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Sample records for bindweed calystegia sepium

  1. Towards the biocontrol of bindweeds with a mycoherbicide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Défago, G.; Ammon, H. U.; Cagán, L.; Draeger, B.; Greaves, M. P.; Guntli, D.; Hoeke, D.; Klimeš, Leoš; Lawrie, J.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Nicolet, B.; Pfirter, H. A.; Tabacchi, R.; Tóth, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2001), s. 157-173 ISSN 1386-6141 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : calystegines * DNA maker * integrated weed management system * living mulch * phytotoxins * Calystegia sepium * Convolvulus arvensis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2001

  2. Lucky morning glory, Calystegia felix (Convolvulaceae: a new species from Southern California, with notes on the historical ecology of the Chino ciénega belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Provance

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new morning glory, Calystegia felix Provance & A.C. Sanders sp. nov. (Convolvulaceae, is described from the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana River basins. Historical collections of the species, which prior to 2011 had not been seen alive in 94 years, have been misidentified as Calystegia sepium (L. R. Br. subsp. binghamiae (Greene Brummitt. The undescribed species was rediscovered in the City of Chino in April of 2011, a few miles north of the location where the most recent previous collection had been made by I. M. Johnston in 1917. The plants were found just prior to their likely destruction by grading and trenching for an underground power line. Intensive searches have resulted in the discovery of five additional occurrences, all of them in the City of Chino. Calystegia felix is at high risk of soon becoming extinct in the wild. All of the known extant occurrences are associated with well-watered landscaping on recently completed industrial, commercial, and residential developments. Every known living occurrence is within the limits of a ciénega belt, which is now mostly historical. Otherwise, the new species is only known only from collections made around the turn of the 20th century in what are now heavily urbanized areas, including one from South Los Angeles and another from Pico Rivera in Los Angeles County. Calystegia felix lacks the large bracts that immediately subtend, and enclose the calyx, which are always present in members of the C. sepium complex. Affinities to C. felix are found among other western US species with graduated sepals and small, often somewhat remote bracts. We discuss the enduring confusion between C. felix and C. sepium subsp. binghamiae, and differentiate the new species from some of its more likely relatives. The taxonomic treatment is supplemented by photos of herbarium specimens and living plants. We also discuss the ecological setting of Chino’s ciénega belt, which was a mosaic of palustrine

  3. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

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    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  4. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Soybeans 0 Glycyrrhiza lepidota AmericanLicorice 2 Graminae Grass UK Gratiola neglecta Hedge Hyssop 0 Grindelia sp. Gumweed 1...dominant (northern) and areas where row crops (corn, soybeans ) are grown (southern). The southern PPR is in Land Resource Region M and the northern...Calamagrostis stricta Slimstem Reedgrass 5 Calamovilfa longifolia Prairie Sandreed 5 Calystegia sepium Hedge Bindweed 0 Capsella bursa-pastoris

  5. Calysolins I-IV, resin glycosides from Calystegia soldanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Ayako; Muto, Haruka; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru

    2011-11-28

    Four new resin glycosides having intramolecular cyclic ester structures (jalapins), named calysolins I-IV (1-4), were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves, stems, and roots of Calystegia soldanella , along with one known jalapin (5) derivative. The structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. They fall into two types, one having a 22-membered ring (1 and 4) and the other with a 27-membered ring (2 and 3). The sugar moieties of 1-4 were partially acylated by some organic acids. Compound 4 is the first example of a hexaglycoside of jalapin.

  6. diets containing gliricidia ( Gliricidia sepium ) and neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of Gliricidia sepium with neem leaves supplementation on nutrient retentions for body weight gain in ewe-lambs. Twelve West African dwarf ewe-lambs with an average weight of 7.00 ± 0.32kg were randomly allotted to three dietary tratments with four ewe-lambs per treatment in a ...

  7. A new resin glycoside from Calystegia soldanella and its antiviral activity towards herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masateru; Kanemaru, Yukiyo; Yasuda, Shin; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Yokomizo, Kazumi; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2017-11-01

    A new resin glycoside, named calysolin XVIII (1), was isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Calystegia soldanella Roem. et Schult. (Convolvulaceae). The structure of 1 was defined as 11S-jalapinolic acid 11-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-O-(2-O-2S-methylbutyryl,4-O-3-hydroxy-2-methylenebutyryl)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-(34-di-O-2S-methylbutyryl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-quinovopyranoside, intramolecular 1,2″'″'-ester on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 is the first known resin glycoside to feature 3-hydroxy-2-methylenebutyric acid as a component organic acid. In addition, 1 demonstrated an antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, with an IC 50 value 2.3 μM.

  8. Phoma crystallifera with phytotoxic effects and pathogenic potential against field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaghi, P; Zafari, D

    2017-05-01

    To identify a potential pathogenic isolate of fungus on Convolvulus arvensis and to determine its phytotoxic activity, which revealed the presence of toxic metabolites responsible for the toxicity against the target weed. A high virulent isolate of the fungus, Phoma crystallifera was isolated from symptomatic field bindweed in the west of Iran and was screened for the production of phytotoxins, which promoted necrosis on the detached leaves and seedlings of field bindweed in the bioassays. The isolate was distinct from other isolates of the fungi on the basis of morphological characteristics and the combined sequence database of the ITS region, partial LSU rDNA and β-tubulin gene. Isolate P. crystalifera P6 produced the highest amount of phytotoxins after 21 days in a shacked culture of Richard's broth. The active metabolites were isolated from a cell-free culture filtrate by ethyl-acetate and purified by thin layer chromatography. The result indicated that six out of nine spots had phytotoxic activity in the bioassays, with R f values of 0·16, 0·30, 0·36, 0·43, 0·57 and 0·81. Phoma crystallifera P6 and its active metabolites showed significant phytotoxic effects on the detached leaves of C. arvensis. To date, there are no reports of possible biocontrol agent(s) on C. arvensis in Iran. Thus, P. crystallifera P6 is introduced here as a severe pathogenic fungus and which can be used as a biocontrol agent against C. arvensis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Response of Gliricidia sepium tree to phosphorus application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fungus. A factorial 3 factors block was designed with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus aggregatum, phophorus fertilization as triple super phosphate and rhizobial inoculation strains ISRA 604 and ISRA 605 applied on G. sepium seedlings. A non nitrogen fixing tree (NFT), Cassia siamea was used as reference tree for ...

  10. Effect of partial replacement of growers mash with gliricidia sepium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of partial replacement of growers mash with Gliricidia sepium leaf meal (GLM) on the growth of chinchilla rabbits and to determine its implication for extension advisory services. In this study, 10 eight weeks old Chinchilla rabbits were used. They were randomly allotted to three ...

  11. Effect of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. And Tithonia diversifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the role and function of green manure as soil amendments to improve and maintain the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, this study was ... G. sepium leaves compost can be used in raising this species in the nursery for the production of vigorous seedlings in replacement of inorganic fertilizers.

  12. Response of Gliricidia sepium tree to phosphorus application and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia plants. The application of increasing levels of P reduced mycorrhizal colonisation of. G. sepium plant. Similar observations have been reported by Ingleby et al. (2001) on Calyandra calothyrsus seedlings. However these authors indicated that high levels P fertilizer eliminated ...

  13. Influence of seed size and ecological factors on the germination and emergence of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Tanveer,A; Tasneem,M; Khaliq,A; Javaid,M.M; Chaudhry,M.N

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of seed germination ecology of weeds can assist in predicting their potential distribution and developing effective management strategies. Influence of environmental factors and seed size on germination and seedling emergence of Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) was studied in laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Germination occurred over a wide range of constant temperatures, between 15 and 40 ºC, with optimum germination between 20 and 25 ºC. Time to start germination,...

  14. Pengaruh umur pemotongan terhadap produktivitas gamal (Gliricidia sepium)

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Via Savitri; Herni Sudarwati; Hermanto Hermanto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cutting interval on production, and nutrition of gamal (Gliricidia sepium). The study was conducted on Agriranch sheep farm, Pandan Rejo Subdistrict, Bumi Aji District of Malang Regency from May 25th to August 25th 2012. Proximate Analysis was carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University. The study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) which consisted of four treatments and three cutting age...

  15. Pengaruh Umur Pemotongan Terhadap Produktivitas Gamal (Gliricidia Sepium)

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Mei Via; Sudarwati, Herni; Hermanto, Hermanto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cutting interval on production, and nutrition of gamal (Gliricidia sepium). The study was conducted on Agriranch sheep farm, Pandan Rejo Subdistrict, Bumi Aji District of Malang Regency from May 25th to August 25th 2012. Proximate Analysis was carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University. The study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) which consisted of four treatments and three cutting age...

  16. Pengaruh umur pemotongan terhadap produktivitas gamal (Gliricidia sepium

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    Mei Via Savitri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cutting interval on production, and nutrition of gamal (Gliricidia sepium. The study was conducted on Agriranch sheep farm, Pandan Rejo Subdistrict, Bumi Aji District of Malang Regency from May 25th to August 25th 2012. Proximate Analysis was carried out at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Faculty, Brawijaya University. The study used Randomized Block Design (RBD which consisted of four treatments and three cutting age groups. The treatments were U60 (60 days of cutting age, U80 (80 days of cutting age, U100 (100 days of cutting age, and U120 (120 days of cutting age. The study found that the lowest production of leaves, twigs, dry matter, organic matter, and fibre were at 60 days of cutting age. Meanwhile the highest production of them was at 120 days of cutting age. However, the lowest crude protein content was found at 120 days cutting age. The study suggests that gamal was able to provide better nutrition as animal forages at 80 days of cutting age. Keywords: Gliricidia sepium, cutting age, dry matter, organic matter, fibre

  17. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widiawat, Y.; Teleni, E.; Suharyono

    2014-01-01

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U- 14 C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE ROOT BARK OF GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Abulude, F.O; Adebote V.T

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic root bark extracts of Gliricidia sepium were investigated against S. aureus, B. subtilis, C.pyogenes, S. typhi and E. coli using the disc diffusion method. The water and ethanolic extracts showed inhibitory effects on the microorganisms under study. The n-hexane extract was not active on all the microorganisms. The results showed that the plant extracts of Gliricidia sepium would be useful as antifungi, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory

  19. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  20. Analysis of the sugar-binding specificity of mannose-binding-type Jacalin-related lectins by frontal affinity chromatography--an approach to functional classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Uchiyama, Noboru; Peumans, Willy J; Van Damme, Els J M; Totani, Kiichiro; Ito, Yukishige; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2008-03-01

    The Jacalin-related lectin (JRL) family comprises galactose-binding-type (gJRLs) and mannose-binding-type (mJRLs) lectins. Although the documented occurrence of gJRLs is confined to the family Moraceae, mJRLs are widespread in the plant kingdom. A detailed comparison of sugar-binding specificity was made by frontal affinity chromatography to corroborate the structure-function relationships of the extended mJRL subfamily. Eight mJRLs covering a broad taxonomic range were used: Artocarpin from Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit, Moraceae), BanLec from Musa acuminata (banana, Musaceae), Calsepa from Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed, Convolvulaceae), CCA from Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut, Fagaceae), Conarva from Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed, Convolvulaceae), CRLL from Cycas revoluta (King Sago palm tree, Cycadaceae), Heltuba from Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke, Asteraceae) and MornigaM from Morus nigra (black mulberry, Moraceae). The result using 103 pyridylaminated glycans clearly divided the mJRLs into two major groups, each of which was further divided into two subgroups based on the preference for high-mannose-type N-glycans. This criterion also applied to the binding preference for complex-type N-glycans. Notably, the result of cluster analysis of the amino acid sequences clearly corresponded to the above specificity classification. Thus, marked correlation between the sugar-binding specificity of mJRLs and their phylogeny should shed light on the functional significance of JRLs.

  1. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE GLIRICIDIA (GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM (Jacq. Steud

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    Salvador Barros Torres

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação de sementes de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud em condições de laboratório. Testou-se as temperaturas de 25, 30 e 20-30°C em substratos de papel toalha, areia e vermiculita. Os melhores resultados de germinação foram verificados para as temperaturas de 20-30°C e 25°C, em substratos de areia e vermiculita, respectivamente.

  2. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Gliricidia sepium AGAINST GASTROINTESTINALE NEMATODES OF SHEEP

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    Manuel Mateo Hernandez-Villegas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of local resources for food and health care of animals is a highly profitable and sustainable strategy. Among these resources are native trees and shrubs which in addition to providing good quality nutrients, produce secondary metabolites with anthelmintic (AH effect. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro AH effect of Gliricidia sepium leaves methanol extract (GSME, through the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA. Three concentrations of the extracts were tested: 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL.  Also a negative control (distilled water and a positive control (levamisole 2 mg/mL were included. The GSME showed significant differences P<0.05 when compared with the positive control. The GSME also showed a dose-dependent response in inhibition of eggs hatching. Effectiveness percentages found were: 27.7%, 46.2%, 49.7% of inhibition at 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL respectively. The average dose (ED50 obtained through probit analysis was 394.96 μg/mL. These results suggest that the ME of leaves of G. sepium has anthelmintic activity against eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes.

  3. Interrelation between the content of secondary metabolites of species Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia and some physicochemical properties of soil

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón; Jairo Enrique Granados

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 2 forage plants (leaf stalk) of the species Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia in different soil conditions (departments of Valle del Cauca and Cesar) and evaluated for total polyphenol content, total tannins, condensed tannins and Saponinas. The purpose was to detect the effect of the conditions of electrical conductivity on the concentration of these secondary fitobiomoléculas metabolized by the plant cell. We applied analytical techniques and instrument...

  4. Contribution of the pruning of gliricidia sepium on production and N uptake by sweet corn in ultisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Firdaus, Afdhal; Zahara A R

    1998-01-01

    an upland field experiment has been conducted in Puchong Farm Experimental Station belonging to Agriculture Faculty, UPM to study contribution of the Gliricidia sepium pruning on sweet corn production and N availability in Ultisol. Randomized complete Block Design with 4 replications was used in this experiment. Eight treatments tested were : (P1) hedge row of Gliricidia sepium (GS), without pruning application, (P2) hedge row GS with pruning application, (P3) hedge row GS, with root residue and without pruning application, (P4) hedge row GS, with root residue and pruning application, (P5) without hedge row, root residue and pruning application (control treatment); (P6) without hedge row, with pruning application; residue, (P7) without hedge row, with root residue, and without pruning application and (P8)without hedge row, with root residue and pruning application . The contribution of pruning on the N availability in ultisol was studied by 1 5N isotope technique, 1 5N labeled ammonium sulphate with 10.1% 1 5N atom was applied to all microplots at 20 kg N/ha. Results obtained in this experiment showed that the contribution of Gliricidia sepium pruning on the N availability in ranges from 23.1 - 59.1% by the control treatment and this contribution increased by the root residue in soil. The highest total N-uptake was 106.61 kg N/ha obtained by treatment (P8). (author)

  5. Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium: decomposition of its leaves in soil and effects on sweet-corn yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah, A.R.; Sharifuddin, H.A.H.; Anular, R.; Bah, A.R.; Mwange, K.Nk.; Kathuli, P.; Juma, P.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation by Gliricidia sepium subjected to three pruning regimes (one, two or four cuts per year) was measured using the 15 N-dilution technique with Cassia siamea as the reference species. Over a 4-year period, estimates of the fraction of N derived from fixation, generally 2 fixer. Gliricidia sepium leaves were placed in litter-bags, buried in an ultisol and sampled at intervals over 70 days. The half-life for dry matter was 17 days, and about 60% of the N was lost within 10 days; K and Ca were the most rapidly released nutrients, with half-lives of only 1 and 3 days, respectively. The N contributions from G. sepium leaves and roots to alley-cropped sweet corn were quantified by the 15 N-dilution technique over three growing seasons. The application of leaves with roots resulted in increased N uptake and dry matter yield in corn. Below-ground competition between hedgerow and corn, assessed using 32 P with the third crop, occurred under conditions of low nutrient-availability. The data imply that there is no advantage of the cut-and-carry system over permanent hedgerows, provided that prunings are applied at the time of nutrient demand in the crop. (author)

  6. Phytotoxic Effects of Gliricidia sepium Prunings on Maize Germination and Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichuru, T.M; Njung'e, J.T; Koech, E.K

    2007-01-01

    Gliricidia sepium prunings are known to have both positive and negative effects on agrocrops. In this study, it's phytotoxic effects on maize seedlings were evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, a leachate of dry Gliricidia prunings (leaves) was prepared and used to irrigate maize seeds during germination and early growth. Three levels of leachate concentrations (25%, 50% and 100%) and control (distilled water) were used. Germination percentage and fresh weights of radicles and shoots were taken 10 Days After Planting (10 DAP). In the field, dry Gliricidia prunings were applied on experimental plots (0.5mx0.5m) as mulch at the rate of 10 tons ha - 1 at 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks before planting the maize seeds and a control where no mulch was added. Each plot was planted with 60 maize seeds and artificially irrigated. Germination percentage, leaf chlorosis and seedling biomass at 10 and 20 DAP were measure for each treatment. In the laboratory, Gliricidia leachate slightly reduced germination and depressed radicle and shoot growths of maize seedlings significantly (ANOVA: P,0.05). In the field there was no significant reduction in maize seed germination and growth due to addition of mulch. However, the lowest germination and biomass and the highest leaf chlorosis were recorded in the plots where mulch was added 10 weeks before planting the maize seeds

  7. Decomposition and nitrogen release patterns of Gliricidia sepium tree residues under controlled incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintu, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Tree legumes can serve as nitrogen (N) source for cereals in resource poor farms where chemical fertilizer is financially unaffordable. Over the past decade, ICRAF and partners have developed several 'fertilizer tree systems' that are low-cost, easy to manage, highly productive and profitable. These have been widely disseminated in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, much work remains to broaden the scientific underpinning of these systems and develop the management principles to guide further research and dissemination into areas beyond the initial pilot research areas. Gliricidia sepium roots and leaves, as individual components and as a mixture, were incubated in an 15 N labeled acidic Ultisol under controlled laboratory conditions. Decomposition was monitored as CO 2 evolution and inorganic N released over time. The aim was to determine inorganic soil N and pH dynamics as affected by residue quality. This study used 15 N dilution method to determine 'percent N derived from tree residues (%Ndfr) of G. sepium residues. The greatest attribute of this technique is its ability to distinguish between residue-N and soil derived N. The possibility to distinguish between the major N forms (nitrate and ammonium-N) and their quantities at different stages of decomposition exists, according to this study. This information is valuable in predicting the fate of applied residue N in actual field situations, since the forms and quantity of available soil N determine the magnitude of N loss to the environment or utilization by crop under respective field conditions and practices. The 15 N dilution method, leading to computation of %Ndfr therefore, offers an invaluable qualitative and quantitative way of measuring N mineralization from agroforestry residues. Our results showed that NO 3 -Ndfr remained low through out the study, indicating that loss of Ndfr via NO 3 -N leaching would probably not be an important concern. However, inorganic N availability from

  8. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals.

  9. Efeito da Gliricidia sepium sobre nutrientes do solo, microclima e produtividade do milho em sistema agroflorestal no Agreste Paraibano Effects of Gliricidia sepium on soil nutrients, microclimate and maize yield in an agroforestry system in semi-arid Paraiba, Brazil

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    Aldrin Martin Pérez Marin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gliricidia sepium é uma leguminosa arbórea que tem sido utilizada em sistemas em aléias no semi-árido nordestino por apresentar bom desenvolvimento em condições de estresse hídrico. Entretanto, há pouca informação disponível sobre o efeito da introdução dessa espécie nos agroecossistemas da região. No presente estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a influência da distância de plantas de Gliricidia sepium sobre características da cultura do milho e do solo e microclima no Agreste Paraibano. O estudo foi realizado no município de Esperança (PB, em área de 0,5 ha, onde, em 1996, foram plantadas fileiras de G. sepium espaçadas 6 m entre si e com 1 m entre as árvores. Nesta área, em 2002, foram delimitadas quatro parcelas de 6 x 8 m e, em cada parcela, foi estabelecido um transeto perpendicular às fileiras de árvores com três posições de amostragem: (1 nas fileiras de árvores (0 m; (2 a 1 m das fileiras de árvores, e (3 a 3 m de distância das fileiras de árvores. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A massa seca de folhedo caído embaixo da fileira de árvores foi de 1.390 kg ha-1 e diminuiu, gradativamente, para 270 kg ha-1 a 3 m de distância das árvores. As concentrações de P, K e matéria orgânica leve (MOL embaixo das árvores foram maiores do que a 1 e 3 m de distância das fileiras. As médias mensais das temperaturas mínimas do ar e do solo embaixo e a 3 m das árvores foram similares. Entretanto, as médias mensais das temperaturas máximas do solo e do ar foram de 6 e 2 °C mais altas a 3 m das árvores, respectivamente, ao longo do período de estudo. A umidade do solo foi significativamente menor embaixo das árvores do que a 1 e 3 m de distância. O milho produziu mais grãos e palha e acumulou mais nutrientes nas posições mais próximas das fileiras de G. sepium.Gliricidia sepium is a leguminous tree that has been used in alley cropping systems in the

  10. Proline accumulation in leaves of Periploca sepium via both biosynthesis up-regulation and transport during recovery from severe drought.

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    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available Drought resistance and recovery ability are two important requisites for plant adaptation to drought environments. Proline (Pro metabolism has been a major concern in plant drought tolerance. However, roles of Pro metabolism in plant recovery ability from severe drought stress are largely unexplored. Periploca sepium Bunge has gained increasing attention for its adaptation to dry environments. Here, we investigated Pro metabolism in different tissues of P. sepium seedlings in the course of drought stress and recovery. We found that leaf Pro metabolism response during post-drought recovery was dependant on drought severity. Pro biosynthesis was down-regulated during recovery from -0.4 MPa but increased continually and notably during recovery from -1.0 MPa. Significant correlation between Pro concentration and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity indicates that Glutamate pathway is the predominant synthesis route during both drought and re-watering periods. Ornithine δ-aminotransferase activity was up-regulated significantly only during recovery from -1.0 MPa, suggesting positive contribution of ornithine pathway to improving plant recovery capacity from severe drought. In addition to up-regulation of biosynthesis, Pro transport from stems and roots also contributed to high Pro accumulation in leaves and new buds during recovery from -1.0 MPa, as indicated by the combined analysis of Pro concentration and its biosynthesis in stems, roots and new buds. Except its known roles as energy, carbon and nitrogen sources for plant rapid recovery, significant positive correlation between Pro concentration and total antioxidant activity indicates that Pro accumulation can also promote plant damage repair ability by up-regulating antioxidant activity during recovery from severe drought stress.

  11. Potential of tannin-rich plants, Leucaena leucocephala, Glyricidia sepium and Manihot esculenta, to reduce enteric methane emissions in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimède, H; Rira, M; Barde, D J; Labirin, F; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Calif, B; Periacarpin, F; Fleury, J; Rochette, Y; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M

    2016-12-01

    An in vivo trial was conducted in sheep to investigate the effect of three tropical tannin-rich plants (TRP) on methane emission, intake and digestibility. The TRP used were leaves of Glyricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Manihot esculenta that contained, respectively, 39, 75 and 92 g condensed tannins/kg DM. Methane was determined with the sulphur hexafluoride tracer technique. Eight rumen-cannulated sheep of two breeds (four Texel, four Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Four experimental diets were tested. They consisted in a tropical natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. fed alone (C) or in association with G. sepium (G), L. leucocephala (L) or M. esculenta (M) given as pellets at 44% of the daily ration. Daily organic matter intake was higher in TRP diets (686, 984, 1054 and 1186 g/day for C, G, L and M respectively; p  0.05). Methane emission was 47.1, 44.9, 33.3 and 33.5 g/kg digestible organic matter intake for C, G, L and M, respectively, and was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for L and M than for G and C. Our results confirm the potential of some TRP to reduce methane production. The strong decrease in methane and the increase in intake with TRPs may be due to their presentation as pellets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Efecto del marco de siembra en la producción de postes vivos de Gliricidia sepium Effect of planting frame on the production of living poles of Gliricidia sepium

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    I Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó sobre un suelo Vertisol del Valle del Cauto, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes marcos de siembra en la producción intensiva de postes vivos de la leguminosa arbórea Gliricidia sepium. Se evaluaron seis tratamientos a partir de la combinación de tres distancias de camellón (60, 120 y 180 cm con dos distancias de narigón (50 y 100 cm, utilizando un diseño factorial 3 x 2 con cuatro réplicas. Se obtuvo un comportamiento satisfactorio en la germinación de las semillas, ya que se logró una población de plantas por metro cuadrado a los dos meses de la siembra equivalente a un 67,3% de semillas germinadas, así como una supervivencia promedio del 97% cuando se comparó el número de vástagos principales por hectárea con el número de plantas por metro cuadrado. Se encontró interacción significativa (PThe work was carried out on a Vertisol soil from the Cauto Valley, with the objective of evaluating the effect of different planting frames on the intensive production of living poles of the tree legume Gliricidia sepium. Six treatments were evaluated from the combination of three distances between rows (60, 120 and 180 cm with two distances between plants (50 and 100 cm, using a 3 x 2 factorial design with four replications. A satisfactory performance was obtained in seed germination, because a population of plants per square meter was achieved two months after planting equivalent to 67,3% germinated seeds, as well as 97% average survival when the number of main shoots per hectare was compared to the number of plants per square meter. Significant interaction (P<0,01 was found among the factors in the number of plants per square meter and the best result was achieved with the 50 x 60 planting frame; this was in turn the treatment with higher total yield of poles in the third year. Stem diameter was significantly affected from the second year by the distance between rows. The lowest planting frame was

  13. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

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    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  14. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae adults: I. Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae

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    Guillermo Flores

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci is an important virus vector on a number of crops worldwide. Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period. Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water:methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether of mother-of-cocoa (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract and some fractions exerted such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages, three fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (methanol, 0.5% (water:methanol and 1.5% (diethyl ether. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 2099-2113. Epub 2008 December 12.Mundialmente, Bemisia tabaci es un importante vector de virus en numerosos cultivos. Por tanto, un enfoque preventivo para enfrentar las epidemias virales podría ser el empleo de sustancias repelentes o fagodisuasivas en las etapas tempranas del desarrollo de las plantas (período crítico. Así, tanto el extracto crudo como cuatro fracciones (agua, agua:metanol, metanol y éter dietílico del madero negro (Gliricidia sepium, Fabaceae fueron evaluadas en cuanto a su actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci en condiciones de invernadero, utilizando plantas de tomate, en Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tanto los experimentos de escogencia restringida como los de escogencia irrestricta revelaron que el extracto crudo y algunas fracciones mostraron dicha actividad. En los primeros experimentos (en jaulas de manga, tres fracciones causaron fagodisuasión a dosis tan bajas como 0.1% (metanol, 0.5% (agua:metanol y

  15. Evaluación de ensilajes mixtos de Saccharum officinarum y Gliricidia sepium con la utilización de aditivos Evaluation of mixed silages of Saccharum officinarum and Gliricidia sepium using additives

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    R Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la adición de melaza y urea en ensilajes de cogollo quemado de caña de azúcar y Gliricidia sepium, utilizando macrobolsas de 1,18 m³ de capacidad y vacío, mediante un diseño factorial 4 (tipo de ensilaje x 3 (tiempo de fermentación: 20, 40 y 60 días y cinco réplicas. Los tratamientos fueron T1 (cogollo de caña de azúcar, 75% más G. sepium, 25%; T2 (T1 más urea, 0,5%; T3 (T1 más melaza, 4% y T4 (T3 más urea, 0,5%. Se determinó el pH, la MS, la PB, el amoníaco, el nitrógeno soluble, la FB, el extracto libre de nitrógeno, el extracto etéreo, el Ca, el P y la ceniza. No hubo interacción tipo de ensilaje por tiempo de fermentación. Con la adición de urea (T2 se observaron los mayores valores de pH (5,03, PB (8,27%, NH3/Nt (18,13% y NS/Nt (38,31%. Al adicionar la melaza (T3 se constató un mayor porcentaje de MS (35,34 y de ELN (50,93, y con los dos aditivos (T4 se observó un menor contenido de EE (1,02%. Los tenores de FB, los minerales y la ceniza no presentaron diferencias entre los tratamientos. A los 40 días de fermentación se observó un mayor contenido de MS (44,80% y ELN (49,72%. Sin embargo, a los 60 días se obtuvo mayor relación NH3/Nt (11,17% y NS/Nt (33,61%. Mediante la ponderación de las variables más relevantes se concluyó que los ensilajes de mayor calidad se obtuvieron cuando sólo se adicionó melaza (4% o se combinó con urea (0,5%; mientras que la calidad del material conservado fue menor a los 60 días de elaboración.A trial was conducted in Trujillo, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the effect of the addition of molasses and urea in silages of burnt sugarcane tops and Gliricidia sepium, using macrobags of capacity 1,18 m³ and vacuum, by means of a 4 (type of silage x 3 (fermentation time: 20, 40 and 60 days factorial arrangement and five replications. The treatments were T1 (sugarcane tops, 75% plus G. sepium

  16. Interrelation between the content of secondary metabolites of species Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia and some physicochemical properties of soil

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    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples were collected from 2 forage plants (leaf stalk of the species Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia in different soil conditions (departments of Valle del Cauca and Cesar and evaluated for total polyphenol content, total tannins, condensed tannins and Saponinas. The purpose was to detect the effect of the conditions of electrical conductivity on the concentration of these secondary fitobiomoléculas metabolized by the plant cell. We applied analytical techniques and instrumental AOAC (2005 to determine the presence of such fitometabolitos side. The results obtained for each variable were subjected to analysis of variance two-way, in order to determine statistical differences between areas sampled and evaluated species. Additionally, we performed a multiple correlation analysis using the Pearson coefficient, in order to detect any correlation between electrical conductivity and the content of secondary metabolites quantified in the species sampled. It was concluded that the content of total polyphenols, total tannins, condensed tannins and saponins did not show statistically significant differences between the three areas sampled, and there was high correlation between the value of the electrical conductivity of soil and content of secondary metabolites.

  17. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

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    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  18. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods (n = 4). Animals were fed with BG with different levels of GS: 100 % BG (T1, control), 90 % BG + 10 % GS (T2), 80 % BG + 20 % GS (T3), and 70 % BG + 30 % GS (T4). Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes...

  19. Efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la germinacion, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium Effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germination, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings

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    Yolanda Gonzalez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la respuesta germinativa, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium, a diferentes condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Los tratamientos fueron: semillas no hidratadas (T1; semillas hidratadas hasta el final de la fase I (T2; semillas hidratadas hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible (T3, y posteriormente se deshidrataron durante 48 horas. Las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron con agua a 80ºC durante 2' antes de hidratar. La germinación de las semillas de ambas especies dependió significativamente de la interacción entre la temperatura del sustrato y la hidratación (PThe effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germinative response, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings was studied under different controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The treatments were: non hydrated seeds (T1; seeds hydrated until the end of stage I (T2; seeds hydrated until two hours before the beginning of visible germination (T3 and they were later dehydrated for 48 hours. A. lebbeck seeds were scarified with water at 80ºC for 2' before hydrating. The seed germination of both species depended significantly on the interaction between the substratum temperature and hydration (P<0,001. In G. sepium the best results in germination were obtained with long periods (stage III, and in A. lebbeck with short periods (stage I. The emergence showed significant effects due to the positive effects of scarification-partial hydration treatments in A. lebbeck (34 vs 10% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively and without their combination in G. sepium (12 vs 8% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively. There was a significant increase in plant growth and development. The hydric treatments were concluded to revigorize the aged and fresh seeds from A. lebbeck and G

  20. Cultivo de Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala em alamedas visando a melhoria dos solos dos tabuleiros costeiros

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    Barreto Antônio Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a biomassa da parte aérea de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala em cultivos em alameda, e o efeito da adição dessa biomassa sobre propriedades químicas e físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo dos tabuleiros costeiros de Sergipe. A produção de mandioca nas alamedas dessas leguminosas também foi determinada. A gliricídia foi plantada, em 1994, por estacas, e a leucena, em 1995, por mudas, utilizando-se o espaçamento de 3 x 1 m, para ambas as espécies. Em intervalos de três a cinco meses, foram realizados cortes e incorporação do material ao solo. Caules com diâmetro superior a 1 cm foram desconsiderados na biomassa. A matéria seca desses cortes foi determinada anualmente, e em 1998 realizaram-se análises químicas e físicas do solo. Amostras de solo de área contígua foram utilizadas como controle. Foram produzidas, respectivamente, 4,87 e 5,80 t ha-1 ano-1 de parte aérea, em média, por leucena e gliricídia. A gliricídia exerceu menor competição com a mandioca na entrelinha. Com a incorporação dessas leguminosas ao solo elevaram-se o pH e os teores de Ca+Mg, não sendo alteradas, porém, a matéria orgânica e a CTC. Também foi observada redução de densidade e elevação da macroporosidade em resposta à adição das leguminosas. Esses efeitos foram mais acentuados em menores profundidades.

  1. The effect of feeding bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal on their feed consumption and dried organic matter digestability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, S.; Sobang, Y. U. L.; Samba, F. D.; Hartati, E.; Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding bull Bali Cattle kept in extensive husbnadry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal in their feed consumptions and dried organic matter digestibility. Three bull Bali cattle aged 1 - 2 years old with an initial body weight of 135.5 kg - 168.0 kg were used in this study. The three treatments used were T0 = local feeds (consisted of Leucaena leucocephala, Acasia leochophloea, and Ficus sp. leaves as commonly used by local farmers); T1 = T0 + 1 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal); T2 = T1 +2 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal). The results showed that the dry matter intake were: 2.40, 3.52, and 4.14; organic matter intake were: 2.17, 3.32, and 3.62; dry matter digestible was 64.63%, 72.45%, 77.28% and organic matter digestible was 66.79%, 74.66%, 79.33% for T0, T1, and T2, respectively. There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatments on the three parameters observed on bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system and fed with concentrates contained leaf gliricidia sepium meal and banana starch tuber meal.

  2. Métodos de plantio de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. em estacas para produção de forragem Establishment methods of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. from stakes for forage production

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    Benedito Marques da Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gliricídia, uma leguminosa arbórea utilizada no sombreamento de cacaueiros e na produção de forragem, é comumente empregada como cerca viva, madeira e lenha e pode ser multiplicada por sementes e por frações do caule ou de estacas. Conduziu-se este estudo na Escola de Agronomia da UFBA, em Cruz das Almas - Bahia, com o objetivo de avaliar métodos de plantio por estaquia, a fim de se identificar aquele de maior índice de pegamento das estacas, maior produção de forragem e menor custo de implantação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: 1 estacas de 1 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente em covas; 2 estacas de 0,5 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente em covas; 3 estacas de 0,25 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente em covas; 4 estacas de 1 m de comprimento plantadas horizontalmente dentro do sulco; 5 estacas de 0,5 m de comprimento plantadas horizontalmente dentro sulco. As estacas de 1,0 m de comprimento plantadas verticalmente dentro de covas (método 1 ou horizontalmente dentro de sulcos (método 4, após 14 dias de colhidas, são os métodos mais recomendáveis por apresentarem menores custos na preparação das estacas e operações de plantio, proporcionando melhores lucros por hectare quando consideradas as receitas das produções de matéria seca.Gliricidia sepium has been used as shade tree in cocoa plantations, living fences, wood, fuel wood and livestock forage. It can be grown from seeds and from cuttings or stakes. This experiment was carried out to evaluate five grown methods from Gliricidia cuttings in other to identify the one showing highest stake sprouting indexes, forage production and least implantation costs. The experiment was in a randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were the followings: 1 stakes with 1m in length placed vertically in pits; 2 stakes with .5 m

  3. INFLUENCE OF SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM “LIVE FENCES” OF Gliricidia sepium ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN TACOTALPA, TABASCO, MEXICO

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    G. Villanueva-López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify rates of soil respiration on livestock systems with live fences (LF formed by Gliricidia sepium trees and on livestock systems in signal grass monoculture (MP (Brachiaria decumbens; examine the variation of flows in the rainy and dry seasons, and fluctuations during the day, as well as soil temperature and relative humidity. Soil respiration was measured twice a month, four times a day between the hours of 00:00 to 06:00 h, 6:00 to 12:00 h, 12:00 to 18:00 h, and 18:00 to 24:00 h, in both seasons. Soil temperature and the relative humidity were simultaneously measured. The results show that the rate of soil respiration is similar between these systems, LF issued 0.97 and MP 1.01 mol CO2 m2 h-1. In contrast, there was influence of the time of year and time of collection of the samples. In both systems the soil flows were higher in the rainy season (1.1 mol CO2 m2 h-1 on average and slightly lower in the dry season (0.90 mol CO2 m2 h-1 on average and were higher during the night (00:00 to 06:00 hours, during the early morning hours (6:00 to 12:00 hours. Soil temperature was higher in the MP, and the relative humidity in LF. It is concluded that the main factor that caused the variation in soil respiration rates was the presence of G. sepium trees in LF, which led to lower temperatures and more stable humidity, which resulted in lower soil CO2 fluxes.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Periplocoside P from Periploca sepium on Brush Border Membrane Vesicles in Midgut Epithelium of Mythimna separata Larvae

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    Mingxing Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periplocoside P (PSP, a novel compound isolated from Periploca sepium Bunge, possesses insecticidal activity against some lepidopterans, such as Mythimna separata. In M. separata, the brush border membrane vesicles of the midgut epithelium are the initial site of action of periplocosides. We conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry analysis to analyze differentially expressed proteins (DEPs from periplocoside P (PSP-treated M. separata. We successfully isolated seven up-regulated and three down-regulated DEPs that have been previously identified, as well as a novel DEP. The DEPs are implicated in protein degradation, transporter, folding, and synthesis, and in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. DEPs involved in the oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism pathway are enriched. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, we confirmed that vma1 expression is significantly up-regulated expression levels in PSP-treated M. separata larvae. Enzymology validation further indicated that PSP can significantly inhibit V-type ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Given these results, we speculate that in M. separata, the V-type ATPase A subunit in the midgut epithelium is the putative target binding site of periplocosides. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the mode of action of periplocosides.

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Periplocoside P from Periploca sepium on Brush Border Membrane Vesicles in Midgut Epithelium of Mythimna separata Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingxing; Li, Yankai; Chen, Xueting; Wei, Quansheng; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2017-12-22

    Periplocoside P (PSP), a novel compound isolated from Periploca sepium Bunge, possesses insecticidal activity against some lepidopterans, such as Mythimna separata . In M. separata, the brush border membrane vesicles of the midgut epithelium are the initial site of action of periplocosides. We conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry analysis to analyze differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) from periplocoside P (PSP)-treated M. separata . We successfully isolated seven up-regulated and three down-regulated DEPs that have been previously identified, as well as a novel DEP. The DEPs are implicated in protein degradation, transporter, folding, and synthesis, and in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. DEPs involved in the oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism pathway are enriched. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, we confirmed that vma1 expression is significantly up-regulated expression levels in PSP-treated M. separata larvae. Enzymology validation further indicated that PSP can significantly inhibit V-type ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Given these results, we speculate that in M. separata , the V-type ATPase A subunit in the midgut epithelium is the putative target binding site of periplocosides. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the mode of action of periplocosides.

  6. Preliminary Feasibility Report (Stage 2), Review of Reports on Lorain Harbor, Ohio. Volume 2. Appendices. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    bulrush Scirpus fluviatilis Reed canary grass Phalaris urundinacea Blue joint grass Calamogrostis canadensis Jewelweed Impatiens capensis Meadow...emergents: Swamp rose mallow Hibiscus palustris Nettle Urtica sp. Nightshade Solanum dulcamara Hedge bindweed Convolvulus sepium Peppermint Mentha arvensis...Staghorn sumac Rhus coppallina Tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima Wild grape Vitas sp. Honeysuckle Lonicera sp. Elderberry Sambucus canadensis Hawthorn

  7. Valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Shum com feno de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium(Jacq. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverton Filgueira Pacheco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica de silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Shum com adição de diferentes proporções de feno de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp, utilizando-se mini-silos experimentais em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos: 100% capim-elefante, 95% de capim-elefante e 5% de feno de gliricídia, 90% de capim-elefante e 10% de feno de gliricídia, 80% de capim-elefante e 20% de feno de gliricídia e 60% de capim-elefante e 40% de feno de gliricídia com cinco repetições por tratamento. Os silos foram abertos com 28 dias após a ensilagem, em que foram determinados os teores de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HEM, celulose (CEL, lignina (LG, extrato etéreo (EE, matéria mineral (MM e carboidratos totais (CHOT. As variáveis MS, CEL e EE apresentaram respostas lineares (P<0,05 ao aumento nos teores de feno adicionados as silagens de capim-elefante e as variáveis PB, FDN, FDA, HEM, LG e CHOT apresentaram efeito quadrático (P<0,05. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a adição de feno de gliricídia na ensilagem do capim elefante melhorou seu valor nutricional.

  8. La flor de cuchunuc (gliricidia sepium) en la alimentación de la población zoque de Tuxtla, Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Roque, Adriana; López Zúñiga, Erika J.; Medina Vázquez, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio se realizó durante el año 2005, con el objetivo de conocer el contenido nutrimental de las preparaciones culinarias que contengan flor decuchunuc (Gliricidia sepium) consumidas por la población zoque de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, de manera que este recurso natural silvestre, el cual se ha incorporado a la dieta actual, se siga aprovechando como una alternativa en la alimentación, para fortalecer la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional conla disponibilidad, la accesibilidad y el consumo de ...

  9. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and

  10. Temperatura óptima de germinación y patrones de imbibición de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea Optimum germination temperature and imbibition patterns of the seeds from Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Reino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron semillas frescas y envejecidas de las plantas arbóreas Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea, procedentes de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba. Se diseñó un experimento de clasificación simple y cinco réplicas para la respuesta germinativa a diferentes temperaturas del sustrato (constante a 25ºC y tres alternas: 25/30ºC, 25/35ºC y 25/40ºC. Antes de la siembra las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron (agua a 80ºC/2'. Para el patrón de imbibición las semillas se colocaron sobre papel de filtro humedecido con agua destilada, según la temperatura óptima de germinación, en luz blanca fluorescente y en diferentes tiempos de imbibición. En las semillas frescas de todas las especies los mayores porcentajes de germinación final se obtuvieron a temperatura alterna de 25/35ºC y en las enveje­cidas a 25/30ºC. Con respecto al patrón de imbibición, todas siguieron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua. Las semillas frescas y envejecidas de G.. sepium presentaron un patrón de imbibición muy similar; sin embargo, las semillas frescas de las otras especies tuvieron una mayor velocidad de hidratación que las enve­jecidas y, por consiguiente, alcanzaron el comienzo de la fase III del patrón de imbibición (i.e., germinación visible más rápidamente. Se concluye que el rango de temperatura óptima para la germinación de las semillas envejecidas fue de 25/30ºC y para las frescas fue de 25/35ºC y ambas presentaron un patrón trifásico de absorción de agua cuando la siembra se realizó en la temperatura óptima de germinación.Fresh and aged seeds of the trees Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea from the Experi­mental Station of Pastures and Forages «Indio Hatuey», Matanzas, Cuba, were used. A simple classification experiment and five replications were designed for the germinative response to different temperatures of the

  11. El proceso de toma de decisiones en la adopción de bancos de proteína de Gliricidia sepium por productores de doble propósito en Rivas, Nicaragua The decision-making process in the adoption of Gliricidia sepium protein banks by double purpose producers in Rivas, Nicaragua*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M López

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proceso de adopción de bancos de proteína de Gliricidia sepium por miembros de la Asociación de Ganaderos de Rivas, Nicaragua (ASOGARI, quienes participaron en el Proyecto de Desarrollo de Sistemas Silvopastoriles implementado con la asistencia técnica del Centro para la Investigación en Sistemas Agropecuarios de Producción Sostenible (CIPAV y el Proyecto Forestal de Nicaragua (PROFOR. Se realizó una encuesta estructurada a 100 ganaderos elegidos al azar entre los miembros de ASOGARI, con el fin de definir las principales tipologías y si existían diferencias entre ellos para la adopción potencial de la tecnología de bancos de proteína. Para el análisis de los factores que afectan la adopción de los bancos de proteína, se analizaron los datos de la encuesta aplicando un modelo binario basado en la premisa de que la adopción depende de los atributos y requerimientos de una tecnología dada. Además, para identificar las variables que afectaban la adopción se analizaron los datos mediante un modelo logístico de regresión múltiple conocido como Tobit. Entre los factores que más afectaron la adopción de los bancos de proteína estuvieron el acceso a la asistencia técnica, la contribución del ganado al ingreso de la finca, la disponibilidad de mano de obra, los años de experiencia en la ganadería y la escolaridad, y el acceso a incentivos para la inversión en la ganadería. El proceso de toma de decisiones para la adopción de los bancos de proteína incluyó las condiciones biofísicas (por ejemplo, la disponibilidad de tierra llana y fértil, el acceso a la semilla o materiales de siembra, las condiciones climáticas en el momento de la siembra y socioeconómicas (por ejemplo, la disponibilidad de mano de obra familiar y/o contratada, la disponibilidad de efectivo o incentivos para la siembra, los precios de la leche y los suplementos, así como una actitud favorable hacia el medio ambiente en los

  12. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  13. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq Characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs supplemented with fodder salt from Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.A. Cirne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, em que os tratamentos foram constituídos de zero (100% de NaCl, 93, 95, 97 e 99% de inclusão de feno de gliricídia (7, 5, 3 e 1% de NaCl na formulação do sal forrageiro, respectivamente. A suplementação com sal forrageiro de gliricídia não afetou (P>0,05 o peso vivo ao abate em jejum (28,39kg, peso de carcaça quente (9,76kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (34,12%, o peso de carcaça fria (9,42kg, o rendimento de carcaça fria (32,95%, as perdas de peso por resfriamento (3,40%, assim como o peso de vísceras brancas (2,19kg e o peso de vísceras vermelhas (1,29kg. Porcentagem de inclusão de até 99% de gliricídia na confecção de sal forrageiro não altera (P>0,05 as características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq forage species for the confection of the fodder salt gliricidia according to the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs. Thirty confined, not castrated crossbred Santa Inês lambs, ageing approximately 180 days, with mean live body weight of 25kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions. Treatments were zero (100% NaCl, 93, 95, 97 and 99% inclusion of gliricidia hay (7, 5, 3 and 1% NaCl in the formulation of fodder salt, respectively. The supplementation with gliricidia fodder salt did not affect (P>0.05 the

  14. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores de gliricídia no Recôncavo Baiano Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitors of gliricidia flowers (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Stend. in the Reconcavo Baiano region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, nesse trabalho, obter informações sobre a diversidade de abelhas visitantes em gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Stend., na região do Recôncavo Baiano. As espécies visitantes nas flores foram coletadas, no período de setembro a novembro de 2005. Definiu-se, aleatoriamente, 15 inflorescências por intervalo de hora para a coleta efetiva das abelhas, sendo utilizado um minuto por inflorescência, ao longo do intervalo de 07:00 às 18:00 horas, durante o período de floração. Um total de 10 espécies foram identificadas, sendo que Apis mellifera foi a espécie mais abundante, com freqüência relativa igual a 25,40 %, seguida da Trigona spinipes (23,81 %, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (14,28 %, Xylocopa grisescens e Trigona fuscipennis (ambas com 12,70 %. O pico de visita das abelhas ocorreu das 10:01 às 11:00 horas. A. mellifera, T. spinipes e N. testaceicornis foram consideradas as espécies com potencial para a polinização das flores de gliricídias, na região do Recôncavo Baiano.The focus of this paper was to get information about the diversity of bees visiting Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Stend. in the Recôncavo Baiano region. The species visiting the flowers were collected in the period from September to November 2005. For the collection of the bees, 15 inflorescences were defined randomly per hour, one minute being used per inflorescence, throughout the interval from 07:00 a.m. to 06:00 p.m., during the blooming period. A total of ten species were identified, Apis mellifera being the most abundant species, with relative frequency equal to 25.40%, followed by Trigona spinipes (23.81%, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (14.28%, Xylocopa grisescens, and Trigona fuscipennis (both with 12.70%. The peak of bee visits occurred from 10:01a.m. to 11:00 a.m. A. mellifera, T. spinipes, and N. testaceicornis were considered the species with potential for the pollination of Gliciridia sepium flowers in the region of the Rec

  15. Caracterización morfológica de Gliricidia sepium, composición bromatológica y proporción de azúcares en sus flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey, con el fin de determinar las características morfológicas de Gliricidia sepium, así como la composición bromatológica y la proporción de azúcares en sus flores. Se midieron las siguientes variables: altura total, diámetro del tronco a la altura del pecho (DAP y ancho de la copa. Además, se estimó la cantidad de flores por árbol y por hectárea. En las flores colectadas se determinó la composición bromatológica: MS, PB, FB y Ca, la humedad y la lignina de Klason. El tamaño de muestra utilizado fue el 12 % del total (20 árboles y cada árbol constituyó una réplica. Los valores medios fueron: DAP de 44,7 cm; altura de 4,85 m; 295 racimos por árbol, con 34 flores como promedio cada uno; el total estimado fue de 10 030 flores por árbol y de 8 986 880 flores por hectárea. La MS fue de 8,69 %; FB, 32,57 %; lignina de Klason, 28,8 %; PB, 7,04 %; y Ca, 0,99 %. Como azúcares simples se detectaron la glucosa (4,82 % y la fructosa (10,36 %, mientras que la sacarosa mostró valores de 1,73 %. Se concluye que todos los árboles de G. sepium muestreados son típicos de la especie. Además, el porcentaje de MS de sus flores fue bajo, pero estas tuvieron un alto contenido de FB, PB, lignina de Klason y calcio. La fructosa fue el azúcar más abundante en el extracto y la sacarosa el más escaso.

  16. Influence of seed size and ecological factors on the germination and emergence of field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis Influência do tamanho da semente e fatores ecológicos na germinação e na emergência de Convolvulus arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tanveer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of seed germination ecology of weeds can assist in predicting their potential distribution and developing effective management strategies. Influence of environmental factors and seed size on germination and seedling emergence of Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed was studied in laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Germination occurred over a wide range of constant temperatures, between 15 and 40 ºC, with optimum germination between 20 and 25 ºC. Time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time increased while germination percentage and germination index decreased with an increase in temperature from 20 ºC, salinity and osmotic stress. However, germination was tolerant to low salt (25 mM or osmotic stress (0.2 MPa, but as salinity and osmotic stress increased, germination percentage and germination index decreased. Seeds of C. arvensis placed at soil surface showed maximum emergence and decreased as seeding depth increased. Seeds of C. arvensis germinated over a wide range of pH (4 to 9 but optimum germination occurred at pH 6 to 8. Under highly alkaline and acidic pH, time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time increased while germination percentage and germination index decreased. Increase in field capacity caused decreased time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time but increased germination percentage and germination index. Bigger seeds had low time to start germination, time to 50% germination and mean germination time but high germination percentage and germination index. Smaller seeds were more sensitive to environmental factors as compared to larger or medium seeds. It can be concluded that except for pH, all environmental factors and seed sizes adversely affect C. arvensis as regards seed germination or emergence and germination or emergence traits, and larger seeds result in improved stand establishment and faster

  17. Características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros suplementados com sal forrageiro de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G.A. Cirne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a porcentagem de inclusão da espécie forrageira Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walq na confecção do sal forrageiro de gliricídia, por meio de características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros. Foram utilizados 30 cordeiros mestiços da raça Santa Inês, não castrados, com aproximadamente 180 dias de idade, peso vivo médio de 25kg, confinados, num delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, em que os tratamentos foram constituídos de zero (100% de NaCl, 93, 95, 97 e 99% de inclusão de feno de gliricídia (7, 5, 3 e 1% de NaCl na formulação do sal forrageiro, respectivamente. A suplementação com sal forrageiro de gliricídia não afetou (P>0,05 o peso vivo ao abate em jejum (28,39kg, peso de carcaça quente (9,76kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (34,12%, o peso de carcaça fria (9,42kg, o rendimento de carcaça fria (32,95%, as perdas de peso por resfriamento (3,40%, assim como o peso de vísceras brancas (2,19kg e o peso de vísceras vermelhas (1,29kg. Porcentagem de inclusão de até 99% de gliricídia na confecção de sal forrageiro não altera (P>0,05 as características de carcaça e de não componentes da carcaça de cordeiros.

  18. Fourrages De Moringa Oleifera Et De Gliricidia Sepium Utilises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... FCFA feed/kg live weight gain respectively in MO, GS et GC at phase I. During phase II, the addition of the commercial feed timed these feed costs by 2, 4 and 5 respectively in CS, MO and GS groups without allowing a significant improvement of the live weight gain. Keywords: Benin, leguminous forages, Girolando cattle, ...

  19. Growth Response of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)Walp to Inoculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each week, plants received 50 cm3 of nutrient solution (with N and P additions) according to the treatments. The experimental design was a ... Dry weights of plant parts, nodulation, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and content were determined. AM fungi differed in their ...

  20. Dry matter and nutrients accumulation in Gliricidia sepium in response to water stress and phosphorus levels Acúmulo de massa seca e de nutrientes em gliricídia em resposta ao estresse hídrico e a doses de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Romilson Paes de Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors that have limited plant growth and crop production in tropical regions are the low availability of phosphorus and water stress. These factures assume even greater proportion in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. As a result, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects of phosphorus and two water regimes effects in dry matter and nutrients accumulation in Gliricidia sepium plants. The experimental design was a randomized block design, arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, corresponding to two water regimes (with and without water stress and four phosphorus levels (0; 50; 100 and 150 mg dm-3 of P. The plants grown in plastic pots containing 9 kg of soil, and the water stress was imposed by the suspension of irrigation, 45 days after emergence and remained in that condition for 15 days. It were analyzed the dry matter and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn content in shoots. Water stress was detrimental to the production of dry matter and N and Zn accumulation, while promoted accumulation of P, S and Cu. The fertilization favored N, P, Ca, S, Mn, and Fe shoot accumulation.Dentre os fatores que mais têm limitado o crescimento vegetal e a produção agrícola nas regiões tropicais estão a baixa disponibilidade de fósforo e o estresse hídrico. Esses fatores assumem proporção ainda maior na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Em função disso, conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de doses de fósforo e dois regimes hídricos nos acúmulos de massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA e de nutrientes em plantas de gliricídia. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, disposto em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, correspondendo a dois regimes hídricos (com e sem estresse hídrico e quatro doses de fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 150 mg dm-³ de P. As plantas cresceram em vasos plásticos contendo 9 kg de solo e o estresse hídrico foi imposto através da suspensão da irrigação, aos 45

  1. SUBSTITUSI GAMAL (Gliricidia sepium DENGAN KALIANDRA (Calliandra calothyrsus PADA RANSUM TERHADAP KECERNAAN IN-VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ayu Sri Trisnadewi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggantian gamal dengan kaliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus pada ransum terhadap degradasi rumen secara in-vitro. Penelitian mengunakan rancangan acaklengkap (RAL yang terdiri dari lima perlakuan dan tiga kali ulangan sehingga terdapat 15 unit percobaan. Adapun kelima perlakuan tersebut adalah: perlakuan A (ransum basal + 20% gamal, B (ransum basal + 15% gamal + 5% kaliandra, C (ransum basal + 10% gamal + 10% kaliandra , D (ransum basal + 5% gamal + 15 % kaliandra , dan E (ransum basal + 20% kaliandra . Peubah yang diamati adalah: degradasi ransumdalam cairan rumen in-vitro (kecernaan bahan kering [KCBK], kecernaan bahan organik [KCBK], degradasi ransum dalam pepsin in-vitro (KCBK, KCBO, kadar ammonia, kadar VFA (Vollatyl Fatty Acid dan pH cairanrumen in-vitro. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggantian daun gamal dengan daun kaliandra sampai tingkat 20% dalam ransum, dapat menurunkan kecernaan bahan kering dan organik dalam rumen, tetapisebaliknya meningkatkan kecernaan bahan kering dan organik dalam pepsin in-vitro. Disamping itu dapat menurunkan kadar N-NH3 dan VFA, tetapi meningkatkan pH cairan rumen in-vitro. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa tanin kaliandra dapat dipakai sebagai agen proteksi dari degradasi mikroorganisme rumen in-vitro di dalam ransum, dan penggunaan kaliandra sampai 20% dalam ransum sebagai protek protein ransum dapatmenghasilkan kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan organik pepsin in-vitro tertinggi.

  2. Chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpe, N; Roibu, C; Negrila, E; Bodescu, F; Fuia, S; Popa, C; Beraru, C

    2001-01-01

    In Romania, the first tests with Roundup Ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at Teleorman Station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at Brăila Station placed in Danube Meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. In every locality cultivated soybean cultivar S.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. During the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of which the most important are: Sorghum halepense (60-80%), Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria glauca, Amaranthus retroflexus, Solarium nigrum, Yanthium italicum, Abutilon theoprasthi, Sinapis arvensis, Datum stramonium, Polygonum persicaria, Calystegia sepium, Cirsium arvense. In 3 years of experience the best weed control and the highest soybean production were obtained in the variants treated 2 times postemergent with Roundup Ready at a dose of 3 + 3 l/ha. Similar results were also obtained in the farms of the Academy of Agricultural Forestry Sciences, where GMO soybean was cultivated on 1500 hectares.

  3. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  4. PENGARUH CARA PENGAWETAN TERHADAP KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN EFISIENSI DALAM BENTUK HAY DAN SILASE PADA DAUN 16 PROVENAN GAMAL (GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Puger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available RINGKASAN Percobaan yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh cara pengawetan terhadap kandungan zat-zat makanan dan efisiensinya pada daun 16 provenan gamal telah dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap yang terdiri atas 3 perlakuan pengawetan (gamal segar, gamal hay, dan gamal silase dan 3 blok sebagai ulangan. Setiap perlakuan terdiri atas 16 provenan, yaitu 6 dari Mexico (M, 4 dari Guatemala (G, dan satu provenan masing-masing dari Colombia (C, Indonesia (I, Nicaragua (N, Panama (P, Costa Rica (R, dan Venezuela (V. Sampel setiap daun (helai dan tangkai provenan sebelum dan setelah diawetkan dianalisis kandungan zat-zat makanannya dan dihitung efisiensinya setelah dibuat hay dan silase. Kandungan DM dan CP dari hay adalah tertinggi (P0,05 setelah diawetkan menjadi hay dan silase, sedangkan efisiensi DM, OM, dan CP dari hay lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada silase. Provenan P13, R12, dan M34 mengandung zat-zat makanan lebih tinggi; sementara provenan G14 dan G17 lebih efisien bila diawetkan dalam bentuk hay dan silase. Pada pertanian lahan kering pengawetan gamal dalam bentuk hay lebih efektif dan efisien jika dibandingkan dengan dalam bentuk silase.

  5. Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Green Manures as a Potential Source of N for Maize Production in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Bah

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of cheap, N-rich, and environmentally benign legume green manures to correct N deficiency in infertile soils is a very attractive option in the humid tropics. Understanding the influence of management and climate on their effectiveness, and quantifying their contribution to crop productivity, is therefore crucial for technology adoption and adaptation. Mineral N buildup and the contribution to N uptake in maize were studied in an Ultisol amended with fresh Gliricidia leaves. Net mineral N accumulation was compared in mulched and incorporated treatments in a field incubation study. The 15N isotope dilution technique was used to quantify N supplied to maize by Gliricidia leaves in an alley cropping. Mineral N accumulation was slow, but was much greater after incorporation than after mulching. Also, N buildup was always higher in the topsoil (0 to 10 cm than in the subsoil (10 to 20 cm. More NO3-N was leached than NH4-N, and the effect was greater in the incorporated treatment. Surface-applied Gliricidia leaves significantly increased N uptake by maize, and supplied >30% of the total N in the stover and >20% of that in the corn grain, even in the presence of hedgerows. Thus Gliricidia leaf mulch has immense potential to improve productivity in tropical soils.

  6. Leaf litter decomposition of Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; O'Sullivan, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    No information is available on the decomposition and nutrient release pattern of Piper aduncum and Imperata cylindrica despite their importance in shifting cultivation systems of Papua New Guinea and other tropical regions. We conducted a litter bag study (24 weeks) on a Typic Eutropepts in the

  7. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela C Stotz

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo. In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó, and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  8. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  9. How disturbances and management practices affect bird communities in a Carpathian river ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Jozef; Topercer, Ján; Súľovský, Marek

    2018-04-01

    We studied how interactions between disturbances, succession, human alterations and other habitat and landscape attributes affect bird community patterns in a lower reach of a large West Carpathian river Váh with complex disturbance and alteration histories. Breeding-bird communities, their habitats (54 variables) and surrounding landscapes (11 metrics) were sampled using standardized point counts with limited distances at 40 riparian sites divided among two transects along a 12.9 km river stretch. The most frequent and abundant birds were generalists typically associated with forest edge habitats, such as Parus major, Sylvia atricapilla, Fringilla coelebs, Oriolus oriolus, Phylloscopus collybita, Sturnus vulgaris, Turdus merula and Luscinia megarhynchos. Abundances show significant increase at the lower transect responding apparently to greater size and heterogeneity of riparian habitats and more abundant food supply linked to more diverse and intense human influences in a suburban zone. Both indirect (NMDS) and direct ordination (CCA) revealed remarkably large number of evenly important factors underlying riparian bird-habitat interactions. It suggests considerable environmental heterogeneity and complexity of these interactions as a likely outcome of long and complex disturbance and alteration histories of the area. Yet structure and relative importance of first two gradients (longitudinal and lateral linkages) remains simple and stable, complying well with predictions of river continuum concept and stream ecosystem theory. Of the nine statistically significant variables most strongly correlated with first two CCA axes, percentages of Helianthus tuberosus, footpaths, fields, Calystegia sepium and steep banks uphold our hypotheses predicting significant effects of invasive species, visitor disturbances, agricultural land use and unaltered river banks/bed on bird community composition and structure. A small but significant contribution of patch size standard

  10. Ciclagem de nutrientes via precipitação pluvial total, interna e escoamento pelo tronco em sistema agroflorestal com Gliricidia sepium Nutrient cycling through rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in an agroforestry system with Gliricidia sepium in semi-arid Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Martin Perez-Marin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A deposição de nutrientes contidos na água de chuva que passa pela copa das árvores e que escoa pelo tronco até o solo pode constituir uma via importante da ciclagem biogeoquímica em sistemas agroflorestais de baixo uso de insumos externos. Todavia, não há informação disponível sobre esses processos em agroecossistemas da região semi-árida do Nordeste brasileiro. O presente trabalho foi conduzido em um sistema agroflorestal de cultivo em aléias, com gliricídia e milho, em Esperança, PB, e teve como objetivo quantificar: a proporção da água de chuva que escoa através da copa das árvores, ou pelo tronco, ou que é interceptada pela copa; e as entradas de N, P e K contidos na água escoada através da copa ou pelo tronco, bem como na água de chuva em áreas sem árvores. Na área experimental, foram delimitadas quatro parcelas, onde foram instalados coletores a 0,50 m de distância do tronco das árvores de gliricídia e coletores tipo ´colarinho´ acoplados ao redor do tronco destas. Paralelamente, foram instalados coletores em áreas adjacentes, sem árvores, para quantificação da precipitação pluvial total. Da precipitação pluvial total, 67 % escoou através da copa , 0,74 % escoou pelo tronco e 32 % foi interceptada pela copa das árvores. As concentrações de N e P foram similares nas amostras da água escoada através da copa ou pelo tronco, porém estas foram cerca de 300 % maiores do que na água de chuva. A concentração de K na água escoada pelo tronco foi cerca de 100 e 600 % maior do que na água escoada através da copa e na água de chuva, respectivamente. Em média, os aportes de N, P e K ao solo foram de 5, 1 e 24 kg ha-1 na água de chuva; 9, 2 e 62 kg ha-1 na água escoada através da copa; e 0,12, 0,02 e 1 kg ha-1 na água escoada pelo tronco, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram a importância da adoção de sistemas agroflorestais para a sustentabilidade de sistemas agrícolas de baixo uso de insumos externos, como os da região semi-árida do Nordeste.The nutrients in rainwater that reach the soil by throughfall or stemflow may represent significant nutrient fluxes in agroforestry systems with low external input. However, there is no information about these processes in agroecosystems of semi-arid northeastern Brazil. This study was conducted in an alley cropping system with Gliricidia and maize in Esperança, PB, Brazil. The objectives of the study were to quantify: (a the proportion of rainfall that reaches the soil as throughfall or stemflow and the amount intercepted by the tree canopy; and (b the input of N, P and K to the soil as throughfall, stemflow and direct rainfall water. Four plots were established in the experimental area and throughfall water collectors were placed at a distance of 0.50 m from the tree trunks. Stemflow water was collected in each plot using collars around the tree trunks that conducted the water to collectors while four collectors were installed in adjacent areas without trees to collect rainfall water. Of the total rainfall in 2004, 67 % reached the soil as throughfall, 0.74 % as stemflow and 32 % was intercepted by tree canopies. N and P concentrations were similar in throughfall and stemflow water samples, but these were around 300 % greater than those in rainfall water. The K concentration in stemflow water was 100 and 600 % greater than in samples from throughfall and rainfall, respectively. On average, N, P, and K inputs to the soil were 5, 1 and 24 kg ha-1 in rainfall water; 9, 2 and 62 kg ha-1 in throughfall water; and 0.12, 0.02 and 1 kg ha-1 in stemflow water, respectively. The results demonstrate the importance of agroforestry for the sustainability of agricultural systems with low external input in semi-arid NE Brazil.

  11. An abundant 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' tuf b strain is associated with grapevine, stinging nettle and Hyalesthes obsoletus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, A; Brader, G; Mörtel, J; Pastar, M; Riedle-Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    Bois noir (BN) associated with ' Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (Stolbur) is regularly found in Austrian vine growing regions. Investigations between 2003 and 2008 indicated sporadic presence of the confirmed disease vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and frequent infections of bindweed and grapevine. Infections of nettles were rare. In contrast present investigations revealed a mass occurrence of H. obsoletus almost exclusively on stinging nettle. The high population densities of H. obsoletus on Urtica dioica were accompanied by frequent occurrence of ' Ca. P. solani' in nettles and planthoppers. Sequence analysis of the molecular markers secY, stamp, tuf and vmp1 of stolbur revealed a single genotype named CPsM4_At1 in stinging nettles and more than 64 and 90 % abundance in grapevine and H. obsoletus , respectively. Interestingly, this genotype showed tuf b type restriction pattern previously attributed to bindweed associated ' Ca. P. solani' strains, but a different sequence assigned as tuf b2 compared to reference tuf b strains. All other marker genes of CPsM4_At1 clustered with tuf a and nettle derived genotypes verifying distinct nettle phytoplasma genotypes. Transmission experiments with H. obsoletus and Anaceratagallia ribauti resulted in successful transmission of five different strains including the major genotype to Catharanthus roseus and in transmission of the major genotype to U. dioica . Altogether, five nettle and nine bindweed associated genotypes were described. Bindweed types were verified in 34 % of grapevine samples, in few positive Reptalus panzeri , rarely in bindweeds and occasionally in Catharanthus roseus infected by H. obsoletus or A. ribauti . ' Candidatus Phytoplasma convolvuli' (bindweed yellows) was ascertained in nettle and bindweed samples.

  12. Competition Between Weeds and Pepper in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In arid areas drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. The objective of this study was to study water competition and its effect on canopy relationship of a C4 weed (pigweed and a C3 weed (bindweed towards a C3 crop (pepper in a Mediterranean area. The experiment was carried out in 2008 in Matera, Southern Italy. Pigweed and bindweed were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a bell pepper field where a rainfed treatment (V0 was compared to a full irrigated one (V100, the latter corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration, (ETc. Soil water content was measured periodically; leaf water potential, net assimilation rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (T, Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration and A/Ci curves were also determined on pigweed, bindweed and pepper leaves. All gas exchange parameters differed between irrigated and rainfed treatments and between the three species.Water use efficiency was higher in pigweed than in pepper and bindweed. Between the considered weeds, pigweed competed for water with pepper significantly since, unlike bindweed, pigweed began to reduce stomatal conductance only when its leaf water potential achieved very negative values, lower than -2.00 MPa. Unlike C4 crops already saturated for CO2, pigweed photosynthesis is not completely saturated for CO2. Consequently, since atmospheric CO2 is increasing, when pigweed is grown in mixed stands where competition occurs, it can further limit other slow-growing species, both crops and weeds.

  13. study on agroforestry practices in abak local government area, akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Manihot esculenta. Gambeya albida. Eucalyptus sp Newbouldia laevis. Spondias mombin. Gliricidia sepium. Telfaria occidentalis. Calliandra calothyrsus. Carica papaya Albizzia sp. Gmelina arborea. Bambusa vulgaris. Leucaena leucocephala. Discorea spp. Sesbania grandiflora. Ananas comosus. Masanga cecropoides.

  14. USSR Report Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-06

    cheese whey, groats and phosphatides from oil and fat production, protein from soybeans and legume crops, and grass meal for the production of ZTsM...sunflowers, soybeans , rape and other crops having a high protein content. Of the aforementioned crops, let us look at rape. A great deal has been written...cress, ascus, hedge mustard, thistle, field sowthistle and lesser bindweed 50% Mekoprop is required. It is available in limited quantities. In recent

  15. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  16. 59 - 62 lawan paid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Accepted: May, 2011. ISSN 2006 - 6996. EFFECTS OF ALLELOCHEMICALS OF SOME EUCALYPTUS SPECIES ON. GERMINATION AND RADICLE GROWTH OF ..... Oyun, M. B. (2006): Allelopathic potentialities of Gliricidia sepium and Acacia auriculiformis on the germination and seedling vigour of maize (Zea mays L.).

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  18. Performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum in combination with gliricidia sepium. ... The animals weregrazed continuously for 28 days in the sub plots. Sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Panicum plot had a higher (P < 001) growth rate (38 g d-1) than those animals ...

  19. Annales des Sciences Agronomiques - Vol 16, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourrages De Moringa Oleifera Et De Gliricidia Sepium Utilises Comme Complements Alimentaires Efficaces Pour Nourrir Des Veaux Girolando Au Benin · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M F Houndonougbo, C A Chrysostome, S Babatounde, H R Lokossou, ...

  20. Symbiotic specificity of tropical tree rhizobia for host legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The host range and specificity is reported of a genetically diverse group of rhizobia isolated from nodules of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nodule number and nitrogen content was measured in seedlings of herbaceous and woody legume species

  1. EFFECT OF Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year field study was conducted to investigate the effects of prunings of Dactyladenia barteri (Hook. f. ex Oliv.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.), and Senna siamea (Lam.) on the activity of earthworms and soil and worm cast properties. Earthworm activity was measured by quantifying ...

  2. Phosphorus fractionation and crop performance on an alfisol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Sokoto phosphate rock (PR) and plant residues on soil phosphorus (P) fractions and crop performance was studied in the field on an alfisol in the derived savanna of southwestern Nigeria. The plant residues studied were leaves of Dactyladenia barteri, Flemingia macrophylla, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena ...

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twum-Ampofo, K. Vol 28, No 2 (2008) - Articles Growth Response of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)Walp to Inoculation with Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) Fungi Abstract PDF · Vol 31, No 3 (2011) - Articles Using Cajanus Cajan in Biomass Transfer Technology to Increase Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)

  4. Étude de la durabilité économique et environnementale de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . sepium, the yield of cassava of the introduced variety Yavo was 40 t/ha compared to 13 t/ha in the traditional. The plant architecture of the new systems allowed a good soil cover, thus reducing the frequency of weeding, done traditionally by ...

  5. Nodulation and Rhizobium Population in Root Nodules of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nodulation and rhizobium population in root nodules of 5- year old Leucaena leucocephala; Gliricidia sepium and Acacia mangium were assessed. Nodules of these tree legumes were quantified in terms of their numbers, lateral and vertical distribution while the rhizobium population in cultured nodules was counted as ...

  6. Nodulation, chlorophyll content and nitrogen yield of two woody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field studies were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria between 2000 and 2002 to compare the growth, nodulation, chlorophyll content and nitrogen accumulation of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit cv. 28 and Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp cv. ILG50 at the ...

  7. The long-term effects of a gliricidia-maize intercropping system in Southern Malawi, on gliricidia and maize yields, and soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makumba, W.I.H.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Akinnifesi, F.K.; Mweta, D.; Kwesiga, F.R.

    2006-01-01

    A gliricidia¿maize (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)¿Zea mays L.) simultaneous intercropping agroforestry system has shown to be a suitable option for soil fertility improvement and yield increase in highly populated areas of sub Saharan Africa where landholding sizes are very small and inorganic

  8. Spatial rooting patterns of gliricidia, pigeon pea and maize intercrops and effect on profile soil N and P distribution in southern Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makumba, W.; Akinnifesi, F.K.; Janssen, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of competition or complementarity between tree and crop roots for below ground resources have been a major debate in simultaneous systems. Root studies were conducted in three cropping systems, namely: sole maize, pigeon pea/maize intercropping and Gliricidia sepium (Gliricidia)/maize

  9. 44 A. Ananthanarayana Ayer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and a flattened band of nervous tissue passes downwards from the lower part of the sepium pellucidum in front of the anterior commissure to become the diagonal band of Broca. Measurements of the Brain of a Young Adult Female Entellus Monkey. Maximum length of brain . . ... 6.85 cm. Maximum width of brain is ... 595.

  10. Changes In Soil Properties Under Alley Cropping System Of Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate the changes in soil properties, under existing alley cropping system with three leguminous crops (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, and Cajanus cajan) was conducted in the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki ...

  11. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  12. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ornamental landscaping for water erosion control at the federal college of agriculture, Ishiagu, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Effect of alley cropping with Gliricidia sepium and NPK fertilizer application on soil chemical properties and yield of Amaranthus cruntus l · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 16, No 1 (2012), Fourrages De Moringa Oleifera Et De Gliricidia Sepium Utilises Comme Complements Alimentaires Efficaces Pour Nourrir Des Veaux Girolando Au Benin, Abstract. M F Houndonougbo, C A Chrysostome, S Babatounde, H R Lokossou, B Agbota. Vol 11, No 2 (2008), Functioning of indegenous chicken ...

  14. Influence of Tannin in Selected Forages on the Growth Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56 day experiment was carried out to determine the effect of using forages of cassava, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala containing tannin on the growth performance and faecal egg count (FEC) of semi-intensively managed West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. Sixteen WAD sheep with an average body weight ...

  15. Proximate composition and tannin content of some multipurpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves from tree legumes Enterolobium cyclocarpum (EC), Pterocarpus santalonoides (Ps), Gliricidia sepium (Gs), Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Senna sIamea (Ss) were analysed for ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), Ether entract (EE) neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and tannins.

  16. Physical Properties And Maize Production In A Spent Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the use of plant species and organic nutrients to improve the physical properties of oil-contaminated soil, with a view to making it conducive for crop production, is very important. Three legumes (Gliricidia sepium, Leucenae leucocephala and Calapogonium caeruleam) combined or not with poultry manure ...

  17. Evaluación del contenido de metabolitos secundarios en dos especies de plantas forrajeras encontradas en dos pisos térmicos de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Santacoloma-Varón

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen.- Recolectamos muestras de dos especies forrajeras: Gliricidia sepium, y Tithonia diversifolia en dos localidades en diferentes pisos térmicos (Tuluá 960 msnm y Codazzi 131 msnm y evaluamos el contenido de los taninos condensados y polifenoles totales, tomando muestras de hojas de tres zonas fotosintéticas de la planta. Aplicamos técnicas analíticas e instrumentales de la AOAC internacional para determinar la presencia de fitometabolitos secundarios. Encontramos que en T. diversifolia y en G. sepium no existen diferencias significativas en el contenido de polifenoles totales (PFT y taninos condensados (TC entre las dos zonas de la plantas, pero sí existe diferencia significativa entre las muestras provenientes de diferentes pisos térmicos.Abstract.- We evaluated Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia from two different altitudes (Tuluá 960 masl and Codazzi 131 masl. We assess the content of hydrolyzable tannins and total polyphenols in three different parts of the plant, in order to identify the potential effect of altitude over secondary biomolecules concentration. We applied analytical and instrumental protocols of AOAC international to determine the presence of secondary metabolites. Two way ANOVA showsno-significant differences in the content of total polyphenols and condensed tannins in the different parts of the plant in neither T. diversifolia or G. sepium. We found significant differences in the content of total polyphenols within the altitude, but not for the part of the plant in which the sample was collected.

  18. Integrated nutrient management research with sweet potato in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a series of field experiments that investigated the effects of organic and inorganic nutrients on sweet potato tuber yield in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. In the first experiment, plots were planted with Piper aduncum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica, which

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 193 ... Vol 7 (2009), Effect of partial replacement of growers mash with gliricidia sepium leaf meal on the growth of chinchilla rabbits and its implication for extension ... Vol 3 (2004), FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF FRIESIAN X BORANA CROSSBRED COWS ...

  20. Molecular Typing of Bois Noir Phytoplasma Strains in the Chianti Classico Area (Tuscany, Central Italy) and Their Association with Symptom Severity in Vitis vinifera 'Sangiovese'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, R; Passera, A; Panattoni, A; Casati, P; Luvisi, A; Rizzo, D; Bianco, P A; Quaglino, F; Materazzi, A

    2018-03-01

    Bois noir (BN) is the most widespread disease of the grapevine yellows complex in the Euro-Mediterranean area. BN is caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' (BNp), transmitted from herbaceous plants to grapevine by polyphagous insect vectors. In this study, genetic diversity among BNp strains and their prevalence and possible association with grapevine symptom severity were investigated in a Sangiovese clone organic vineyard in the Chianti Classico area (Tuscany). Field surveys over 2 years revealed a range of symptom severity on grapevine and an increase of BN incidence. A TaqMan allelic discrimination assay detected only tufB type b among BNp strains, suggesting the prevalence of the bindweed-related ecology. Nucleotide sequence analyses of vmp1 and stamp genes identified 12 vmp1 and 16 stamp sequence variants, showing an overall positive selection for such genes. The prevalent genotype was Vm43/St10, reported for the first time in this study and closely related to strains identified only in the French Eastern Pyrenees. BNp strains identified in the examined vineyard and mostly grouped in separate bindweed-related phylogenetic clusters showed statistically significant differences in their distribution in grapevines exhibiting distinct symptom severity. These results suggest the possible occurrence of a range of virulence within BNp strain populations in the Chianti Classico area.

  1. WEED SURVEYING OF PHACELIA (PHACELIA TANACETIFOLIA L.) AND EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WEED CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, E; Szabó, R

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was set up in an area of 9 ha that was split into 4 plots: in plot 1 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 2 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 3 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg; in plot 4 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg. After the weed surveying, the total weed coverage was established as follows: in plot 1 the total weed coverage was 11.34%, in plot 2 it was 12.3%, in plot 3 it was 18%, and in plot 4 the total weed coverage was 15%. Based on the weed survey, on the test area the following dicotyledon weeds belonging to the T4 Raunkiaer plant life-form category occupied the highest percentage: heal-all, black-bindweed, goosefoot. The proportion of the perennial dicotyledons: field bindweed (G3), tuberous pea (G1), white campion (H3) was negligible. In all four cases the weed control was executed using the same herbicide in the same doses and with regard to the weed species it showed the same level of efficiency. The smaller row spacing and higher seeding rate has a beneficial effect on the weed suppressing capacity of the crop, the crop's weed suppressing capacity is better and the development of the weeds becomes worse.

  2. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  3. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  4. Evaluation of antifungal efficacy of some plant extracts on Curvularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUDITH

    growth of C. lunata (P ≤ 0.05). At all concentrations, P. amarus is most efficacious of all the plants extracts; this was followed by extract of T. diversifolia and M. lucida. Extract of G. sepium was the least effective of all the plant extracts against C. lunata. P. amarus is most efficient in the control of leaf spot of maize caused by ...

  5. Effects of varying dietary zinc levels on energy and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parameters determined were dry matter intake (DMI), energy utilization and nitrogen utilization. The mean±SE of Panicum maximum, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum purpureum, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium, contained 31.2±5.0; 29.1± 3.0;34.6± 6.0; 45.0± 5.0 and 47.1± 4.0mg Zn/kg DM respectively.

  6. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdi Evizal; Tohari Tohari; Irfan D. Prijambada; Jaka Widada; Donny Widianto

    2009-01-01

    Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), namely sun coffee (without shade trees), coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina ...

  7. Etude de la culture en couloirs de manioc ( Manihot esculenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de l'étude est de recommander aux paysans un système de production de manioc à la fois rentable et préservatrice de l'environnement. Pour atteindre cet objectif, deux systèmes améliorés de culture en couloirs (manioc amélioré Yavo/soja vert (Mung bean)/Gliricidia sepium avec un apport de fumure de fond ...

  8. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  9. Ecosystem Service of Shade Trees on Nutrient Cycling and Productivity of Coffee Agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Evizal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shade trees are significant in certification scheme of sustainable coffee production. They play an importance role on ecosystem functioning. This research is aimed to study ecosystem service of shade trees in some coffee agro-ecosystems particularly on nutrient cycling and land productivity. Four agro-ecosys tems of Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora, namely sun coffee (without shade trees, coffee shaded by Michelia champaca, coffee shaded by Gliricidia sepium, and coffee shaded by Erythrina indica are evaluated during 2007—2008. Smallholder coffee plantation in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, West Lampung, which managed under local standard were employed using Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The result showed that litter fall dynamic from shade trees and from coffee trees was influenced by rainfall. Shade trees decreased weed biomass while increased litter fall production. In dry season, shade trees decreased litter fall from coffee shaded by M. champaca. G. sepium and E. indica shaded coffee showed higher yield than sun coffee and M. champaca shaded coffee. Except for M. champaca shaded coffee, yield had positive correlation (r = 0.99 with litter fall production and had negative correlation (r = —0.82 with weed biomass production. Biomass production (litter fall + weed of sun coffee and shaded coffee was not significantly different. Litter fall of shade trees had significance on nutrient cycle mainly to balance the lost of nitrogen in coffee bean harvesting.Key Words: Coffea canephora, Michelia champaca, Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina indica, litter production, nutrient cycle, coffee yield.

  10. Caracterización bromatológica de seis especies forrajeras en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danis M. Verdecia Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron seis experimentos simultáneos para determinar la composición bromatológica de leguminosas forrajeras en las condiciones edafoclimáticas del Valle del Cauto, Cuba. Se empleó un diseño en bloques al azar con seis réplicas y los tratamientos fueron las edades de rebrote de 60, 120 y 180 días para los árboles y arbustos ( Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Eritrina varie - gata y de 30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 días para las leguminosas rastreras ( Neonotonia wightii y Te - ramnus labialis , en los periodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso. Se determinaron MS, PB, Ca, P, Mg, Si, FND, FAD, LAD, celulosa, hemicelulosa, contenido celular, ceniza, MO, DIVMS, DV, DISMS, DMO, DFND, DFAD y DPB. Se realizaron análisis de conglomerados para agrupar las especies con características simila - res. Durante el periodo lluvioso se encontraron seis grupos y en el poco lluvioso siete grupos; con los mejores resultados, de forma integral, para la Neonotonia wightii, Teramnus labialis, Gliricidia sepium y Tithonia diversifolia , en el periodo lluvioso; y en el poco lluvioso, para Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Erythri - na variegata a edades tempranas. Se concluye que la edad presentó un marcado efecto en la composición bromatológica al disminuir la calidad en la medida que la madurez avanza.

  11. Effect of petroleum on decomposition of shrub-grass litters in soil in Northern Shaanxi of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Zengwen; Yu, Qi; Luc, Nhu Trung; Bing, Yuanhao; Zhu, Bochao; Wang, Wenxuan

    2015-07-01

    The impacts of petroleum contamination on the litter decomposition of shrub-grass land would directly influence nutrient cycling, and the stability and function of ecosystem. Ten common shrub and grass species from Yujiaping oil deposits were studied. Litters from these species were placed into litterbags and buried in petroleum-contaminated soil with 3 levels of contamination (slight, moderate and serious pollution with petroleum concentrations of 15, 30 and 45 g/kg, respectively). A decomposition experiment was then conducted in the lab to investigate the impacts of petroleum contamination on litter decomposition rates. Slight pollution did not inhibit the decomposition of any litters and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of Hippophae rhamnoides, Caragana korshinskii, Amorpha fruticosa, Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa, Periploca sepium, Medicago sativa and Bothriochloa ischaemum. Moderate pollution significantly inhibited litter decomposition of M. sativa, Coronilla varia, Artemisia vestita and Trrifolium repens and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of C. korshinskii, Z. jujuba var. spinosa and P. sepium. Serious pollution significantly inhibited the litter decomposition of H. rhamnoides, A. fruticosa, B. ischaemum and A. vestita and significantly promoted the litter decomposition of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, P. sepium and M. sativa. In addition, the impacts of petroleum contamination did not exhibit a uniform increase or decrease as petroleum concentration increased. Inhibitory effects of petroleum on litter decomposition may hinder the substance cycling and result in the degradation of plant communities in contaminated areas. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Evaluation of the comparative growth and reproductive performance of West African dwarf goats in the western highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E.; Tendonkeng, F.; Kadjio, J.T.T.; Kwami, H.N.; Taboum, R.K.; Kana, J.R.; Tegodjeu, A.

    2002-01-01

    On-farm and on-station evaluations of the comparative growth performance of West African Dwarf Goats supplemented at an iso-nitrogenous level (6 g/animal/day) with leguminous browse Calliandra calothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala, or Gliricidia sepium, or with cotton seed cake, were conducted around Dschang in the Western Highlands of Cameroon and at the University Experimental Farm. The animals were weighed every 21 days during the rainy season and every 14 days during the dry season for three months to evaluate their response to supplementation. Cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala, C. calothyrsus were the most accepted supplements. The weight gain of the animals fed with these supplements was significantly higher compared to that of the control animals. Mean weight of animals supplemented with G. sepium was not significantly different (P>0.05) from that of the control group during the rainy season. The average daily weight gains during the rainy period were 20.6, 19.1, 13.8, 4.5, and 3.1 g for L. leucocephala, cotton seed cake, C. calothyrsus, G. sepium and the control animals respectively, during the rainy season and 19.9, 16.1 and 1.7 g for cotton seed cake, L. leucocephala and the control animal respectively, during the dry season. Progesterone profiles were low and were unaffected by supplementation during the dry season. (author)

  13. PENGARUH TEPUNG DAUN GAMAL DAN DAUN KELOR DALAM UREA CASSAVA BLOK (UCB TERHADAP KECERNAAN, KADAR VFA, DAN NH3 IN-VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M. WITARIADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi tentang pengaruh tepung daun gamal dan daun kelor sebagai sumber protein dalam urea cassava blok (UCB terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, kadar VFA, dan NH3 cairan rumen pakan jerami padi secara invitro. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan mempergunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan 3 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Sehingga secara keseluruhan terdapat 15 unit penelitian. Adapun ketiga perlakuan tersebut adalah: Perlakuan A (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor; B (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun gamal, dan C (jerami padi + UCB yang ditambah tepung daun kelor dan daun gamal. Varibel yang diamati adalah kecernaan bahan kering (KCBK , kecernaan bahan organik (KCBO in-vitro, produksi vollatile fatty acid (VFA, produksi NH3, dan pH supernatan. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa KCBK, KCBO invitro, VFA, NH3, dan pH supernatan pada ketiga perlakuan berbeda nyata (P<0,05. Penggunaan daun gamal sebagai sumber protein pada UCB menghasilkan KCBK, KCBO, VFA, NH3, tertinggi dibandingkan dengan daun kelor maupun kombinasi antara daun gamal dan daun kelor. EFFECT OF USING GLIRICIDIA (Gliricidia sepium AND MORINGA (Moringa oleifera LEAVES MEALS IN UREA CASSAVA BLOCK (UCB ON DIGESTIBILITY, VOLLATILE FATTY ACID, AND NH3 IN-VITRO. ABSTRACT The experiment has been conducted in order to now the effect of Gliricidia sepium and Moringa oleifera leaves meal a source of protein in urea cassava block (UCB to the digestibility dray matter and organic matter , VFA and ammonia concentration with rice straw diet. The experiment set in completely randomized design using three treatment. The treatment are: A (rise straw + UCB with Moringa; B (rise straw + UCB with Gliricidia sepium, and C (rise straw + UCB with Moringa and Gliricidia sepium. The observed variable are: dry matter, organic matter digestibility, volatile fatty acid, ammonia concentration, and pH rumen juice

  14. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti

  15. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  16. Caracterización de especies arbóreas y arbustivas forrajeras en clima semiárido del sur de Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Cordoví

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento de especies forrajeras arbóreas y arbustivas en clima semiárido se desarrolló un experimento, con corte y en secano, con Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena pallida, Moringa oleifera, Senna siamea y Morus alba. El diseño fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, y se utilizaron parcelas de 12 m². En verano, L. leucocephala, L. pallida, S. siamea y M. alba produjeron más de 12 t de MS por hectárea como promedio; mientras que en invierno se obtuvieron entre 9,38 y 11,62 t/ha, excepto en M. oleifera (5,49 t/ha. Los intervalos de corte variaron entre 62 y 65 días en verano; mientras que en invierno aumentaron hasta 102 y 117 días en G. sepium y M. oleifera, respectivamente, y oscilaron entre 81 y 92 días para el resto de las especies. El porcentaje de hojas fue superior en invierno y en ello sobresalió S. siamea (62 y 69 % en verano e invierno, respectivamente. Durante el invierno se obtuvo una alta producción de MS, en lo cual se destacaron G. sepium, M. alba y S. siamea (47-50 %. Se confirmó el buen comportamiento de estas especies arbóreas y arbustivas en condiciones semiáridas, con rendimientos de MS superiores a 12 t/ha y una producción estable durante el año. Se recomienda incluirlas en investigaciones con animales en sistemas silvopastoriles y bancos de proteína; así como utilizar otros marcos de siembra en función de mejorar su potencial productivo

  17. Evaluation of phospherus uptake from Minjingu phosphate rock, growth and nodulation of agroforestry tree species on an acid soil from Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, N.K.; Mwendwa, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of studies were carried out to study the effect of P application on fast growing multi-purpose trees. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate availability and uptake of phosphorus (P) from Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR). An acid soil and six agroforestry tree species namely Leucena leuco-cephala, Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania sesban, Grevillea robusta, Cassia siamea and Eucalyptus grandis were used. Phosphorus was applied at 25.8 mg P/ kg soil as Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR) or Triple Superphosphate (TSP). Pregerminated seedlings were transplanted and divided into two sequential harvests at 3 and 6 MAT (months after transplanting). 32 P isotope carrier free solution was added to transplanted seedlings at the beginning and when they were 3 months old. The soil was tested for isotopically exchangeable P by incubating the soil with the MPR and TSP. The soil was high in P-fixing capacity. At 3 MAT all the species except G. robusta gave a 150-250% significantly higher stem dry weights where P was added and L. leuco-cephala, S. sesban and C. siamea maintained this up to 6 MAT. The legumes and E. grandis where P was applied differed significantly from controls in root dry weight with Minjingu PR being superior with G.sepium and E. grandis. The legumes and E. grandis had significantly higher P uptake where P was applied at 3 MAT. The relative availability of MPR at 3 MAT showed that L.leucocephala and G. sepium derived 2.93 and 1.06 times more P from Minjingu PR than from TSP respectively. Data obtained from G. robusta P uptake showed that this species preferred soil P to externally supplied P in the three sampling periods. Tree species and fertilizer P interactions at 6 MAT were highly significant (P=0.01). Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) inoculation improved growth, P uptake from MPR and nodulation of G. sepium seedlings. Inoculating L. leucocephala seedlings with VAM increased availability of P from MPR. (author)

  18. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Carvalho, G G P; Santos, E M; Araújo, G G L; Gois, G C; Rebouças, R A; Leão, A G; Santos, S A; Oliveira, J S; Leite, L C; Araújo, M L G M L; Cirne, L G A; Silva, R R; Carvalho, B M A

    2017-02-01

    Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (P0.05). However, the silages led to differences (Pbuffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Absorption as a Factor Influencing the Selective Toxicity of MCPA and MCPB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, R.C.; Robertson, M.M.; Smith, J.E.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with autoradiographic and counting techniques to determine if differential absorption was a factor influencing the selective toxicity of the foliar-applied herbicides, 4-chloro-2 methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB). Treatment of fat hen (Chenopodium album) which is susceptible to both herbicides and black bindweed (Polygonum convolvulus) which is resistant to both, showed that MCPA and MCPB were extensively translocated in the susceptible species; both, however, remained localized in the treated leaves of the resistant black bindweed. Further experiments using broad bean (Vicia faba) which was susceptible to MCPA and resistant to equivalent doses of MCPB showed that considerably more MCPA was translocated throughout the treated plants. Leaf flotation experiments suggested that differential penetration of bean leaf cuticle, may in part at least, explain this difference in toxicity. Greater uptake of MCPA after 6- and 8-h treatment periods was recorded and penetration of both herbicides was generally more rapid through the abaxial surface, reflecting the presence of stomata and the thinner cuticle of the under-surface. Further evidence of the action of cuticle as a selective barrier to herbicide penetration was obtained using cuticle isolated from tomato fruits and onion scale leaves. These results are to be confirmed using bean leaf cuticles. Whilst in the higher plants MCPA is more toxic than MCPB, previous work has shown that MCPB is a more effective inhibitor of lower organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae. Treatment of mycelial discs of Aspergillus niger showed that absorption of MCPB was more rapid than MCPA, though the differential tended to diminish during the 20-h treatment period. Respiratory inhibition closely followed the uptake pattern. Repeated experiments using mitochondria isolated from A.niger mycelium have demonstrated that greater uptake of MCPB coincided with an

  20. In vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legumes on the exsheathment and motility of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Capetillo-Leal, Concepción M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of five tropical legume plants [Arachis pintoi CIAT 22160 (A.p. 22160), Gliricidia sepium, Cratylia argentea (C.a. Yacapani), C. argentea CIAT 22386 (C.a. 22386), C. argentea Veranera (C.a. Veranera)] against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae and the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect. Lyophilized leaf extracts of each plant were evaluated using the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect was evaluated in both assays using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to remove tannins from the solutions. At the highest concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), A. pintoi 22160, C.a. Yacapani, C.a. Veranera and C.a. 22386 completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus (P<0.01). At the same concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), the inhibition of larval migration for C.a. 22386, C.a. Veranera and G. sepium was 66.0%, 35.9% and 39.2% (relative to the PBS control), respectively. In both bioassays (LEIA and LMIA), the AH effect shown by each plant was blocked after the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), corroborating the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Productive performance of naked neck chickens that were fed leaf meal shrubs

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    Santos M Herrera G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the productive performance of naked neck chickens (phases of initiation, growth and final that were fed meals Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan and Morus alba leaves. Materials and methods. 192 chickens, 1-84 days of age were distributed in a randomized block design with three experimental groups (5% of shrub in the diet, 48 animals/ group, eight replicates/ treatment, six animals/ reply and three animals/ sex in each replicate were used. The control group consumed diet based on corn and soybeans. They were reared on floor. Weighed every seven days. Weight gain, voluntary intake, conversion, balance and efficiency of feed utilization were calculated. Results. The highest total feed intake and average daily gain in rearing were 37.43g 9509.96 g respectively for M. alba (p<0.05, which also presented the best efficiency of energy and protein. Meanwhile, G. sepium showed the lowest values. Conclusions. It is possible to replace 5% of corn and soy in the diet of naked neck chickens, with the inclusion of leaf meal M. alba and get a favorable productive behavior.

  2. Toxicidade de extratos vegetais a Scutellonema bradys Toxicity of plant extracts to Scutellonema bradys

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    João Luiz Coimbra

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito nematostático e nematicida de extratos aquosos de bulbilhos de alho (Allium sativum L., folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, folhas e sementes de mamão (Carica papaya L., folhas de hortelã (Mentha piperita L. e casca de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. em Scutellonema bradys, agente causal da casca-preta do inhame (Dioscorea cayennensis Lam.. Todos os extratos vegetais inibiram a mobilidade e causaram mortalidade ao fitonematóide. Os extratos de hortelã e de mandioca causaram menos de 45% de mortalidade a S. bradys. As maiores porcentagens de mortalidade são causadas pelos extratos de sementes e folhas do mamoeiro e pelos bulbilhos de alho.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nematostatic and nematicide effect of aqueous extracts from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L., cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves, papaya (Carica papaya L. leaves and seeds, mentha (Mentha piperita L. leaves, and gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. tree bark to Scutellonema bradys, the causal agent of yam (Dioscorea cayennensis Lam. dry rot. All plant extracts inhibited the mobility and caused mortality to S. bradys. Mentha and cassava extracts cause less than 45% mortality to S. bradys. The highest percentages of mortality are caused by extracts from papaya seeds and leaves, and garlic bulbs.

  3. Efficacy of woody biomass and biochar for alleviating heavy metal bioavailability in serpentine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Tharanga; Herath, Indika; Kumarathilaka, Prasanna; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Ok, Yong Sik; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-04-01

    Crops grown in metal-rich serpentine soils are vulnerable to phytotoxicity. In this study, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) biomass and woody biochar were examined as amendments on heavy metal immobilization in a serpentine soil. Woody biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) biomass at 300 and 500 °C. A pot experiment was conducted for 6 weeks with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) at biochar application rates of 0, 22, 55 and 110 t ha -1 . The CaCl 2 and sequential extractions were adopted to assess metal bioavailability and fractionation. Six weeks after germination, plants cultivated on the control could not survive, while all the plants were grown normally on the soils amended with biochars. The most effective treatment for metal immobilization was BC500-110 as indicated by the immobilization efficiencies for Ni, Mn and Cr that were 68, 92 and 42 %, respectively, compared to the control. Biochar produced at 500 °C and at high application rates immobilized heavy metals significantly. Improvements in plant growth in biochar-amended soil were related to decreasing in metal toxicity as a consequence of metal immobilization through strong sorption due to high surface area and functional groups.

  4. Soil Fertility Status, Nutrient Uptake, and Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Following Organic Matters and P Fertilizer Application on Andisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, S.; Harieni, S.; Anasrullah, A.; Purwanto, H.

    2017-04-01

    Objective of this study were to elucidate effects of organic matters and P fertilizer application on soil fertility status, nutrient uptake and maize yield in the Andisol. This experiment consisted of two factors. The first factor comprised of four levels of organic matters input (without organic matter, manure, rice straw, and Gliricidia sepium leaves), with the application dosage 10 t.ha-1 and the second factor comprised of three levels of P fertilizer application (without P addition (control), 50 kg P2O5 ha-1, 100 kg P2O5 ha-1). Results of this study showed that organic matters and P fertilizer application improved soil fertility status, especially pH, soil organic C, cation exchange capacity (CEC), available P which resulted in an increase in P uptake that improve yield of maize. The highest yield of maize (corn cob) was obtained through application Gliricida sepium (8.40 t.ha-1), followed by manure (6.02 t.ha-1) and rice straw (5.87 t.ha-1). Application of 50 kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (5.76 t.ha-1) and application of 100 Kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (6.12 t.ha-1).

  5. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity.

  6. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda L Torres

    Full Text Available "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae. While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention.

  7. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Glenda L; Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Swisher, Kylie D; Garczynski, Stephen F; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Barcenas, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae) in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales) are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention.

  8. EVALUASI BIJI TANAMAN GAMAL PROVENAN RETALHULEU PADA LAHAN KERING DI BUKIT BADUNG BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Puger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium provenance Retalhuleu seed garden has been established in 1992 in dry land farming at Bukit Pecatu Village, Bukit Badung Peninsula, South Bali, at 100m sea level, on red-brown mediteran calcareous-base soil, with 1552 mm rainfall, distributed during 4 months wet season and 8 months dry season. The Completely Randomized Block Design Arrangement consisted of 60 famili(F as treatments, 6 blocks as replications and 10 plants per treatment were used in this experiment. The first harvest was carried out in November 1995 and the subsequent harvest was carried out in October-November each year. Results of 11nd harvests (16 year plant age on seed production and quality showed that famili F12, F17 and F51 (ranking order could be registered (priority rights as planting.

  9. MUCILAGINOUS PLANTS IN THE CLARIFICATION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE

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    Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to incorporate mucilaginous solutions in the juice clarification process as an alternative for improving the final products that are produced in the agribusiness panela in Ecuador. The study was conducted with 14 mucilaginous plants properties, five plant species: Mallow wild (Malva peruviana L., Yausabara (Pavonia sepium A. St-Hil Yausa (Abutilon famous Planch, black Cadillo (Triumfetta Lappula L and False Joaquín (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, it was obtained excellent results as clarifying agents. Three factors were assayed experimentally such as solution concentration, amount of solution added to the juice and incorporation temperature on two levels, judged by turbidity variable as a response. The results indicated that the factors tested affect significantly the juice clarification (clear and bright and the best results were achieved with turbidity (Yausabara and Yausa Malva silvestre, Falso Joaquín y Cadillo negro and with the combinations obtaining juices.

  10. Preferencia de vacunos por el follaje de doce especies con potencial para sistemas agrosilvopastoriles en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela Preference of cattle for the foliage of twelve species with potential for agrosilvopastoral systems in the Trujillo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E García

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer la preferencia de bovinos jóvenes por doce especies forrajeras en el Estado Trujillo, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica y Samanea saman se efectuó una prueba de cafetería a través de mediciones del consumo de follaje, mediante un diseño cuadrado latino con período de evaluación de 12 días. A los forrajes se les determinó la composición fitoquímica (PB, EB, FDN, fenoles, taninos condensados, taninos que precipitan proteínas y esteroles totales y la degradabilidad ruminal in situ (DMS y DMO. Las especies más preferidas fueron: P. pedicellare (327,98 g MS, L. leucocephala (325,63 g MS, M. alba (293,37 g MS, G. ulmifolia (292,48 g MS, C. tinctoria (277,18 g MS y C. alba (274,49 g MS. Los follajes de G. sepium (108,05 g MS, T. diversifolia (106,09 g MS, M. oleifera (76,28 g MS, A. indica (76,19 g MS y S. saman (58,72 g MS fueron medianamente consumidos. Sin embargo, la biomasa de T. gigantea (1,39 g MS fue prácticamente rechazada. Durante el período experimental se observaron diferentes tendencias en el consumo de cada espe­cie. No obstante, no se observó una relación significativa entre el consumo y la composición química, la concentración de metabolitos secundarios y la degradabilidad ruminal. Se concluye que es importante realizar ensayos de preferencia con animales para la selección de especies con potencial para sistemas silvopastoriles.With the objective of knowing the preference of young cattle for twelve forage species of the Trujillo State, Venezuela (Chlorophora tinctoria, Morus alba, Pithecellobium pedicellare, Gliricidia sepium, Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia alba, Trichantera gigantea, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Samanea saman a cafeteria test

  11. Chemical composition, “in vitro” digestibility and production of woody forage legumes cultivated in sandy soils Composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" e produção de biomassa de leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas cultivadas em solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Volpe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional value and productivity of woody forage legumes Albizia lebbeck, Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala, to be used in supplementation of cattle as a bank protein, five species in Quartzpisament were evaluated. The experiment was conducted from March 2006 to October 2007. The evaluations were carried out in two periods (rainy and dry, with two cuts by period. There was no difference in the accumulation of dry matter, in rainy period. In the dry evaluation, A. lebbeck and C. argentea were higher than the other legumes. The C. cajan was not recovered after the rainy period, which resulted in a low accumulation of dry matter in the dry period. The leaves of Albizia lebbeck showed the highest levels of crude protein in cuts evaluated (210 to 212 g/kg. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter in the leaves of A. lebbeck was significantly higher, with average values of 568g/kg. A. lebbeck, Cratylia argentea and Gliricidea sepium showed the highest content for digestibility of the thin stem. The A. lebbek and C. argentea presented higher accumulation of dry matter (19,3 and 24,3 t DM/ha, respectively and, still, the best values for the qualitative characteristics. Both species are the most promising and adapted to the formation of protein banks in these types of soils.Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo e a produtividade das leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas: Albizia lebbeck (Albízia, Cajanus cajan (Feijão-Guandu, Cratylia argentea (Cratília, Gliricidia sepium (Gliricídia e Leucaena leucocephala (Leucena, a serem utilizadas na suplementação de bovinos como banco de proteína, conduziu-se um experimento em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2006 e outubro de 2007. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois períodos (chuvoso e seco, com dois cortes para cada período. Não houve diferença no acúmulo de matéria seca nos cortes do per

  12. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 2. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seven American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; López, B; Juárez, X; del Aguila, J; García, S

    1993-12-01

    From 52 plants screened for antifungal activity, 26 (50%) were active against dermatophytes. This paper reports further evaluation of seven American plants against four pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum), the part showing most activity, the best solvent and, in three cases, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the fungus in pure culture. Antifungal activity was confirmed in all of the plants, but not all parts; the most active parts were the bark and leaves. The most active species were Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Gliricidia sepium and Malpighia glabra. Diphysa robinioides, Rhizophora mangle and Cassia occidentalis were less active. The most susceptible fungi were E. floccosum and T. rubrum; A. flavus was not susceptible. Ethanol was usually the best solvent and the MIC of C. grandis, C. occidentalis and D. robinioides was 50 micrograms/ml.

  13. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

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    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  14. Effect of mulch types on nutrient composition, maize (Zea mays L. yield and soil properties of a tropical Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Matthew Awopegba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations were carried out to evaluate the influence of shrub and herbaceous mulch types on soil properties and nutrient composition of maize (Zea mays L. at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 respectively. The shrub mulch; Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia, herbaceous mulch; Calopogonium mucunoides and Moringa oleifera were applied at the rate of 5 t ha-1. Application of NPK (20:10:10 fertilizer at the rate of 200 kg ha-1 was included as the standard treatment for the experiments. The treatments were laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replication. The growth, agronomic parameters and nutritional quality of maize (Zea mays L. were monitored and determined in both experiments. Results indicated that herbaceous mulch types and NPK fertilizer significantly (P<0.05 increased the number of leaves, plant height and leaf area when compared with the control in both years. Significant increases in yield parameters over the control were obtained for the NPK fertilizer treatment. In 2013 and 2014 cropping season NPK 20-10-10 treatment significantly produced the highest cob yield but was not significantly higher than the yield from Gliricidia sepium treatment in 2014. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen (N, potassium (K, and exchangeable cations were positively stimulated by herbaceous mulches while residual phosphorus (P was increased by NPK fertilizer treatment. Mulched treatments significantly increased crude protein, carbohydrate, nitrogen, phosphorus and ash content of maize grain in both years of cropping season thereby improving nutritional content of maize grain. Therefore, shrub and herbaceous mulch treatments applied at 5t/ha-1 could be applied alternatively in lieu of scarce and expensive inorganic fertilizer for improved maize yield, soil properties and nutrient composition.

  15. Establishment of Black Ant (Dolichoderus thoracicuson Cocoa Plantation and Its Effects on Helopeltisspp. Infestation

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    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicusis the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerellaand rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus. A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidusinoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot. Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus

  16. Methane Production of Different Forages in Ruminal Fermentation

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    S. J. Meale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses, 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs. After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05 within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

  17. Screening for larvicidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of selected plants against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae

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    Michael Russelle Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (95% ethanol from Selaginella elmeri, Christella dentata, Elatostema sinnatum, Curculigo capitulata, Euphorbia hirta, Murraya koenigii (M. koenigii, Alpinia speciosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus, Jatropha curcas (J. curcas, Psidium guajava, Gliricidia sepium, Ixora coccinea and Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for larvicidal activity by exposing the A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae (15 larvae per trial, triplicates for 48 h, counting the mortalities every 24 h. Additionally, phytochemical screening for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, coumarins, indoles and steroids were performed on active extracts using spray tests. Results: Against A. aegypti, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (100% after 24 and 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (84.44% after 24 h and 88.89% after 48 h and M. koenigii ethanolic (53.33% after 24 h and 71.11% after 48 h. On the other hand, against A. albopictus, the three most active extracts were C. frutescens ethanolic (93.33% after 24 h and 100% after 48 h, J. curcas ethanolic (77.78% after 24 h and 82.22% after 48 h and E. globulus ethanolic (64.44% after 24 h and 73.33% after 48 h. Phytochemical screening was also performed on the active extracts, revealing alkaloids, tannins, indoles and steroids. Conclusios: The results demonstrate the larvicidal activities of ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia hirta, Ixora coccinea, Gliricidia sepium, M. koenigii, E. globulus, J. curcas and C. frutescens against A. aegypti and A. albopictus 3rd instar larvae. These could be used as potential larvicidal agents for the control of these mosquitoes.

  18. Influence of environment and climate on occurrence of the cixiid planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus, the vector of the grapevine disease 'bois noir'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panassiti, Bernd; Breuer, Michael; Marquardt, Stacey; Biedermann, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs), which are well established in many fields of biological research, are still uncommon in the agricultural risk analysis of pest insects. To exemplify the use of SDMs, we investigated the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence of Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). The planthopper is the only known vector of the grapevine yellows disease 'bois noir'. The study was conducted in 145 locations in the Baden region of southwest Germany. The planthopper was surveyed on host plant patches, consisting of stinging nettle and/or bindweeds. We used a stratified modelling framework where (1) species presence-absence data were related to an extensive environmental dataset using logistic regressions; and (2) different types of average models were developed based on an information theoretic method. The results show that the incidence of H. obsoletus is associated to above- as well as below-ground environmental factors, particularly to the amount of fine soil and average annual precipitation. This result was consistent across all average models. The relative importance of other environmental variables was dependent upon the average model under consideration and thus may vary according to their intended use, either the explanation of habitat requirements or the prediction and mapping of occurrence risks. The study showed that SDMs offer a quantification of species' habitat requirements and thus, could represent a valuable tool for pest management purposes. By providing examples of current issues of grapevine pests in viticulture, we discuss the use of SDMs in agricultural risk analysis and highlight their advantages and caveats.

  19. Experimentation of grapevine cultivation in organic system, on five different Romanian vineyards

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    Aurora Maria Ranca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In five Romanian vineyards, in 2013-2014 period was experimented organic system growing on  grape varieties for wine representative for each area, here are applied organic growing technology in parallel with the conventional (control. White varieties studied are: Chardonnay (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca, Sauvignon blanc and Muscat Ottonel(Tarnave, Feteasca regala (Tarnave, Bujoru and Copou-Iasi. Red varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca and Merlot (Bujoru. Concerning evolution of main climatic factors for the years 2013-2014 it is show that the annual average air temperature increase compared with the average of the years 1991-2010; is observed an increasing in mean annual temperature, mean temperature during the growing season and the value of sum of sunshine hours. The water regime was kept constant, registering values close to the annual average, both during the growing season and at entire year. The weeds spectrum is represented both by dicotyledonous as knotweed (Polygonum aviculare, Veronica (Stellaria media, news (Amaranthus retroflexus, bindweed (Convolvurus arvensis and monocotyledonous as grass thick (Cynodon dactylon. Concerning the phytosanitary status, at Murfatlar were registered problems with oidium attack, with all main disease at Dealu Mare and with downy mildew at Bujoru. In all areas the pest has been found are: grape mouth (Lobesia botrana and spiders (Tetranichus sp.. Schemes of treatments focused generally on substances bassed on copper and sulfur to combat diseases and for pests have been used pheromonal traps or other certified organic products. The grapes harvest was lower in organic plots with till 25%; their quality being close at both growing variants.

  20. Herbicide on Weed Composition, Diversity and Density in Silage Corn (cv. Sc 704

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    M. Zafarian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of plant density, planting pattern and herbicide dosage of nicosulfuron, a field experiment was arranged in a factorial split plot treatments based on RCBD with three replications in Chenaran, Khorasan Razavi, in 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of a factorial plant density (100000, 120000 and 140000 plants ha-1 in the planting pattern (single and double row as main plot and herbicide dosage of nicousulforon in four levels (0, 1, 1/5 and 2, l.ha-1 as sub-plot. Samplings were made at in five stages (37days after the emergence of corn and it was repeated once per 20 days. The results indicated reducing the weed density and dry matter of weeds in the first stage after the herbicide treatment. Moreover, it was observed a significant interaction effect between plant density with planting pattern and between planting pattern with herbicides dosages during growth season on reducing weed density and dry matter. Also results indicated that in between of this experiment's treatments, nicosulfuron herbicide reduced weed density at the beginning of growth season and double row planting pattern suppressed weed density during growing season, and resulted in lowest Jacard similarity index (Sj of weed species. Results also indicated that with increasing of plant density and herbicide dosage especially in composition of double row planting pattern, according to Shannon- Wiener index, sensitive population such as common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculareL., black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L. and Johnson grass (Sorghum halepens L. was reduced in during growing season. Simpson dominance index, showed that some low populated weeds such as redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and Canada thistle (Circum arvensis L. persisted their growth up to the end of

  1. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

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    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia

  2. Mineralização de N após incorporação de adubos orgânicos em um Neossolo Regolítico cultivado com milho Nitrogen mineralization after application of organic fertilizers to an Entisol cultivated with maize

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    Rômulo S. C. Menezes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Normalmente, o esterco disponível nas propriedades no Agreste paraibano é insuficiente para a manutenção da fertilidade do solo enquanto a adubação verde com Gliricidia sepium é uma alternativa para aumentar a disponibilidade de nutrientes. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, comparar a dinâmica de mineralização de N após a incorporação de esterco bovino ou de ramas de gliricídia a um Neossolo Regolítico em condições de campo e laboratório. O experimento de campo constou de três tratamentos: incorporação de 20 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, de 15 t ha-1de ramas frescas de gliricídia e testemunha sem adições. Logo após as adições semeou-se milho e se acompanhou o N mineralizado in situ no campo, durante 120 dias, na camada de 0-15 cm e o N absorvido pelo milho. A mineralização de N no laboratório foi acompanhada durante 56 dias em amostras de solo das camadas de 0-15, 15-30 e 30-60 cm; as de 0-15 cm receberam esterco ou gliricídia em quantidades equivalentes às de campo. No campo foram mineralizados 74 kg ha-1 de N até a colheita (120 dias, sem diferenças significativas entre tratamentos. No laboratório, a gliricídia levou a uma rápida mineralização líquida de N enquanto o esterco bovino provocou imobilização nos primeiros 14 dias.Farms within the Agreste region of Paraíba often do not have sufficient animal manure to maintain the fertility of the soil and green manures, such as prunings of Gliricidia sepium, are an alternative to increase nutrient supply. The objectives of this work were to compare N mineralization dynamics following additions of cattle manure or Gliricidia sepium prunings to a Entisol, under field and laboratory conditions. In the field experiment, three treatments were established: addition of 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure; addition of 15 t ha-1 of green branches of Gliricidia, or a control without any addition. Maize was sown immediately after the additions. Soil N mineralization in the

  3. In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-de Álvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F

    2012-05-25

    Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7 μg/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0 μg/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1 μg/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated

  4. IDENTIFICACIÓN, USOS Y MEDICIÓN DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS FORRAJERAS EN RANCHOS GANADEROS DEL SUR DEL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

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    Jaime Olivares Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar las especies arbóreas leguminosas, usos, densidad, frecuencia, abundancia y medidas dasométricas en ranchos ganaderos del sur del Estado de México; así como evaluar la producción de follaje (kg materia seca árbol-1ha-1 de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium —preferidas por los ganaderos como fuente de forraje y con mayor densidad—; y evaluar  la producción de fruto (kg materia seca  árbol-1ha-1 de Acacia  cochliacantha y P. dulce. La información de usos se obtuvo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a 69 ganaderos, cantidad que representó 83% de la población. Las mediciones de los árboles se realizaron en seis ranchos mediante trabajo de campo. La información se analizó usando estadísticas descriptivas. Se identificaron 12 especies arbóreas (Acacia cochliacantha, Lysiloma divaricata, Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium, las cuales presentaron mayor densidad, frecuencia y abundancia. De 46.6% de las arbóreas, su follaje y fruto es consumido por rumiantes; de 20%, es consumido follaje, fruto y flor. Se proporcionan de cinco a ocho usos en 80% de las especies, además del forrajero, como leña, poste, sombra, cerca viva, medicinal, consumo humano, artesanal y maderable. Las arbóreas con mayor fuste fueron: Caesalpinia coriaria, Pithecellobium dulce, Enterolobium cyclocarpum y Leucaena esculenta, con diámetro basal (DB de 47.11 a 57.2 cm, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP de 49.34 a 50.3 cm y altura (A de 7.4 a 14.5 m,  los cuales son preferidos para sombra. La producción de follaje de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium fue de 44.5, 8.8 y 8.4 kg MS arbol-1, respectivamente. La producción de fruto de Pithecellobium dulce y Acacia cochliacantha fue 63.9 y 21.7 kg MS árbol-1, respectivamente. Las 12 leguminosas

  5. Anatomía y usos de la madera de ocho especies tropicales de Quintana Roo, México

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    Silvia Rebollar

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la anatomía de la madera de ocho especies procedentes de asociaciones secundarias de las selvas alta y mediana subperennifolia del estado de Quintana Roo: Acacia gaumeri, Diphysa carthagenensis Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena glauca, Senna racemosa, Murraya paniculata, Maytenus guatemalensis, y Pimenta dioica, de acuerdo con la metodología establecida. Son especies de interés por su distribución, abundancia en el estado, y por los usos que tradicionalmente les han dado los campesinos mayas en postería, cercas, construcción rural durmintes, tablones y leña, debido a las cualidades de dureza y resistencia a la humedad y a los insectos. Las especies presentan porosidad difusa, los vasos con puntuaciones areoladas opuestas y alternas, la placa perforada es simple; el parénquima axial se presenta aliforme y en bandas; con cristales en todas las especies a excepción de Acacia gaumeri y Senna racemosa. Los rayos son bajos finos y numerosos; las fibras son de tipo libriforme. Las diferencias encontradas son: el arreglo de los poros, tipo de parénquima axial y radial, la presencia de fibrotraqueidas y traqueidas vasculares y tílides.This paper describes the wood anatomy of Acacia gaumeri Blake, Diphysa carthagenensis Jacq., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud., Leucaena glauca (L. Benth., Senna racemosa (Mill Irwin & Barneby, Murraya paniculata L.Mant., Maytenus guatemalensis Lundell, and Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. These species are aesthetically attractive as well as hard, highly durable and resistant to insects and locally are widely used in posts, fences, sleepers and rural buildings. Samples were collected from the rainforest in Quintana Roo, Mexico. One tree for each species was collected, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were described and measured in wood samples, permanent slides and macerated material. Woods have diffuse porosity, simple perforation plates, alternate and opposite vessel pits and small rays. Crystals

  6. Características Agronômicas, Massa de Forragem e Valor Nutritivo de Brachiaria decumbens em Sistema Silvipastoril Agronomics Characteristics, Forage Mass and Nutritional Value of Brachiaria decumbens in a Silvopastoral System

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    Carlos Renato Tavares Castro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de três porcentagens de sombreamento (0, 29% e 45%, proporcionado pelas leguminosas arbóreas Acacia angustissima, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, Albizia lebbek e Gliricidia sepium, sobre características agronômicas, e o valor nutritivo do pasto de Brachiaria decumbens, durante o inverno, a primavera e o verão. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. O sombreamento influenciou positivamente a massa de forragem, na primavera e no verão. No inverno, a maior massa de forragem foi obtida sob sol pleno. Os teores de proteína bruta aumentaram com o sombreamento, na primavera, mas não se modificaram em função das porcentagens de sombra, no inverno e no verão. Pelo produto da massa de forragem e o teor de proteína bruta, obtiveram-se as quantidades de proteína bruta por área, que foram maiores sob sombreamento mais intenso, na primavera e no verão. Os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca não apresentaram tendência consistente com as porcentagens de sombreamento, em função da forte interação deste tratamento com a estação do ano.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.19

    The agronomic traits and nutritive value of Brachiaria decumbens pasture were evaluated under three shade percentages (0.29% and 45%, provided by leguminous trees (Acacia angustissima, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, Albizia lebbek e Gliricidia sepium, during winter, spring and summer seasons. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications. The forage mass was positively influenced by shading, in spring and summer seasons. In winter, the higher forage mass was observed in full sunlight condition. The values of crude protein increased in spring with shading, but did not vary with shade percentage in winter and summer seasons. The crude protein quantity per area, obtained by product between forage mass and crude protein

  7. Influência da decomposição de diferentes resíduos vegetais submetidos a lâminas de irrigação no comportamento da vegetação espontânea = Influence of the decomposition of vegetable residue subjected to irrigation in the behavior of spontaneous vegetation

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    Adilson Pacheco de Souza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento da vegetação espontânea com relação às taxas de decomposição de diferentes coberturas do solo submetidas à variação de lâminas de irrigação. Foram utilizados resíduos vegetais de Gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium,feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan, capim Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum e Bambu (Bambusa vulgaris ‘vitata’. As lâminas irrigadas foram caracterizadas como T5, T4, T3, T2 e T1, correspondendo a aproximadamente 117, 100, 72, 59 e 38% da ETo. A decomposição dosresíduos vegetais foi analisada por meio de covered litter, em 2, 4, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após instalação (DAI. Foram realizadas amostragens da vegetação espontânea aos 26, 64, 92, 124 e 152 DAI, em uma área de 0,0625 m². Foi possível concluir que ocomportamento da vegetação espontânea está diretamente relacionado com a cinética de decomposição dos resíduos vegetais.This work was carried out in order to evaluate the behavior of spontaneous vegetation regarding the decomposition rates of different soil covers submitted to variable irrigation depths. The vegetable residues utilized were from gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris ‘vitata’. The irrigated depths were characterized as T5, T4, T3, T2 and T1, corresponding to approximately 117, 100, 72, 59 and 38% of the ETo. The decomposition of the vegetable residues was analyzed through covered litter, at 2, 4, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after installation (DAI and samples of the spontaneous vegetation were collected at 26, 64, 92, 124 and 152 DAI, in a 0.0625 m² area. It was possible to conclude that the behavior of the spontaneous vegetation is directly related to the kinetics of decomposition of the vegetable residues.

  8. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  9. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  10. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasinghe, K.S.; Kirda, C.; Bowen, G.D.; Zapata, F.; Awonaike, K.O.; Holmgren, E.; Arslan, A.; De Bisbal, E.C.; Mohamed, A.R.A.G.; Montenegro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N 2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N 2 fixation potential. 13 C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13 C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees

  11. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  12. Evaluation of pollen collected by honey bee, Apis mellifera L. colonies at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. Part 1: Botanical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Halim M. Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is the 1st part of 3-part study carried out at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt to evaluate the pollen species collected by honey bee, Apis mellifera L., colonies during two successive years, 2009 and 2010. Obtained results showed that, in 2009, total amount of trapped pollen (fresh weight was 2354.89 g/colony/year (mean 588.72 g/colony/season, with peaks in summer and spring, while declined in autumn and winter. Correlation between mean maximum and minimum temperatures and weekly pollen weights was highly positive, while it was insignificant for relative humidity. In 2010, total amount of trapped pollen decreased to 1635.36 g/colony/year (mean 408.84 g/colony/season. The largest amounts were collected in summer followed by winter then spring, while least ones were in autumn. Correlation was highly positive between weekly mean of pollen weights and maximum temperature, while it was insignificant for minimum temperature or relative humidity. There were 24 plant species of 16 botanical families from which bees collected pollen. These sources were ranked according to their predominant quantities in the 1st and 2nd years by two numbers, respectively as the following: sesame 1 and 1, maize 2 and 2, clover 3 and 7, sunflower 4 and 8, wild mustard 5 and 3, casuarina 6 and 13, olive 7 and 11, eucalyptus 8 and 4, pumpkin 9 and 9, cocklebur 10 and 5, date palm 11 and 10, chamomile 12 and 12, field bindweed 13 and 6, pepper 14 and 20, coriander 15 and 16, acacia 16 and 24, citrus 17 and 0, marigold 18 and 0, common red 19 and 17, Christ’s thorn 20 and 22, tooth pick 21 and 21, brood bean 22 and 15, belladonna 23 and 23, pea 0 and 14, marjoram 0 and 18 and fennel 0 and 19. The 1st five plants seem to be the main pollen sources for honey bee colonies and consequently pollen producing during the whole year in the tested region. These sources represented 75.61% and 66.95% of the total annual yield in the two surveyed years, respectively.

  13. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards;Fixacao biologica e transferencia de nitrogenio por leguminosas em pomar organico de mangueira e gravioleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra, E-mail: gleiciamiranda@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: deborah@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of {sup 15}N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  14. Ocorrência de térmitas subterrâneos (isoptera: rhinotermitidae e termitidae e durabilidade natural da madeira de cinco esencias florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Trevisan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluating of the wood natural durability of five arboreal essences: Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud, Lophantera lactescens Ducke, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. Macbr. and Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. The field experiment was accomplished in the campus of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro from February, 2001 to November, 2002. Six samples of each essence partially buried in vertical position were disposed at random in five blocks. In laboratory, following a system of notes related to the wood healthy state, the samples were classed accorging to a behavioral index for each species in relation to the wood aspect. The samples bark condition, the hardness of the wood and the presence of longitudinal cracks were also observed in the body of the sample Laphantera lactescens and Piptadenia gonoacantha were the most and less durable woods according to the evaluated parameters, respectively. In 47% of the samples that were attacked three species of termites were identified: Coptotermes havilandi, Nasutitermes jaraguae and Nasutitermes minor.

  15. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  16. Periplocoside A prevents experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by suppressing IL-17 production and inhibits differentiation of Th17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Ni, Jia; Chen, Zhen-hua; Li, Xin; Zhang, Ru-jun; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Wei-min; Yang, Yi-fu; Zuo, Jian-ping

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of Periplocoside A (PSA), a natural product isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Periploca sepium Bge, in MOG(35-55) (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Female C57BL/6 mice immunized with MOG(35-55) were treated with (50 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg) or without PSA following immunization and continuously throughout the study. The degree of CNS inflammation was evaluated by H&E staining. Anti-MOG-specific recall responses were analyzed by [3H]-Thymidine incorporation, ELISA, and RT-PCR. The proportion of IL-17-producing T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Oral administration of PSA significantly reduced the incidence and severity of EAE, which closely paralleled the inhibition of MOG(35-55)-specific IL-17 production. Importantly, PSA inhibited the transcription of IL-17 mRNA and RORgammat. Further studies examining intracellular staining and adoptive transfer EAE validated the direct suppressive effect of PSA on Th17 cells. In vitro studies also showed that PSA significantly inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells from murine purified CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. PSA ameliorated EAE by suppressing IL-17 production and inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells in vitro. Our results provide new insight into the potential mechanisms underlying the immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of PSA.

  17. Effects of hedgerow systems on soil moisture and unsaturated hydraulics conductivity measured by the Libardi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S . Prijono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hedgerow systems are the agroforestry practices suggesting any positive impacts and negative impacts on soil characteristics. This study evaluated the effects of hedgerows on the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil with the Libardi method approach. This study was conducted in North Lampung for 3 months on the hedgerow plots of Peltophorum dassyrachis (P, Gliricidia sepium (G, and without hedgerow plot (K, with four replications. Each plot was watered as much as 150 liters of water until saturated, then the soil surface were covered with the plastic film. Observation of soil moisture content was done to a depth of 70 cm by the 10 cm intervals. Soil moisture content was measured using the Neutron probe that was calibrated to get the value of volumetric water content. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil was calculated by using the Libardi Equation. Data were tested using the analysis of variance, the least significant different test (LSD, Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT, correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that the hedgerow significantly affected the soil moisture content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Soil moisture content on the hedgerow plots was lower than the control plots. The value of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the hedgerow plots was higher than the control plots. Different types of hedgerows affected the soil moisture content and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The positive correlation was found between the volumetric soil moisture content and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of soil.

  18. Determination of N2 -fixation ability of legume trees using the 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemay, Johannis; Syaukat, Sriharti; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    A sequence field experiment has been conducted for determining the capability of N 2 -fixation by several legume trees. The experiment was designed using a randomize design with 4 replicates. Each replicate was planted with 100 legume trees and 100 non legume trees. The isotope plot, where 15 N was applied with 18 legume trees and 18 non legume trees. The planting distance was 1m x 1m. For the calculation of N 2 -fixation each legume and standard tree (Eucalypthus alba) was applied with 12.52g in the from of ammonium sulfate with 10.12% 15 N. The 15 N AS was applied in three splits 11 month earlier. Data obtained from this experiment showed that percentage of N derived from fixation (%N-dfF) of all legume trees was reasonable high. The legume trees used in this experiment were, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Caliandra tetragona, Flemengia congesta and Gliriciadia sepium with potential fixation from 62.31% to 90,68%. (author)

  19. The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances of Javanese Fat-Tailed sheep: Impact on the second breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous feeding of gliricidia on reproduction and production performances in second breeding of Javanese Fat-Tailed (JFT sheep through the second breeding period was studied. Twenty six ewes post lactation at first lambing (body weight 22.5-26.5 kg were divided into four treatment groups. Each group consisted of 6 animals except Group D had 8 animals. They were given King grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. leaf with ratio of 100:0 (Group A = control, 75:25 (Group B, 50:50 (Group C and 0:100 (Group D. Forages were given 2.5-3% (dry matter of liveweight. All groups were supplemented with 100g/head/day concentrate (crude protein = 16%, but during late pregnancy and lactation they were supplemented at 200 g/head/day. Results showed that feeding gliricidia 25-100% of total forages improved body weight due to the increasing protein intake. The maximum concentration of progesteron increased from 0.81 to 2.78 ng/ml. The ovulation rate and prolification also increased significantly (P<0.05 from 1.6 to 3.0 and 1.33 to 2.38, respectively. Individual birth and weaning weights of the lambs were not affected. It is concluded that feeding gliricidia continuously up to 100% as forages and supplemented with concentrate gives positive effect on bodyweight gain, reproduction and production performances in second breeding of JFT sheep.

  20. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  1. Utilization of nitrogen fixing trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewbaker, J.L.; Beldt, R. van den; MacDicken, K.; Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O.; Escalante, G.; Herrera, R.; Aranguren, J.; Arkcoll, D.B.; Doebereinger, J. (cord.)

    1983-01-01

    Six papers from the symposium are noted. Brewbaker, J.L., Beldt, R. van den, MacDicken, K. Fuelwood uses and properties of nitrogen-fixing trees, pp 193-204, (Refs. 15). Includes a list of 35 nitrogen-fixing trees of high fuelwood value. Budowski, G.; Kass, D.C.L.; Russo, R.O. Leguminous trees for shade, pp 205-222, (Refs. 68). Escalante, G., Herrera, R., Aranguren, J.; Nitrogen fixation in shade trees (Erythrina poeppigiana) in cocoa plantations in northern Venezuela, pp 223-230, (Refs. 13). Arkcoll, D.B.; Some leguminous trees providing useful fruits in the North of Brazil, pp 235-239, (Refs. 13). This paper deals with Parkia platycephala, Pentaclethra macroloba, Swartzia sp., Cassia leiandra, Hymenaea courbaril, dipteryz odorata, Inga edulis, I. macrophylla, and I. cinnamonea. Baggio, A.J.; Possibilities of the use of Gliricidia sepium in agroforestry systems in Brazil, pp 241-243; (Refs. 15). Seiffert, N.F.; Biological nitrogen and protein production of Leucaena cultivars grown to supplement the nutrition of ruminants, pp 245-249, (Refs. 14). Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru, L. campina grande (L. leucocephala), and L. cunningham (L. leucocephalae) were promising for use as browse by beef cattle in central Brazil.

  2. Planting density and initial growth of two tree species adapted to the semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Planting densities influence several aspects of forest formation, including management practices, timber yield, quality, and extraction, and consequently its production costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate Mimosa caesalpiinifolia and Gliricidia sepium growth as a function of planting density (400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 plants ha-1 and plant age. The species were evaluated every 90 days for plant height (PH, crown diameter (CD and root collar diameter (RCD (10 cm above the ground, with the first evaluation performed at 90 days and the last at 720 days. When plants were one year of age and beyond, evaluations were conducted also for stem diameter at breast height (DBH (1.30 m above the ground. A randomized block design with split-plots and three replicates was adopted. Species were assigned to plots, planting densities were assigned to subplots, and evaluation ages were assigned to subsubplots. The four traits in both species had their values decreased as planting density increased, but continually increased as plant age increased. For PH and RCD there was an alternation between species superiority, with gliricidia being superior to sabiá at some ages, while the opposite occurred at other ages. As to CD the species only differed in the last measurement, gliricidia being superior. With regard to DBH, gliricidia was superior starting from the second measurement. There was an effect of the species × ages interaction for the four traits and also an effect of the densities × ages interaction for CD and DBH.

  3. Soil Bacterial Diversity and Productivity of Coffee - Shade Tree Agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusdi Evizal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee productions should have environmental values such as providing high soil microbial diversity while producinghigh yield. To examine that purposes, two experimental plots were constucted at benchmark site of Conservationand Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity (CSM-BGBD, in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, WestLampung, Indonesia, during 2007-2010. Types of coffee agro-ecosystem to be examined were Coffea canephorawith shade trees of Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina sububrams, Michelia champaca, and no shade. Two plots wereconstructed at 5-years-coffee and 15-years-coffee. Diversity of soil bacteria was determined based on DNA fingerprinting of total soil bacteria using Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA method. The results showed that:(1 For mature coffee (15 years old, shade-grown coffee agro-ecosystems had higher soil bacterial diversity thanthose of no shade coffee agro-ecosystem, (2 Shaded coffee agro-ecosystems were able to conserve soil bacterialdiversity better than no-shade coffee agro-ecosystem. Soil organic C and total litter biomass had positive effect onsoil bacterial diversity, (3 Types of agro-ecosystem significantly affected the bean yield of 15 years coffee. Coffeeagro-ecosystems shaded by legume trees had higher yield than those of non-legume shade and no shade coffeeagro-ecosystem, (4 Shannon-Weaver indices of soil bacterial diversity together with weed biomass and N contentof coffee leaf had positive effect on coffee bean yield.

  4. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production.

  5. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION OF DRY SAMPLES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING LEAF EPIDERMAL FEATURES AS MARKER

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    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the most widely used system of medicine in the world today and they are made exclusively from plants. However, most of these medicines or drugs are adulterated due to lack of proper identification of the plant samples. Method of checking adulteration of drug plants is the main focus of this study. The identification and authentication of dry samples of some medicinal plants were carried out using anatomical features. Twenty-five (25 plants materials were collected in Ibadan and Ilorin, Nigeria. The plants studied include Azardiracta indica, Newboudia leavis, Polyalthia longifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Anarcardium occidentalis, Nicotiana tobbaccum, Jatropha curcas, Chromoleana odorata, Mangifera indica, Terminalia catappa, Ocimum gratisimum, Morus messosygia, Morinda lucida, Psidium guajava, Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Vernonia amygdalina, Gliricidium sepium, Ravoulvia vomitora, Telferia occindentalis Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. paradisi and C. sinensis. Leaf epidermal anatomy of these selected plants showed no major variations in stomatal complex types, frequency, size and shape of stomatal cells, epidermal cell wall and trichomes between fresh and dry samples. The variations that occur were between different species but not within species. Leaf epidermal anatomy, therefore, proved to be a significant tool for resolution of taxonomic confusion of dried samples of these plants.

  6. APLIKASI FORMULASI RANSUM DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA SEBAGAI PAKAN DASAR PENYUSUNAN RANSUM SAPI DI DESA JUNGUTAN KABUPATEN KARANGASEM

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    Trisnadewi A. A. A. S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The community service was conducted in Jungutan Village, Karangasem Regency and was aimed to improvethe farmers knowlegde especially the members of farmers groups about the utilization of leguminose forage asbasal ration for ruminant. The services was conducted on Sunday, 2nd September 2012 at Wana Sari Groups ofFarmers at Banjar Untalan, Jungutan Village, and attended by 20 from 24 total members of farmers’ groups(83.33%. The methods used were direct instruction and discussion to the farmers. Almost 43% members offarmers’ groups have been given leguminose besides grass and 57% only given grass as Bali cattle feed. The resultof the services showed that the farmer’s awareness and knowlegde improved to give leguminose forage such asGliricidia sepium, Caliandra callothyrsus, and Leucaena leucochepala, besides grass feeding as basal ration forBali cattle. The utilization of forage need to be applied because of high energy and protein content in leguminoseforage, therefore the dry matter consumption will improve. The nutrient requirement could fulfill and will impactto the improvement of Bali cattle growth and production.

  7. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  8. The Effects of Gliricidia-Derived Biochar on Sequential Maize and Bean Farming

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    Ana Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The addition of biochar to soils can improve soil fertility and increase agricultural productivity. We carried out a field experiment in which biochar produced from Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp. was added to low-fertility Brazilian planosol and tested to increase the yield of maize (Zea mays and snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in sequential, organic cultivation. Biochar was applied at a 15 t/ha rate, combined or not with Azospirillum Brasiliense inoculation and organic fertilizer (Bokashi. The application of biochar resulted in an increase in soil pH and of the content of macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium. Contrary to evidence from elsewhere, biochar had a limited effect on increasing maize yield. In the case of beans, when combined with fertilizer, biochar increased the production of beans pods and biomass, but the significant increase was observed only for inoculation. Beans are the principal component of Brazilian diet and increasing productivity of beans is of upmost importance for the poorest in Brazil, and in other tropical countries.

  9. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  10. What is Antrodia sensu stricto?

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    Spirin, Viacheslav; Vlasák, Josef; Niemelä, Tuomo; Miettinen, Otto

    2013-01-01

    The polypore genus Antrodia (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) in the strict sense consists of a small number of species grouped around the type species A. serpens in phylogenetic analyses. This distinct clade (Antrodia sensu stricto in our view) contains species of the Antrodia heteromorpha complex, A. macra coll. and Antrodia mappa (formerly Postia mappa). Nuclear rDNA ITS and tef1 data show that the Antrodia heteromorpha species complex includes four species: A. heteromorpha sensu stricto (mostly on gymnosperms, large pores and spores), A. serpens (on angiosperms in Europe, resupinate, smaller pores but large spores), A. favescens (smaller pores and spores, pileate species in North America, formerly known as Trametes sepium), and A. tanakai (a close kin of A. favescens in Eurasia). Antrodia albida is a synonym of A. heteromorpha sensu stricto. We combine A. mappa, A. favescens and A. tanakai in Antrodia and designate neotypes for A. albida and A. heteromorpha, and an epitype for A. serpens. We also compare the morphologically similar but distantly related A. albidoides and A. mellita, and conclude that A. macrospora and A. subalbidoides are synonyms of A. albidoides.

  11. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Perspective and Limitation

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    N D Purwantari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand of chemical fertilizer, N in particular will be increasing until 2020. In Indonesia, the demand of fertilizer from 1999 – 2002 increased 37.5 and 12.4% for urea and ammonium sulphate, respectively. At the same time, the price of this fertilizer is also increasing and it can not be afforded by the farmer. Other problem in using chemical fertilizer is damaging to the soil and environment. One of the problem solvings for this condition is to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF. BNF is the fixation of N atmosphere by association between soil bacteria rhizobia and leguminous plant. BNF is sustainable and environmentally friendly in providing nitrogen fertilizer. Therefore, it would reduce the requirement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer for the plant. Gliricidia sepium fixes 170 kg N/ha/12 months, equivalent with 377 kg urea, Sesbania sesban 179 kg N/ha/10 months, equivalent 397 kg with urea, soybean 26 – 57 kg/2 months equivalent with 57 – 126 kg urea. The amount of N2- fixed varies, affected by species, environmental and biological factors. There are some limitations in applying this technology. The effect of N contribution is very slow at the beginning but in the long term, it would be beneficial for plant production and at the same time, maintain condition of physical and chemical of soil, soil microbes and therefore soil fertility.

  12. Effects of inclusion levels of banana (Musa spp.) peelings on feed degradability and rumen environment of cattle fed basal elephant grass.

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    Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Sabiiti, Elly Nyambobo; Bareeba, Felix Budara; Sporndly, Eva; Kabi, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The effect of feeding varying banana peeling (BP) levels on rumen environment and feed degradation characteristics was evaluated using three rumen fistulated steers in four treatments. The steers were fed BP at 0, 20, 40, and 60% levels of the daily ration with basal elephant grass (EG) to constitute four diets. Maize bran, cotton seed cake, and Gliricidia sepium were offered to make the diets iso-nitrogenous. The nylon bag technique was used to measure BP and EG dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Effective DM, CP, and NDF degradabilities of BP ranged between 574 and 807, 629-802, and 527-689 g/kg, respectively, being lower at higher BP levels. Elephant grass degradability behaved similarly with relatively high effective CP degradability (548-569 g/kg) but low effective DM and NDF degradability (381-403 and 336-373 g/kg, respectively). Rumen pH and VFA reduced with increasing BP in the diets. Rumen pH dropped to 5.8 and 5.9 at the 40 and 60% BP feeding levels, respectively. Banana peelings were better degraded than EG but higher BP levels negatively affected feed degradability and rumen environment.

  13. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3 from Vermisources

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    Balayogan Sivasankari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost was prepared from leaf materials of Gliricidia sepium + Cassia auriculata + Leucaena leucocephala with cow dung (1 : 1 : 2 using Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg and Eisenia fetida for 60 days. Nineteen bacterial strains which have the capability to fix nitrogen, solubilize inorganic phosphate, and produce phytohormones were isolated from vermicompost, vermisources, and earthworm (fore, mid, and hind guts and tested for plant growth studies. Among the bacterial strains only five strains had both activities; among the five Bacillus spp. showed more nitrogen fixing activity and Pseudomonas spp. showed more phosphate solubilizing activity. Hence these bacterial strains were selected for further molecular analysis and identified Bacillus cereus GGBSTD1 and Pseudomonas spp. GGBSTD3. Plant growth studies use these two organisms separately and as consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. in (1 : 1 ratio at different concentrations using Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. at different day intervals. The germination percent, shoot length, root length, leaf area, chlorophyll a content of the leaves, chlorophyll b content of the leaves, total chlorophyll content of the leaves, fresh weight of the whole plant, and dry weight of the whole plant were significantly enhanced by the consortium (Bacillus cereus + Pseudomonas spp. of two organisms at 5 mL concentrations on the 15th day compared to others.

  14. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15 N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha -1 of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha -1 of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of 15 N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  15. Protein Binding Capacity of Different Forages Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusiati, L. M.; Kurniawati, A.; Hanim, C.; Anas, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Eight forages of tannin sources(Leucaena leucocephala, Arachis hypogaea, Mimosa pudica, Morus alba L, Swietenia mahagoni, Manihot esculenta, Gliricidia sepium, and Bauhinia purpurea)were evaluated their tannin content and protein binding capacity. The protein binding capacity of tannin were determined using precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Swietenia mahagonihas higest total tannin level and condensed tannin (CT) compared with other forages (Ptannin (HT) level (Ptannin content of Swietenia mahagoni were 11.928±0.04 mg/100 mg and 9.241±0.02mg/100mg dry matter (DM) of leaves. The hydrolysable tannin content of Leucaena leucocephala was 5.338±0.03 mg/100 mg DM of leaves. Binding capacity was highest in Swietenia mahagoni and Leucaena leucocephala compared to the other forages (Ptannin in Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoniwere1.181±0.44 and 1.217±0.60mg/mg dry matter of leaves. The present study reports that Swietenia mahagoni has highest of tannin content and Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoni capacity of protein binding.

  16. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H

    1991-03-01

    Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man.

  17. EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF PLANTS CONTAINING TANNIN ON IN VITRO METHAGONESIS AND FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GRASS Pennisetum purpureophoides

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    B. Santoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of extract of plants containing tannin on in vitro CH4 production, fermentation characteristics and nutrient degradability. Six of plant leaves i.e. Gliricidia sepium, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala, Desmodium intortum, Camellia sinensis, Calliandra calothyrsus and seed of Areca catechu were extracted by using water. Experimental treatments consisted of P. purpureophoides (300±5 mg incubated alone or added with 1.2 mL of plant extracts. The in vitro neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability was determined using the first stage technique of Tilley and Terry. The results showed that total tannin concentration of plant extract ranged from 34 to 95 g/kg DM, and was lowest in D. intortum and highest in A. mangium. Methane production was significantly (P<0.001 lower with addition of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus extracts compared to control. Total tannin had a close relationship with CH4 production (r=-0.79. There was strong correlation between CH4 production and NDF degradability (r=0.61. It was concluded that water extracts of A. mangium, L. leucocephala, A. catechu, C. sinensis and C. calothyrsus have potential to be used as rumen manipulator in order to reduce CH4 production in ruminants.

  18. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

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    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  19. Soil attributes of a silvopastoral system in Pernambuco Forest Zone

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    Hugo N.B. Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated soil properties in a silvopastoral system using double rows of tree legumes. Treatments were signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens in monoculture or in consortium with sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium. Treatments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, with 4 replications. Response variables included chemical characteristics and physical attributes of the soil. Silvopastoral systems had greater (P<0.001 soil exchangeable Ca (gliricidia = 3.2 and sabiá = 3.0 mmolc/dm3 than signalgrass monoculture (2.0 mmolc/dm3. Water infiltration rate was greater within the tree legume double rows (366 mm/h than in signalgrass (162 mm/h (P = 0.02. However, soil moisture was greater in signalgrass pastures (15.9% (P = 0.0020 than in silvopastures (14.9 and 14.8%, where soil moisture levels increased as distance from the tree rows increased. Conversely, the light fraction of soil organic matter was greater within the tree legume double rows than in the grassed area (P = 0.0019. Long-term studies are needed to determine if these benefits accumulate further and the productivity benefits which result.

  20. Grain productivity and nitrogen fractions of maize under organic fertilization in semiarid region BrazilProdutividade de grãos e frações nitrogenadas do milho submetido a manejo de adubos orgânicos na região semiárida

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    Dário Costa Primo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different organic fertilization treatments on maize grain productivity and nitrogen fractions in semi-arid NE Brazil. The experimental plots were established in a Entissol in randomized blocks in a factorial design (2 x 3 + 2 that included two methods of fertilizer application (surface applied or incorporated and three types of organic fertilization (15 t.ha-1 of animal manure, 15 t.ha-1 of Gliricidia sepium prunings, 15 t.ha-1 of Croton sonderianus prunings and control plots without fertilization. The method of application and the three types of organic fertilizer had different effects on maize grain productivity and nutrition. For example, all types of organic fertilizers, when surface applied, significantly increased maize grain productivity and N concentration. Maize leaf N content was greater after surface application of G. sepium prunings. Surface application of manure increased leaf P concentration, but leaf K was greater after incorporation of C. sonderianus prunings. Maize leaf N fractions were inversely related to grain productivity.Visou-se avaliar, neste trabalho, a aplicação de adubos orgânicos sobre as frações nitrogenadas e a sua relação com a produtividade do milho na região semiárida. O milho foi cultivado em um Neossolo Flúvico em parcelas distribuídas em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial (2 x 3 + 2, incluindo dois métodos de aplicação dos adubos (incorporado ou em superfície e quatro tipos de adubação (15 t.ha-1 de biomassa de gliricidia, 15 t.ha-1 de biomassa de marmeleiro, 15 t.ha-1 de esterco e parcelas controle sem adubação. Os adubos orgânicos e os modos de aplicação ao solo influenciaram de forma diferente a produtividade de grãos e a nutrição do milho. Os três tipos de adubos, quando aplicados em superfície, incrementaram produtividade de grãos e os teores de N nos grãos. O teor

  1. Produtividade de milho solteiro ou em aléias de gliricídia adubado com duas fontes orgânicas Productivity of maize intercropped or not with gliricidia ammended with two organic fertilizers

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    Aldrin Martin Pérez Marin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de biomassa de milho, solteiro ou consorciado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, e o efeito da adubação, com esterco e ramas de gliricídia, sobre a produtividade de milho e da vegetação espontânea. O trabalho foi conduzido de 2003 a 2005, em uma área com fileiras de gliricídia, espaçadas 6 m entre si e 1 m entre as árvores, em um Neossolo Regolítico, em Esperança, PB. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso e parcelas subdivididas, com dois tratamentos principais (presença e ausência de aléias de gliricídia, três tratamentos secundários (testemunha, adubação com esterco, adubação com ramas de gliricídia, e quatro repetições. Nos 1º, 2º e 3º anos do estudo, a produtividade de grãos de milho, no sistema sem gliricídia, foi 268, 129 e 116% maior que em presença de árvores, respectivamente. Entretanto, a produtividade total de biomassa (soma da biomassa produzida pelo milho, gliricídia e vegetação espontânea foi 86, 120 e 37% maior no sistema com árvores nos 1º, 2º e 3º anos, respectivamente. A produtividade de milho e de vegetação espontânea não diferiu entre as parcelas adubadas com esterco ou gliricídia, mas essas duas fontes orgânicas aumentaram significativamente a produtividade, comparadas à testemunha.The objective of this work was to evaluate biomass productivity of maize, intercropped or not with gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium, and to evaluate the effect of manure and gliricidia prunnings fertilization on maize and spontaneous vegetation biomass productivity. The work was conducted from 2003 to 2005 within an area with gliricidia rows, spaced 6 m between each other and 1 m between trees, in a Typic Usthorthent, in Esperança, PB, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized split plot with two main treatments (with and without gliricidia, and three secondary treatments (control, fertilization with manure, fertilization with

  2. Fixação biológica e transferência de nitrogênio por leguminosas em pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicia Miranda Paulino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN e a transferência do N derivado da FBN das espécies leguminosas - gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-guandu anão (Cajanus cajan - para um pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira, pelo método da abundância natural de N. Foram avaliados os seguintes sistemas de cultivos consorciados: mangueira e gravioleira com gliricídia; mangueira e gravioleira com crotalária; mangueira e gravioleira com feijão-guandu; e a testemunha mangueira e gravioleira. Agliricídia apresentou maior potencial de FBN (80%, seguida da crotalária (64,5% e feijão-guandu (45%. Em dois cortes, a crotalária forneceu 149,5 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 96,5kg derivados da FBN. A gliricídia com três podas anuais forneceu 56,4 e 80,3 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 45 e 64 kg derivados da FBN, em dois anos consecutivos. A quantidade de N fornecida foi superior à demandada pela mangueira e gravioleira. Variações na abundância natural de 15N foram detectadas somente na gravioleira. Gliricídia e crotalária destacaram-se na transferência de N, com cerca de 22,5 e 40% do N fixado, respectivamente. A adubação verde com gliricídia possibilita o parcelamento do N, com melhor aproveitamento pelas espécies frutíferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia, Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following intercropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80% , followed by sunnhemp (64.5% and pigeon pea (45%. After two sunnhemp prunes, 149

  3. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  4. Efeito de coberturas mortas vegetais sobre o desempenho da cenoura em cultivo orgânico Effect of mulch of different plant species on the performance of organically grown carrot

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    CAB Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de coberturas mortas com resíduos de diferentes espécies de plantas no rendimento da cenoura em cultivo orgânico e nos níveis de reinfestação pela vegetação espontânea. O experimento foi conduzido no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica ("Fazendinha Agroecológica Km 47", em Seropédica-RJ, empregando delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de coberturas dos canteiros com a biomassa aérea, seca e triturada, de capim Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e guandu (Cajanus cajan, além da testemunha (sem qualquer cobertura. Por ocasião da colheita da cenoura, determinou-se a produtividade e as médias em peso, comprimento e diâmetro máximo das raízes tuberosas. A reinfestação de ervas espontâneas foi estimada pelo número total de indivíduos por m², sendo as coletas realizadas aos 20, 50 e 80 dias após a semeadura. A cenoura cultivada nas parcelas tratadas com resíduos de leguminosas apresentou aumentos significativos de todas as variáveis fitotécnicas, com exceção para o comprimento médio da raiz. Nas parcelas cobertas com resíduos da gramínea, os resultados foram estatisticamente iguais aos da testemunha. A reinfestação por plantas espontâneas por unidade de área cultivada alcançou níveis da ordem de 300% superiores em parcelas sem cobertura do solo, na comparação com aquelas que receberam as palhadas.The effect of soil mulch with different plant species was evaluated in relation to the performance of organically grown carrots and to weed population levels. The experiment was carried out at the Integrated Agroecological Production System located in Seropédica, Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Baixada Fluminense, Brazil, using a randomized blocks design comprising four treatments replicated six times. These treatments consisted of soil mulch with chopped and dried above

  5. Fertilizantes de leguminosas como fontes alternativas de nitrogênio para produção orgânica de alface Legume fertilizers as alternative sources of nitrogen for organic lettuce production

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    Maxwell Merçon Tezolin Barros Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de dois fertilizantes de leguminosas - produtos derivados do corte, desidratação e moagem da biomassa aérea das leguminosas mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium - como fontes alternativas de nitrogênio (N para a produção orgânica de alface (Lactuca sativa cv. Vera, e a influência dessas adubações sobre a vida útil pós-colheita da hortaliça, em condições de laboratório. Esses fertilizantes foram empregados em cobertura e comparados com cama-de-aviário industrial, assegurando-se doses equivalentes de N total. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições: T1: adubação pré-plantio, com termofosfato sílico-magnesiano + sulfato de potássio; T2: T1 + esterco bovino, em pré-plantio; T3: T2 + fertilizante de mucuna-cinza, em cobertura; T4: T2 + fertilizante de gliricídia, em cobertura; T5: T2 + cama-de-aviário em cobertura. Não houve diferença entre os fertilizantes de ambas as espécies de leguminosas e a cama-de-aviário, quanto à produtividade, teor de N, padrão comercial e período de vida útil pós-colheita das alfaces, o que indica potencial de uso desses fertilizantes como fontes de N para sistemas orgânicos de produção de hortaliças.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential use of two legume fertilizers - products derived from cutting, dehydration and milling of the aerial biomass of legume plants, velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium - as alternative sources of N for organic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Vera; and to evaluate the influence of soil fertilization on lettuce shelf life at laboratory bench condition. These fertilizers were applied on soil surface and compared to factory poultry-bed manure at equivalent total N doses. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications, as

  6. Efeito do uso de diferentes compostos na produção de tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill em cultivo orgânico

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    M. S. Teodoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar, em condições de casa de vegetação, a influência de cinco compostos orgânicos na adubação de plantio e de cobertura de tomate híbrido do tipo Caqui. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados cinco tratamentos, contendo biomassa vegetal provenientes do banco de leguminosas da Embrapa Meio-Norte. As leguminosas utilizadas na confecção dos compostos foram o guandu Cultivar Fava Larga (Cajanus cajan, a Crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., a Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, a Gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e a Mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima. A gramínea utilizada foi o capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum. Os frutos do tomate começaram a ser colhidos no início do amadurecimento, por volta de 70 a 120 dias após o transplantio. Avaliaram-se a produção total de frutos (PTF, produção de frutos comerciais (PFC, número total de frutos (NTF, número de frutos comerciais (NFC, peso médio de frutos comerciais (PMFC e diâmetro médio de frutos (DMF. Foram registradas ocorrências de pragas nas condições experimentais, detectando-se a presença de nematóides (Meloydogines spp e cochonilha (Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos estudados, entretanto, o tratamento 2 foi o que se destacou quanto as variáveis analisadas, principalmente para PTF (54,5 t/ha e PFC (49,6 t/ha. Concluiu-se que o uso de compostos orgânicos com palhadas de leguminosas e gramíneas é uma alternativa técnica e economicamente viável, podendo reduzir o uso integral do esterco bovino na adubação de plantio e de cobertura do tomate produzido no sistema orgânico.Effect of the use of different compounds in the production of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill in organic farmingAbstract: - The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in greenhouse conditions, the influence of five organic compounds on fertilizing

  7. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras Soil litter stock and fertility after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees on degraded signal grass pasture

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    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.Pastures are the fodder supply of Brazilian livestock, and are exhaustively degraded by nitrogen (N deficiency. Intercropping with legumes, aside from nitrogen fixation, may have

  8. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho com gliricídia em consorciação Weed control in maize crop with gliricidia intercropping

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    B.B. Araújo Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium é leguminosa perene, cultivada para propósitos múltiplos, que apresenta crescimento rápido e várias substâncias com propriedades alelopáticas. Existem indicações de que a consorciação com gliricídia também pode trazer benefícios no controle das plantas daninhas do milho. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle das plantas daninhas no milho (híbrido duplo AG 1051 com gliricídia em consorciação. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, com oito repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em: cultivo do milho com capinas (duas, aos 20 e 40 dias após a semeadura, sem capinas e em consorciação com a gliricídia. A gliricídia foi semeada a lanço, com 25 sementes m-2, por ocasião da semeadura do milho, entre as fileiras deste. Quinze espécies de plantas daninhas foram catalogadas na área experimental, sendo Commelina benghalensis a mais frequente. Os rendimentos de espigas verdes (empalhadas e despalhadas obtidos com a consorciação foram iguais ou superiores a 85% dos rendimentos obtidos com capinas. Além disso, o rendimento de grãos no consórcio chegou a 80% do rendimento de grãos do milho capinado. Portanto, a consorciação com a gliricídia pode ser uma alternativa viável para as produções de milho verde e de grãos, embora essa consorciação não tenha influenciado a densidade e a biomassa seca das plantas daninhas.Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium, a perennial leguminous species presenting fast growth and several allelopathic substances, is cultivated for multiple purposes. There are good evidences that gliricidia intercropped with maize efficiently controls weeds. This work aimed to evaluate the use of gliricidia intercropped with maize as a method of weed control in maize (hybrid AG 1051. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with eight replications. The treatments consisted of: maize cropping with hand-hoeing weed control

  9. Living Mulch Performance in a Tropical Cotton System and Impact on Yield and Weed Control

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    Vinay Bhaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a major crop in the Vidarbha region of central India. The vertisol soils on which much of the cotton is grown have been severely degraded by the tropical climate, excessive tillage and depletion of organic matter. Living mulches have the ability to mitigate these problems but they can cause crop losses through direct competition with the cotton crop and unreliable weed control. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at four locations in Vidarbha to study the potential for growing living mulches in mono-cropped cotton. Living mulch species evaluated included gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], sesbania [Sesbania sesban (L. Merr.], sorghum sudan grass [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench × Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench ssp. Drummondii (Nees ex Steud. de Wet & Harlan] and sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Living mulch height was controlled through mowing and herbicides were not used. Living mulches generated 1 to 13 tons ha−1 of dry matter across sites and years. Weed cover was negatively correlated with both living mulch biomass and cover. Where living mulches were vigorous and established quickly, weed cover was as low as 7%, without the use of herbicides, or inter-row tillage. In a dry year, living mulch growth had a negative impact on cotton yield; however, in a year when soil moisture was not limiting, there was a positive relationship between cotton yield and living mulch biomass. Use of living mulches in cotton production in the Vidarbha region of India is feasible and can lead to both effective weed suppression and acceptable cotton yields.

  10. The Effect of Organic Phosphorus and Nitrogen Enriched Manure on Nutritive Value of Sweet Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukiwati, D. R.; Pujaningsih, R. I.; Murwani, R.

    2018-02-01

    The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of some manure enriched with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) organic (‘manure plus’) on crude protein and mineral production of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata)and quality of fermented stover as livestock feed. A field experiment was conducted on a vertisol soil (low pH, nitrogen and low available Bray II extractable P). Randomized block design with 9 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this experiment. The treatments were T1(TSP), T2 (SA), T3 (TSP+SA), T4 (manure), T5 (manure+PR), T6 (manure+guano), T7 (manure+N-legume), T8 (manure+PR+N-legume), T9 (manure +guano+N-legume). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the differences between treatment means were examined by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Results of the experiment showed that the treatment significantly affected to the crude protein and calcium production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover, but it is not affected to P production of stover. The result of DMRT showed that the effect of ‘manure plus’ was not significantly different on CP and Ca production of stover, mineral concentration, in vitro DMD and OMD of fermented stover, compared to inorganic fertilization. Conclusion, manure enriched with organic NP, resulted in similar on CP and Ca production of stover and nutrient concentration of fermented stover compared to inorganic fertilizer. Thus, organic-NP enriched manure could be an alternative and viable technology to utilize low grade of phosphate rock, guano and Gliricidea sepium to produce sweet corn in vertisol soil.

  11. Caracterización química de panojas y vainas con semillas nativas del estado de Guerrero, México, para uso en la alimentación animal

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    Fernando Pérez-Gil Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se seleccionaron e identificaron cinco especies forrajeras nativas del estado de Guerrero, México: Bothriochloa sp, Sorghum halepense (L. Pers, Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Stend, Acacia farnesiana (L. Willd, consideradas forrajes no convencionales por ser productos naturales, no utilizados actualmente para la alimentación animal. El objetivo fue determinar la composición química en muestras representativas de las cinco plantas, vainas con semillas y panojas. Los análisis realizados fueron: análisis químico proximal, fracciones de fibra, perfil de aminoácidos, factores antinutricios, minerales y vitaminas hidrosolubles. Se encontró que el valor de proteína cruda osciló entre 60 y 202, fibra cruda entre 132.5 y 354.8, extracto etéreo 17 a 32.4, reportados en g-1 kg-1 de materia seca (MS. El contenido de lignina en las gramíneas fue 52 a 82 y en las muestras de leguminosas fue de 132 a 202 g; mientras que la celulosa para el primer grupo fue de 189 a 276 y para el segundo de 95 a 269 g kg -1 MS. De los factores antinutricios analizados el inhibidor de tripsina cuantificado fue de 1.0 a 4.97 UIT mg-1, hemaglutininas y saponinas no se detectaron. Se analizaron los siguientes minerales: Ca (301-652, Mg (57-88, K (565-1286, Na (64.3-630, Zn (0.93-5.1 y Fe (8.3-21.0 (reportados en g kg-1. Se cuantificaron 17 aminoácidos y 3 vitaminas (B1, B2 y B3 de cada muestra presentando valores similares entre ellas. Se concluye que las panojas y las vainas con semillas podrían considerarse como un recurso no convencional en la alimentación de rumiantes.

  12. EFECTO DE DOS LEGUMINOSAS Y BANANO MADURO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y REPRODUCCIÓN DE CONEJOS NUEVA ZELANDA

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: a Determinar la leguminosa tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth y Gliricidia sepium y el nivel de banano maduro (BM (50, 75, 100 y 100, 125, 150 g animal-1 día-1, que permita incrementar los parámetros reproductivos (fase uno y productivos (fase dos, en conejos Nueva Zelanda. b Determinar la Relación beneficio/costo de los tratamientos. Se utilizó 28 y 42 conejos respectivamente. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 x 3 + 1, en un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (DBCA, con cuatro y tres repeticiones. Se utilizó la prueba de Tukey (p≤0.05. El mayor consumo fue para el kudzu (p0.05 el peso de las hembras al parto, el periodo de gestación, peso y tamaño de la camada al nacimiento. Los niveles de BM no influenciaron (p>0.05 sobre la ganancia de peso, índice de conversión alimenticia (ICA, peso final (PF, peso a la canal (PC y rendimiento a la canal (RC. Los tratamientos en base a leguminosas tropicales y niveles de BM superaron al testigo (p<0.01. La mayor rentabilidad en la fase 1 y 2 se obtuvo al combinar kudzu tropical más 100 y 75 g y 125 y 100 g de BM animal-1 día-1 (30.34 y 29.48%.

  13. Phosphorus dynamics in a tropical soil amended with green manures and natural inorganic phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah Abd Rahman; Bah Abd R

    2002-01-01

    Alleviating P deficiency with natural inorganic phosphates and organic residues has significant economic and environmental advantages in the tropics. However, adapting this technology to various agroecosystems requires greater understanding of P dynamics in such systems. This was studied in an amended Bungor soil in laboratory incubation and glasshouse experiments. Treatments were a factorial combination of green manures GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks (PRs) from China and Algeria, in 3 replications. The GMs were labeled with 33 P in the glasshouse trial. Olsen P, mineral N, exchangeable Ca and pH were monitored in the incubation at 0,1,2,4,8,16,32 and 64 weeks after establishment (WAE). Soil P fractions were also determined at 64 WAE. Phosphorus available from the amendments at 4, 8, 15, and 20 WAE, was quantified by 33 P- 32 P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata (Setaria grass) as test crop. Olsen P was unaffected by the sole P fertilizers, and hardly changed within 16 WAE in the legume GM and legume GM+PR treatments as NH 4 + -N accumulated and soil pH increased. Afterwards Olsen P and exchangeable Ca increased as NH 4 + -N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect, but fertilizers was irreversibly retained. GM-P availability was very low (< 4%), but GMs enhanced PR solubility and mobilized soil P irrespective of quality, probably by the action of organic acids. Calcium content had negative effect on available P and should be considered when selecting compatible materials in integrated systems. The results are further evidence of the importance of the soil P mobilization capacity of organic components in integrated P management systems. Even low quality Imperata can augment soil P supply when combined with the reactive APR, probably by conserving soil moisture. (Author)

  14. Efecto de las prácticas agronómicas en las propiedades del suelo en laderas

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    Claro A. Alfonso

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de las prácticas agronómicas en las propiedades del suelo en laderas. En un suelo Ultisol de textura arenosa, fuertemente erosionado, de baja fertilidad en fósforo, materia orgánica y ácido, ubicado en la localidad de La Leña en la provincia de Pinar del Río, en la República de Cuba, se realizó durante el año 1996 un ensayo en dos segmentos de microcuencas, en las que se implementaron medidas de conservación de suelos consistentes en barreras vivas de Gliricidia sepium L. (primer segmento y Vetiveria zizanoide L. (segundo segmento complementadas con coberturas de maíz asociado con Mucuna d. y Canavalia e., como precedentes del frijol. Los resultados mostraron ligeros cambios de la pendiente intrabarreras con respecto al valor inicial (10 y 9%. Los valores de la biomasa seca total de las asociaciones fueron de 17 y 15 t/ha, la velocidad de cubrimiento a los 30 días fue mayor al 70%, la colonización radical profusa presentada por las asociaciones indican una mejora de la red poral del suelo, reflejándose en la tendencia positiva del estado interno de la estructura que evoluciona hacia un estado (G poroso. Los rendimientos de maíz fueron de 2900 y 2500 kg/ha y los de frijol de 1800 y 1630 kg/ha. Valores considerados elevados, si se tiene en cuenta el grado de deterioro de este suelo

  15. Prácticas de conservación de suelos en sistemas de cultivo maíz-frijol en Cuba

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    Alfonso Claro A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos ensayos en segmentos de microcuencas en condiciones de producción de la Provincia de Pinar del Río: uno en Campo Hermoso y el otro en La Comunidad La Leña, Cuba. En ambas localidades se rotó el frijol variedad Bat 304 y Tomeguin 93, seguidos de maíz asociado con Mucuna deeringianum y se establecieron bordes de desagüe protegidos con barreras vivas de Leucaena leucocephala y Gliricidia sepium. Las pérdidas de suelos se estimaron en piscinas de sedimentación y limnígrafos Valday en Campo Hermoso y en el caso de La Leña sólo se determinaron las variaciones de la pendiente y el espesor máximo de sedimentos (EMS al final de cada ciclo. El suelo fue un Ferralítico Cuarcítico (Ultisol, la fertilización se realizó de acuerdo a sus reservas, la preparación y labores culturales con tracción animal. Los resultados al cabo de cinco años mostraron una reducción en las pérdidas de suelos por debajo del umbral permisible (5 t/ha, aumento de la altura de las terrazas debido a los sedimentos acumulados, mayor disponibilidad de agua en la sección receptora, mayor cobertura en el período lluvioso, disminución del efecto erosivo de la lluvia, reciclaje de nutrimentos a través de los abonos verdes e incremento de los rendimientos respecto a las áreas donde no se realizaron prácticas de manejo. Se concluyó que el manejo integrado de los diferentes factores en laderas con pendientes mayores de 5%, es necesario para la conservación de suelos y agua

  16. Use and management of tree fodder resources on farms in central Veracruz, Mexico

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    L. Ascencio-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó este estudio para determinar el uso y potencial de árboles y arbustos en 60 explotaciones ganaderas de los municipios de Tlapacoyan, Misantla y Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México. Los productores fueron encuestados con el objetivo de identificar, localizar y describir el uso de especies leñosas promisorias de interés forrajero, en tres sistemas de producción animal. Las encuestas registraron información acerca de: tamaño de la explotación, miembros (edad, escolaridad, años de experiencia de la familia, sistema de producción animal, manejo de pasturas, principales productos de la explotación; y la identificación, manejo y uso de árboles y arbustos en el sitio. Los datos se analizaron por estadísticos descriptivos como promedios y frecuencias relativas. Se caracterizaron tres sistemas de producción animal. Doble propósito (57%, cría y finalización (30%, y finalización en pasturas (13%; donde se identificaron 145 especies de árboles, siendo Bursera simaruba, Gliricidia sepium y Cedrela odorata las más comunes. Las dos primeras, de 12 especies fueron las más consumidas por el ganado, principalmente en ramoneo (38.80% o corte y acarreo (3.50%. El uso principal de estas especies fue: leña, carbón, madera y cercos vivos. El estudio mostró que existe una alta diversidad de especies leñosas de uso forrajero, con múltiples funciones en las explotaciones, destacando algunas especies como forrajeras, con un valor añadido en los sistemas de producción animal durante las épocas críticas del año.

  17. Partial replacement of corn by forage cactus in the diets of lactating goats

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    Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of corn by forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck in the diets of lactating goats on the nutrient intake, milk production and composition and ingestive behavior. Five crossbreed Saanen x Pardo Alpina goats with body weights of 47 ± 3.3 kg were used in the study. The design was 5x5 Latin square design, in which the treatments were as follows: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% of girl cactus included in the diet as a partial replacement of corn, with 0, 18, 36, 54 and 72% of the added the cactus comprising of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq Walp as roughage in all treatments. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.05 the dry matter intake, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients with the increasing levels of cactus in the diet, presenting means of 1.64, 0.26, 0.82, 0.54 and 1.17 kg day-1, respectively. In the same way, no influence was observed on the daily milk production and levels of fat, protein, lactose and total solids of milk, which averaged 1.18 kg day-1; 3.74, 3.34, 5.06 and 13.56%, respectively. The inclusion of cactus also had no influence (P > 0.05 on the ingestion behavior. The treatment with 35% cactus showed a lower impairment of food intake (31%. The partial replacement of the corn by the girl cactus in the diets of dairy goats can be accomplished because it does not alter the intake, milk yield and composition and feeding behavior. The replacement of up to 54% corn by the cactus is recommended to reduce producer costs for food.

  18. Cryptococcosis in Atlántico, Colombia: an approximation of the prevalence of this mycosis and the distribution of the etiological agent in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, María Clara; Escandón, Patricia; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is an invasive disease acquired by inhalation of infectious propagules from the environment. Currently, compulsory notification of the spread of this disease is not required in Colombia. However, reporting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome cases to the National Surveillance System has suggested that there is a growing population at risk of contracting cryptococcosis. Few studies have described the occurrence of cryptococcosis in Colombia. Therefore, in this study, we examined the pathology of this disease in Atlántico, Colombia and determined the distributions of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in the environment. Clinical samples/isolates were gathered from cases of cryptococcosis previously diagnosed at health institutions in Atlántico, and surveys were completed by clinicians. The environmental study considered 32 sampling points and three tree species, i.e., Quickstick ( Gliricidia sepium ), Almond ( Terminalia catappa ), and Pink trumpet ( Tabebuia rosea ). Environmental and clinical samples/isolates were analyzed for phenotypic and genotypic confirmation. From 1997-2014, 41 cases of cryptococcosis were reported. The mean patient age was 40.5 years (range: 18-63 years); 76% were men, and 78% were HIV positive. Isolation was possible in 38 cases ( C. neoformans , molecular type VNI in 37 cases and C. gattii , molecular type VGI in one case). In 2012-2014, 2,068 environmental samples were analyzed with a positivity of 0.4% ( C. neoformans , molecular type VNI) in Almond and Pink trumpet trees. Cryptococcus neoformans , molecular type VNI had a higher prevalence than C. gattii and was associated with human exposure and the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in this geographical region.

  19. Cryptococcosis in Atlántico, Colombia: an approximation of the prevalence of this mycosis and the distribution of the etiological agent in the environment

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    María Clara Noguera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:Cryptococcosis is an invasive disease acquired by inhalation of infectious propagules from the environment. Currently, compulsory notification of the spread of this disease is not required in Colombia. However, reporting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome cases to the National Surveillance System has suggested that there is a growing population at risk of contracting cryptococcosis. Few studies have described the occurrence of cryptococcosis in Colombia. Therefore, in this study, we examined the pathology of this disease in Atlántico, Colombia and determined the distributions of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in the environment.METHODS:Clinical samples/isolates were gathered from cases of cryptococcosis previously diagnosed at health institutions in Atlántico, and surveys were completed by clinicians. The environmental study considered 32 sampling points and three tree species, i.e., Quickstick ( Gliricidia sepium , Almond ( Terminalia catappa , and Pink trumpet ( Tabebuia rosea . Environmental and clinical samples/isolates were analyzed for phenotypic and genotypic confirmation.RESULTS:From 1997-2014, 41 cases of cryptococcosis were reported. The mean patient age was 40.5 years (range: 18-63 years; 76% were men, and 78% were HIV positive. Isolation was possible in 38 cases ( C. neoformans , molecular type VNI in 37 cases and C. gattii , molecular type VGI in one case. In 2012-2014, 2,068 environmental samples were analyzed with a positivity of 0.4% ( C. neoformans , molecular type VNI in Almond and Pink trumpet trees.CONCLUSIONS:Cryptococcus neoformans , molecular type VNI had a higher prevalence than C. gattii and was associated with human exposure and the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in this geographical region.

  20. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estrada, Harold; Díaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Franco-Ospina, Luís; Mercado-Camargo, Jairo; Guzmán-Ledezma, Jaime; Medina, José Domingo; Gaitán-Ibarra, Ricardo

    2011-09-22

    Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the

  1. Efecto de dos enraizadores en tres especies forestales promisorias para la recuperación de suelos

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    Luz Adriana Giraldo C.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La erosión es uno de los principales problemas que afecta los suelos de ladera en el mundo. Algunas de las especies utilizadas en obras de bioingeniería se propagan por medio de estacas, sin embargo no todas enraízan fácilmente, por lo que es necesario utilizar sustancias inductoras de enraizamiento. En este trabajo, evaluamos dos sustancias promotoras de enraizamiento en estacas de mataratón (Gliricidia sepium, nacedero (Trichanthera gigantea y sauce (Salix humboldtiana. La investigación se realizó en el municipio de Dosquebradas, Risaralda, a una altitud de 1450 m. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de un enraizador de síntesis (Hormonagro®, un enraizador natural (extracto de Aloe vera y un testigo sin aplicación de inductores. Los resultados obtenidos indican que para las tres especies es necesario emplear estimuladores de enraizamiento. El extracto de A. Vera produjo un mejor efecto sobre el enraizamiento de las tres especies, siendo más notorio sobre S. humboldtiana, 60 días después de la aplicación. La especie T. gigantea no mostró diferencias significativas con respecto a la aplicación de estimulantes de enraizamiento. En cuanto a la tolerancia de las especies al encharcamiento del sustrato de siembra, S. humboldtiana presentó mayor tolerancia mientras que T. gigantea presento los mayores problemas de pudrición.

  2. Caracterización físico-química y organoléptica de miel de Melipona beecheii obtenida en sistemas agroforestales

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    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de determinar las características organolépticas y físico-químicas de la miel producida por Melipona beecheii. Para la extracción y el envasado de la miel se utilizaron jeringuillas estériles y frascos secos esterilizados, debidamente etiquetados. Después, se detectó en la muestra la presencia de granos de polen pertenecientes a Gliricidia sepium, y se realizó un análisis sensorial y físico-químico basado en los siguientes indicadores: aspecto, color, olor, sabor, textura, humedad (g/100 g, acidez libre (meq/100 g, pH y sólidos solubles (g/100 g = %. Además, se realizaron determinaciones cromatográficas de los azúcares presentes. Los valores de pH estuvieron alrededor de 3,6; la acidez libre fue de 35,0 meq/100 g, y la humedad, de 24 %. Por su parte, el análisis sensorial estuvo acorde con las especificaciones de calidad recomendadas en la norma de calidad cubana, ya que la miel no presentó ningún sabor, aroma o color desagradables. Se concluye que la miel de M. beecheii presentó una excelente calidad, al no sufrir ningún proceso de degradación aparente; por ello se puede considerar como una miel fresca, lo que constituye un requisito clave para cualquier alimento destinado al consumo humano.

  3. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

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    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  4. Estudios preliminares para la crioconservación de especies forestales arbóreas

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    Ana Abdelnour Esquivel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La crioconservación presenta numerosas ventajas con respecto a otras técnicas que se utilizan rutinariamente para la conservación y almacenamiento de germoplasma. Algunas de estas ventajas son los bajos costos de labor durante el mantenimiento de las colecciones y la conservación de la estabilidad genética por tiempo indefinido. El presente estudio muestra los resultados obtenidos en la crioconservación de frutos y semillas de melina (Gmelina arborea, teca (Tectona grandis, pilón (Hyeronima alchorneoides, cenízaro (Pithecellobium saman y madero negro (Gliricidia sepium utilizando la técnica de desecación y congelamiento rápido en nitrógeno líquido. Los frutos recibieron un tratamiento previo a la congelación con 10 mgL-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 o agua, o el lijado del endocarpo duro. Una vez descongelados, los materiales fueron sembradas en el invernadero para evaluar la sobrevivencia. Se encontró que tanto los frutos como las semillas de las especies evaluadas sobrevivieron al congelamiento. El estudio también mostró la importancia de la colecta y el manejo que se dé a las semillas antes de realizar experimentación en crioconservación. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la factibilidad de utilizar esta técnica para la conservación de forestales y el potencial que presenta para que pueda ser evaluada en otras especies forestales de interés.

  5. Saber popular de especies forrajeras en la zona central de Nicaragua: un estudio en grupos focales

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    Fabio Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se hace una descripción de la tecnología local de manejo de pasturas y se analizan las percepciones locales sobre el consumo de plantas por el ganado. Se estudia la clasificación local y valoración que los lugareños otorgan a las especies herbáceas y leñosas forrajeras presentes en los potreros. El estudio se realizó en la zona piloto del proyecto Pasturas Degradadas en Centroamérica (PD en Muy Muy, Nicaragua. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante diferentes técnicas de investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Se aplicaron técnicas cualitativas para recabar información en profundidad del acervo de conocimiento local respecto al uso de vegetación arbórea, arbustiva y herbácea en las fincas ganaderas. Se registró un total de 25 especies herbáceas forrajeras, siendo las variedades más reportadas la grama natural (Paspalum sp, pasto estrella (Cynodon plectostachyus K. Schum. Pilg. y jaragua (Hyparrhenia rufa. De la misma manera, fueron identificadas las especies leñosas más frecuentes en las fincas ganaderas el guácimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, madero negro (Gliricidia sepium Jacq. y roble (Tabebuia rosea. Se concluye que el conocimiento de los productores es empírico y funcional. Esto significa que es derivado de la experiencia práctica y generalmente en función de las actividades realizadas por su propia voluntad o inducida por agentes externos.

  6. Effect of forage supplementation and alkali treatment of cocoa pod on the utilization of cocoa pod based diets by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two treatment methods - forage supplementation and chemical treatment - both potentially capable of improving cocoa pod utilization by ruminants were evaluated. Forage supplementation, using Gliricidia sepium of cattle fed a 50% cocoa pod diet yielded no positive results. Consumption of Gliricidia was poor and equalled only 0.2 kg/head/d. Feed intake (4.6 versus 4.8 kg dry matter (DM)/d), growth rate (0.37 versus 0.40 kg/d) and feed/gain (12.7 versus 12.0) for control and test cattle were similar (P>0.05). Chemical treatment using cocoa pod ash solutions (PAS) - a caustic material - was more successful. Rumen digestibility (as determined by the nylon bag technique) of cocoa pods treated with PAS, equivalent in alkalinity to 2 (P 2 ), 4 (P 4 ), 6 (P 6 ) and 8% (P 8 ) NaOH, was linearly improved (P 0.05). Dry matter, ADF and NDF degradabilities increased (P 6 and 55, 46 and 42%, respectively, for P 8 treated samples. Dry matter digestibilities of cocoa pod based diets also increased (P 8 treated) in sheep and to 60% in goats. Nevertheless, treatment with P 8 solutions reduced (P 0.75 in sheep and from 48 to 42 g DM/kg W 0.75 in goats. Feed intake, however, was normal for diets containing P 6 treated cocoa pods (67 and 61 g DM/kg W 0.75 ) for sheep and goats, respectively. Cocoa pod ash for treating cocoa pods should therefore not be stronger than the P 6 level which corresponds in alkalinity to 6% NaOH. (author)

  7. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  8. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  9. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

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    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  10. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

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    Ocampo Saul A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, and one yeast (Candida albicans. These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC. MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml, clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml. Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml. Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml. Conclusion This in vitro study

  11. Tropical forest restoration: tree islands as recruitment foci in degraded lands of Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahawi, R A; Augspurger, C K

    2006-04-01

    Tropical forest recovery in pastures is slowed by a number of biotic and abiotic factors, including a lack of adequate seed dispersal and harsh microclimatic extremes. Accordingly, methods to accelerate forest recovery must address multiple impediments. Here, we evaluated the ability of "tree islands" to serve as "recruitment foci" in a two-year study at three sites in northern Honduras. Islands of three sizes (64, 16, and 4 m2) and at two distances to secondary forest (20 and 50 m) were created by planting 2 m tall vegetative stakes of two native species: Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae) and Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), each in monoculture. Open-pasture "islands" of equal sizes served as controls. Tree islands reduced temperature and light (PAR) extremes as compared to open pasture, creating a microenvironment more favorable to seedling establishment. Seed-dispersing birds (quantified at one site only) showed an overwhelming preference for islands; 160 visits were recorded to islands compared with one visit to open pasture. Additionally, frugivores visited large islands more often, and for longer time periods, than small islands, thereby increasing the likelihood of a dispersal event there. In total, 144 140 seeds belonging to 186 species were collected in islands; more than 80% were grasses. Tree islands increased zoochorous tree seed rain; seed density and species richness were greater in tree islands than in open pasture, and large islands had greater seed density than smaller islands (Gliricidia only), suggesting that they are more effective for restoration. Distance to forest did not affect seed rain. A total of 543 seedlings and 41 species established in islands; > 85% were zoochorous. Seedling density did not differ among treatments (mean 0.2 seedlings/m2 for islands vs. 0.1 seedlings/m2 for pasture), although an increasing trend in tree islands over the course of two years suggests that seedling recruitment is accelerated there. Lastly, similar seedling

  12. Cultural significance of the flora of a tropical dry forest in the Doche vereda (Villavieja, Huila, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Toro, Jeison Herley; Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad; Santos-Fita, Dídac; Ruan-Soto, Felipe

    2018-03-22

    In Colombia, ethnobotanical studies regarding plant cultural significance (CS) in tropical dry forests are scarce and mainly focused on the Caribbean region. Different authors have indicated that the plants with the most uses are those of greater cultural importance. Additionally, gender differences in knowledge and interest in natural resources has been widely recorded. This study evaluated the cultural significance of plants in the Doche community, in the Department of Huila. Furthermore, it evaluates the richness of plant knowledge among local inhabitants, looking for testing the hypothesis that the CS of plants positively correlates to the number of uses people inform about, and that there are significant differences on the richness of ethnobotanical knowledge between men and women in this community. The ethnobotanical categories: "food," "condiment," "economy," "fodder," "firewood," "timber", "medicine," and "others" were established to carry out semi-structured interviews, social cartography, and ethnobotanical walks. The frequency of mention was calculated as a measure of CS. The richness of knowledge of each collaborator was obtained. Non-parametric tests were performed to determine whether differences between the numbers of mentioned species existed between genders and ethnobotanical categories. Finally, Pearson correlation tests determined the relationship between CS and the number of ethnobotanical categories. A hundred useful species were registered in crops and forests. The most abundant categories were medicinal (45 species), firewood (30), and fodder (28). The most culturally significant species according to frequency of mention were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Guazuma ulmifolia, Manihot esculenta, and Musa balbisiana. The species with the most registered uses (five) were Guazuma ulmifolia and Gliricidia sepium. We found a correlation between CS and the number of uses per ethnobotanical category, but no significant difference between genders regarding

  13. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2010-02-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one. Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro) and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo) are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme) resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress), using the EPP dollar exchange rate. Our conclusions with

  14. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner., Bridelia tomentosa Blume, Vitex pinnata L., Vernonia arborea Buch.-Ham. and Bauhinia purpurea var. corneri de Wit. were suitable to be used as sustainable feedstocks for the electricity generated and promising to be developed as energy plant species in the future using Short Rotation Coppice system (SRC.

  15. Effect of interactions on the nutrient status of a tropical soil treated with green manures and inorganic phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Abdul R; Rahman, Zaharah A; Hussin, Aminuddin

    2004-06-08

    Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs) and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate) replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg(-1) soil) in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (approximately 1000 mg kg soil(-1)) and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold) as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  16. Effect of Interactions on the Nutrient Status of a Tropical Soil Treated with Green Manures and Inorganic Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Bah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg−1 soil in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (~1000 mg kg soil−1 and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  17. Composición bromatológica de la carne de conejos suplementados con mataratón y cachaza de palma aceitera

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    Auristela Malavé A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar comparativamente el efecto de la suplementación del alimento balanceado comercial (ABC con follaje de mataratón (Gliricidia sepium y cachaza de palma aceitera (Elaeis guineensis en la composición bromatológica de la carne de conejo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras de carne estudiadas en el presente trabajo, provienen de una investigación previa con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con tres tratamientos (dietas y tres repeticiones (bloques con muestreo de tres réplicas por repetición, donde se utilizaron 27 conejos machos mestizos durante el período postdestete divididos en tres tratamientos: uno control (T0, alimentados sólo con ABC, y dos suplementados con mataratón y cachaza de palma aceitera en proporciones de 30 y 10% (T1, y 10 y 30% (T2, respectivamente, a manera de comparar el efecto de las dietas en el valor nutricional. Resultados. Las muestras de carne provenientes de los diferentes animales en tratamiento, se evaluaron encontrando que la suplementación no afectó significativamente la composición bromatológica (p>0.05 para el contenido de humedad (70.77 a 72.42%, proteínas (19.08 a 20.34%, cenizas (1.53 a 1.68% y lípidos (6.48 a 7.23%; indicando que indistintamente de la dieta empleada, suplementando el ABC con mataratón/fibra de palma o no, las carnes de conejo obtenidas son nutricionalmente idénticas como alimento. Conclusiones. Con base en los resultados, se sugiere que el follaje de mataratón y la fibra de palma aceitera podrían constituir una alternativa como recursos agronómicos tropicales en la producción de carne de conejo para el consumo humano.

  18. Using organic matter to increase soil fertility in Burundi: potentials and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboneka, Salvator

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture production in Burundi is dominated by small scale farmers (0.5 ha/household) who have only very limited access to mineral inputs. In the past, farmers have relied on fallow practices combined with farm yard manures to maintain and improve soil fertility. However, due to the high population growth and high population density (370/km²), fallow practices are nowadays no longer feasible, animal manures cannot be produced in sufficient quantities to maintain soil productivity and food insecurity has become a quasi permanent reality. Most Burundian soils are characterized by 1:1 types of clay minerals (kaolinite) and are acidic in nature. Such soils are of very low cation exchange capacity (CEC). To compare the effect of % clays and % organic matter (% C), correlations tests have been conducted between the two parameters and the CEC. It was found that in high altitude kaolinitic and acidic soils, CEC was highly correlated to % C and less correlated to % clay, suggesting that organic matter could play an important role in improving fertility and productivity of these soils. Based on these findings, additional studies have been conducted to evaluate the fertilizer and soil amendment values of animal manures (cattle, goat, chicken), and leguminous (Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Senna simea, Senna spectabilis) and non-leguminous (Tithonia diversifolia) foliar biomass. It was observed that chicken manure significantly reduces Al3+ levels in acidic soils, while Tithonia diversifolia outperforms in nutrient releases compared to the commonly known leguminous agroforestry shrubs and trees indicated above. Although the above mentioned organic sources can contribute to the soil nutrients supply, the quantities potentially available on farm are generally small. The only solution is to supplement these organic sources with other organic sources (compost, organic household waste), chemical fertilizers and mineral amendments (lime) to achieve Integrated Soil

  19. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.

  20. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  1. Effect of the species and the regrowth age on the fatty acid profile of tropical legumes and shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edwin Mojica-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available © 2017 Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria 465Corpoica Cienc Tecnol Agropecuaria, Mosquera (Colombia, 18(3:ISSNe 2500-5308 ISSN 0122-8706septiembre - diciembre / 2017septiembre - diciembre / 2017Efecto de la especie y la edad de rebrote en el perfil de ácidos grasos de leguminosas y arbustivas tropicalesAlimentación y nutrición animal463-477ResumoAvaliou-se o efeito de três idades de rebrotação (4, 8 e 12 semanas sobre a produção de forragem, qualidade nutricional e perfil de ácidos graxos em leguminosas herbáceas: Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides,Canavalia brasiliensis, Centrosema molle, Centrosema macrocarpum, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Lablab purpureus,leguminosas arbustivas: Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Desmodium velutinum, Cajanus cajan,Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae e uma arbustiva não leguminosa: Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae. Utilizou-se um desenho de parcelas divididas com blocos aleatoriamente em que a parcela principal foi a espécie forrageira e a subparcela foi a idade de rebrotação. Os principais ácidos graxos presentes nas espécies foram o ácido palmítico (C16:0, ácido linolênico (C18:3 e o linoleico (C18:2. No entanto, nas leguminosas herbáceas e arbustivas, o conteúdo de ácidos graxos foi diferente e diminuiu com a idade do rebrotação nos dois grupos. A relação C18:2/C18:3 foi maior nas leguminosas herbáceas do que nas arbustivas, o que poderia resultar em uma maior concentração de ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC na gordura do leite. A leguminosa Cajanus cajan apresentou o maior (p<0,05 conteúdo de ácido linolénico (C18:3 e de precursores de ALCnas três idades de rebrotação avaliadas, o que sugere que seu uso na alimentação de bovinos em sistemas de dupla aptidão resultaria em concentrações mais altas de ALC c9 t11 na gordura do leite em comparação com outras espécies.

  2. Soil bioengineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on the autochthonal plants suitable for these kinds of interventions and on the economic efficiency of the interventions is essential for the dissemination of such techniques. The present paper is focused on these two issues as related to the realization of various typologies of soil bioengineering works in the humid tropics of Nicaragua.

    In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bioengineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in these works, monitoring was performed, one on the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, by collecting data on survival rate and morphological parameters. Concerning economic efficiency, we proceeded to a financial analysis of the works. Once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount into EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the European one.

    Among the species used we found that Gliricidia sepium (local common name: Madero negro and Tabebuia rosea (local common name: Roble macuelizo are adequate for soil bioengineering measures on slopes, while Erythrina fusca (local common name: Helequeme resulted in successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection.

    In comparing costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for Nicaragua ranges from 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering to almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress

  3. Soil bio-engineering for risk mitigation and environmental restoration in a humid tropical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-07-01

    The use of soil bio-engineering techniques in developing countries is a relevant issue for disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of such techniques. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of soil bio-engineering works in the humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the Central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Conclusions are reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions performed on a

  4. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots. The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all (non-responsive (n=7. A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  5. Potential Nitrification and Nitrogen Mineral of Soil in Coffee Agroforestry System with Various Shading Trees

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    Purwanto .

    2007-05-01

    coffee agroforestry with Gliricidiareduced 56% potential nitrification but increased 19.3% of NH4+/N-mineral concentration. The low soil potential nitrification in the mixed coffee agroforestry had close relationship with the high content of soil organic matter. Key words : Nitrogen-mineral, nitrification, shading trees, agroforestry, Coffea canephora, nitrate, organic matter, intercropping,Gliricidia sepium, Arachis pintoi, Paraserianthes falcataria.

  6. Assessment and Comparison of salt Content in Mangrove Plants in Sri Lanka

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    N. P. Dissanayake

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the predicted threats of global warming and sea level rise, the salt tolerance and salt accumulative abilities of plants have become popular contentious topics. Mangroves are one of the major groups of salt tolerant plants and several mechanisms are known as instrumental in their salt tolerance. Salt excretion through leaf drop is given as one, but its validity is questioned by some recent works compelling the necessity for further studies. Knowledge of the salt contents in different mangrove plants is a pre requisite for such studies. Hence, this study aimed to quantify and compare the salt content in mature leaves of nine mangrove species in Sri Lanka., i.e. Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata which are growing in the same mangrove system; the Rekawa lagoon in Sri Lanka. Two species of non mangrove plants, Gliricidia sepium and Artocarpus heterophyllus, which were growing in inland areas were also selected for comparison. The concentration of Na+ in leaves was considered as a measure of the salt concentration. The Na+ in leaves was extracted by acid digestion and quantified by flame photometry. The salt content of mangroves was measured under two contrasting hydrological situations: at the highest and lowest water levels of the lagoon. Rekawa lagoon can be considered as a ‘barrier built estuary’, the highest water level occurs when the lagoon mouth is blocked due to the formation of the sand bar and the water level is increased by fresh water inflow, inundating the total mangrove area and decreasing the soil/water salinity. The water level of the lagoon becomes lowest when the lagoon mouth is opened (naturally or by dredging and lagoon water is flushed out to the sea. Then the salinity of lagoon water becomes high due to sea water influx. The results showed

  7. Drought effects on soil COcacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive") to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all ("non-responsive") (n=7). The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22). A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1.

  8. Nitrogen doses and weed control via intercropping with gliricidia for corn production Doses de nitrogênio e controle de plantas daninhas, através da consorciação com gliricídia, para produção de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated the beneficial influence of nitrogen doses on corn dry grain yield and green ear yield. Due to a growing concern with environmental degradation, many agricultural practices, adopted in the past, are being reexamined. With regard to weed control, strategies that employ mechanical control, including intercrops, are being the object of renewed interest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg N ha-1; as ammonium sulfate and weed control on the growth, green ear yield, and grain yield of the AG 1051 corn cultivar. A randomized block experimental design with split-plots and nine replications was adopted. In addition to nitrogen rates, the AG 1051 cultivar was submitted to the following treatments, applied to subplots: no weeding, two hoeings (at 20 and 40 days after sowing, and intercropping with gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium. Gliricidia was sowed at corn planting, between the corn rows, using two seedlings per pit, in pits spaced 0.30 m apart. Gliricidia did not provide weed control, and gave plant growth, green ear yield and grain yield values similar to the no weeding treatment. However, regarding the number of mature ears got, intercropping with gliricidia did not differ from the two-hoeing treatment. Weed control did not have an effect on plant height and number of marketable, husked green ears, with the application of 120 kg N ha-1; indicating that nitrogen improved the corn's competitive ability. The two-hoeing treatment provided the best means for total green ears weight, number of marketable husked ears, both unhusked and husked marketable ear weight, grain yield and its components than the other treatments. Nitrogen application increased corn growth, green ear yield, and grain yield, as well as weed green biomass, but reduced the stand and growth of gliricidia.Muitos estudos demonstraram a influência benéfica da aplicação de doses

  9. Produção de serapilheira em sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil Litter production in multistrata agroforestry system in Rondônia State, Brazil

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    Fernando Luíz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de serapilheira em diferentes coberturas frutíferas e florestais componentes de um sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado localizado no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram: mangueira (Mangifera indica L., fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, abacateiro (Persea americana Mill., cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. sombreado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. e as espécies florestais, a bandarra (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke e a teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. Como referência foi utilizada uma área de vegetação natural (capoeira, de 8 anos de idade. A deposição anual de serapilheira entre o período de outubro de 2002 e setembro de 2003 foi de 13,38 t ha-1 para a vegetação natural, 4,02 t ha-1 para bandarra, 3,43 t ha-1 para gliricídia, 2,86 t ha-1para abacateiro, 2,54 t ha-1 para fruta-pão, 1,40 t ha-1 para o cupuaçuzeiro, 1,16 t ha-1 para o cacaueiro, 1,12 t ha-1 para mangueira e 1,07 t ha-1 para a teca. A vegetação natural, a bandarra e o cacaueiro apresentaram uma maior deposição no período seco (verão, enquanto que a fruta-pão, cupuaçuzeiro, mangueira, teca, gliricídia e abacateiro as maiores deposições foram no período chuvoso (inverno. Por outro lado a serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo foi de 14,61 t ha-1 na mangueira, 12,8 t ha-1 na bandarra, 12,73 t ha-1 na vegetação natural, 12,04 t ha-1, no abacateiro, 9,87 t ha-1 no cacaueiro/gliricídia, 9,88 t ha-1 no cupuaçuzeiro, 9,05 t ha-1 na fruta-pão e 7,39 t ha-1 na teca.One study was made to evaluate litter production in different fruitful coverings and forest components of a multistrata agroforestry system located in Ouro Preto do Oeste district (RO, Brazil. The studied species were: mango tree (Mangifera indica L., breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuassu tree (Theobroma

  10. Planting density of gliricidia when intercropped with corn for weed control Densidade de plantio da gliricídia em consórcio com milho, para controlar plantas daninhas

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    E.L.R Linhares

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced use of herbicides that cause environmental pollution problems is of great interest in modern agriculture. Soil mulching with gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium branches does not have an allelopathic effect on corn, but decreases weed populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of gliricidia planting density, when grown as an intercrop, on weed control and corn yield parameters. A randomized block design with split-plots and ten replicates was adopted. Corn cultivars AG 1051 and BM 3061 were grown without hoeing, with two hoes (at 24 and 44 days after planting, and intercropped with gliricidia (planted simultaneously with corn, between crop rows, using two seedlings/pit, spaced at 30, 40, or 50 cm. Twenty-one weed species were found in the experimental area. Increased gliricidia planting density reduced weed biomass, but no difference was found between weed biomass in the intercrop and weed biomass in non-hoed corn. Gliricidia intercropped with corn, planted at a row spacing of 30 cm, did not significantly differ from hoed corn in most characteristics considered to evaluate green corn yield, although mean values were smaller. As to the number and weight of marketable green ears, reductions of 5% and 13%, respectively, were observed. Intercropping caused a 17% reduction in grain yield, reducing the losses (36% observed in non-hoed corn by more than 50%. The highest green ear yield and grain yield values were obtained with two hoeings, while the lowest values were observed for non-hoed corn. The cultivars did not differ regarding green ear yield and grain yield.A redução do uso de herbicidas, em razão dos problemas de poluição ambiental, é de grande interesse da agricultura moderna. A cobertura do solo com ramos de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium não tem efeito alelopático no milho, mas diminui a população de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da densidade de plantio da gliric

  11. Aporte de nutrientes pela serapilheira em uma área degradada e revegetada com leguminosas arbóreas Nutrient input through litter in a degraded area revegetated with legume trees

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    G. S. Costa

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o aporte de nutrientes pela deposição de serapilheira em uma área degradada, que sofreu empréstimo de solo, após dez anos da sua revegetação com as leguminosas arbóreas: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá, Acacia auriculiformis (acácia e Gliricidia sepium (gliricídia; e outra área vizinha, um fragmento da mata Atlântica em crescimento secundário (capoeira. O trabalho foi realizado no campo experimental da Embrapa-Agrobiologia, Km 47, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. Na amostragem, utilizaram-se coletores circulares do material formador da serapilheira com área de 0,25 m², determinando-se os teores de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca e Mg e polifenóis. A quantidade de serapilheira depositada foi influenciada pelas espécies de leguminosas utilizadas na revegetação, variando de 5,7 Mg ha -1 ano-1 de matéria seca (MS, onde predominava gliricídia, até 11,2 Mg ha-1 ano-1 , na faixa formada pela sabiá com contribuição do material de acácia. A deposição na capoeira foi de 9,2 Mg ha-1 ano-1 de MS. O material de gliricídia foi o mais rico em nutrientes (N, P, Ca e Mg e o que apresentou os menores teores de polifenóis; qualitativamente formou a serapilheira mais favorável ao processo de decomposição. O aporte de nutrientes correlacionou-se com a quantidade de serapilheira depositada. Na revegetação, o aporte anual de nutrientes, em kg ha-1 ano-1 , variou: para o N, de 130 a 170; para o P, de 4,9 a 7,9; para K, de 24 a 31; para o Ca, de 150 a 190, e para o Mg, de 28,6 a 40,0. Estes valores foram similares ou superiores aos observados para a capoeira, que foram para o N, 140, para o P, 4,9, para o Ca, 110, e para o Mg, 31,7, exceto para o K, 63. A revegetação com leguminosas, em áreas degradadas, adiciona, relativamente, em pouco tempo, grande quantidade de matéria orgânica e N por meio da produção de serapilheira, favorecendo a ciclagem de nutrientes e o processo de recuperação.The aim of

  12. Weed control via intercropping with gliricidia: II. corn crop Controle de plantas daninhas por meio da consorciação com gliricídia: II. cultura do milho

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    P.S.L. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in herbicide use is one of modern agriculture's main interests and several alternatives are being investigated with this objective, including intercropping. Gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium mulch has no allelopathic effect on corn or beans but significantly decreased the population of some weed species. The objective of this study was to evaluate green ear and grain yield in corn cultivars as a response to weed control achieved via intercropping with gliricidia. A completely randomized block design with five replicates and split-plots was used. Cultivars AG 1051, AG 2060, BRS 2020, and PL 6880 (assigned to plots were submitted to the following treatments: no hoeing, hoeing (performed at 20 and 40 days after sowing the corn, and corn intercropped with gliricidia. Gliricidia was grown in a transplanting system to ensure uniform germination and fast establishment in the field. Seeding was made in 200-cell trays with one seed per cell (35 mL volume. The plants emerged two to three days after sowing and were transplanted to a permanent site two to three days after emergence. Corn was sown on the same day gliricidia was transplanted. Sixteen weed species occurred at different frequencies, with uneven distribution in the experimental area. Cultivars AG 1051 and AG 2060 were the best with reference to most characteristics employed to evaluate green corn yield. Cultivar AG 1051 provided the highest grain yield. The highest green ear yield and grain yield values were obtained with hoeing. However, the fact that intercropped plots showed intermediate yield between the values obtained for hoed and non-hoed plots indicates that gliricidia was beneficial to corn, and exerted a certain level of weed control.Um dos principais interesses da agricultura moderna é a redução no uso de herbicidas; para isso, diversas alternativas estão sendo investigadas, inclusive a consorciação. A cobertura do solo com ramos de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium n

  13. Avaliação de coberturas mortas em cultura de alface sob manejo orgânico Evaluation of mulches on organically grown lettuce

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    Fabio F de Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura morta do solo com leguminosas e gramíneas é uma prática cultural que traz benefícios aos sistemas de produção. Foi conduzido um experimento no município de Seropédica, estado do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de cobertura morta sobre a reinfestação de ervas espontâneas e sobre o desempenho agronômico de alface, em cultivo orgânico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas de oito plantas na área útil. Os tratamentos foram: bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., bambu (Bambuza sp., capim Cameroon (Penisetum purpureum, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, eritrina (Erythrina poeppigiana, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, guandu (Cajanus cajan, mucuna cinza (Mucuna pruriens e controle (sem cobertura dos canteiros. Estimou-se a decomposição in situ e a liberação de nitrogênio de cada cobertura morta. Foram avaliados dois ciclos consecutivos de alface, cultivar Regina, na mesma área, visando a comparar o efeito residual das coberturas mortas. Observou-se maior acúmulo de N nos resíduos vegetais das leguminosas (máximo de 1.010 kg ha-1 com mucuna-cinza. Em relação à decomposição da cobertura morta, avaliada na colheita do primeiro ciclo de alface (35 dias após o transplante, as leguminosas apresentaram percentuais inferiores aos das gramíneas de massa seca e N remanescentes. A reinfestação dos canteiros pelas ervas espontâneas não diferiu significativamente entre coberturas mortas, variando entre 31 e 58 plantas m-2, mas a redução da densidade populacional da vegetação reinfestante chegou a 83% em comparação ao tratamento controle. Em ambos os ciclos de cultivo da alface, a massa fresca (de 315,8 a 366,0 e de 202,9 a 225,0 g planta-1, respectivamente nos primeiro e segundo ciclos, o diâmetro da cabeça (de 30,8 a 31,7 e de 25,5 a 28,5 cm e o teor de N (de 32,3 a 38,8 e de 28,0 a 30,3 g kg-1 foram superiores

  14. Survey of Associations among Soil Properties and Climatic Factors on Weed Distribution in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kermanshah Province

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    Mozhgan veisi

    2016-11-01

    of different districts by rows. Data on weed communities and environmental factors of all districts were analyzed through with ordination methods like canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and weed species distribution and environmental factors displayed in ordination diagrams. These ordination methods were done with mean density of 29 abundant weed species for CCA using CANOCO (Version 4.5. Ordination plots were produced for both sampling sites and weed species associated with environmental factors. For CCA, we used site elevation, humidity for 10 years period, daily raining for a 10 years period. Soil characteristic included calcium, phosphor, potassium, nitrogen, sodium, magnesium, pH were determined. Sand, clay and silt in soils were measured and elevation of each field was gained by GPS. Results and discussion 162 weed species belonging to 33 plant families were identified in these fields. Multivariate analyses with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that changes in the weed species distribution were due to soil characters (pH, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Sodium, Potassium, silt percent, clay and loam in soil tissue, cation exchange capacity, EC and environmental conditions during former years. The first and second RDA axes described 64% of variations in the weed populations affected by climatic factors. Winter wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L., ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud., wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and canary seed (Phalaris brachystacys Link. in areas of high temperature and low altitude, had a wide distribution. High evaporation increased wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch., Corn cleavers (Galium tricornutum Dandy. and Vetch (Vicia assyriaca Boiss. density during last decade. Where the soil nitrogen and phosphorus rates were high, Wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch. density was found frequently in wheat fields of Kermanshah. In the wheat fields of Kermanshah, Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and wild safflower

  15. Surficial geology of the lower Comb Wash, San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Claire I.

    2001-01-01

    . Most precipitation is monsoonal, convective storms that bring moisture from the Gulf of Mexico beginning in early July and ending by October. Large frontal storms during December and January are responsible for most winter precipitation (Figure 2). The record from U.S. Geological Survey gauging station number 09379000 operated by the BLM from 1959 through 1968 indicates that Comb Wash flows in direct response to precipitation events. Most daily discharge and peak events occur in late July through September, coinciding with high intensity monsoon thunderstorms. Comb Wash supports a variety of vegetation typical of the Great Basin Desert and the northern desert shrub zone as described by Fowler and Koch (1982). On the lower alluvial terraces, bushes and shrubs dominate the vegetation, including: sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens), winterfat (Eurotia lanata), greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus), and shadscale (Atriplex concertifolia). Juniper trees (Juniperus osteosperma) can be found on the rocky colluvial slopes near Comb Ridge and on the higher terrace near Cedar Mesa. The floodplain contains an abundance of riparian vegetation including cottonwood (Populus fremontii), willow (Salix exigua), and tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). Tamarisk is one of 7 non-native species present in the lower Comb Wash watershed. At least seven known species of noxious weeds have invaded the watershed, including Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), field bindweed (Convolvulus avensis), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens), tamarisk and camel thorn (Alhagi pseudalhagi). Of these, tamarisk or salt-cedar has most aggressively colonized the southwestern United States, including the San Juan watershed. Graf (1978) estimates that since the late 19th century, tamarisk has spread at a rate of 20 km per year. Tamarisk first appeared in Comb Wash during the mid to early 20th century based on

  16. Suplementación con bloques de melaza-urea en dietas a base de forrajes en la alimentación de conejos

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    Quintero de Vallejo Victoria E.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the first experiment, 27 White New Zealand rabbits, 35 days old, were used within a completely randomized design in a 2 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Animals were allocated in two-story wire battery cages with waterers, forage feeders and block-feeders. There were significant differences (p < .05 for dry matter consumption among treatments, having the greatest consumption commercial feed (CC : 5440 g. There were no differences for forages consumption, either for urea level but there were differences due to rice bran consumption (3132 g v.s, 3390 g. There were significant differences (p< .01 for daily weight gain among treatments, being greater for CC (35.9, for forages was better Trichantera gigantea (17.85 and for rice bran was better to add it (20.8, for urea was better without it. In feed efficiency there were significant differences (p < .05 among treatments, being better for CC (3.1, for forages was better Trichantera gigantea (4.5, for rice bran was better to use it (4.02. The best net benefit was for Trichantera gigantea and rice bran ($ 2119. In the second experiment, 20 rabbits were used within a random experimental design There were highly significant differences (p<.01 among treatments for dry matter consumption, being greater for CC (5877 g; for forage consumption was better Trichantera gigantea + block (4277 g. In daily weight gain there were also significant differences (p< .01 among treatments, being better the CC treatment (28g/d; in forages, Trichantera gigantea + block treatment was better (19.5 g/d, Net income was greater for Q. sepium + block treatment ($1298.7.

    En el primer experimento se emplearon 27 conejos de la raza Nueva Zelanda blancos con edad de 35 días y un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial de 2x2x2+1. Los animales se alojaron en baterías de dos pisos dotadas de pasteras, bebederos y porta bloques. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 005 en consumo de materia seca entre tratamientos

  17. Weed control via intercropping with gliricidia: I. cotton crop Controle de plantas daninhas por meio da consorciação com gliricídia: I. cultura do algodoeiro

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    P.S.L. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of cotton grown commercially in the world has white lint, but recently, there has been a growing interest in colored lint cotton in several countries, including Brazil. The use of naturally-colored fiber reduces chemical pollution. The objective of this paper was to evaluate cotton cultivar fiber yield in response to weed control via intercropping with gliricídia. Cultivars BRS-Verde (greenish fibers, BRS-Rubi (reddish brown fibers, BRS-Safira (brown fibers, and BRS-187 8H (white fibers were submitted to the following treatments: no hoeing, two hoeings (at 20 and 40 days after transplanting, and cotton intercropped with gliricídia. In the intercropped treatment, gliricídia was planted between rows of cotton plants, using one seedling pit-1, in pits spaced 50.0 cm apart. Twelve weed species predominated in the experiment, many of them belonging to the Poaceae family. Weeds occurred at different frequencies and in a non-uniform manner in the experimental area. Cultivars did not influence weed dry matter. Intercropping with gliricídia reduced weed dry matter but did not prevent reductions in cotton fiber and seed cotton yield, which were higher in hoed plots. Cultivar BRS Safira had the highest fiber yield, but no differences were observed between cultivars regarding to seed cotton yield.A grande maioria do algodoeiro cultivado comercialmente no mundo possui fibra branca, porém atualmente existe crescente interesse em diversos países, inclusive no Brasil, pelo algodão de fibra colorida. O uso de fibras naturalmente coloridas reduz a poluição química, por dispensar o uso de corantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de fibras de cultivares de algodoeiro em resposta ao controle de plantas daninhas por meio da consorciação com a gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium. Os cultivares BRS-Verde (fibras esverdeadas, BRS-Rubi (fibras marrons avermelhadas, BRS-Safira (fibras amarronzadas e BRS-187 8H (fibras brancas foram

  18. Drought effects on soil carbon dioxide production in two ecosystems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver

    2010-05-01

    Drought response on soil CO2 production dynamics were examined in two tropical ecosystems in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Large-scale throughfall displacement roofs were built in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) / Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantation (560 m.a.s.l.) and in a sub-montane tropical rainforest (1050 m.a.s.l.) to simulate drought conditions. At each site, ecosystem drought responses from three roof plots were compared to three undisturbed control plots. Soil CO2 production was measured spatially at the soil surface and vertically within the soil profile to 2.5 m depth every two weeks. 1. The cacao / Gliricidia ecosystem exhibited a mild drought response. Here, soil CO2 production decreased by 13% in comparison to the control plots during the 13 month induced drought. The mild drought response is attributed to two reasons. First, soil CO2 efflux exhibited an inverse parabolic relationship with soil moisture (R2 = 0.32): soil CO2 efflux peaked at intermediate moisture conditions, but was low when soil conditions became dry (in the induced drought plots), and when the soil became water saturated (in the control plots). This means that respiration differences between control and roof plots may have been masked when soil moisture conditions were saturated in the control and concurrently dry in roof plots. Secondly, the shallow rooted cacao understory grown next to the deeper rooted Gliricidia overstory created a favourable set of site conditions that enabled the ecosystem to mitigate serious drought stress. The experiment had a CO2 neutral effect overall: emissions were initially reduced during the induced drought period but rebounded and surpassed the control during the five month rewetting phase, thus compensating for earlier declines. 2. In contrast, the sub-montane tropical rainforest experienced a severe decrease in soil CO2 production. Here, soil CO2 efflux decreased by an average of 39% in comparison to the control during the 24 month induced drought

  19. Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos na região central de Rondônia Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in central region of Rondônia state, Northern Brazil

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    Sandro Vargas Schons

    2012-07-01

    ância das intoxicações por plantas na região Norte do Brasil.A survey about the presence of toxic plants and the occurrence of outbreaks of poisoning in ruminants and equidae was performed in 12 municipalities of the central region of the state of Rondônia. Ninety eight persons were interviewed, including farmers, veterinary practitioners, agronomists, and agrarian technicians. Thirty four farmers reported poisoning by toxic plants, including poisoning by Palicourea marcgravii (12 outbreaks, Palicourea grandiflora and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (seven outbreaks each, and Palicourea juruana, Brachiaria radicans, Brachiaria brizantha, and Manihot esculenta (two outbreaks each. In sheep, farmers reported two outbreaks of photosensitization caused by Brachiaria decumbens and one outbreak of sudden death caused by Palicourea grandiflora. In the 34 outbreaks, 374 (8,9% bovines were affected and 311 (7.4% died, from a total of 4.192 cattle exposed. In the three outbreaks in sheep, 28 animals were affected and 20 died out of 250 exposed. Amorimia sp., previously misidentified as Mascagnia sepium, a previously unreported toxic plant, was identified as a cause of sudden death in sheep and cattle in 32% of the farms. Fifteen outbreaks of colic in horses grazing Panicum maximum (cultivars 'Massai', 'Tanzânia', and 'Mombaça' during the rainy season were also reported. It is concluded that poisoning by toxic plants is an important cause of economic losses in livestock in the region studied. With the results of this research the number of known toxic plant for ruminants in central region of Rondônia increased from one to nine, indicating that more research is necessary for the knowledge of poisonous plants for livestock in the Brazilian Amazonic region.

  20. Notas sobre la flora de Colombia y países vecinos, II

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    Dugand Armando

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el segundo de una serie iniciada hace dos años en Phytologia (Vol. 13, No 6: 379-400. Sept. 1966, relativa en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la llanura costera del Caribe en Colombia y regiones vecinas, particularmente el norte de Venezuela. En él se hacen observaciones taxonómicas, morfológicas, distribucionales y otras varias acerca de las siguientes plantas: A.   - Especies que se señalan por primer a vez en la flora de Colombia: Aizoaceae.                           Sesuvium. edmonstonei Hook. f.                                                Sesuvium microphyllum Willd. Amaranthaceae.                 Froelichia interrupta (L. Moq. Cactaceae.                           Borzicactus sepium. (Kth. Britt. & Rose. Chenopodiaceae.               Atriplex pentandra (Jacq. Standl.                                                Heterostachys ritteriana (Moq. Ung.-Sternb. Compositae.                        Oxycarpha suedifolia Blake. Cruciferae.                           Cakile lanceolata (Willd. Schulz. Cyperaceae.                        Cyperus uncinulatus Schrad. Euphorbiaceae.                   *Chamaesyce bahiensis (Kl. & Gke. Dugand & Burch.                                                            ∆Chamaesyce dioica (Kth. Millsp. Leguminosae-Faboideae. Aeschynomene viscidula Michx.                                                Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. DC.                                                Crotalaria pumila Gómez-Ortega.