silymarin and CAE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to ethanol (5 g/kg, total of 3 doses) oral gavage. Liver injury was observed in the ethanol alone group, as evidenced by increases in serum hepatic enzymes and histopathologic alteration, as well as by hepatic oxidative status disruption. CAE improved serum marker and hepatic structure and restored oxidative status by enhancing antioxidant enzyme levels and by reducing lipid peroxidation levels. In addition, CAE evidently suppressed inflammation and apoptosis in the livers of mice administered with ethanol, by 85% (tumor necrosis factor-α) and 44% compared to the control group, respectively. Furthermore, CAE activated lipid metabolism related signals and enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) with several cytoprotective proteins including heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that, CAE possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activity against ethanol-induced liver injury. PMID:26178909

  9. 孙冰教授辨治疑难杂症经验两则%Two Experiential Cases of Professor Sun Bing in Treating Complicated Miscellaneous Diseases Based on Syndrome Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 胡申; 刘杰; 王祥森

    2014-01-01

    孙冰教授临床治病重视舌诊、脉诊,处方用药轻灵平淡,屡起沉疴。笔者有幸跟师学习,观其治病效验如神,不揣浅陋,略举其治疗干燥综合征、梦游疾病之临床经验,期冀启迪同道。%Professor Sun Bing attaches great importance to the tongue diagnosis and pulse taking when she makes a diagnosis and gives treatment for patients.Her prescriptions are so light,but they can treat the obstinate diseases.Fortunately I had an opportunity to learn from her,and in the course of study I found that she treats diseases so well like a charm.I would illustrate two cases of her clinical expe-rience of treating Sjogren's syndrome and sleepwalking,hoping to enlighten the fellow.

  10. Bulimia e transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica: revisão sistemática e metassíntese Bulimia and binge eating disorder: systematic review and metasynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cybele Ribeiro Espíndola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo organizar o conjunto das informações disponibilizadas pelos estudos qualitativos sobre a vivência dos pacientes portadores de bulimia e transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. METODOLOGIA: Pesquisas foram conduzidas nas seguintes bases de dados: PubMed, ISI, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LILACS e SciELO, no período de 1990 a 2005. Critérios de inclusão: 1 artigos com foco principal na bulimia ou transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica; 2 pesquisas originais em inglês, espanhol, francês ou português; 3 uso de qualquer método qualitativo, como entrevista, grupo focal ou observação de campo. Critérios de exclusão: artigos exclusivamente teóricos ou que utilizam população infantil ou da terceira idade. Utilizou-se a abordagem meta-etnográfica para sintetizar os dados. Cada estudo foi lido, e as categorias centrais de cada um foram comparadas e interpretadas com as categorias de todos os outros estudos. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 15 estudos de um total de 3.415 artigos. Sete temas centrais que se sobrepõem foram identificados: representação da doença; sentimentos negativos (medo, culpa, raiva, solidão, perda de controle; sentimentos positivos (auto-controle; poder; função do sintoma; relacionamentos interpessoais; história pessoal; contexto sociocultural; recuperação. CONCLUSÕES: Embora muitos aspectos sejam negativos, a experiência, como um todo, não é referida apenas como má. Alguns aspectos dos transtornos alimentares são sentidos como benéficos, segundo os pacientes.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to identify the scope of qualitative investigations on the life experience of patients with bulimia and binge eating disorder. METHODOLOGY: Searches were conducted using the following databases: PubMed, ISI, PsycInfo, Embase, LILACS and Scielo, for articles published between 1990 and 2005. Inclusion criteria were: 1 articles with main focus on

  11. 《诸病源候论》对当代肿瘤研究的启示%Revelation for modern cancer research of Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨龙; 葛倩; 孟静岩

    2016-01-01

    《诸病源候论》是中国现存的第一部论述病源证候学的专著,最早将癥瘕单独作为一类疾病设专候论述,系统全面论述了癥瘕的临床特征,并对癥与瘕进行了辨析。指出外邪侵袭、脏腑虚弱、饮食不节、经期产后调摄不慎为癥瘕形成的主要病因病机,倡导导引调摄之法以增强人体正气。癥瘕相当于现代胸腹部(如胃、肠、子宫)的良恶性肿瘤,巣元方重视脾胃的枢机功能,注意顾护正气,为现代肿瘤的中医诊治提供了宝贵经验,值得深入学习和探究。%Zhu Bing Y uan Hou Lun is the first existing monographs discussed of pathogenesis syndrome science, which expounded Zhengjia as the special exposition, discoursed the clinical features systematically and roundly, put forward that the main pathogenesis of Zhengjia including exogenous pathogenic factors attacks, viscera deficiency, eating disorders, maintain undeserved during menstrual period and postpartum,advocating Daoyin as enhanced resistance methods. Zhengjia equivalently as the modern benign and malignant (such as stomach, intestines, uterus) tumors, Chao Yuan-fang paied attention to spleen and stomach as the main centre of Qi, took notice of human resistance. Providing valuable experiences for traditional Chinese Medicine modern cancer research,deserved to be intensively study and deeply exploration.

  12. A translational systems biology approach in both animals and humans identifies a functionally related module of accumbal genes involved in the regulation of reward processing and binge drinking in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, David; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Ruggeri, Barbara; Maroteaux, Matthieu; Jia, Tianye; Cattrell, Anna; Nymberg, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Band, Hamid; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Buchel, Christian; Carvalho, Fabiana; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Easton, Alanna; Fauth-Buehler, Mira; Fernandez-Medarde, Alberto; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavanh, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Rotter, Andrea; Santos, Eugenio; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Mameli, Manuel; Spanagel, Rainer; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Mueller, Christian; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Background The mesolimbic dopamine system, composed primarily of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area that project to striatal structures, is considered to be the key mediator of reinforcement-related mechanisms in the brain. Prompted by a genome-wide association meta-analysis implicating the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) gene in the regulation of alcohol intake in men, we have recently shown that male Rasgrf2−/− mice exhibit reduced ethanol intake and preference accompanied by a perturbed mesolimbic dopamine system. We therefore propose that these mice represent a valid model to further elucidate the precise genes and mechanisms regulating mesolimbic dopamine functioning. Methods Transcriptomic data from the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of male Rasgrf2−/− mice and wild-type controls were analyzed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). We performed follow-up genetic association tests in humans using a sample of male adolescents from the IMAGEN study characterized for binge drinking (n = 905) and ventral striatal activation during an fMRI reward task (n = 608). Results The WGCNA analyses using accumbal transcriptomic data revealed 37 distinct “modules,” or functionally related groups of genes. Two of these modules were significantly associated with Rasgrf2 knockout status: M5 (p human orthologues for the M5 module were significantly (p human alcohol-related phenotypes potentially through the modulation of reinforcement mechanisms in the NAcc. We therefore propose that the genes comprising this module represent important candidates for further elucidation within the context of alcohol-related phenotypes. PMID:26679926

  13. The use of a manual-driven group cognitive behavior therapy in a Brazilian sample of obese individuals with binge-eating disorder Utilização de terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo baseada em manual em uma amostra brasileira de indivíduos obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Duchesne

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a manual-based cognitive behavior therapy adapted to a group format in a sample of Brazilian obese subjects with binge-eating disorder. METHOD: In an open trial, 21 obese subjects with binge-eating disorder received a group cognitive-behavioral therapy program. Changes in binge-eating frequency, weight, body shape concerns, and depressive symptoms were compared between baseline and the end of the study. RESULTS: The mean frequency of binge-eating episodes significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade da terapia cognitivo-comportamental baseada em um manual adaptado para o formato de grupo em uma amostra brasileira de obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODO: Em um estudo aberto, 21 pacientes obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica participaram de um programa da terapia cognitivo-comportamental em grupo. A freqüência da compulsão alimentar, o peso corporal, o grau de satisfação com a forma corporal e os sintomas depressivos foram avaliados no início do tratamento e no final do estudo. RESULTADOS: Houve uma redução estatisticamente significativa da freqüência média de episódios de compulsão alimentar entre a linha de base e o final do tratamento (p < 0,001, com uma taxa de remissão de episódios no final do estudo de 76,1%. Foi observada, também, uma redução significativa dos sintomas depressivos e da insatisfação com a forma corporal (p < 0,001. Adicionalmente, a perda de peso foi clínica e estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de terapia cognitivo-comportamental baseada em um manual adaptado para o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica resultou em melhora significativa da compulsão alimentar, do peso corporal, da preocupação com a forma corporal e dos sintomas depressivos associados ao transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica nessa amostra.

  14. Teoria e eficácia da terapia comportamental dialética na bulimia nervosa e no transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica Theory and efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Alexandre Nunes-Costa; Diogo Jorge Pereira do Vale Lamela; Laura Gil-Costa

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Procura-se analisar as atuais evidências empíricas e teóricas sobre o modo de operar nas intervenções comportamentais dialéticas. Procedeu-se igualmente à análise da eficácia dessa terapia no tratamento da bulimia nervosa e no transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão agregativa da literatura, recorrendo às palavras-chave "dialectical behavior therapy", "bulimia nervosa" e "binge eating disorder" nas bases de dados PsycInfo e MedLine e em livros d...

  15. Teoria e eficácia da terapia comportamental dialética na bulimia nervosa e no transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica Theory and efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alexandre Nunes-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Procura-se analisar as atuais evidências empíricas e teóricas sobre o modo de operar nas intervenções comportamentais dialéticas. Procedeu-se igualmente à análise da eficácia dessa terapia no tratamento da bulimia nervosa e no transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão agregativa da literatura, recorrendo às palavras-chave "dialectical behavior therapy", "bulimia nervosa" e "binge eating disorder" nas bases de dados PsycInfo e MedLine e em livros da especialidade, sob o critério da atualidade e premência das publicações levantadas. RESULTADOS: A terapia comportamental dialética, inicialmente desenhada para o transtorno de personalidade borderline, tem-se estendido a outros transtornos do eixo I. Sua aplicação às perturbações alimentares sustentase num paradigma dialético com o recurso das estratégias comportamentais e cognitivas. Esse modelo permite aos pacientes uma regulação mais efetiva dos estados afetivos negativos, reduzindo a probabilidade da ocorrência de comportamentos bulímicos e de compulsão alimentar periódica. CONCLUSÃO: Embora escasseiem estudos sobre a sua eficácia, os resultados existentes parecem comprovar a eficácia da terapia comportamental dialética nas populações descritas.OBJECTIVES: Current theoretical and empirical evidences on how to operate in dialectical behavioral interventions were examined. The effectiveness of these interventions in the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder were analyzed too. METHOD: An aggregative literature review was made, using the keywords "dialectical behavior therapy", "bulimia nervosa" and "binge eating disorder", from the database PsycInfo and MedLine and from reference books, selecting the most representative and recent scientific texts about this psychotherapy model. RESULTS: Dialectical behavior therapy, initially designed for borderline personality disorder, has been extended to other

  16. Evidências sobre a terapia cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento de obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica Evidence of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of obese patients with binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Duchesne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as evidências sobre a eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental no tratamento de obesos com transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica. MÉTODOS: Nesta revisão, foram incluídos ensaios clínicos e metanálises publicados entre janeiro de 1980 e fevereiro de 2006, em todas as línguas. Foram excluídos estudos que investigassem a eficácia da terapia cognitivo-comportamental com uso concomitante de medicação, terapia cognitivo-comportamental no formato de manuais de auto-ajuda, relatos ou série de casos e cartas ao editor. As bases eletrônicas de dados consultadas foram: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, LILACS e Cochrane Library. A estratégia de busca incluiu também a checagem manual das referências bibliográficas dos artigos selecionados e de capítulos de livros sobre o tema. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados dois ensaios clínicos abertos e 15 controlados. O desfecho primário na maioria desses estudos é a compulsão alimentar. No geral, os ensaios clínicos avaliados sugerem que o uso da terapia cognitivo-comportamental resulta numa melhora significativa da compulsão alimentar e dos sintomas psicopatológicos associados ao transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, sem resultar em perda de peso substancial. CONCLUSÕES: As evidências disponíveis sugerem que a terapia cognitivo-comportamental é um método de tratamento eficaz para o transtorno da compulsão alimentar, em relação aos componentes psicológicos dessa condição. Entretanto, sua eficácia na redução do peso corporal e na manutenção dos seus efeitos no longo prazo ainda precisa ser melhor investigada.OBJECTIVES: To investigate evidence of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of obese patients with binge eating disorder. METHOD: This review included clinical trials and meta-analyses published in all languages from January 1980 to February 2006. Studies assessing the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy associated

  17. Mothers and fathers with Binge Eating Disorder and their 18-36 months old children: a longitudinal study on parent-infant interactions and offspring’s emotional-behavioral profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eCimino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal Binge Eating Disorder (BED has been suggested to be associated with poor parent-infant interactions during feeding and with children’s emotional and behavioral problems during infancy (Blisset & Haycraft, 2011. The role of fathers has received increasing consideration in recent years, yet the research has not focused on interactional patterns between fathers with BED and their children. The present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the influence of BED diagnosis, in one or both parents, on parent-infant feeding interactions and on children’s emotional-behavioral functioning. 612 subjects (408 parents; 204 children, recruited in mental health services and pre-schools in Central Italy, were divided into four groups: Group 1 included families with both parents diagnosed with BED, Group 2 and 3 included families with one parent diagnosed with BED, Group 0 was a healthy control. The assessment took place at T1 (18 months of age of children and T2 (36 months of age of children: feeding interactions were assessed through the Scale for the Assessment of Feeding Interactions (SVIA while child emotional-behavioral functioning was evaluated with the Child Behavior Check-List (CBCL. When compared to healthy controls, the groups with one or both parents diagnosed with BED showed higher scores on the SVIA and on the CBCL internalizing and externalizing scales, indicating poorer adult-child feeding interactions and higher emotional-behavioral difficulties. A direct influence of parental psychiatric diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant and father-infant interactions was also found, both at T1 and T2. Moreover, dyadic feeding interactions mediated the influence of parental diagnosis on children’s psychological functioning. The presence of BED diagnosis in one or both parents seems to influence the severity of maladaptive parent-infant exchanges during feeding and offspring’s emotional-behavioral problems over time, consequently

  18. Jocks, Gender, Binge Drinking, and Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Farrell, Michael P.; Sabo, Donald F.; Barnes, Grace M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport-violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence…

  19. The Physics of Bing-Bang-Boing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Dean

    1974-01-01

    Describes an introductory lecture-demonstration for a physics class. The device transports a small steel ball from a starting point to a finishing point; along the way the ball goes through a number of steps. (RH)

  20. The Bing Nursery School. The Child's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquist, Robert, Ed.

    Photographs, diagrams, and words are used to tell about the nursery school at Stanford University. Supported largely by tuition, this school enrolls 270 pupils who attend school during one of three different session schedules. A full-time staff of 12 is assisted by students from psychology, education, and nursing. The environment offers…