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Sample records for binds phosphatase pp2a

  1. Direct binding between BubR1 and B56-PP2A phosphatase complexes regulate mitotic progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Zhang, Gang; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo;

    2013-01-01

    and mutation of these residues prevents the establishment of a proper metaphase plate and delays cells in mitosis. Furthermore, we show that phosphorylation of S670 and S676 stimulates the binding of B56 to BubR1 and that BubR1 targets a pool of B56 to kinetochores. Our data suggests that BubR1...

  2. Protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A binds within the oligomerization domain of striatin and regulates the phosphorylation and activation of the mammalian Ste20-Like kinase Mst3

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    Jones Candace A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striatin, a putative protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A B-type regulatory subunit, is a multi-domain scaffolding protein that has recently been linked to several diseases including cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM, which causes symptoms ranging from headaches to stroke. Striatin association with the PP2A A/C (structural subunit/catalytic subunit heterodimer alters PP2A substrate specificity, but targets and roles of striatin-associated PP2A are not known. In addition to binding the PP2A A/C heterodimer to form a PP2A holoenzyme, striatin associates with cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3 protein, the mammalian Mps one binder (MOB homolog, Mob3/phocein, the mammalian sterile 20-like (Mst kinases, Mst3, Mst4 and STK25, and several other proteins to form a large signaling complex. Little is known about the molecular architecture of the striatin complex and the regulation of these sterile 20-like kinases. Results To help define the molecular organization of striatin complexes and to determine whether Mst3 might be negatively regulated by striatin-associated PP2A, a structure-function analysis of striatin was performed. Two distinct regions of striatin are capable of stably binding directly or indirectly to Mob3--one N-terminal, including the coiled-coil domain, and another more C-terminal, including the WD-repeat domain. In addition, striatin residues 191-344 contain determinants necessary for efficient association of Mst3, Mst4, and CCM3. PP2A associates with the coiled-coil domain of striatin, but unlike Mob3 and Mst3, its binding appears to require striatin oligomerization. Deletion of the caveolin-binding domain on striatin abolishes striatin family oligomerization and PP2A binding. Point mutations in striatin that disrupt PP2A association cause hyperphosphorylation and activation of striatin-associated Mst3. Conclusions Striatin orchestrates the regulation of Mst3 by PP2A. It binds Mst3 likely as a dimer with CCM3 via

  3. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates interleukin-4-mediated STAT6 signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Brockdorff, Johannes; Lovato, Paola;

    2002-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) plays a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of allergy by promoting Th2 differentiation and B cell isotype switching to IgE. Studies on STAT6-deficient mice have demonstrated the essential role of STAT6 in mediating the biological functions of IL-4. IL-4 induces...... of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) induces serine phosphorylation of STAT6 and severely inhibits DNA binding of STAT6. In contrast, IL-4-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase-1 and STAT6 is not affected, suggesting that PP2A acts downstream of Janus kinases in IL-4 signaling. In conclusion, we...

  4. Fcp1 phosphatase controls Greatwall kinase to promote PP2A-B55 activation and mitotic progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Monica, Rosa; Visconti, Roberta; Cervone, Nando; Serpico, Angela Flavia; Grieco, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    During cell division, progression through mitosis is driven by a protein phosphorylation wave. This wave namely depends on an activation-inactivation cycle of cyclin B-dependent kinase (Cdk) 1 while activities of major protein phosphatases, like PP1 and PP2A, appear directly or indirectly repressed by Cdk1. However, how Cdk1 inactivation is coordinated with reactivation of major phosphatases at mitosis exit still lacks substantial knowledge. We show here that activation of PP2A-B55, a major mitosis exit phosphatase, required the phosphatase Fcp1 downstream Cdk1 inactivation in human cells. During mitosis exit, Fcp1 bound Greatwall (Gwl), a Cdk1-stimulated kinase that phosphorylates Ensa/ARPP19 and converts these proteins into potent PP2A-B55 inhibitors during mitosis onset, and dephosphorylated it at Cdk1 phosphorylation sites. Fcp1-catalyzed dephosphorylation drastically reduced Gwl kinase activity towards Ensa/ARPP19 promoting PP2A-B55 activation. Thus, Fcp1 coordinates Cdk1 and Gwl inactivation to derepress PP2A-B55, generating a dephosphorylation switch that drives mitosis progression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10399.001 PMID:26653855

  5. Protein phosphatases PP2A, PP4 and PP6: mediators and regulators in development and responses to environmental cues.

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    Lillo, Cathrine; Kataya, Amr R A; Heidari, Behzad; Creighton, Maria T; Nemie-Feyissa, Dugassa; Ginbot, Zekarias; Jonassen, Else M

    2014-12-01

    The three closely related groups of serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP2A, PP4 and PP6 are conserved throughout eukaryotes. The catalytic subunits are present in trimeric and dimeric complexes with scaffolding and regulatory subunits that control activity and confer substrate specificity to the protein phosphatases. In Arabidopsis, three scaffolding (A subunits) and 17 regulatory (B subunits) proteins form complexes with five PP2A catalytic subunits giving up to 255 possible combinations. Three SAP-domain proteins act as regulatory subunits of PP6. Based on sequence similarities with proteins in yeast and mammals, two putative PP4 regulatory subunits are recognized in Arabidopsis. Recent breakthroughs have been made concerning the functions of some of the PP2A and PP6 regulatory subunits, for example the FASS/TON2 in regulation of the cellular skeleton, B' subunits in brassinosteroid signalling and SAL proteins in regulation of auxin transport. Reverse genetics is starting to reveal also many more physiological functions of other subunits. A system with key regulatory proteins (TAP46, TIP41, PTPA, LCMT1, PME-1) is present in all eukaryotes to stabilize, activate and inactivate the catalytic subunits. In this review, we present the status of knowledge concerning physiological functions of PP2A, PP4 and PP6 in Arabidopsis, and relate these to yeast and mammals. PMID:24810976

  6. PP2A1 binding, cell transducing and apoptotic properties of Vpr(77-92: a new functional domain of HIV-1 Vpr proteins.

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    Angélique N Godet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis is the progressive CD4(+ T cell depletion and high propensity of CD4(+ T cells to apoptosis. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr is a major pro-apoptotic gene product. A first Vpr-mediated apoptotic mechanism that requires a physical interaction of HIV-1 Vpr(71-82 mitochondriotoxic domain containing the conserved sequence (71-HFRIGCRHSRIG(-82 with the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator (ANT has been characterized. The family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PP2A interacts with several viral proteins to regulate cell growth and apoptotic pathways. Previous studies based on yeast two hybrid assays and mutational experiments indicated that PP2A(1 is involved in the induction of G2 arrest by HIV-1 Vpr. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments combining pull-down, cell penetration and apoptosis analyses in distinct human cells indicate that the PP2A(1 binding sequence from Vpr(77-92 is a new cell penetrating apoptotic sequence. We also found that the I84P mutation or the IIQ/VTR(83-85 and T89A substitutions in the Vpr(77-92 sequence prevent PP2A(1 binding, cell penetration and apoptosis. In addition the double R77A and R80A mutation known to inactivate the mitochondriotoxic Vpr(71-82 domain, has no effect on the biological properties of the Vpr(77-92 domain. CONCLUSION: Together our data provide evidence for the first time that the Vpr(77-92 sequence delineates a biological active domain of Vpr with PP2A(1 binding and pro-apoptotic capacities and, it is conceivable that this cell penetrating sequence may account for the Vpr internalization in uninfected cells. Finally, our data also implicate the existence of two partially overlapping pro-apoptotic domains in the Vpr C-terminal part, a redundancy that represents a new approach to address the question of biological relevance of HIV-1 Vpr. In this context, future studies will be required to determine the functional relevance of the Vpr(77-92 domain in full length Vpr protein and

  7. Probing protein phosphatase substrate binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlys-Larsen, Kim B.; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and high throughput analysis for systems biology can benefit significantly from solid-phase chemical tools for affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures. Here we report the application of solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides for pull-down and analysis of the affinity...... profile of the integrin-linked kinase associated phosphatase (ILKAP), a member of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family. Phosphatases can potentially dephosphorylate these phosphopeptide substrates but, interestingly, performing the binding studies at 4 °C allowed efficient binding to phosphopeptides......, without the need for phosphopeptide mimics or phosphatase inhibitors. As no proven ILKAP substrates were available, we selected phosphopeptide substrates among known PP2Cδ substrates including the protein kinases: p38, ATM, Chk1, Chk2 and RSK2 and synthesized directly on PEGA solid supports through a BAL...

  8. PP2A: The Wolf in Sheep’s Clothing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Maeve [Department of Life Sciences, and Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland); Kiely, Patrick A., E-mail: Patrick.Kiely@ul.ie [Department of Life Sciences, and Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick 78666 (Ireland); Stokes Institute, University of Limerick 78666, Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-04-13

    Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase in cells. It consists of a catalytic subunit (C), a structural subunit (A), and a regulatory/variable B-type subunit. PP2A has a critical role to play in homeostasis where its predominant function is as a phosphatase that regulates the major cell signaling pathways in cells. Changes in the assembly, activity and substrate specificity of the PP2A holoenzyme have a direct role in disease and are a major contributor to the maintenance of the transformed phenotype in cancer. We have learned a lot about how PP2A functions from specific mutations that disrupt the core assembly of PP2A and from viral proteins that target PP2A and inhibit its effect as a phosphatase. This prompted various studies revealing that restoration of PP2A activity benefits some cancer patients. However, our understanding of the mechanism of action of this is limited because of the complex nature of PP2A holoenzyme assembly and because it acts through a wide variety of signaling pathways. Information on PP2A is also conflicting as there are situations whereby inactivation of PP2A induces apoptosis in many cancer cells. In this review we discuss this relationship and we also address many of the pertinent and topical questions that relate to novel therapeutic strategies aimed at altering PP2A activity.

  9. The Aurora kinase Ipl1 maintains the centromeric localization of PP2A to protect cohesin during meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hong-Guo; Koshland, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Homologue segregation during the first meiotic division requires the proper spatial regulation of sister chromatid cohesion and its dissolution along chromosome arms, but its protection at centromeric regions. This protection requires the conserved MEI-S332/Sgo1 proteins that localize to centromeric regions and also recruit the PP2A phosphatase by binding its regulatory subunit, Rts1. Centromeric Rts1/PP2A then locally prevents cohesion dissolution possibly by dephosphorylating the protein co...

  10. PP2A targets SAS-5 in centriole assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Megraw, Tim

    2011-01-01

    In this issue of Developmental Cell, a pair of papers from the Gönczy and O’Connell labs show that the protein phosphatase PP2A regulates SAS-5 to control centriole duplication. Two paradigms are presented to explain how PP2A regulates SAS-5.

  11. Mitotic exit: Determining the PP2A dephosphorylation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gislene; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-08-29

    In mitotic exit, proteins that were highly phosphorylated are sequentially targeted by the phosphatase PP2A-B55, but what underlies substrate selection is unclear. In this issue, Cundell et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606033) identify the determinants of PP2A-B55's dephosphorylation program, thereby influencing spindle disassembly, nuclear envelope reformation, and cytokinesis. PMID:27551057

  12. Circumventing Cellular Control of PP2A by Methylation Promotes Transformation in an Akt-Dependent Manner

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    Jennifer B. Jackson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A consists of catalytic C (PP2Ac, structural A, and regulatory B-type subunits, and its dysfunction has been linked to cancer. Reversible methylation of PP2Ac by leucine carboxyl methyltransferase 1 (LCMT-1 and protein phosphatase methylesterase 1 (PME-1 differentially regulates B-type subunit binding and thus PP2A function. Polyomavirus middle (PyMT and small (PyST tumor antigens and SV40 small tumor antigen (SVST are oncoproteins that block PP2A function by replacing certain B-type subunits, resulting in cellular transformation. Whereas the B-type subunits replaced by these oncoproteins seem to exhibit a binding preference for methylated PP2Ac, PyMT does not. We hypothesize that circumventing the normal cellular control of PP2A by PP2Ac methylation is a general strategy for ST- and MT-mediated transformation. Two predictions of this hypothesis are (1 that PyST and SVST also bind PP2A in a methylation-insensitive manner and (2 that down-regulation of PP2Ac methylation will activate progrowth and prosurvival signaling and promote transformation. We found that SVST and PyST, like PyMT, indeed form PP2A heterotrimers independently of PP2Ac methylation. In addition, reducing PP2Ac methylation through LCMT-1 knockdown or PME-1 overexpression enhanced transformation by activating the Akt and p70/p85 S6 kinase (S6K pathways, pathways also activated by MT and ST oncoproteins. These results support the hypothesis that MT and ST oncoproteins circumvent cellular control of PP2A by methylation to promote transformation. They also implicate LCMT-1 as a negative regulator of Akt and p70/p85 S6K. Therefore, disruption of PP2Ac methylation may contribute to cancer, and modulation of this methylation may serve as an anticancer target.

  13. The tumor suppressor PP2A Aβ regulates the RalA GTPase

    OpenAIRE

    Sablina, Anna A; Chen, Wen; Arroyo, Jason D; Corral, Laura; Hector, Melissa; Bulmer, Sara E; DeCaprio, James A.; Hahn, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme family that regulates numerous signaling pathways. Biallelic mutations of the structural PP2A Aβ subunit occur in several types of human tumors; however, the functional consequences of these cancer-associated PP2A Aβ mutations in cell transformation remain undefined. Here we show that suppression of PP2A Aβ expression permits immortalized human cells to achieve a tumorigenic state. Cancer-associated Aβ mutants fail ...

  14. The dependence receptor UNC5H2/B triggers apoptosis via PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of DAP kinase.

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    Guenebeaud, Céline; Goldschneider, David; Castets, Marie; Guix, Catherine; Chazot, Guillaume; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital; Shohat, Galit; Zhang, Mingjie; Laudet, Vincent; Kimchi, Adi; Bernet, Agnès; Mehlen, Patrick

    2010-12-22

    The UNC5H dependence receptors promote apoptosis in the absence of their ligand, netrin-1, and this is important for neuronal and vascular development and for limitation of cancer progression. UNC5H2 (also called UNC5B) triggers cell death through the activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase DAPk. While performing a siRNA screen to identify genes implicated in UNC5H-induced apoptosis, we identified the structural subunit PR65β of the holoenzyme protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). We show that UNC5H2/B recruits a protein complex that includes PR65β and DAPk and retains PP2A activity. PP2A activity is required for UNC5H2/B-induced apoptosis, since it activates DAPk by triggering its dephosphorylation. Moreover, netrin-1 binding to UNC5H2/B prevents this effect through interaction of the PP2A inhibitor CIP2A to UNC5H2/B. Thus we show here that, in the absence of netrin-1, recruitment of PP2A to UNC5H2/B allows the activation of DAPk via a PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation and that this mechanism is involved in angiogenesis regulation. PMID:21172653

  15. B′-protein phosphatase 2A is a functional binding partner of delta-retroviral integrase

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    Maertens, Goedele N.

    2016-01-01

    To establish infection, a retrovirus must insert a DNA copy of its RNA genome into host chromatin. This reaction is catalysed by the virally encoded enzyme integrase (IN) and is facilitated by viral genus-specific host factors. Herein, cellular serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is identified as a functional IN binding partner exclusive to δ-retroviruses, including human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) and bovine leukaemia virus (BLV). PP2A is a heterotrimer composed of a scaffold, catalytic and one of any of four families of regulatory subunits, and the interaction is specific to the B′ family of the regulatory subunits. B′-PP2A and HTLV-1 IN display nuclear co-localization, and the B′ subunit stimulates concerted strand transfer activity of δ-retroviral INs in vitro. The protein–protein interaction interface maps to a patch of highly conserved residues on B′, which when mutated render B′ incapable of binding to and stimulating HTLV-1 and -2 IN strand transfer activity. PMID:26657642

  16. Rapamycin inhibits IGF-1 stimulated cell motility through PP2A pathway.

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    Lei Liu

    Full Text Available Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A has been implicated as a novel component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway. Recently we have demonstrated that mTOR regulates cell motility in part through p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1 pathways. Little is known about the role of PP2A in the mTOR-mediated cell motility. Here we show that rapamycin inhibited the basal or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1-induced motility of human Ewing sarcoma (Rh1 and rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 cells. Treatment of the cells with rapamycin activated PP2A activity, and concurrently inhibited IGF-1 stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2. Inhibition of Erk1/2 with PD98059 did not significantly affect the basal mobility of the cells, but dramatically inhibited IGF-1-induced cell motility. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A with okadaic acid significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 as well as cell motility. Consistently, expression of dominant negative PP2A conferred resistance to IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. Expression of constitutively active MKK1 also attenuated rapamycin inhibition of IGF-1-stimulated phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and cell motility. The results suggest that rapamycin inhibits cell motility, in part by targeting PP2A-Erk1/2 pathway.

  17. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

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    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper;

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch is...... comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...

  18. PP2A mediated AMPK inhibition promotes HSP70 expression in heat shock response.

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    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Under stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK plays a central role in energy balance, and the heat shock response is a protective mechanism for cell survival. The relationship between AMPK activity and heat shock protein (HSP expression under stress is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that heat stress induced dephosphorylation of AMPKα subunit (AMPKα in various cell types from human and rodent. In HepG2 cells, the dephosphorylation of AMPKα under heat stress in turn caused dephosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two downstream targets of AMPK, confirming the inhibition of AMPK activity by heat stress. Treatment of HepG2 cells with phosphatase 2A (PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or inhibition of PP2A expression by RNA interference efficiently reversed heat stress-induced AMPKα dephosphorylation, suggesting that heat stress inhibited AMPK through activation of PP2A. Heat stress- and other HSP inducer (CdCl(2, celastrol, MG132-induced HSP70 expression could be inhibited by AICAR, an AMPK specific activator. Inhibition of AMPKα expression by RNA interference reversed the inhibitory effect of AICAR on HSP70 expression under heat stress. These results indicate that AMPK inhibition under stress contribute to HSP70 expression. Mechanistic studies showed that activation of AMPK by AICAR had no effect on heat stress-induced HSF1 nuclear translocation, phosphorylation and binding with heat response element in the promoter region of HSP70 gene, but significantly decreased HSP70 mRNA stability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that during heat shock response, PP2A mediated AMPK inhibition upregulates HSP70 expression at least partially through stabilizing its mRNA, which suggests a novel mechanism for HSP induction under stress.

  19. The tumor suppressor PP2A Abeta regulates the RalA GTPase.

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    Sablina, Anna A; Chen, Wen; Arroyo, Jason D; Corral, Laura; Hector, Melissa; Bulmer, Sara E; DeCaprio, James A; Hahn, William C

    2007-06-01

    The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme family that regulates numerous signaling pathways. Biallelic mutations of the structural PP2A Abeta subunit occur in several types of human tumors; however, the functional consequences of these cancer-associated PP2A Abeta mutations in cell transformation remain undefined. Here we show that suppression of PP2A Abeta expression permits immortalized human cells to achieve a tumorigenic state. Cancer-associated Abeta mutants fail to reverse tumorigenic phenotype induced by PP2A Abeta suppression, indicating that these mutants function as null alleles. Wild-type PP2A Abeta but not cancer-derived Abeta mutants form a complex with the small GTPase RalA. PP2A Abeta-containing complexes dephosphorylate RalA at Ser183 and Ser194, inactivating RalA and abolishing its transforming function. These observations identify PP2A Abeta as a tumor suppressor gene that transforms immortalized human cells by regulating the function of RalA. PMID:17540176

  20. BUBR1 recruits PP2A via the B56 family of targeting subunits to promote chromosome congression

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    Peng Xu

    2013-03-01

    BUBR1 is a mitotic phosphoprotein essential for the maintenance of chromosome stability by promoting chromosome congression and proper kinetochore–microtubule (K-fiber attachment, but the underlying mechanism(s has remained elusive. Here we identify BUBR1 as a binding partner of the B56 family of Protein Phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits. The interaction between BUBR1 and the B56 family is required for chromosome congression, since point mutations in BUBR1 that block B56 binding abolish chromosome congression. The BUBR1:B56-PP2A complex opposes Aurora B kinase activity, since loss of the complex can be reverted by inhibiting Aurora B. Importantly, we show that the failure of BUBR1 to recruit B56-PP2A also contributes to the chromosome congression defects found in cells derived from patients with the Mosaic Variegated Aneuploidy (MVA syndrome. Together, we propose that B56-PP2A is a key mediator of BUBR1's role in chromosome congression and functions by antagonizing Aurora B activity at the kinetochore for establishing stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment at the metaphase plate.

  1. Overexpression of HDAC1 induces cellular senescence by Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway

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    Chuang, Jian-Ying [Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hung, Jan-Jong, E-mail: petehung@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Institute of Bioinformatics and Biosignal Transduction, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 induces Sp1 deacetylation and raises Sp1/p300 complex formation to bind to PP2Ac promoter. {yields} Overexpression of HDAC1 strongly inhibits the phosphorylation of pRb through up-regulation of PP2A. {yields} Overexpressed HDAC1 restrains cell proliferaction and induces cell senescence though a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway. -- Abstract: Senescence is associated with decreased activities of DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cellular division, which can result in deterioration of cellular functions. Herein, we report that the growth and division of tumor cells were significantly repressed by overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 with the Tet-off induced system or transient transfection. In addition, HDAC1 overexpression led to senescence through both an accumulation of hypophosphorylated active retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and an increase in the protein level of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac). HDAC1 overexpression also increased the level of Sp1 deacetylation and elevated the interaction between Sp1 and p300, and subsequently that Sp1/p300 complex bound to the promoter of PP2Ac, thus leading to induction of PP2Ac expression. Similar results were obtained in the HDAC1-Tet-off stable clone. Taken together, these results indicate that HDAC1 overexpression restrained cell proliferation and induced premature senescence in cervical cancer cells through a novel Sp1/PP2A/pRb pathway.

  2. Effect of microcystin-LR on protein phosphatase 2A and its function in human amniotic epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LIANG; Tan LI; Ya-li ZHANG; Zong-lou GUO; Li-hong XU

    2011-01-01

    Due to their toxicity,the increased distribution of microcystins (MCs) has become an important worldwide problem.MCs have been recognized as inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) through their binding to the PP2A catalytic subunit.However,the exact mechanism of MC toxicity has not been elucidated,especially concerning the cellular response and its autoregulation.To further dissect the role of PP2A in MC-induced toxicity,the present study was undertaken to determine the response of PP2A in human amniotic epithelial (FL) cells treated with microcystin-LR (MCLR),one of the MC congeners.The results show that a low-dose treatment of MCLR in FL cells for 6 h induced an increase in PP2A activity,and a high-dose treatment of MCLR for 24 h decreased the activity of PP2A,as expected.The increased mRNA and protein levels of the PP2A C subunit may explain the increased activity of PP2A.Furthermore,MCLR altered microtubule post-translational modifications through PP2A.These results further clarify the underlying mechanism how MCLR affects PP2A and may be helpful for elucidating the complex toxicity of MCLR.

  3. PP2A regulatory subunit Bα controls endothelial contractility and vessel lumen integrity via regulation of HDAC7

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Maud; Geudens, Ilse; Bruyr, Jonathan; Potente, Michael; Bleuart, Anouk; Lebrun, Marielle; Simonis, Nicolas; Deroanne, Christophe; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Soubeyran, Philippe; Peixoto, Paul; Mottet, Denis; Janssens, Veerle; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Claes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    To supply tissues with nutrients and oxygen, the cardiovascular system forms a seamless, hierarchically branched, network of lumenized tubes. Here, we show that maintenance of patent vessel lumens requires the Bα regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Deficiency of Bα in zebrafish precludes vascular lumen stabilization resulting in perfusion defects. Similarly, inactivation of PP2A-Bα in cultured ECs induces tubulogenesis failure due to alteration of cytoskeleton dynamics, actom...

  4. PP2A as a master regulator of the cell cycle

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    Wlodarchak, Nathan; Xing, Yongna

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a critical multi-faceted role in the regulation of the cell cycle. It is known to dephosphorylate over 300 substrates involved in the cell cycle, regulating almost all major pathways and cell cycle checkpoints. PP2A is involved in such diverse processes by the formation of structurally distinct families of holoenzymes, which are regulated spatially and temporally by specific regulators. Here, we review the involvement of PP2A in the regulation of three cell signaling pathways: wnt, mTOR and MAP kinase, as well as the G1→S transition, DNA synthesis and mitotic initiation. These processes are all crucial for proper cell survival and proliferation and are often deregulated in cancer and other diseases. PMID:26906453

  5. PP2A regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachment during meiosis I in oocyte.

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    Tang, An; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Zou, Dayuan; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Pengyu; Huang, Zan; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Studies using in vitro cultured oocytes have indicated that the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase, participates in multiple steps of meiosis. Details of oocyte maturation regulation by PP2A remain unclear and an in vivo model can provide more convincing information. Here, we inactivated PP2A by mutating genes encoding for its catalytic subunits (PP2Acs) in mouse oocytes. We found that eliminating both PP2Acs caused female infertility. Oocytes lacking PP2Acs failed to complete 1(st) meiotic division due to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. In mitosis, PP2A counteracts Aurora kinase B/C (AurkB/C) to facilitate correct kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment. In meiosis I in oocyte, we found that PP2Ac deficiency destabilized KT-MT attachments. Chemical inhibition of AurkB/C in PP2Ac-null oocytes partly restored the formation of lateral/merotelic KT-MT attachments but not correct KT-MT attachments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PP2Acs are essential for chromosome alignments and regulate the formation of correct KT-MT attachments in meiosis I in oocytes. PMID:27096707

  6. Epithelial membrane protein 2 regulates sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced keratin 8 phosphorylation and reorganization: Changes of PP2A expression by interaction with alpha4 and caveolin-1 in lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Eun Ji; Kang, Gyeoung-Jin; Byun, Hyun Jung; Lee, Chang Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is found at increased in the malignant ascites of tumor patients and induces perinuclear reorganization of keratin 8 (K8) filaments that contribute to the viscoelasticity of metastatic cancer cells. However, the detailed mechanism of SPC-induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization is not clear. We observed that SPC dose-dependently reduced the expression of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) in lung cancer cells. Then, we examined the role of EMP2 in SPC-induced phosphorylation and reorganization of K8 in lung cancer cells. We found that SPC concentration-dependently reduced EMP2 in A549, H1299, and other lung cancer cells. This was verified at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR), and intracellular variation through confocal microscopy. EMP2 gene silencing and stable lung cancer cell lines established using EMP2 lentiviral shRNA induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization. EMP2 overexpression reduced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization. We also observed that SPC-induced loss of EMP2 induces phosphorylation of JNK and ERK via reduced expression of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Loss of EMP2 induces ubiquitination of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). SPC induced caveolin-1 (cav-1) expression and EEA1 endosome marker protein but not cav-2. SPC treatment enhanced the binding of cav-1 and PP2A and lowered binding of PP2A and alpha4. Gene silencing of EMP2 increased and gene silencing of cav-1 reduced migration of A549 lung cancer cells. Overall, these results suggest that SPC induces EMP2 down-regulation which reduces the PP2A via ubiquitination induced by cav-1, which sequestered alpha4, leading to the activation of ERK and JNK. PMID:26876307

  7. Lyn sustains oncogenic signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by strengthening SET-mediated inhibition of PP2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Francesca; Pagano, Mario Angelo; Trentin, Livio; Tibaldi, Elena; Frezzato, Federica; Trimarco, Valentina; Facco, Monica; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Pavan, Valeria; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Bordin, Luciana; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Brunati, Anna Maria

    2015-06-11

    Aberrant protein kinase activities, and the consequent dramatic increase of Ser/Thr and -Tyr phosphorylation, promote the deregulation of the survival pathways in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), which is crucial to the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. In this study, we show that the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), one of the major Ser/Thr phosphatases, is in an inhibited form because of the synergistic contribution of 2 events, the interaction with its physiologic inhibitor SET and the phosphorylation of Y307 of the catalytic subunit of PP2A. The latter event is mediated by Lyn, a Src family kinase previously found to be overexpressed, delocalized, and constitutively active in CLL cells. This Lyn/PP2A axis accounts for the persistent high level of phosphorylation of the phosphatase's targets and represents a key connection linking phosphotyrosine- and phosphoserine/threonine-mediated oncogenic signals. The data herein presented show that the disruption of the SET/PP2A complex by a novel FTY720-analog (MP07-66) devoid of immunosuppressive effects leads to the reactivation of PP2A, which in turn triggers apoptosis of CLL cells. When used in combination with SFK inhibitors, the action of MP07-66 is synergistically amplified, providing a new option in the therapeutic strategy for CLL patients. PMID:25931585

  8. Mutations in a new Arabidopsis cyclophilin disrupt its interaction with protein phosphatase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K.; Soll, D.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a component of multiple signaling pathways in eukaryotes. Disruption of PP2A activity in Arabidopsis is known to alter auxin transport and growth response pathways. We demonstrated that the regulatory subunit A of an Arabidopsis PP2A interacts with a novel cyclophilin, ROC7. The gene for this cyclophilin encodes a protein that contains a unique 30-amino acid extension at the N-terminus, which distinguishes the gene product from all previously identified Arabidopsis cyclophilins. Altered forms of ROC7 cyclophilin with mutations in the conserved DENFKL domain did not bind to PP2A. Unlike protein phosphatase 2B, PP2A activity in Arabidopsis extracts was not affected by the presence of the cyclophilin-binding molecule cyclosporin. The ROC7 transcript was expressed to high levels in all tissues tested. Expression of an ROC7 antisense transcript gave rise to increased root growth. These results indicate that cyclophilin may have a role in regulating PP2A activity, by a mechanism that differs from that employed for cyclophilin regulation of PP2B.

  9. PRG-1 Regulates Synaptic Plasticity via Intracellular PP2A/β1-Integrin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingfeng; Huai, Jisen; Endle, Heiko; Schlüter, Leslie; Fan, Wei; Li, Yunbo; Richers, Sebastian; Yurugi, Hajime; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Ji, Haichao; Cheng, Hong; Rister, Benjamin; Horta, Guilherme; Baumgart, Jan; Berger, Hendrik; Laube, Gregor; Schmitt, Ulrich; Schmeisser, Michael J; Boeckers, Tobias M; Tenzer, Stefan; Vlachos, Andreas; Deller, Thomas; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in dendritic spine numbers are linked to deficits in learning and memory. While we previously revealed that postsynaptic plasticity-related gene 1 (PRG-1) controls lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling at glutamatergic synapses via presynaptic LPA receptors, we now show that PRG-1 also affects spine density and synaptic plasticity in a cell-autonomous fashion via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)/β1-integrin activation. PRG-1 deficiency reduces spine numbers and β1-integrin activation, alters long-term potentiation (LTP), and impairs spatial memory. The intracellular PRG-1 C terminus interacts in an LPA-dependent fashion with PP2A, thus modulating its phosphatase activity at the postsynaptic density. This results in recruitment of adhesome components src, paxillin, and talin to lipid rafts and ultimately in activation of β1-integrins. Consistent with these findings, activation of PP2A with FTY720 rescues defects in spine density and LTP of PRG-1-deficient animals. These results disclose a mechanism by which bioactive lipid signaling via PRG-1 could affect synaptic plasticity and memory formation. PMID:27453502

  10. PP2A regulatory subunit Bα controls endothelial contractility and vessel lumen integrity via regulation of HDAC7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maud; Geudens, Ilse; Bruyr, Jonathan; Potente, Michael; Bleuart, Anouk; Lebrun, Marielle; Simonis, Nicolas; Deroanne, Christophe; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Soubeyran, Philippe; Peixoto, Paul; Mottet, Denis; Janssens, Veerle; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Claes, Filip; Carmeliet, Peter; Kettmann, Richard; Gerhardt, Holger; Dequiedt, Franck

    2013-09-11

    To supply tissues with nutrients and oxygen, the cardiovascular system forms a seamless, hierarchically branched, network of lumenized tubes. Here, we show that maintenance of patent vessel lumens requires the Bα regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Deficiency of Bα in zebrafish precludes vascular lumen stabilization resulting in perfusion defects. Similarly, inactivation of PP2A-Bα in cultured ECs induces tubulogenesis failure due to alteration of cytoskeleton dynamics, actomyosin contractility and maturation of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts. Mechanistically, we show that PP2A-Bα controls the activity of HDAC7, an essential transcriptional regulator of vascular stability. In the absence of PP2A-Bα, transcriptional repression by HDAC7 is abrogated leading to enhanced expression of the cytoskeleton adaptor protein ArgBP2. ArgBP2 hyperactivates RhoA causing inadequate rearrangements of the EC actomyosin cytoskeleton. This study unravels the first specific role for a PP2A holoenzyme in development: the PP2A-Bα/HDAC7/ArgBP2 axis maintains vascular lumens by balancing endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics and cell-matrix adhesion. PMID:23955003

  11. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L; Mackey, David

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  12. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  13. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L.; Mackey, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  14. Molecular implication of PP2A and Pin1 in the Alzheimer's disease specific hyperphosphorylation of Tau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Landrieu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate in a poorly understood manner its physiological role of microtubule stabilization, and equally its integration in Alzheimer disease (AD related fibrils. A specific phospho-pattern will result from the balance between kinases and phosphatases. The heterotrimeric Protein Phosphatase type 2A encompassing regulatory subunit PR55/Bα (PP2A(T55α is a major Tau phosphatase in vivo, which contributes to its final phosphorylation state. We use NMR spectroscopy to determine the dephosphorylation rates of phospho-Tau by this major brain phosphatase, and present site-specific and kinetic data for the individual sites including the pS202/pT205 AT8 and pT231 AT180 phospho-epitopes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate the importance of the PR55/Bα regulatory subunit of PP2A within this enzymatic process, and show that, unexpectedly, phosphorylation at the pT231 AT180 site negatively interferes with the dephosphorylation of the pS202/pT205 AT8 site. This inhibitory effect can be released by the phosphorylation dependent prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1. Because the stimulatory effect is lost with the dimeric PP2A core enzyme (PP2A(D or with a phospho-Tau T231A mutant, we propose that Pin1 regulates the interaction between the PR55/Bα subunit and the AT180 phospho-epitope on Tau. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that phosphorylation of T231 (AT180 can negatively influence the dephosphorylation of the pS202/pT205 AT8 epitope, even without an altered PP2A pool. Thus, a priming dephosphorylation of pT231 AT180 is required for efficient PP2A(T55α-mediated dephosphorylation of pS202/pT205 AT8. The sophisticated interplay between priming mechanisms reported for certain Tau kinases and the one described here for Tau phosphatase PP2A(T55α may contribute to the hyperphosphorylation of Tau observed in AD neurons.

  15. PP2A-mediated regulation of Ras signaling in G2 is essential for stable quiescence and normal G1 length

    OpenAIRE

    Naetar, Nana; Soundarapandian, Velmurugan; Litovchick, Larisa; Goguen, Kelsey L.; Sablina, Anna A; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Sicinski, Piotr; Hahn, William C.; DeCaprio, James A.; Livingston, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Quiescence (G0) allows cycling cells to reversibly cease proliferation. A decision to enter quiescence is suspected of occurring early in G1, before the restriction point, R. Surprisingly, we have identified G2 as an interval during which inhibition of the protein phosphatase, PP2A, results in failure to exhibit stable quiescence. This effect is accompanied by shortening of the ensuing G1. The PP2A subcomplex required for stable G0 contains the B56γ B subunit. Following PP2A inhibition in G2,...

  16. Evolutionary Analysis of the B56 Gene Family of PP2A Regulatory Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Sommer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase that functions as a tumor suppressor in numerous cell-cell signaling pathways, including Wnt, myc, and ras. The B56 subunit of PP2A regulates its activity, and is encoded by five genes in humans. B56 proteins share a central core domain, but have divergent amino- and carboxy-termini, which are thought to provide isoform specificity. We performed phylogenetic analyses to better understand the evolution of the B56 gene family. We found that B56 was present as a single gene in eukaryotes prior to the divergence of animals, fungi, protists, and plants, and that B56 gene duplication prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes led to the origin of two B56 subfamilies, B56αβε and B56γδ. Further duplications led to three B56αβε genes and two B56γδ in vertebrates. Several nonvertebrate B56 gene names are based on distinct vertebrate isoform names, and would best be renamed. B56 subfamily genes lack significant divergence within primitive chordates, but each became distinct in complex vertebrates. Two vertebrate lineages have undergone B56 gene loss, Xenopus and Aves. In Xenopus, B56δ function may be compensated for by an alternatively spliced transcript, B56δ/γ, encoding a B56δ-like amino-terminal region and a B56γ core.

  17. IK-guided PP2A suppresses Aurora B activity in the interphase of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyi; Jeong, Ae Lee; Park, Jeong Su; Han, Sora; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Keun Il; Kim, Yonghwan; Park, Jong Hoon; Lim, Jong-Seok; Lee, Myung Sok; Yang, Young

    2016-09-01

    Aurora B activation is triggered at the mitotic entry and required for proper microtubule-kinetochore attachment at mitotic phase. Therefore, Aurora B should be in inactive form in interphase to prevent aberrant cell cycle progression. However, it is unclear how the inactivation of Aurora B is sustained during interphase. In this study, we find that IK depletion-induced mitotic arrest leads to G2 arrest by Aurora B inhibition, indicating that IK depletion enhances Aurora B activation before mitotic entry. IK binds to Aurora B, and colocalizes on the nuclear foci during interphase. Our data further show that IK inhibits Aurora B activation through recruiting PP2A into IK and Aurora B complex. It is thus believed that IK, as a scaffold protein, guides PP2A into Aurora B to suppress its activity in interphase until mitotic entry. PMID:26906715

  18. Progestin-inducible EDD E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to α4 phosphoprotein to regulate ubiquitination and degradation of protein phosphatase PP2Ac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William J; Thomas, Lynn N; Koirala, Samir; Too, Catherine K L

    2014-01-25

    Mammalian α4 phosphoprotein binds to the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) to regulate PP2A activity, and to poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and progestin-inducible EDD E3 ubiquitin ligase. This study showed induction of the EDD protein by progesterone, 17β-estradiol and prolactin in breast cancer cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses, using lysates of COS-1 cells transfected with α4-deletion constructs, showed the α4 N-terminus binding to endogenous PP2Ac and PABP, and the C-terminus to EDD. Monoubiquitinated α4 in MCF-7 cells was unaffected by EDD-targeting siRNA (siEDD) nor by non-targetting siNT, thus, EDD does not ubiquitinate α4. PP2Ac is polyubiquitinated, and 36-kDa PP2Ac only was detected in siEDD- or siNT-transfected cells. However, treatment with proteasomal inhibitor MG132 showed polyubiquitinated-PP2Ac molecules (∼65-250kDa) abundantly in siNT controls but low in siEDD-transfectants, implicating PP2Ac as an EDD substrate. Finally, progesterone induction of EDD in MCF-7 cells correlated with decreased PP2Ac levels, further implicating hormone-inducible EDD in PP2Ac turnover. PMID:24145130

  19. The broken "Off" switch in cancer signaling: PP2A as a regulator of tumorigenesis, drug resistance, and immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvolo, Peter P

    2016-12-01

    Aberrant activation of signal transduction pathways can transform a normal cell to a malignant one and can impart survival properties that render cancer cells resistant to therapy. A diverse set of cascades have been implicated in various cancers including those mediated by serine/threonine kinases such RAS, PI3K/AKT, and PKC. Signal transduction is a dynamic process involving both "On" and "Off" switches. Activating mutations of RAS or PI3K can be viewed as the switch being stuck in the "On" position resulting in continued signaling by a survival and/or proliferation pathway. On the other hand, inactivation of protein phosphatases such as the PP2A family can be seen as the defective "Off" switch that similarly can activate these pathways. A problem for therapeutic targeting of PP2A is that the enzyme is a hetero-trimer and thus drug targeting involves complex structures. More importantly, since PP2A isoforms generally act as tumor suppressors one would want to activate these enzymes rather than suppress them. The elucidation of the role of cellular inhibitors like SET and CIP2A in cancer suggests that targeting these proteins can have therapeutic efficacy by mechanisms involving PP2A activation. Furthermore, drugs such as FTY-720 can activate PP2A isoforms directly. This review will cover the current state of knowledge of PP2A role as a tumor suppressor in cancer cells and as a mediator of processes that can impact drug resistance and immune surveillance. PMID:27556014

  20. Capsaicin inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by down-regulating PP2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Seok; Yoon, Gang-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Choi, Sun-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Xenopus embryo serves as an ideal model for teratogenesis assays to examine the effects of any substances on the cellular processes critical for early development and adult tissue homeostasis. In our chemical library screening with frog embryo, capsaicin was found to repress the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Depending on the stages at which embryos became exposed to capsaicin, it could disrupt formation of dorsal or posterior body axis of embryo, which is associated with inhibition of maternal or zygotic Wnt signal in early development. In agreement with these phenotypes, capsaicin suppressed the expression of Wnt target genes such as Siamois and Chordin in the organizer region of embryo and in Wnt signals-stimulated tissue explants. In addition, the cellular level of β-catenin, a key component of Wnt pathway, was down-regulated in capsaicin-treated embryonic cells. Unlike wild-type β-catenin, its non-phosphorylatable mutant in which serine and threonine residues phosphorylated by GSK3 are substituted with alanine was not destabilized by capsaicin, indicative of the effect of this chemical on the phosphorylation status of β-catenin. In support of this, capsaicin up-regulated the level of GSK3- or CK1-phosphorylated β-catenin, concomitantly lowering that of its de-phosphorylated version. Notably, capsaicin augmented the phosphorylation of a phosphatase, PP2A at tyrosine 307, suggesting its repression of the enzymatic activity of the phosphatase. Furthermore, capsaicin still enhanced β-catenin phosphorylation in cells treated with a GSK3 inhibitor, LiCl but not in those treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid. Together, these results indicate that capsaicin inhibits the patterning of the dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior body axes of embryo by repressing PP2A and thereby down-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:27318088

  1. Free fatty acid-induced PP2A hyperactivity selectively impairs hepatic insulin action on glucose metabolism.

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    Thomas Galbo

    Full Text Available In type 2 Diabetes (T2D free fatty acids (FFAs in plasma are increased and hepatic insulin resistance is "selective", in the sense that the insulin-mediated decrease of glucose production is blunted while insulin's effect on stimulating lipogenesis is maintained. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathogenic paradox. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate for twenty hours. To establish the physiological relevance of the in vitro findings, we also studied insulin-resistant Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats. While insulin-receptor phosphorylation was unaffected, activation of Akt and inactivation of the downstream targets Glycogen synthase kinase 3α (Gsk3α and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1 was inhibited in palmitate-exposed cells. Accordingly, dose-response curves for insulin-mediated suppression of the FoxO1-induced gluconeogenic genes and for de novo glucose production were right shifted, and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis were impaired. In contrast, similar to findings in human T2D, the ability of insulin to induce triglyceride (TG accumulation and transcription of the enzymes that catalyze de novo lipogenesis and TG assembly was unaffected. Insulin-induction of these genes could, however, be blocked by inhibition of the atypical PKCs (aPKCs. The activity of the Akt-inactivating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A was increased in the insulin-resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A by specific inhibitors increased insulin-stimulated activation of Akt and phosphorylation of FoxO1 and Gsk3α. Finally, PP2A mRNA levels were increased in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, while PP2A activity was increased in liver and muscle tissue in insulin-resistant ZDF rats. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FFAs may cause a selective impairment of insulin action upon hepatic glucose metabolism by increasing PP2A activity.

  2. Protein phosphatase 2A, a key player in Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong LIU; Qing TIAN

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the pre-dominant serine/threonine phosphatase in eukaryotic cells. In the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), decreased PP2A activities were observed, which is suggested to be involved in neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation, disturbed amyloid precursor protein (APP) secretion and neurodegeneration in AD brain. Based on our research and other previous findings, decreased PP2Ac level, decreased PP2A holoenzyme composition, increased level of PP2A inhibitors, increased PP2Ac Leu309 demethylation and Tyr307 phosphorylation underlie PP2A inactivation in AD. β-amyloid (Aβ) over-production, estrogen deficiency and impaired homocys-teine metabolism are the possible up-stream factors that inactivate PP2A in AD neurons. Further studies are required to disclose the role of PP2A in Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Human neutrophil calmodulin-binding proteins: identification of the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular events in linking neutrophil activation and ligand binding to specific membrane receptors are mediated in part by an increase in intracellular Ca2+. One mechanism by which Ca2+ may trigger neutrophil activation is through Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-regulated proteins and enzymes. To determine which Ca2+/CaM-regulated enzymes may be present in the neutrophil, they have used Western blotting techniques and 125I-CaM to identify neutrophil CaM-binding proteins. Eleven proteins with molecular weights ranging from 230K to 13.5K bound 125I-CaM in a Ca2+-dependent manner. One predominant region of 125I-Cam binding was to a 59K protein; a protein with an identical mobility was labeled by an antisera against brain CaM-dependent phosphatase. Ca2+-dependent phosphatase activity, which was inhibited by the CaM antagonist trifluoperazine, was detected in a neutrophil extract; a radioimmunoassay for the phosphatase indicated that it was present in the extract at approximately 0.2 μg/mg protein. Most of the CaM-binding proteins, including the 59K protein, were rapidly degraded upon lysis of the neutrophil. There was a close correlation between the degradation of the 59K protein and the loss of Ca2+-dependent phosphatase activity in the neutrophil extract. Thus, human neutrophils contain numerous CaM-binding proteins which are presumably Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated enzymes and proteins; the 59K protein is a CaM-dependent phosphatase

  4. Whole genome sequencing identifies a deletion in protein phosphatase 2A that affects its stability and localization in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

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    Huawen Lin

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool in the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and small insertions/deletions (indels among mutant strains, which simplifies forward genetics approaches. However, identification of the causative mutation among a large number of non-causative SNPs in a mutant strain remains a big challenge. In the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we generated a SNP/indel library that contains over 2 million polymorphisms from four wild-type strains, one highly polymorphic strain that is frequently used in meiotic mapping, ten mutant strains that have flagellar assembly or motility defects, and one mutant strain, imp3, which has a mating defect. A comparison of polymorphisms in the imp3 strain and the other 15 strains allowed us to identify a deletion of the last three amino acids, Y313F314L315, in a protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2A3 in the imp3 strain. Introduction of a wild-type HA-tagged PP2A3 rescues the mutant phenotype, but mutant HA-PP2A3 at Y313 or L315 fail to rescue. Our immunoprecipitation results indicate that the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations do not affect the binding of PP2A3 to the scaffold subunit, PP2A-2r. In contrast, the Y313, L315, or YFLΔ mutations affect both the stability and the localization of PP2A3. The PP2A3 protein is less abundant in these mutants and fails to accumulate in the basal body area as observed in transformants with either wild-type HA-PP2A3 or a HA-PP2A3 with a V310T change. The accumulation of HA-PP2A3 in the basal body region disappears in mated dikaryons, which suggests that the localization of PP2A3 may be essential to the mating process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the terminal YFL tail of PP2A3 is important in the regulation on Chlamydomonas mating.

  5. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  6. PP2A(Cdc55)'s role in reductional chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis in budding yeast is independent of its FEAR function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Gary W; Wong, Jin Huei; Arumugam, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    PP2A(Cdc55) is a highly conserved serine-threonine protein phosphatase that is involved in diverse cellular processes. In budding yeast, meiotic cells lacking PP2A(Cdc55) activity undergo a premature exit from meiosis I which results in a failure to form bipolar spindles and divide nuclei. This defect is largely due to its role in negatively regulating the Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) pathway. PP2A(Cdc55) prevents nucleolar release of the Cdk (Cyclin-dependent kinase)-antagonising phosphatase Cdc14 by counteracting phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein Net1 by Cdk. CDC55 was identified in a genetic screen for monopolins performed by isolating suppressors of spo11Δ spo12Δ lethality suggesting that Cdc55 might have a role in meiotic chromosome segregation. We investigated this possibility by isolating cdc55 alleles that suppress spo11Δ spo12Δ lethality and show that this suppression is independent of PP2A(Cdc55)'s FEAR function. Although the suppressor mutations in cdc55 affect reductional chromosome segregation in the absence of recombination, they have no effect on chromosome segregation during wild type meiosis. We suggest that Cdc55 is required for reductional chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis and this is independent of its FEAR function. PMID:27455870

  7. Assembly and structure of protein phosphatase 2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) represents a conserved family of important protein serine/threonine phosphatases in species ranging from yeast to human. The PP2A core enzyme comprises a scaffold subunit and a catalytic subunit. The heterotrimeric PP2A holoenzyme consists of the core enzyme and a variable regulatory subunit. The catalytic subunit of PP2A is subject to reversible methylation, medi-ated by two conserved enzymes. Both the PP2A core and holoenzymes are regulated through interac-tion with a large number of cellular cofactors. Recent biochemical and structural investigation reveals critical insights into the assembly and function of the PP2A core enzyme as well as two families of holoenzyme. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms revealed by these latest advances.

  8. Assembly and structure of protein phosphatase 2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI YiGong

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) represents a conserved family of important protein serinetthreonine phosphatases in species ranging from yeast to human. The PP2A core enzyme comprises a scaffold subunit and a catalytic subunit. The heterotrimeric PP2A holoenzyme consists of the core enzyme and a variable regulatory subunit. The catalytic subunit of PP2A is subject to reversible methylation, mediated by two conserved enzymes. Both the PP2A core and holoenzymes are regulated through interaction with a large number of cellular cofactors. Recent biochemical and structural investigation reveals critical insights into the assembly and function of the PP2A core enzyme as well as two families of holoenzyme. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms revealed by these latest advances.

  9. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ying Chen; Cheng-Ying Hsieh; Thanasekaran Jayakumar; Kuan-Hung Lin; Duen-Suey Chou; Wan-Jung Lu; Ming-Jen Hsu; Joen-Rong Sheu

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered a critical pathogenic process in inflammatory vascular diseases. We have previously demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A)-mediated NF-κB dephosphorylation contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide, a novel NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in rat VSMCs. Andrographolide activated the p38 ...

  10. Enhanced insulin sensitivity associated with provision of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle cells involves counter modulation of PP2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Nardi

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Reduced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity is a feature associated with sustained exposure to excess saturated fatty acids (SFA, whereas mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA not only improve insulin sensitivity but blunt SFA-induced insulin resistance. The mechanisms by which MUFAs and PUFAs institute these favourable changes remain unclear, but may involve stimulating insulin signalling by counter-modulation/repression of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A. This study investigated the effects of oleic acid (OA; a MUFA, linoleic acid (LOA; a PUFA and palmitate (PA; a SFA in cultured myotubes and determined whether changes in insulin signalling can be attributed to PP2A regulation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We treated cultured skeletal myotubes with unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and evaluated insulin signalling, phosphorylation and methylation status of the catalytic subunit of PP2A. Unlike PA, sustained incubation of rat or human myotubes with OA or LOA significantly enhanced Akt- and ERK1/2-directed insulin signalling. This was not due to heightened upstream IRS1 or PI3K signalling nor to changes in expression of proteins involved in proximal insulin signalling, but was associated with reduced dephosphorylation/inactivation of Akt and ERK1/2. Consistent with this, PA reduced PP2Ac demethylation and tyrosine307phosphorylation - events associated with PP2A activation. In contrast, OA and LOA strongly opposed these PA-induced changes in PP2Ac thus exerting a repressive effect on PP2A. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Beneficial gains in insulin sensitivity and the ability of unsaturated fatty acids to oppose palmitate-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells may partly be accounted for by counter-modulation of PP2A.

  11. PP2A-mediated regulation of Ras signaling in G2 is essential for stable quiescence and normal G1 length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naetar, Nana; Soundarapandian, Velmurugan; Litovchick, Larisa; Goguen, Kelsey L; Sablina, Anna A; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Sicinski, Piotr; Hahn, William C; DeCaprio, James A; Livingston, David M

    2014-06-19

    Quiescence (G0) allows cycling cells to reversibly cease proliferation. A decision to enter quiescence is suspected of occurring early in G1, before the restriction point (R). Surprisingly, we have identified G2 as an interval during which inhibition of the protein phosphatase PP2A results in failure to exhibit stable quiescence. This effect is accompanied by shortening of the ensuing G1. The PP2A subcomplex required for stable G0 contains the B56γ B subunit. After PP2A inhibition in G2, aberrant overexpression of cyclin E occurs during mitosis and is responsible for overriding quiescence. Strikingly, suppression of Ras signaling re-establishes normal cyclin E levels during M and restores G0. These data point to PP2A-B56γ-driven Ras signaling modulation in G2 as essential for suppressing aberrant cyclin E expression during mitosis and thereby achieving normal G0 control. Thus, G2 is an interval during which the length and growth factor dependence of the next G1 interval are established. PMID:24857551

  12. PP2A-mediated regulation of Ras signaling in G2 is essential for stable quiescence and normal G1 length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naetar, Nana; Soundarapandian, Velmurugan; Litovchick, Larisa; Goguen, Kelsey L.; Sablina, Anna A.; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Sicinski, Piotr; Hahn, William C.; DeCaprio, James A.; Livingston, David M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Quiescence (G0) allows cycling cells to reversibly cease proliferation. A decision to enter quiescence is suspected of occurring early in G1, before the restriction point, R. Surprisingly, we have identified G2 as an interval during which inhibition of the protein phosphatase, PP2A, results in failure to exhibit stable quiescence. This effect is accompanied by shortening of the ensuing G1. The PP2A subcomplex required for stable G0 contains the B56γ B subunit. Following PP2A inhibition in G2, aberrant overexpression of cyclin E occurs during mitosis and is responsible for overriding quiescence. Strikingly, suppression of Ras signaling re-establishes normal cyclin E levels during M and restores G0. These data point to PP2A-B56γ-driven Ras signaling-modulation in G2 as essential for suppressing aberrant cyclin E expression during mitosis and, thereby, achieving normal G0 control. Thus, G2 is an interval during which the length and growth factor dependence of the next G1 interval are established. PMID:24857551

  13. A new histochemical method using human placenta alkaline phosphatase for demonstrating concanavalin A binding sites on cell surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Yoshito

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Human placenta alkaline phosphatase (HP-ALP, a glycoprotein, was stained histochemically for the purpose of examining the concanavalin A (Con A binding sites on the cell surface. HP-ALP was bound to the cell surface by Con A. This simple method successfully detected Con A binding sites on the cell surface.

  14. Nuclear Export and Centrosome Targeting of the Protein Phosphatase 2A Subunit B56α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Cameron P.; Sharma, Manisha; Medina-Palazon, Cahora; Jamieson, Cara; Galea, Melanie; Brocardo, Mariana G.; Mills, Kate; Henderson, Beric R.

    2010-01-01

    Protein phosphatase (PP) 2A is a heterotrimeric enzyme regulated by specific subunits. The B56 (or B′/PR61/PPP2R5) class of B-subunits direct PP2A or its substrates to different cellular locations, and the B56α, -β, and -ϵ isoforms are known to localize primarily in the cytoplasm. Here we studied the pathways that regulate B56α subcellular localization. We detected B56α in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and at the nuclear envelope and centrosomes, and show that cytoplasmic localization is dependent on CRM1-mediated nuclear export. The inactivation of CRM1 by leptomycin B or by siRNA knockdown caused nuclear accumulation of ectopic and endogenous B56α. Conversely, CRM1 overexpression shifted B56α to the cytoplasm. We identified a functional nuclear export signal at the C terminus (NES; amino acids 451–469), and site-directed mutagenesis of the NES (L461A) caused nuclear retention of full-length B56α. Active NESs were identified at similar positions in the cytoplasmic B56-β and ϵ isoforms, but not in the nuclear-localized B56-δ or γ isoforms. The transient expression of B56α induced nuclear export of the PP2A catalytic (C) subunit, and this was blocked by the L461A NES mutation. In addition, B56α co-located with the PP2A active (A) subunit at centrosomes, and its centrosome targeting involved sequences that bind to the A-subunit. Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) assays revealed dynamic and immobile pools of B56α-GFP, which was rapidly exported from the nucleus and subject to retention at centrosomes. We propose that B56α can act as a PP2A C-subunit chaperone and regulates PP2A activity at diverse subcellular locations. PMID:20378546

  15. Compression regulates gene expression of chondrocytes through HDAC4 nuclear relocation via PP2A-dependent HDAC4 dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongwei; Wei, Xiaochun; Wang, Shaowei; Jiao, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Du, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaohu; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wei, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Biomechanics plays a critical role in the modulation of chondrocyte function. The mechanisms by which mechanical loading is transduced into intracellular signals that regulate chondrocyte gene expression remain largely unknown. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is specifically expressed in chondrocytes. Mice lacking HDAC4 display chondrocyte hypertrophy, ectopic and premature ossification, and die early during the perinatal period. HDAC4 has a remarkable ability to translocate between the cell's cytoplasm and nucleus. It has been established that subcellular relocation of HDAC4 plays a critical role in chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation. However, it remains unclear whether subcellular relocation of HDAC4 in chondrocytes can be induced by mechanical loading. In this study, we first report that compressive loading induces HDAC4 relocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of chondrocytes via stimulation of Ser/Thr-phosphoprotein phosphatases 2A (PP2A) activity, which results in dephosphorylation of HDAC4. Dephosphorylated HDAC4 relocates to the nucleus to achieve transcriptional repression of Runx2 and regulates chondrocyte gene expression in response to compression. Our results elucidate the mechanism by which mechanical compression regulates chondrocyte gene expression through HDAC4 relocation from the cell's cytoplasm to the nucleus via PP2A-dependent HDAC4 dephosphorylation. PMID:27106144

  16. Identical phosphatase mechanisms achieved through distinct modes of binding phosphoprotein substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazy, Y.; Motaleb, M.A.; Guarnieri, M.T.; Charon, N.W.; Zhao, R.; Silversmith, R.E. (WVU); (UNC); (Colorado); (EC Uni.)

    2010-04-05

    Two-component signal transduction systems are widespread in prokaryotes and control numerous cellular processes. Extensive investigation of sensor kinase and response regulator proteins from many two-component systems has established conserved sequence, structural, and mechanistic features within each family. In contrast, the phosphatases which catalyze hydrolysis of the response regulator phosphoryl group to terminate signal transduction are poorly understood. Here we present structural and functional characterization of a representative of the CheC/CheX/FliY phosphatase family. The X-ray crystal structure of Borrelia burgdorferi CheX complexed with its CheY3 substrate and the phosphoryl analogue BeF{sub 3}{sup -} reveals a binding orientation between a response regulator and an auxiliary protein different from that shared by every previously characterized example. The surface of CheY3 containing the phosphoryl group interacts directly with a long helix of CheX which bears the conserved (E - X{sub 2} - N) motif. Conserved CheX residues Glu96 and Asn99, separated by a single helical turn, insert into the CheY3 active site. Structural and functional data indicate that CheX Asn99 and CheY3 Thr81 orient a water molecule for hydrolytic attack. The catalytic residues of the CheX-CheY3 complex are virtually superimposable on those of the Escherichia coli CheZ phosphatase complexed with CheY, even though the active site helices of CheX and CheZ are oriented nearly perpendicular to one other. Thus, evolution has found two structural solutions to achieve the same catalytic mechanism through different helical spacing and side chain lengths of the conserved acid/amide residues in CheX and CheZ.

  17. Selective binding modes and allosteric inhibitory effects of lupane triterpenes on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tiantian; Yu, Haibo; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been recognized as a promising therapeutic target for treating obesity, diabetes, and certain cancers for over a decade. Previous drug design has focused on inhibitors targeting the active site of PTP1B. However, this has not been successful because the active site is positively charged and conserved among the protein tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, it is important to develop PTP1B inhibitors with alternative inhibitory strategies. Using computational studies including molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy calculations, we found that lupane triterpenes selectively inhibited PTP1B by targeting its more hydrophobic and less conserved allosteric site. These findings were verified using two enzymatic assays. Furthermore, the cell culture studies showed that lupeol and betulinic acid inhibited the PTP1B activity stimulated by TNFα in neurons. Our study indicates that lupane triterpenes are selective PTP1B allosteric inhibitors with significant potential for treating those diseases with elevated PTP1B activity. PMID:26865097

  18. Diversity in genomic organisation, developmental regulation and distribution of the murine PR72/B" subunits of protein phosphatase 2A

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens Veerle; Goris Jozef; Louis Justin V; Zwaenepoel Karen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-specific phosphatase displaying vital functions in growth and development through its role in various signalling pathways. PP2A holoenzymes comprise a core dimer composed of a catalytic C and a structural A subunit, which can associate with a variable B-type subunit. The importance of the B-type subunits for PP2A regulation cannot be overestimated as they determine holoenzyme localisation, activity and substrate specifici...

  19. Pyruvate dehydrogenase/sub b/ phosphatase inhibition by NADH and dihydrolipoamide along with effects of and capacity for binding the phosphatase to the bovine kidney transacetylase-protein X subcomplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NADH inhibits PDH/sub b/ phosphatase activity when 32P-PDH is associated with the intact complex but not when 32P-PDH is prepared free of other components of the complex. Addition of the transacetylase-protein X (E2-X) subcomplex both activated the phosphatase and restored NADH inhibition. Low levels of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase associated with the subcomplex might be required for NADH inhibition. Dihydrolipoamide gave inhibition of the phosphatase equivalent to NADH and the combination did not give additional inhibition suggesting a common mechanism. Pretreatment of phosphorylated complex and phosphatase with 2.0 mM dithiothreitol nearly eliminated inhibition of the phosphatase by NADH or dihydrolipoamide. Strong arsenite inhibition of phosphatase activity occurred only in the presence of NADH suggesting modification of thiols reduced by NADH can alter phosphatase activity. Only about 6 molecules of purified phosphatase could be activated by 1 molecule of E2-X subcomplex (initial velocities measured in 15s period). Since that corresponded to the number of protein X rather than E2 subunits, protein X may contribute to the Ca2+-dependent binding of the phosphatase. Since protein X also contains a lipoyl moiety, it may also contribute to NADH inhibition of the phosphatase

  20. A Novel Bifunctional Hybrid with Marine Bacterium Alkaline Phosphatase and Far Eastern Holothurian Mannan-Binding Lectin Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Balabanova; Vasily Golotin; Svetlana Kovalchuk; Alexander Bulgakov; Galina Likhatskaya; Oksana Son; Valery Rasskazov

    2014-01-01

    A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP) and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ) was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa...

  1. The B55α-containing PP2A holoenzyme dephosphorylates FOXO1 in islet β-cells under oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling; Guo, Shuangli; Brault, Marie; Harmon, Jamie; Robertson, R. Paul; Hamid, Rizwan; Stein, Roland; Yang, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The FOXO1 (forkhead box O1) transcription factor influences many key cellular processes, including those important in metabolism, proliferation and cell death. Reversible phosphorylation of FOXO1 at Thr24 and Ser256 regulates its subcellular localization, with phosphorylation promoting cytoplasmic localization, whereas dephosphorylation triggers nuclear import and transcriptional activation. In the present study, we used biochemical and molecular approaches to isolate and link the serine/threonine PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) holoenzyme containing the B55α regulatory subunit, with nuclear import of FOXO1 in pancreatic islet β-cells under oxidative stress, a condition associated with cellular dysfunction in Type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of FOXO1 dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation was investigated in pancreatic islet INS-1 and βTC-3 cell lines subjected to oxidative stress. A combined chemical cross-linking and MS strategy revealed the association of FOXO1 with a PP2A holoenzyme composed of the catalytic C, structural A and B55α regulatory subunits. Knockdown of B55α in INS-1 cells reduced FOXO1 dephosphorylation, inhibited FOXO1 nuclear translocation and attenuated oxidative stress-induced cell death. Furthermore, both B55α and nuclear FOXO1 levels were increased under hyperglycaemic conditions in db/db mouse islets, an animal model of Type 2 diabetes. We conclude that B55α-containing PP2A is a key regulator of FOXO1 activity in vivo. PMID:22417654

  2. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  3. Oxidative stress disassembles the p38/NPM/PP2A complex, which leads to modulation of nucleophosmin-mediated signaling to DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillonneau, Maëva; Paris, François; Dutoit, Soizic; Estephan, Hala; Bénéteau, Elise; Huot, Jacques; Corre, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a leading cause of endothelial dysfunction. The p38 MAPK pathway plays a determinant role in allowing cells to cope with oxidative stress and is tightly regulated by a balanced interaction between p38 protein and its interacting partners. By using a proteomic approach, we identified nucleophosmin (NPM) as a new partner of p38 in HUVECs. Coimmunoprecipitation and microscopic analyses confirmed the existence of a cytosolic nucleophosmin (NPM)/p38 interaction in basal condition. Oxidative stress, which was generated by exposure to 500 µM H2O2, induces a rapid dephosphorylation of NPM at T199 that depends on phosphatase PP2A, another partner of the NPM/p38 complex. Blocking PP2A activity leads to accumulation of NPM-pT199 and to an increased association of NPM with p38. Concomitantly to its dephosphorylation, oxidative stress promotes translocation of NPM to the nucleus to affect the DNA damage response. Dephosphorylated NPM impairs the signaling of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage via inhibition of the phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. Overall, these results suggest that the p38/NPM/PP2A complex acts as a dynamic sensor, allowing endothelial cells to react rapidly to acute oxidative stress.-Guillonneau, M., Paris, F., Dutoit, S., Estephan, H., Bénéteau, E., Huot, J., Corre, I. Oxidative stress disassembles the p38/NPM/PP2A complex, which leads to modulation of nucleophosmin-mediated signaling to DNA damage response. PMID:27142525

  4. Structure and function of the PP2A-shugoshin interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xu, Z.; Cetin, B.; Anger, Martin; Cho, U. S.; Helmhart, W.; Nasmyth, K.; Xu, W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2009), s. 426-441. ISSN 1097-2765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : oocytes * PP2A-Shugoshin * mitosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 14.608, year: 2009

  5. A Novel Bifunctional Hybrid with Marine Bacterium Alkaline Phosphatase and Far Eastern Holothurian Mannan-Binding Lectin Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasily; Kovalchuk, Svetlana; Bulgakov, Alexander; Likhatskaya, Galina; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP) and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ) was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa. The CmAP/MBL-AJ dimer model showed the two-subunit lectin part that is associated with two molecules of alkaline phosphatase functioning independently from each other. The highly active CmAP label genetically linked to MBL-AJ has advantaged the lectin-binding assay in its sensitivity and time. The double substitution A156N/F159K in the lectin domain of CmAP/MBL-AJ has enhanced its lectin activity by 25±5%. The bifunctional hybrid holothurian's lectin could be promising tool for developing non-invasive methods for biological markers assessment, particularly for improving the MBL-AJ-based method for early detection of a malignant condition in cervical specimens. PMID:25397876

  6. A novel bifunctional hybrid with marine bacterium alkaline phosphatase and Far Eastern holothurian mannan-binding lectin activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Balabanova

    Full Text Available A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa. The CmAP/MBL-AJ dimer model showed the two-subunit lectin part that is associated with two molecules of alkaline phosphatase functioning independently from each other. The highly active CmAP label genetically linked to MBL-AJ has advantaged the lectin-binding assay in its sensitivity and time. The double substitution A156N/F159K in the lectin domain of CmAP/MBL-AJ has enhanced its lectin activity by 25 ± 5%. The bifunctional hybrid holothurian's lectin could be promising tool for developing non-invasive methods for biological markers assessment, particularly for improving the MBL-AJ-based method for early detection of a malignant condition in cervical specimens.

  7. Functional Crosstalk between the PP2A and SUMO Pathways Revealed by Analysis of STUbL Suppressor, razor 1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Minghua; Arner, Emily; Prudden, John; Schaffer, Lana; Head, Steven; Boddy, Michael N

    2016-07-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) provide dynamic regulation of the cellular proteome, which is critical for both normal cell growth and for orchestrating rapid responses to environmental stresses, e.g. genotoxins. Key PTMs include ubiquitin, the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier SUMO, and phosphorylation. Recently, SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs) were found to integrate signaling through the SUMO and ubiquitin pathways. In general, STUbLs are recruited to target proteins decorated with poly-SUMO chains to ubiquitinate them and drive either their extraction from protein complexes, and/or their degradation at the proteasome. In fission yeast, reducing or preventing the formation of SUMO chains can circumvent the essential and DNA damage response functions of STUbL. This result indicates that whilst some STUbL "targets" have been identified, the crucial function of STUbL is to antagonize SUMO chain formation. Herein, by screening for additional STUbL suppressors, we reveal crosstalk between the serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A-Pab1B55 and the SUMO pathway. A hypomorphic Pab1B55 mutant not only suppresses STUbL dysfunction, but also mitigates the phenotypes associated with deletion of the SUMO protease Ulp2, or mutation of the STUbL cofactor Rad60. Together, our results reveal a novel role for PP2A-Pab1B55 in modulating SUMO pathway output, acting in parallel to known critical regulators of SUMOylation homeostasis. Given the broad evolutionary functional conservation of the PP2A and SUMO pathways, our results could be relevant to the ongoing attempts to therapeutically target these factors. PMID:27398807

  8. Knockdown of microRNA-195 contributes to protein phosphatase-2A inactivation in rats with chronic brain hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Di; Wang, Qin; Zong, De-Kang; Pei, Shuang-Chao; Yan, Yan; Yan, Mei-Ling; Sun, Lin-Lin; Hao, Yang-Yang; Mao, Meng; Xing, Wen-Jing; Ren, Huan; Ai, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Reduction of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity is a common clinical feature of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In this study, we observed that chronic brain hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion of rats led to PP2A inactivation based on the increase in tyrosine-307 phosphorylation and leucine-309 demethylation of PP2AC and the depression in PP2ABα. Knockdown of miR-195 using overexpression of its antisense molecule oligonucleotide (pre-AMO-miR-195) delivered by a lentivirus (lenti-pre-AMO-miR-195) increased tyrosine-307 phosphorylation and decreased both PP2ABα expression and leucine-309 methylation; these effects were prevented by the overexpression of miR-195 using lenti-pre-miR-195 and controlled by an increase in methylesterase (PME-1) and a decrease in leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1. In vitro studies demonstrated that miR-195 regulated PME-1 expression by binding to the Ppme1 gene 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) domain. Masking the miR-195 binding sites in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 genes prevented miR-195-induced leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 elevation. We concluded that the miR-195 downregulation in chronic brain hypoperfusion involved PP2A inactivity, which was mediated by the post-transcriptional regulation PME-1, APP, and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 expression. PMID:27459928

  9. Crystal structure of the human Tip41 orthologue, TIPRL, reveals a novel fold and a binding site for the PP2Ac C-terminus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorsato, Valéria; Lima, Tatiani B.; Righetto, Germanna L.; Zanchin, Nilson I. T.; Brandão-Neto, José; Sandy, James; Pereira, Humberto D’Muniz; Ferrari, Állan J. R.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Smetana, Juliana H. C.; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) is a regulatory protein which inhibits the catalytic subunits of Type 2A phosphatases. Several cellular contexts have been proposed for TIPRL, such as regulation of mTOR signaling, inhibition of apoptosis and biogenesis and recycling of PP2A, however, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. We have solved the crystal structure of human TIPRL at 2.15 Å resolution. The structure is a novel fold organized around a central core of antiparallel beta-sheet, showing an N-terminal α/β region at one of its surfaces and a conserved cleft at the opposite surface. Inside this cleft, we found a peptide derived from TEV-mediated cleavage of the affinity tag. We show by mutagenesis, pulldown and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry that this peptide is a mimic for the conserved C-terminal tail of PP2A, an important region of the phosphatase which regulates holoenzyme assembly, and TIPRL preferentially binds the unmodified version of the PP2A-tail mimetic peptide DYFL compared to its tyrosine-phosphorylated version. A docking model of the TIPRL-PP2Ac complex suggests that TIPRL blocks the phosphatase’s active site, providing a structural framework for the function of TIPRL in PP2A inhibition. PMID:27489114

  10. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB activates transcription via two distinct genetic elements of the human glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of glucose-6-phosphatase to glucose, the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. Expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene is induced by glucocorticoids and elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. The effect of cAMP in regulating glucose-6-phosphatase gene transcription was corroborated by the identification of two genetic motifs CRE1 and CRE2 in the human and murine glucose-6-phosphatase gene promoter that resemble cAMP response elements (CRE. Results The cAMP response element is a point of convergence for many extracellular and intracellular signals, including cAMP, calcium, and neurotrophins. The major CRE binding protein CREB, a member of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP family of transcription factors, requires phosphorylation to become a biologically active transcriptional activator. Since unphosphorylated CREB is transcriptionally silent simple overexpression studies cannot be performed to test the biological role of CRE-like sequences of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. The use of a constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein allowed us to uncouple the investigation of target genes of CREB from the variety of signaling pathways that lead to an activation of CREB. Here, we show that this constitutively active CREB2/CREB fusion protein strikingly enhanced reporter gene transcription mediated by either CRE1 or CRE2 derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Likewise, reporter gene transcription was enhanced following expression of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA in the nucleus of transfected cells. In contrast, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2, known to compete with CREB for binding to the canonical CRE sequence 5'-TGACGTCA-3', did not transactivate reporter genes containing CRE1, CRE2, or both CREs derived from the glucose-6-phosphatase gene. Conclusions Using a constitutively active CREB2

  11. Structural and biochemical characterization of human PR70 in isolation and in complex with the scaffolding subunit of protein phosphatase 2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Dovega

    Full Text Available Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a major Ser/Thr phosphatase involved in the regulation of various cellular processes. PP2A assembles into diverse trimeric holoenzymes, which consist of a scaffolding (A subunit, a catalytic (C subunit and various regulatory (B subunits. Here we report a 2.0 Å crystal structure of the free B''/PR70 subunit and a SAXS model of an A/PR70 complex. The crystal structure of B''/PR70 reveals a two domain elongated structure with two Ca2+ binding EF-hands. Furthermore, we have characterized the interaction of both binding partner and their calcium dependency using biophysical techniques. Ca2+ biophysical studies with Circular Dichroism showed that the two EF-hands display different affinities to Ca2+. In the absence of the catalytic C-subunit, the scaffolding A-subunit remains highly mobile and flexible even in the presence of the B''/PR70 subunit as judged by SAXS. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry studies and SAXS data support that PR70 and the A-subunit have high affinity to each other. This study provides additional knowledge about the structural basis for the function of B'' containing holoenzymes.

  12. Tumor Suppressor RARRES1 Regulates DLG2, PP2A, VCP, EB1, and Ankrd26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad J. Sahab, Michael D. Hall, Lihua Zhang, Amrita K. Cheema, Stephen W. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic Acid Receptor Responder (RARRES1 initially identified as a novel retinoic acid receptor regulated gene in the skin is a putative tumor suppressor of unknown function. RARRES1 was knocked down in immortalized human prostatic epithelial cell line PWR-1E cells and differential protein expression was identified using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry and western Blot analysis excluding highly abundant proteins routinely identified in almost all proteomics projects. Knock-down of RARRES1: 1- down-regulates PP2A, an enzyme involved in the negative regulation of the growth hormone-stimulated signal transduction pathways; 2- down-regulates Valosin-containing protein causing impaired autophagy; 3- up-regulates the tumor suppressor disks large 2; 4- up-regulates Ankrd26 that belongs to the POTE family of genes that are highly expressed in cancer patients with poor outcome; and 5- down-regulates EB1, a protein that is involved in spindle dynamics and chromosome alignment during mitosis.

  13. Ligand Binding Reduces Conformational Flexibility in the Active Site of Tyrosine Phosphatase Related to Biofilm Formation A (TpbA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Koveal, Dorothy; Clarkson, Michael W.; Wood, Thomas K.; Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    TpbA is a periplasmic dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) that controls biofilm formation in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While DUSPs are known to regulate important cellular functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, very few structures of bacterial DUSPs are available. Here, we present the solution structure of TpbA in the ligand-free open conformation, along with an analysis of the structural and dynamic changes that accompany ligand/phosphate binding. While TpbA ad...

  14. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species perturb AKT/cyclin D1 cell cycle signaling via oxidative inactivation of PP2A in lowdose irradiated human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Sasatani, Megumi; Kamiya, Kenji; Kawai, Hidehiko; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Here we investigated the cellular response of normal human fibroblasts to repeated exposure to low-dose radiation. In contrast to acute single radiation, low-dose fractionated radiation (FR) with 0.01 Gy/fraction or 0.05 Gy/fraction for 31 days increased in mitochondrial mass, decreased cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione and caused persistent accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excess ROS promoted oxidative inactivation of protein phosphatase PP2A which in turn led to disruption of normal negative feed-back control of AKT/cyclin D1 signaling in cells treated with long-term FR. The resulting abnormal nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 causes growth retardation, cellular senescence and genome instability in low-dose irradiated cells. Thus, loss of redox control and subsequently elevated levels of ROS perturb signal transduction as a result of oxidative stress. Our study highlights a specific role of mitochondrial ROS in perturbation of AKT/cyclin D1 cell cycle signaling after low-dose long-term FR. The antioxidants N-acetyl-L-cysteine, TEMPO and mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO provided protection against the harmful cell cycle perturbations induced by low-dose long-term FR. PMID:26657292

  15. Blocking protein phosphatase 2A signaling prevents endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis: a peptide-based drug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanjun; Guo, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Rui; Ning, Yong; Pei, Guangchang; Li, Yueqiang; Chen, Meixue; Guo, Shuiming; Li, Xiaoqing; Han, Min; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to the emergence of fibroblasts and plays a significant role in renal interstitial fibrosis. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase in eukaryotic cells and regulates many signaling pathways. However, the significance of PP2A in EndMT is poorly understood. In present study, the role of PP2A in EndMT was evaluated. We demonstrated that PP2A activated in endothelial cells (EC) during their EndMT phenotype acquisition and in the mouse model of obstructive nephropathy (i.e., UUO). Inhibition of PP2A activity by its specific inhibitor prevented EC undergoing EndMT. Importantly, PP2A activation was dependent on tyrosine nitration at 127 in the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac). Our renal-protective strategy was to block tyrosine127 nitration to inhibit PP2A activation by using a mimic peptide derived from PP2Ac conjugating a cell penetrating peptide (CPP: TAT), termed TAT-Y127WT. Pretreatment withTAT-Y127WT was able to prevent TGF-β1-induced EndMT. Administration of the peptide to UUO mice significantly ameliorated renal EndMT level, with preserved density of peritubular capillaries and reduction in extracellular matrix deposition. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting PP2Ac nitration using a mimic peptide is a potential preventive strategy for EndMT in renal fibrosis.

  16. Force-inhibiting effect of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A inhibitors on bovine ciliary muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    石田, 美織

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary muscle is a smooth muscle characterized by a rapid response to muscarinic receptor stimulation and sustained contraction. Although it is evident that these contractions are Ca(2+)-dependent, detailed molecular mechanisms are still unknown. In order to elucidate the role of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in ciliary muscle contraction, we examined the effects of okadaic acid and other PP2A inhibitors on contractions induced by carbachol (CCh) and ionomycin in bovine ciliary muscl...

  17. Structural Studies of Soybean Calmodulin Isoform 4 Bound to the Calmodulin-binding Domain of Tobacco Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-1 Provide Insights into a Sequential Target Binding Mode*

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Rainaldi, Mario; Vogel, Hans J.

    2009-01-01

    The calcium regulatory protein calmodulin (CaM) binds in a calcium-dependent manner to numerous target proteins. The calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) region of Nicotiana tabacum MAPK phosphatase has an amino acid sequence that does not resemble the CaMBD of any other known Ca2+-CaM-binding proteins. Using a unique fusion protein strategy, we have been able to obtain a high resolution solution structure of the complex of soybean Ca2+-CaM4 (SCaM4) and this CaMBD. Complete isotope labeling of b...

  18. Protein phosphatase 2A isotypes regulate cell surface expression of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C; Kastrup, J;

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying T cell receptor (TCR) down-regulation have been extensively studied during the last decade. Whereas the importance of phosphorylation in this process has been established, it is less certain whether dephosphorylation plays a role in TCR down-regulation. In this study, we...... show that inhibition of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A family had a biphasic effect on TCR expression. Thus, low concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR down-regulation, whereas higher concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR up-regulation. The effect of PP2A inhibition was...... independent of phosphorylation of the CD3gamma endocytosis motif. Whereas TCR down-regulation was caused by a partial inhibition of exocytosis, TCR up-regulation was caused by an inhibition of endocytosis. The effects on exocytosis and endocytosis were not restricted to the TCR, indicating a more general...

  19. Asp1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe binds a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster which inhibits inositol pyrophosphate 1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanchen; Nair, Vasudha S; Holland, Ashley A; Capolicchio, Samanta; Jessen, Henning J; Johnson, Michael K; Shears, Stephen B

    2015-10-27

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are widely distributed protein cofactors that are vital to cellular biochemistry and the maintenance of bioenergetic homeostasis, but to our knowledge, they have never been identified in any phosphatase. Here, we describe an iron-sulfur cluster in Asp1, a dual-function kinase/phosphatase that regulates cell morphogenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Full-length Asp1, and its phosphatase domain (Asp1(371-920)), were each heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The phosphatase activity is exquisitely specific: it hydrolyzes the 1-diphosphate from just two members of the inositol pyrophosphate (PP-InsP) signaling family, namely, 1-InsP7 and 1,5-InsP8. We demonstrate that Asp1 does not hydrolyze either InsP6, 2-InsP7, 3-InsP7, 4-InsP7, 5-InsP7, 6-InsP7, or 3,5-InsP8. We also recorded 1-phosphatase activity in a human homologue of Asp1, hPPIP5K1, which was heterologously expressed in Drosophila S3 cells with a biotinylated N-terminal tag, and then isolated from cell lysates with avidin beads. Purified, recombinant Asp1(371-920) contained iron and acid-labile sulfide, but the stoichiometry (0.8 atoms of each per protein molecule) indicates incomplete iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We reconstituted the Fe-S cluster in vitro under anaerobic conditions, which increased the stoichiometry to approximately 2 atoms of iron and acid-labile sulfide per Asp1 molecule. The presence of a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster in Asp1(371-920) was demonstrated by UV-visible absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We determined that this [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster is unlikely to participate in redox chemistry, since it rapidly degraded upon reduction by dithionite. Biochemical and mutagenic studies demonstrated that the [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster substantially inhibits the phosphatase activity of Asp1, thereby increasing its net kinase activity. PMID:26422458

  20. The Spinocerebellar Ataxia 12 Gene Product and Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulatory Subunit Bβ2 Antagonizes Neuronal Survival by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Dagda, Ruben K.; Merrill, Ronald A.; Cribbs, J. Thomas; Chen, Yucui; Hell, Johannes W; Usachev, Yuriy M.; Strack, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 12 (SCA12) is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the non-coding region of the PPP2R2B gene. PPP2R2B encodes Bβ1 and Bβ2, alternatively spliced and neuron-specific regulatory subunits of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzyme. We show here that in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons, cell stressors induced a rapid translocation of PP2A/Bβ2 to mitochondria to promote apoptosis. Conversely, silencing of PP2A/Bβ2 pr...

  1. HSP105 Recruits Protein Phosphatase 2A To Dephosphorylate β-Catenin

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Nancy; Kakunda, Michael; Pham, Victoria; Lill, Jennie R.; Du, Pan; Wongchenko, Matthew; Yan, Yibing; Firestein, Ron; Huang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway causes accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus to initiate the transcription of the target genes. Without Wnt stimulation, β-catenin forms a complex with axin (axis inhibitor), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and undergoes phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), interestingly, also are component...

  2. Deletion of conserved protein phosphatases reverses defects associated with mitochondrial DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Garipler, Görkem; Mutlu, Nebibe; Lack, Nathan; Dunn, Cory David

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by signaling pathways sensitive to extracellular conditions and to the internal environment of the cell. Therefore, treatments for disease caused by mutation of mtDNA may emerge from studies of how signal transduction pathways command mitochondrial function. We have examined the role of phosphatases under the control of the conserved alpha 4/Tap42 protein in cells lacking a mitochondrial genome. We found that deletion of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) or o...

  3. Archaeal signal transduction: impact of protein phosphatase deletions on cell size, motility, and energy metabolism in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Julia; Esser, Dominik; Orell, Alvaro; Amman, Fabian; Pham, Trong Khoa; Noirel, Josselin; Lindås, Ann-Christin; Bernander, Rolf; Wright, Phillip C; Siebers, Bettina; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the in vitro and in vivo functions of the only two identified protein phosphatases, Saci-PTP and Saci-PP2A, in the crenarchaeal model organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were investigated. Biochemical characterization revealed that Saci-PTP is a dual-specific phosphatase (against pSer/pThr and pTyr), whereas Saci-PP2A exhibited specific pSer/pThr activity and inhibition by okadaic acid. Deletion of saci_pp2a resulted in pronounced alterations in growth, cell shape and cell size, which could be partially complemented. Transcriptome analysis of the three strains (Δsaci_ptp, Δsaci_pp2a and the MW001 parental strain) revealed 155 genes that were differentially expressed in the deletion mutants, and showed significant changes in expression of genes encoding the archaella (archaeal motility structure), components of the respiratory chain and transcriptional regulators. Phosphoproteome studies revealed 801 unique phosphoproteins in total, with an increase in identified phosphopeptides in the deletion mutants. Proteins from most functional categories were affected by phosphorylation, including components of the motility system, the respiratory chain, and regulatory proteins. In the saci_pp2a deletion mutant the up-regulation at the transcript level, as well as the observed phosphorylation pattern, resembled starvation stress responses. Hypermotility was also observed in the saci_pp2a deletion mutant. The results highlight the importance of protein phosphorylation in regulating essential cellular processes in the crenarchaeon S. acidocaldarius. PMID:24078887

  4. Phosphorylation of SET protein at Ser171 by protein kinase D2 diminishes its inhibitory effect on protein phosphatase 2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Irie

    Full Text Available We previously reported that protein kinase D2 (PKD2 in T cells is promptly activated after T-cell receptor (TCR stimulation and involved in the activation of interleukin-2 promoter and T cell death, and that one of its candidate substrate is SET protein, a natural inhibitor for protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A. In this study, we investigated the target amino acid residues of SET phosphorylated by PKD2 and the effects of phosphorylation of SET on PP2A phosphatase activity. In vitro kinase assay using various recombinant SET mutants having Ser/Thr to Ala substitutions revealed that Ser171 of SET is one of the sites phosphorylated by PKD2. Recombinant SET with phosphorylation-mimic Ser171 to Glu substitution reduced its inhibitory effects on PP2A phosphatase activity compared with Ser171 to Ala substituted or wild-type SET. In addition, knockdown of PKD2 in Jurkat cells by RNAi or treatment of human CD4(+ T cell clone with the PKD2 inhibitor Gö6976 resulted in reduced PP2A activity after TCR-stimulation judged from phosphorylation status of Tyr307 of the catalytic subunit of PP2A. These results suggest that PKD2 is involved in the regulation of PP2A activity in activated T cells through phosphorylation of Ser171 of SET.

  5. Protein phosphatases and chromatin modifying complexes in the inflammatory cascade in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Escobar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and death due to multiple organ failure. Acinar cells, together with leukocytes, trigger the inflammatory cascade in response to local damage of the pancreas. Amplification of the inflammatory cascade requires up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and this process is mediated not only by nuclear factor κB but also by chromatin modifying complexes and chromatin remodeling. Among the different families of histone acetyltransferases, the p300/CBP family seems to be particularly associated with the inflammatory process. cAMP activates gene expression via the cAMP-responsive element (CRE and the transcription factor CRE-binding protein (CREB. CREB can be phosphorylated and activated by different kinases, such as protein kinase A and MAPK, and then it recruits the histone acetyltransferase co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP and its homologue p300. The recruitment of CBP/p300 and changes in the level of histone acetylation are required for transcription activation. Transcriptional repression is also a dynamic and essential mechanism of down-regulation of genes for resolution of inflammation, which seems to be mediated mainly by protein phosphatases (PP1, PP2A and MKP1 and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Class II HDACs are key transcriptional regulators whose activities are controlled via phosphorylation-dependent nucleo/cytoplasmic shuttling. PP2A is responsible for dephosphorylation of class II HDACs, triggering nuclear localization and repression of target genes, whereas phosphorylation triggers cytoplasmic localization leading to activation of target genes. The potential benefit from treatment with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors is discussed.

  6. Protein phosphatases and chromatin modifying complexes in the inflammatory cascade in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Escobar; Javier; Pereda; Alessandro; Arduini; Juan; Sastre; Juan; Sandoval; Luis; Aparisi; Gerardo; López-Rodas; Luis; Sabater

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and death due to multiple organ failure. Acinar cells, together with leukocytes, trigger the inflammatory cascade in response to local damage of the pancreas. Amplification of the inflammatory cascade requires up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and this process is mediated not only by nuclear factor κB but also by chromatinmodifying complexes and chromatin remodeling. Among the different families of histone acetyltransferases, the p300/CBP family seems to be particularly associated with the inflammatory process. cAMP activates gene expression via the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) and the transcription factor CRE-binding protein (CREB). CREB can be phosphorylated and activated by different kinases, such as protein kinase A and MAPK, and then it recruits the histone acetyltransferase co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its homologue p300. The recruitment of CBP/p300 and changes in the level of histone acetylation are required for transcription activation. Transcriptional repression is also a dynamic and essential mechanism of down-regulation of genes for resolution of inflammation, which seems to be mediated mainly by protein phosphatases (PP1, PP2A and MKP1) and histone deacetylases(HDACs) .Class HDACs are key transcriptional regulators whose activities are controlled via phosphorylationdependent nucleo/cytoplasmic shuttling. PP2A is responsible for dephosphorylation of class HDACs, triggeringnuclear localization and repression of target genes, whereas phosphorylation triggers cytoplasmic localization leading to activation of target genes. The potential benefit from treatment with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors is discussed.

  7. Tau pathology involves protein phosphatase 2A in parkinsonism-dementia of Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mohammad; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Garruto, Ralph M; Iqbal, Khalid

    2014-01-21

    Parkinsonism-dementia (PD) of Guam is a neurodegenerative disease with parkinsonism and early-onset Alzheimer-like dementia associated with neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein, tau. β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been suspected of being involved in the etiology of PD, but the mechanism by which BMAA leads to tau hyperphosphorylation is not known. We found a decrease in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity associated with an increase in inhibitory phosphorylation of its catalytic subunit PP2Ac at Tyr(307) and abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau in brains of patients who had Guam PD. To test the possible involvement of BMAA in the etiopathogenesis of PD, we studied the effect of this environmental neurotoxin on PP2A activity and tau hyperphosphorylation in mouse primary neuronal cultures and metabolically active rat brain slices. BMAA treatment significantly decreased PP2A activity, with a concomitant increase in tau kinase activity resulting in elevated tau hyperphosphorylation at PP2A favorable sites. Moreover, we found an increase in the phosphorylation of PP2Ac at Tyr(307) in BMAA-treated rat brains. Pretreatment with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and Src antagonists blocked the BMAA-induced inhibition of PP2A and the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau, indicating the involvement of an Src-dependent PP2A pathway. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that BMAA treatment dissociated PP2Ac from mGluR5, making it available for phosphorylation at Tyr(307). These findings suggest a scenario in which BMAA can lead to tau pathology by inhibiting PP2A through the activation of mGluR5, the consequent release of PP2Ac from the mGluR5-PP2A complex, and its phosphorylation at Tyr(307) by Src. PMID:24395787

  8. Protein Phosphatase 2A Interacts with and Directly Dephosphorylates RelA*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jinming; Fan, Guo-Huang; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Richmond, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/Rel transcription factors are key regulators of a variety of genes involved in inflammatory responses, growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and development. There are increasing lines of evidence that NF-κB/Rel activity is controlled to a great extent by its phosphorylation state. In this study, we demonstrated that RelA physically associated with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) subunit A (PR65). Both the N- and C-terminal regions of RelA were responsible for the PP2A b...

  9. Recent progress on the structure of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG BaiJing; ZHANG Peng; WEI Quni

    2008-01-01

    PP1, PP2A and PP2B, belonging to the PPP family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, participate in regulating many important physiological processes, such as cell cycle control, regulation of cell growth and division regulation, etc. The sequence homology between them is relatively high, and ter-tiary structure is conserved. Because of the complexity of the structure of PP2A and the diversity of its regulatory subunits, its structure is less well known than those of PP1 and PP2B. The PP2A holoen-zyme consists of a heterodimeric core enzyme, comprising a scaffolding subunit and a catalytic sub-unit, as well as a variable regulatory subunit. In this study, the subunit compositions, similarities and differences between the Ser/Thr protein phsphatases structures are summarized.

  10. Identification of an alkaline phosphatase as a putative Cry1Ac binding protein in Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoli; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-07-01

    Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, is an important insect pest of maize susceptible to different Cry1A toxins. Based on amino acid sequence alignment of ALP sequences from lepidopteran larvae an alp gene was cloned from ACB, named ofalp. Pull dawn assays using biotinylated Cry1Ac and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from second instar ACB larvae showed that four proteins of 50, 65, 68 and 70kDa precipitated with the Cry1Ac. The 65kDa band cross-reacted with the anti-OfALP monoclonal antibody. GalNac was able to release the binding of Cry1Ac to the 65kDa OfALP in pull down assays. A 37kDa fragment from residues D173 to D473 of OfALP was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. We show that this ALP-fragment was able to bind Cry1Ac in ligand blot analysis. Our data also indicate that different ALP isoforms or variants may be also Cry1Ac binding proteins since more ALP enzymatic activity was pull down with Cry1Ac than with anti-OfALP antibody. We also analyzed the expression levels of ALP throughout the larval development by qPCR and ALP enzymatic activity. Our data indicated that ALP expression in ACB was observed preferentially in young instar larvae. Finally, we show that resistance in O. furnacalis ACB-AcR strain resistant to Cry1Ac did not correlate with changes in expression of this ALP protein since it shows similar gene expression of ofalp than the susceptible insect strain. Identification of Cry1Ac receptors will help to understand mechanism of action of Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis and to understand mechanism of Cry toxin resistance. Our data indicate that at least one ALP protein is involved in the binding interaction with Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis. PMID:27265829

  11. Searching for the role of protein phosphatases in eukaryotic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da-Silva A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for specific protein substrates together with differential sensitivity to activators and inhibitors has allowed classification of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs into four major types designated types 1, 2A, 2B and 2C (PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP2C, respectively. Comparison of sequences within their catalytic domains has indicated that PP1, PP2A and PP2B are members of the same gene family named PPP. On the other hand, the type 2C enzyme does not share sequence homology with the PPP members and thus represents another gene family, known as PPM. In this report we briefly summarize some of our studies about the role of serine/threonine phosphatases in growth and differentiation of three different eukaryotic models: Blastocladiella emersonii, Neurospora crassa and Dictyostelium discoideum. Our observations suggest that PP2C is the major phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of amidotransferase, an enzyme that controls cell wall synthesis during Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. We also report the existence of a novel acid- and thermo-stable protein purified from Neurospora crassa mycelia, which specifically inhibits the PP1 activity of this fungus and mammals. Finally, we comment on our recent results demonstrating that Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a gene that codes for PP1, although this activity has never been demonstrated biochemically in this organism.

  12. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates central sensitization in the spinal cord of rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hind paw of rats induces spinal cord central sensititzation, a process in which the responsiveness of central nociceptive neurons is amplified. In central sensitization, many signal transduction pathways composed of several cascades of intracellular enzymes are involved. As the phosphorylation state of neuronal proteins is strictly controlled and balanced by the opposing activities of protein kinases and phosphatases, the involvement of phosphatases in these events needs to be investigated. This study is designed to determine the influence of serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A on the central nociceptive amplification process, which is induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Results In experiment 1, the expression of PP2A protein in rat spinal cord at different time points following capsaicin or vehicle injection was examined using the Western blot method. In experiment 2, an inhibitor of PP2A (okadaic acid, 20 nM or fostriecin, 30 nM was injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, and the spontaneous exploratory activity of the rats before and after capsaicin injection was recorded with an automated photobeam activity system. The results showed that PP2A protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly upregulated following intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Capsaicin injection caused a significant decrease in exploratory activity of the rats. Thirty minutes after the injection, this decrease in activity had partly recovered. Infusion of a phosphatase inhibitor into the spinal cord intrathecal space enhanced the central sensitization induced by capsaicin by making the decrease in movement last longer. Conclusion These findings indicate that PP2A plays an important role in the cellular mechanisms of spinal cord central sensitization induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats, which may have implications in

  13. Structure-Function Analysis of PPP1R3D, a Protein Phosphatase 1 Targeting Subunit, Reveals a Binding Motif for 14-3-3 Proteins which Regulates its Glycogenic Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rubio-Villena

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 is one of the major protein phosphatases in eukaryotic cells. It plays a key role in regulating glycogen synthesis, by dephosphorylating crucial enzymes involved in glycogen homeostasis such as glycogen synthase (GS and glycogen phosphorylase (GP. To play this role, PP1 binds to specific glycogen targeting subunits that, on one hand recognize the substrates to be dephosphorylated and on the other hand recruit PP1 to glycogen particles. In this work we have analyzed the functionality of the different protein binding domains of one of these glycogen targeting subunits, namely PPP1R3D (R6 and studied how binding properties of different domains affect its glycogenic properties. We have found that the PP1 binding domain of R6 comprises a conserved RVXF motif (R102VRF located at the N-terminus of the protein. We have also identified a region located at the C-terminus of R6 (W267DNND that is involved in binding to the PP1 glycogenic substrates. Our results indicate that although binding to PP1 and glycogenic substrates are independent processes, impairment of any of them results in lack of glycogenic activity of R6. In addition, we have characterized a novel site of regulation in R6 that is involved in binding to 14-3-3 proteins (RARS74LP. We present evidence indicating that when binding of R6 to 14-3-3 proteins is prevented, R6 displays hyper-glycogenic activity although is rapidly degraded by the lysosomal pathway. These results define binding to 14-3-3 proteins as an additional pathway in the control of the glycogenic properties of R6.

  14. Nuclear Export and Centrosome Targeting of the Protein Phosphatase 2A Subunit B56α: ROLE OF B56α IN NUCLEAR EXPORT OF THE CATALYTIC SUBUNIT*

    OpenAIRE

    Flegg, Cameron P.; Sharma, Manisha; Medina-Palazon, Cahora; Jamieson, Cara; Galea, Melanie; Brocardo, Mariana G.; Mills, Kate; Henderson, Beric R.

    2010-01-01

    Protein phosphatase (PP) 2A is a heterotrimeric enzyme regulated by specific subunits. The B56 (or B′/PR61/PPP2R5) class of B-subunits direct PP2A or its substrates to different cellular locations, and the B56α, -β, and -ϵ isoforms are known to localize primarily in the cytoplasm. Here we studied the pathways that regulate B56α subcellular localization. We detected B56α in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and at the nuclear envelope and centrosomes, and show that cytoplasmic localization is depende...

  15. Spatial control of protein phosphatase 2A (de)methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reversible methylation of the protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC) is an important regulatory mechanism playing a crucial role in the selective recruitment of regulatory B subunits. Here, we investigated the subcellular localization of leucine carboxyl methyltransferase (LCMT1) and protein phosphatase methylesterase (PME-1), the two enzymes catalyzing this process. The results show that PME-1 is predominantly localized in the nucleus and harbors a functional nuclear localization signal, whereas LCMT1 is underrepresented in the nucleus and mainly localizes to the cytoplasm, Golgi region and late endosomes. Indirect immunofluorescence with methylation-sensitive anti-PP2AC antibodies revealed a good correlation with the methylation status of PP2AC, demethylated PP2AC being substantially nuclear. Throughout mitosis, demethylated PP2AC is associated with the mitotic spindle and during cytokinesis with the cleavage furrow. Overexpression of PME-1, but not of an inactive mutant, results in increased demethylation of PP2AC in the nucleus, whereas overexpression of a cytoplasmic PME-1 mutant lacking the NLS results in increased demethylation in the cytoplasm-in all cases, however, without any obvious functional consequences. PME-1 associates with an inactive PP2A population, regardless of its esterase activity or localization. We propose that stabilization of this inactive, nuclear PP2A pool is a major in vivo function of PME-1

  16. The phosphatase activity of the isolated H4-H5 loop of Na+/K+ ATPase resides outside its ATP binding site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 19 (2004), s. 3923-3939. ISSN 0014-2956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; MSM113100003 Keywords : phosphatase Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.260, year: 2004

  17. Protein phosphatase 2A plays a critical role in interleukin-2-induced beta 2-integrin dependent homotypic adhesion in human CD4+ T cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A;

    1997-01-01

    Besides its function as a growth factor for T lymphocytes, interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces beta 2-integrin mediated adhesion, migration, and extravasation of T lymphocytes. It is, however, largely unknown how IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) are coupled to the beta 2-integrin adhesion pathway. Because IL-2...... modulates enzymatic activity and/or subcellular distribution of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1/PP2A) in T cells, we examined the role of these phosphatases in IL-2 induced homotypic adhesion in antigen specific human CD4+ T cell lines. We show that calyculin A, a potent inhibitor of PP1 and PP2...... inhibitory effect on cytokine induced adhesion at concentrations which strongly inhibited phosphatase activity. In conclusion, these data provide evidence that PP2A plays a critical role in IL-2-induced beta 2-integrin-dependent adhesion of human T cell lines....

  18. Suspension survival mediated by PP2A-STAT3-Col XVII determines tumour initiation and metastasis in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chi; Lin, Shih-Pei; Hsu, Han-Shui; Yang, Shung-Haur; Lin, Chiu-Hua; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Hung, Mien-Chie; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Targeting tumour-initiating cells (TICs) would lead to new therapies to cure cancer. We previously demonstrated that TICs have the capacity to survive under suspension conditions, while other cells undergo anoikis. Here we show that TICs exhibit increased phosphorylation levels of S727STAT3 because of PP2A inactivation. Collagen 17 gene expression is upregulated in a STAT3-dependent manner, which also stabilizes laminin 5 and engages cells to form hemidesmosome-like junctions in response. Blocking the PP2A-S727STAT3-collagen 17 pathway inhibits the suspension survival of TICs and their ability to form tumours in mice, while activation of the same pathway increases the suspension survival and tumour-initiation capacities of bulk cancer cells. The S727STAT3 phosphorylation levels correlate with collagen 17 expression in colon tumour samples, and correlate inversely with survival. Finally, this signalling axis enhances the ability of TIC to form tumours in mouse models of malignant lung cancer pleural effusion and spontaneous colon cancer metastasis. PMID:27306323

  19. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on ...

  20. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signals by clearing released NE at synapses. NET regulation by receptors and intracellular signaling pathways is supported by a growing list of associated proteins including syntaxin1A, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A-C), PICK1, and Hic-5. In the present study, we sought evidence for additional partnerships by mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with human NET (hNET) stably expressed in a mouse noradrenergic neuroblastoma cell line. Our initial proteomic analyses reveal multiple peptides derived from hNET, peptides arising from the mouse PP2A anchoring subunit (PP2A-Ar) and peptides derived from 14-3-3 proteins. We verified physical association of NET with PP2A-Ar via co-immunoprecipitation studies using mouse vas deferens extracts and with 14-3-3 via a fusion pull-down approach, implicating specifically the hNET NH2-terminus for interactions. The transporter complexes described likely support mechanisms regulating transporter activity, localization, and trafficking

  1. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  2. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, Siva R K; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L

    2016-02-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  3. Phosphatases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Alois; Meskiene, Irute

    2015-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is an essential posttranslational modification mechanism executed by opposing actions of protein phosphatases and protein kinases. About 1,000 predicted kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana kinome predominate the number of protein phosphatases, of which there are only ~150 members in Arabidopsis. Protein phosphatases were often referred to as "housekeeping" enzymes, which act to keep eukaryotic systems in balance by counteracting the activity of protein kinases. However, recent investigations reveal the crucial and specific regulatory functions of phosphatases in cell signaling. Phosphatases operate in a coordinated manner with the protein kinases, to execute their important function in determining the cellular response to a physiological stimulus. Closer examination has established high specificity of phosphatases in substrate recognition and important roles in plant signaling pathways, such as pathogen defense and stress regulation, light and hormonal signaling, cell cycle and differentiation, metabolism, and plant growth. In this minireview we provide a compact overview about Arabidopsis protein phosphatase families, as well as members of phosphoglucan and lipid phosphatases, and highlight the recent discoveries in phosphatase research. PMID:25930691

  4. Glucose-induced repression of PPARalpha gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells involves PP2A activation and AMPK inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjaer, Kim; Boergesen, Michael; Dalgaard, Louise T;

    2006-01-01

    mechanism underlying this transcriptional repression by glucose remains unclear. Here we report that glucose-induced repression of PPARalpha gene expression in INS-1E cells is independent of beta-cell excitation and insulin secretion but requires activation of protein phosphatase 2A in a process involving...... AMPKalpha1 using RNAi suppressed PPARalpha expression, thereby mimicking the effect of glucose. These results indicate that activation of protein phosphatase 2A and subsequent inactivation of AMPK is necessary for glucose repression of PPARalpha expression in pancreatic beta-cells....

  5. Structural mechanisms of plant glucan phosphatases in starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, David A; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gentry, Matthew S

    2016-07-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered class of enzymes that dephosphorylate starch and glycogen, thereby regulating energy metabolism. Plant genomes encode two glucan phosphatases, called Starch EXcess4 (SEX4) and Like Sex Four2 (LSF2), that regulate starch metabolism by selectively dephosphorylating glucose moieties within starch glucan chains. Recently, the structures of both SEX4 and LSF2 were determined, with and without phosphoglucan products bound, revealing the mechanism for their unique activities. This review explores the structural and enzymatic features of the plant glucan phosphatases, and outlines how they are uniquely adapted to perform their cellular functions. We outline the physical mechanisms used by SEX4 and LSF2 to interact with starch glucans: SEX4 binds glucan chains via a continuous glucan-binding platform comprising its dual-specificity phosphatase domain and carbohydrate-binding module, while LSF2 utilizes surface binding sites. SEX4 and LSF2 both contain a unique network of aromatic residues in their catalytic dual-specificity phosphatase domains that serve as glucan engagement platforms and are unique to the glucan phosphatases. We also discuss the phosphoglucan substrate specificities inherent to SEX4 and LSF2, and outline structural features within the active site that govern glucan orientation. This review defines the structural mechanism of the plant glucan phosphatases with respect to phosphatases, starch metabolism and protein-glucan interaction, thereby providing a framework for their application in both agricultural and industrial settings. PMID:26934589

  6. Survival of cancer stem cells under hypoxia and serum depletion via decrease in PP2A activity and activation of p38-MAPKAPK2-Hsp27.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Pei Lin

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and serum depletion are common features of solid tumors that occur upon antiangiogenesis, irradiation and chemotherapy across a wide variety of malignancies. Here we show that tumor cells expressing CD133, a marker for colorectal cancer initiating or stem cells, are enriched and survive under hypoxia and serum depletion conditions, whereas CD133- cells undergo apoptosis. CD133+ tumor cells increase cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition properties. Moreover, via screening a panel of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase pathways, we identified Hsp27 is constitutively activated in CD133+ cells rather than CD133- cell under hypoxia and serum depletion conditions. However, there was no difference in Hsp27 activation between CD133+ and CD133- cells under normal growth condition. Hsp27 activation, which was mediated by the p38MAPK-MAPKAPK2-Hsp27 pathway, is required for CD133+ cells to inhibit caspase 9 and 3 cleavage. In addition, inhibition of Hsp27 signaling sensitizes CD133+ cells to hypoxia and serum depletion -induced apoptosis. Moreover, the antiapoptotic pathway is also activated in spheroid culture-enriched CD133+ cancer stem cells from a variety of solid tumor cells including lung, brain and oral cancer, suggesting it is a common pathway activated in cancer stem cells from multiple tumor types. Thus, activation of PP2A or inactivation of the p38MAPK-MAPKAPK2-Hsp27 pathway may develop new strategies for cancer therapy by suppression of their TIC population.

  7. Free Fatty Acids Inhibit Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B and Activate Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Shibata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Accumulating evidence has suggested that free fatty acids (FFAs interact with protein kinases and protein phosphatases. The present study examined the effect of FFAs on protein phosphatases and Akt. Methods: Activities of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B were assayed under the cell-free conditions. Phosphorylation of Akt was monitored in MSTO-211H human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells without and with knocking-down phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K or 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1. Results: In the cell-free assay, unsaturated FFAs (uFFAs such as oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid and saturated FFAs (sFFAs such as stearic, palmitic, myristic, and behenic acid markedly reduced PTP1B activity, with the potential for uFFAs greater than that for sFFAs. All the investigated sFFAs inhibited PP2A activity, but otherwise no inhibition was obtained with uFFAs. Both uFFAs and sFFAs had no effect on PP1 activity. Oleic acid phosphorylated Akt both on Thr308 and Ser473, while stearic acid phosphorylated Akt on Thr308 alone. The effects of oleic and stearic acid on Akt phosphorylation were abrogated by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or the PDK1 inhibitor BX912 and also by knocking-down PI3K or PDK1. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that uFFAs and sFFAs could activate Akt through a pathway along a PI3K/PDK1/Akt axis in association with PTP1B inhibition.

  8. Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits perform distinct functional roles in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joon-Hee; Kim, Jung-Eun; Malapi-Wight, Martha; Choi, Yoon-E; Shaw, Brian D; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-06-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize causing ear rot and stalk rot. The fungus also produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins linked to disorders in animals and humans. A cluster of genes, designated FUM genes, plays a key role in the synthesis of fumonisins. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of fumonisin biosynthesis is still incomplete. We have demonstrated previously that Cpp1, a protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit, negatively regulates fumonisin production and is involved in cell shape maintenance. In general, three PP2A subunits, structural A, regulatory B and catalytic C, make up a heterotrimer complex to perform regulatory functions. Significantly, we identified two PP2A regulatory subunits in the F. verticillioides genome, Ppr1 and Ppr2, which are homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc55 and Rts1, respectively. In this study, we hypothesized that Ppr1 and Ppr2 are involved in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and/or cell development in F. verticillioides, and generated a series of mutants to determine the functional role of Ppr1 and Ppr2. The PPR1 deletion strain (Δppr1) resulted in drastic growth defects, but increased microconidia production. The PPR2 deletion mutant strain (Δppr2) showed elevated fumonisin production, similar to the Δcpp1 strain. Germinating Δppr1 conidia formed abnormally swollen cells with a central septation site, whereas Δppr2 showed early hyphal branching during conidia germination. A kernel rot assay showed that the mutants were slow to colonize kernels, but this is probably a result of growth defects rather than a virulence defect. Results from this study suggest that two PP2A regulatory subunits in F. verticillioides carry out distinct roles in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and fungal development. PMID:23452277

  9. A KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein Interacts with FIERY2/CTD Phosphatase-Like 1 and Splicing Factors and Is Important for Pre-mRNA Splicing in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2013-10-17

    Eukaryotic genomes encode hundreds of RNA-binding proteins, yet the functions of most of these proteins are unknown. In a genetic study of stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis, we identified a K homology (KH)-domain RNA-binding protein, HOS5 (High Osmotic Stress Gene Expression 5), as required for stress gene regulation and stress tolerance. HOS5 was found to interact with FIERY2/RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (FRY2/CPL1) both in vitro and in vivo. This interaction is mediated by the first double-stranded RNA-binding domain of FRY2/CPL1 and the KH domains of HOS5. Interestingly, both HOS5 and FRY2/CPL1 also interact with two novel serine-arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors, RS40 and RS41, in nuclear speckles. Importantly, FRY2/CPL1 is required for the recruitment of HOS5. In fry2 mutants, HOS5 failed to be localized in nuclear speckles but was found mainly in the nucleoplasm. hos5 mutants were impaired in mRNA export and accumulated a significant amount of mRNA in the nuclei, particularly under salt stress conditions. Arabidopsis mutants of all these genes exhibit similar stress-sensitive phenotypes. RNA-seq analyses of these mutants detected significant intron retention in many stress-related genes under salt stress but not under normal conditions. Our study not only identified several novel regulators of pre-mRNA processing as important for plant stress response but also suggested that, in addition to RNAP II CTD that is a well-recognized platform for the recruitment of mRNA processing factors, FRY2/CPL1 may also recruit specific factors to regulate the co-transcriptional processing of certain transcripts to deal with environmental challenges. © 2013 Chen et al.

  10. Diversity in genomic organisation, developmental regulation and distribution of the murine PR72/B" subunits of protein phosphatase 2A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens Veerle

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a serine/threonine-specific phosphatase displaying vital functions in growth and development through its role in various signalling pathways. PP2A holoenzymes comprise a core dimer composed of a catalytic C and a structural A subunit, which can associate with a variable B-type subunit. The importance of the B-type subunits for PP2A regulation cannot be overestimated as they determine holoenzyme localisation, activity and substrate specificity. Three B-type subunit families have been identified: PR55/B, PR61/B' and PR72/B", of which the latter is currently the least characterised. Results We deduced the sequences and genomic organisation of the different murine PR72/B" isoforms: three genes encode nine isoforms, five of which are abundantly expressed and give rise to genuine PP2A subunits. Thereby, one novel subunit was identified. Using Northern blotting, we examined the tissue-specific and developmental expression of these subunits. All subunits are highly expressed in heart, suggesting an important cardiac function. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a striated expression pattern of PR72 and PR130 in heart and skeletal muscle, but not in bladder smooth muscle. The subcellular localisation and cell cycle regulatory ability of several PR72/B" isoforms were determined, demonstrating differences as well as similarities. Conclusion In contrast to PR55/B and PR61/B', the PR72/B" family seems evolutionary more divergent, as only two of the murine genes have a human orthologue. We have integrated these results in a more consistent nomenclature of both human and murine PR72/B" genes and their transcripts/proteins. Our results provide a platform for the future generation of PR72/B" knockout mice.

  11. ROTUNDA3 function in plant development by phosphatase 2A-mediated regulation of auxin transporter recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelias, Michael; Neyt, Pia; De Groeve, Steven; Aesaert, Stijn; Coussens, Griet; Rolčík, Jakub; Bruno, Leonardo; De Winne, Nancy; Van Minnebruggen, Annemie; Van Montagu, Marc; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis; Friml, Jiří; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    The shaping of organs in plants depends on the intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin, of which the directional signaling is determined by the polar subcellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins. Phosphorylation dynamics of PIN proteins are affected by the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and the PINOID kinase, which act antagonistically to mediate their apical–basal polar delivery. Here, we identified the ROTUNDA3 (RON3) protein as a regulator of the PP2A phosphatase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The RON3 gene was map-based cloned starting from the ron3-1 leaf mutant and found to be a unique, plant-specific gene coding for a protein with high and dispersed proline content. The ron3-1 and ron3-2 mutant phenotypes [i.e., reduced apical dominance, primary root length, lateral root emergence, and growth; increased ectopic stages II, IV, and V lateral root primordia; decreased auxin maxima in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-treated root apical meristems; hypergravitropic root growth and response; increased IAA levels in shoot apices; and reduced auxin accumulation in root meristems] support a role for RON3 in auxin biology. The affinity-purified PP2A complex with RON3 as bait suggested that RON3 might act in PIN transporter trafficking. Indeed, pharmacological interference with vesicle trafficking processes revealed that single ron3-2 and double ron3-2 rcn1 mutants have altered PIN polarity and endocytosis in specific cells. Our data indicate that RON3 contributes to auxin-mediated development by playing a role in PIN recycling and polarity establishment through regulation of the PP2A complex activity. PMID:26888284

  12. Crystal Structure of Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), a Putative Membrane-Bound Lipid Phosphatase, Reveals a Novel Binuclear Metal Binding Site and Two Proton Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran,D.; Bonnano, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, catalyzes formation of phosphatidylglycerol from phosphatidylglycerophosphate. Phosphatidylglycerol is a multifunctional phospholipid, found in the biological membranes of many organisms. Here, we report the crystal structure of Listeria monocytogenes PGPase at 1.8 Angstroms resolution. PGPase, an all-helical molecule, forms a homotetramer. Each protomer contains an independent active site with two metal ions, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, forming a hetero-binuclear center located in a hydrophilic cavity near the surface of the molecule. The binuclear center, conserved ligands, metal-bound water molecules, and an Asp-His dyad form the active site. The catalytic mechanism of this enzyme is likely to proceed via binuclear metal activated nucleophilic water. The binuclear metal-binding active-site environment of this structure should provide insights into substrate binding and metal-dependent catalysis. A long channel with inter-linked linear water chains, termed 'proton wires', is observed at the tetramer interface. Comparison of similar water chain structures in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs), Cytochrome f, gramicidin, and bacteriorhodopsin, suggests that PGPase may conduct protons via proton wires.

  13. Activation of ERK/IER3/PP2A-B56γ-positive feedback loop in lung adenocarcinoma by allelic deletion of B56γ gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoko; Ozaki, Satoru; Chanasong, Rachanee; Mizutani, Yuki; Oyama, Takeru; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Isao; Takemura, Hirofumi; Kawahara, Ei

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate the involvement of the IER3/PP2A-B56γ/ERK-positive feedback loop, which leads to sustained phosphorylation/activation of ERK in carcinogenesis, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of IER3 and phosphorylated ERK in lung tumor tissues. IER3 was overexpressed in all cases of adenocarcinomas examined, but was not overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas. Phosphorylated ERK (pERK) was also overexpressed in almost all adenocarcinomas. EGFR and RAS, whose gene product is located upstream of ERK, were sequenced. Activating mutation of EGFR, which is a possible cause of overexpression of IER3 and pERK, was found only in 5 adenocarcinomas (42%). No mutation of RAS was found. We further examined the sequences of all exons of B56γ gene (PPP2R5C) and IER3, but no mutation was found. Using a single nucleotide insertion in intron 1 of PPP2R5C, which was found in the process of sequencing, allelic deletion of PPP2R5C was examined. Eight cases were informative (67%), and the deletion was found in 4 of them (50%). Three cases having deletion of PPP2R5C did not have EGFR mutation. Finally, PPP2R5C deletion or EGFR mutation that could be responsible for IER3/pERK overexpression was found in at least 8 cases (67% or more). This is the first report of a high incidence of deletion of PPP2R5C in human carcinomas. PMID:26986830

  14. Theophylline Represses IL-8 Secretion from Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Independently of Phosphodiesterase Inhibition. Novel Role as a Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Rumzhum, Nowshin N; Oliver, Brian G; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-06-01

    Theophylline is an old drug experiencing a renaissance owing to its beneficial antiinflammatory effects in chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multiple modes of antiinflammatory action have been reported, including inhibition of the enzymes that degrade cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE). Using primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we recently revealed that PDE4 inhibitors can potentiate the antiinflammatory action of β2-agonists by augmenting cAMP-dependent expression of the phosphatase that deactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address whether theophylline repressed cytokine production in a similar, PDE-dependent, MKP-1-mediated manner. Notably, theophylline did not potentiate cAMP release from ASM cells treated with the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol. Moreover, theophylline (0.1-10 μM) did not increase formoterol-induced MKP-1 messenger RNA expression nor protein up-regulation, consistent with the lack of cAMP generation. However, theophylline (at 10 μM) was antiinflammatory and repressed secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant cytokine IL-8, which is produced in response to TNF-α. Because theophylline's effects were independent of PDE4 inhibition or antiinflammatory MKP-1, we then wished to elucidate the novel mechanisms responsible. We investigated the impact of theophylline on protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, a master controller of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways, and show that theophylline increases TNF-α-induced PP2A activity in ASM cells. Confirmatory results were obtained in A549 lung epithelial cells. PP2A activators have beneficial effects in ex vivo and in vivo models of respiratory disease. Thus, our study is the first to link theophylline with PP2A activation as a novel mechanism to control respiratory inflammation. PMID:26574643

  15. A mutation in protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A affects auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, C.; DeLong, A.; Deruere, J.; Bernasconi, P.; Soll, D.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood. Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and other inhibitors of auxin transport block tropic curvature responses and inhibit root and shoot elongation. We have isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant designated roots curl in NPA (rcn1). Mutant seedlings exhibit altered responses to NPA in root curling and hypocotyl elongation. Auxin efflux in mutant seedlings displays increased sensitivity to NPA. The rcn1 mutation was transferred-DNA (T-DNA) tagged and sequences flanking the T-DNA insert were cloned. Analysis of the RCN1 cDNA reveals that the T-DNA insertion disrupts a gene for the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-A). The RCN1 gene rescues the rcn1 mutant phenotype and also complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PP2A-A mutation, tpd3-1. These data implicate protein phosphatase 2A in the regulation of auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

  16. HSP105 recruits protein phosphatase 2A to dephosphorylate β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nancy; Kakunda, Michael; Pham, Victoria; Lill, Jennie R; Du, Pan; Wongchenko, Matthew; Yan, Yibing; Firestein, Ron; Huang, XiaoDong

    2015-04-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway causes accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus to initiate the transcription of the target genes. Without Wnt stimulation, β-catenin forms a complex with axin (axis inhibitor), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and undergoes phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), interestingly, also are components of this degradation complex; therefore, a balance must be reached between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. How this balance is regulated is largely unknown. Here we show that a heat shock protein, HSP105, is a previously unidentified component of the β-catenin degradation complex. HSP105 is required for Wnt signaling, since depletion of HSP105 compromises β-catenin accumulation and target gene transcription upon Wnt stimulation. Mechanistically, HSP105 depletion disrupts the integration of PP2A into the β-catenin degradation complex, favoring the hyperphosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin. HSP105 is overexpressed in many types of tumors, correlating with increased nuclear β-catenin protein levels and Wnt target gene upregulation. Furthermore, overexpression of HSP105 is a prognostic biomarker that correlates with poor overall survival in breast cancer patients as well as melanoma patients participating in the BRIM2 clinical study. PMID:25645927

  17. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2, one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. Results The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. Conclusions The repression in phloem-feeding activities of

  18. Cdc14 phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machín, Félix; Quevedo Rodriguez, Oliver; Ramos-Pérez, Cristina;

    2016-01-01

    Cycling events in nature start and end to restart again and again. In the cell cycle, whose purpose is to become two where there was only one, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the beginning and, therefore, phosphatases must play a role in the ending. Since CDKs are drivers of the cell cycle...

  19. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S; Winkler, K; Jørgensen, J O; Christiansen, J S; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset....../l after 4 months of GH treatment (p <0.0001). In addition, the molar ratio between IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increased significantlyfrom 0.22 to 0.33 after GH treatment (p <0.0001). Bone alkaline phosphatase increased significantly from 38.6 to 92.9 U/l during GH therapy in male patients (p <0.0001), whereas...... liver-derived alkaline phosphatase was unaltered by GH. In the females, the increase in bone alkaline phosphatase did not reach statistical significance (19.1 vs 40.0 U/l, p = 0.06). The GH-induced increase in bone alkaline phosphatase correlated significantly with the increase in serum IGFBP-3 (r = 0...

  20. microRNA-183 plays as oncogenes by increasing cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting protein phosphatase 2A in renal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues. • Inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed renal cancer cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 regulated renal cancer cell growth and metastasis via directly targeting tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-183 in renal cancer cells and the mechanisms miR-183 regulates this process. In this study, level of miR-183 in clinical renal cancer specimens was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. miR-183 was up- and down-regulated in two renal cancer cell lines ACHN and A498, respectively, and cell proliferation, Caspase 3/7 activity, colony formation, in vitro migration and invasion were measured; and then the mechanisms of miR-183 regulating was analyzed. We found that miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues; inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion and stimulated Caspase 3/7 activity; up-regulated miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis and suppressed Caspase 3/7 activity. We also found that miR-183 directly targeted tumor suppressor, specifically the 3′UTR of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Cα, PP2A-Cβ, and PP2A-B56-γ) transcripts, inhibiting their expression and regulated the downstream regulators p21, p27, MMP2/3/7 and TIMP1/2/3/4. These results revealed the oncogenes role of miR-183 in renal cancer cells via direct targeting protein phosphatase 2A

  1. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Štefková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells.

  2. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  3. Development of a gene therapy strategy to target hepatocellular carcinoma based inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A using the α-fetoprotein promoter enhancer and pgk promoter: an in vitro and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current therapies are insufficient, making HCC an intractable disease. Our previous studies confirmed that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Unfortunately, constitutive expression of PP2A in normal tissues limits the application of PP2A inhibition. Thus, a HCC-specific gene delivery system should be developed. The α-fetoprotein (AFP promoter is commonly used in HCC-specific gene therapy strategies; however, the utility of this approach is limited due to the weak activity of the AFP promoter. It has been shown that linking the AFP enhancer with the promoter of the non-tissue-specific, human housekeeping phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk gene can generate a strong and HCC-selective promoter. Methods We constructed a HCC-specific gene therapy system to target PP2A using the AFP enhancer/pgk promoter, and evaluated the efficiency and specificity of this system both in vitro and in vivo. Results AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of the dominant negative form of the PP2A catalytic subunit α (DN-PP2Acα exerted cytotoxic effects against an AFP-positive human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B, but did not affect AFP-negative human hepatoma cells (SK-HEP-1 or normal human liver cells (L-02. Moreover, AFP enhancer/pgk promoter driven expression of DN-PP2Acα inhibited the growth of AFP-positive HepG2 tumors in nude mice bearing solid tumor xenografts, but did not affect AFP-negative SK-HEP-1 tumors. Conclusions The novel approach of AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of DN-PP2Acα may provide a useful cancer gene therapy strategy to selectively target HCC.

  4. Development of a gene therapy strategy to target hepatocellular carcinoma based inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A using the α-fetoprotein promoter enhancer and pgk promoter: an in vitro and in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current therapies are insufficient, making HCC an intractable disease. Our previous studies confirmed that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Unfortunately, constitutive expression of PP2A in normal tissues limits the application of PP2A inhibition. Thus, a HCC-specific gene delivery system should be developed. The α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter is commonly used in HCC-specific gene therapy strategies; however, the utility of this approach is limited due to the weak activity of the AFP promoter. It has been shown that linking the AFP enhancer with the promoter of the non-tissue-specific, human housekeeping phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) gene can generate a strong and HCC-selective promoter. We constructed a HCC-specific gene therapy system to target PP2A using the AFP enhancer/pgk promoter, and evaluated the efficiency and specificity of this system both in vitro and in vivo. AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of the dominant negative form of the PP2A catalytic subunit α (DN-PP2Acα) exerted cytotoxic effects against an AFP-positive human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B), but did not affect AFP-negative human hepatoma cells (SK-HEP-1) or normal human liver cells (L-02). Moreover, AFP enhancer/pgk promoter driven expression of DN-PP2Acα inhibited the growth of AFP-positive HepG2 tumors in nude mice bearing solid tumor xenografts, but did not affect AFP-negative SK-HEP-1 tumors. The novel approach of AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of DN-PP2Acα may provide a useful cancer gene therapy strategy to selectively target HCC

  5. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.; Emtage, S.; Dilorenzo, T.; Malashkevich, V.; Wasserman, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptional regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  7. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer. PMID:26916021

  8. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Sung Yong, E-mail: seum@miami.edu; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  9. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  10. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S; Winkler, K; Jørgensen, J O; Christiansen, J S; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    for 4 months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms...

  11. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor

  12. Structural Basis of Response Regulator Dephosphorylation by Rap Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Parashar; N Mirouze; D Dubnau; M Neiditch

    2011-12-31

    Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we present the RapH-Spo0F X-ray crystal structure, which shows that Rap proteins consist of a 3-helix bundle and a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Extensive biochemical and genetic functional studies reveal the importance of the observed RapH-Spo0F interactions, including the catalytic role of a glutamine in the RapH 3-helix bundle that inserts into the Spo0F active site. We show that in addition to dephosphorylating Spo0F, RapH can antagonize sporulation by sterically blocking phosphoryl transfer to and from Spo0F. Our structure-function analysis of the RapH-Spo0F interaction identified Rap protein residues critical for Spo0F phosphatase activity. This information enabled us to assign Spo0F phosphatase activity to a Rap protein based on sequence alone, which was not previously possible. Finally, as the ultimate test of our newfound understanding of the structural requirements for Rap phosphatase function, a non-phosphatase Rap protein that inhibits the binding of the response regulator ComA to DNA was rationally engineered to dephosphorylate Spo0F. In addition to revealing the mechanistic basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap proteins, our studies support the previously proposed T-loop-Y allostery model of receiver domain regulation that restricts the aromatic 'switch' residue to an internal position when the {beta}4-{alpha}4 loop adopts an active-site proximal conformation.

  13. Subcellular localization of alkaline phosphatase in Bacillus licheniformis 749/C by immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subcellular distribution of the alkaline phosphatase of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C was determined by an immunoelectron microscopy method. Anti-alkaline phosphatase antibody labeled with 15- to 18-nm colloidal gold particles (gold-immunoglobulin G [IgG] complex) were used for the study. Both the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic material were labeled with the gold-IgG particles. These particles formed clusters in association with the plasma membrane; in contrast, in the cytoplasm the particles were largely dispersed, and only a few clusters were found. The gold-IgG binding was quantitatively estimated by stereological analysis of labeled, frozen thin sections. This estimation of a variety of control samples showed that the labeling was specific for the alkaline phosphatase. Cluster formation of the gold -IgG particles in association with the plasma membrane suggests that existence of specific alkaline phosphatase binding sites (receptors) in the plasma membrane of B. licheniformis 749/C. 27 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  14. Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Is Expressed in Peptidergic and Nonpeptidergic Nociceptive Neurons of Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Zylka, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase, also known as Fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase or FRAP) is a classic histochemical marker of small- to medium-diameter dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and has primarily been studied in the rat. Previously, we found that TMPase was molecularly identical to Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) using mice. In addition, PAP was expressed in a majority of nonpeptidergic, isolectin B4-binding (IB4+) nociceptive neurons and a subset of peptidergic, calcitonin gene-...

  15. Catalytic DNA with phosphatase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekar, Jagadeeswaran; Silverman, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic DNA sequences (deoxyribozymes, DNA enzymes, or DNAzymes) have been identified by in vitro selection for various catalytic activities. Expanding the limits of DNA catalysis is an important fundamental objective and may facilitate practical utility of catalysts that can be obtained from entirely unbiased (random) sequence populations. In this study, we show that DNA can catalyze Zn2+-dependent phosphomonoester hydrolysis of tyrosine and serine side chains (i.e., exhibit phosphatase ac...

  16. Structure of the Arabidopsis glucan phosphatase like sex four2 reveals a unique mechanism for starch dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekins, David A; Guo, Hou-Fu; Husodo, Satrio; Paasch, Bradley C; Bridges, Travis M; Santelia, Diana; Kötting, Oliver; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gentry, Matthew S

    2013-06-01

    Starch is a water-insoluble, Glc-based biopolymer that is used for energy storage and is synthesized and degraded in a diurnal manner in plant leaves. Reversible phosphorylation is the only known natural starch modification and is required for starch degradation in planta. Critical to starch energy release is the activity of glucan phosphatases; however, the structural basis of dephosphorylation by glucan phosphatases is unknown. Here, we describe the structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana starch glucan phosphatase like sex four2 (LSF2) both with and without phospho-glucan product bound at 2.3Å and 1.65Å, respectively. LSF2 binds maltohexaose-phosphate using an aromatic channel within an extended phosphatase active site and positions maltohexaose in a C3-specific orientation, which we show is critical for the specific glucan phosphatase activity of LSF2 toward native Arabidopsis starch. However, unlike other starch binding enzymes, LSF2 does not possess a carbohydrate binding module domain. Instead we identify two additional glucan binding sites located within the core LSF2 phosphatase domain. This structure is the first of a glucan-bound glucan phosphatase and provides new insights into the molecular basis of this agriculturally and industrially relevant enzyme family as well as the unique mechanism of LSF2 catalysis, substrate specificity, and interaction with starch granules. PMID:23832589

  17. A new family of phosphoinositide phosphatases in microorganisms: identification and biochemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Hayley J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoinositide metabolism is essential to membrane dynamics and impinges on many cellular processes, including phagocytosis. Modulation of phosphoinositide metabolism is important for pathogenicity and virulence of many human pathogens, allowing them to survive and replicate in the host cells. Phosphoinositide phosphatases from bacterial pathogens are therefore key players in this modulation and constitute attractive targets for chemotherapy. MptpB, a virulence factor from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has phosphoinositide phosphatase activity and a distinct active site P-loop signature HCXXGKDR that shares characteristics with eukaryotic lipid phosphatases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. We used this P-loop signature as a "diagnostic motif" to identify related putative phosphatases with phosphoinositide activity in other organisms. Results We found more than 200 uncharacterised putative phosphatase sequences with the conserved signature in bacteria, with some related examples in fungi and protozoa. Many of the sequences identified belong to recognised human pathogens. Interestingly, no homologues were found in any other organisms including Archaea, plants, or animals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these proteins are unrelated to classic eukaryotic lipid phosphatases. However, biochemical characterisation of those from Listeria monocytogenes and Leishmania major, demonstrated that, like MptpB, they have phosphatase activity towards phosphoinositides. Mutagenesis studies established that the conserved Asp and Lys in the P-loop signature (HCXXGKDR are important in catalysis and substrate binding respectively. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence that the number of basic residues in the P-loop is critical in determining activity towards poly-phosphoinositides. Conclusion This new family of enzymes in microorganisms shows distinct sequence and biochemical characteristics to classic eukaryotic lipid phosphatases

  18. Calcineurin phosphatase activity and immunosuppression. A review on the role of calcineurin phosphatase activity and the immunosuppressive effect of cyclosporin A and tacrolimus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Anker; Koefoed-Nielsen, P.B.; Karamperis, N.

    2003-01-01

    The mode of immunosuppressive action of tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A has been elucidated. Both drugs bind to proteins in the cytoplasm to form complexes, which in turn inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin, an important limiting step in the activation of T cells. The association...

  19. Interaction of Protein Phosphatase 1δ with Nucleophosmin in Human Osteoblastic Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation has been recognized as an essential mechanism in the regulation of cellular metabolism and function in various tissues. Serine and threonine protein phosphatases (PP) are divided into four categories: PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C. At least four isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in rat, PP1α, PP1γ1, PP1γ2, and PP1δ, were isolated. In the present study, we examined the localization and expression of PP1δ in human osteoblastic Saos-2 cells. Anti-PP1δ antibody recognized a protein present in the nucleolar regions in Saos-2 cells. Cellular fractionation revealed that PP1δ is a 37 kDa protein localized in the nucleolus. Nucleophosmin is a nucleolar phosphoprotein and located mainly in the nucleolus. Staining pattern of nucleophosmin in Saos-2 cells was similar to that of PP1δ. PP1δ and nucleophosmin were specifically stained as dots in the nucleus. Dual fluorescence images revealed that PP1δ and nucleophosmin were localized in the same regions in the nucleolus. Similar distribution patterns of PP1δ and nucleophosmin were observed in osteoblastic MG63 cells. The interaction of PP1δ and nucleophosmin was also shown by immunoprecipitation and Western analysis. These results indicated that PP1δ associate with nucleophosmin directly in the nucleolus and suggested that nucleophosmin is one of the candidate substrate for PP1δ

  20. Beyond the Dopamine Receptor: Regulation and Roles of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven I Walaas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine plays an important modulatory role in the central nervous system, helping to control critical aspects of motor function and reward learning. Alteration in normal dopaminergic neurotransmission underlies multiple neurological diseases including schizophrenia, Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. Modulation of dopamine-regulated signaling pathways is also important in the addictive actions of most drugs of abuse. Our studies over the last 30 years have focused on the molecular actions of dopamine acting on medium spiny neurons, the predominant neurons of the neostriatum. Striatum-enriched phosphoproteins, particularly DARPP-32, RCS (Regulator of Calmodulin Signaling and ARPP-16, mediate pleiotropic actions of dopamine. Notably, each of these proteins, either directly or indirectly, regulates the activity of one of the three major subclasses of serine/threonine protein phosphatases, PP1, PP2B and PP2A, respectively. For example, phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 by protein kinase A results in potent inhibition of PP1, leading to potentiation of dopaminergic signaling at multiple steps from the dopamine receptor to the nucleus. The discovery of DARPP-32 and its emergence as a critical molecular integrator of striatal signaling will be discussed, as will more recent studies that highlight novel roles for RCS and ARPP-16 in dopamine-regulated striatal signaling pathways.

  1. Microcystin-LR induces mitotic spindle assembly disorders in Vicia faba by protein phosphatase inhibition and not reactive oxygen species induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garda, Tamás; Kónya, Zoltán; Tándor, Ildikó; Beyer, Dániel; Vasas, Gábor; Erdődi, Ferenc; Vereb, György; Papp, Georgina; Riba, Milán; M-Hamvas, Márta; Máthé, Csaba

    2016-07-20

    We aimed to reveal the mechanisms of mitotic spindle anomalies induced by microcystin-LR (MCY-LR), a cyanobacterial toxin in Vicia faba, a well-known model in plant cell and molecular biology. MCY-LR inhibits type 1 and 2A phosphoserine/threonine specific protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. The cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of the cyanotoxin during cytopathogenesis. Histochemical-immunohistochemical and biochemical methods were used. A significant number of MCY-LR induced spindle alterations are described for the first time. Disrupted, multipolar spindles and missing kinetochore fibers were detected both in metaphase and anaphase cells. Additional polar microtubule (MT) bundles, hyperbundling of spindle MTs, monopolar spindles, C-S- shaped, additional and asymmetric spindles were detected in metaphase, while midplane kinetochore fibers were detected in anaphase cells only. Several spindle anomalies induced mitotic disorders, i.e. they occurred concomitantly with altered sister chromatid separation. Alterations were dependent on the MCY-LR dose and exposure time. Under long-term (2 and mainly 6 days') exposure they were detected in the concentration range of 0.1-20μgmL(-1) MCY-LR that inhibited PP1 and PP2A significantly without significant ROS induction. Elevated peroxidase/catalase activities indicated that MCY-LR treated V. faba plants showed efficient defense against oxidative stress. Thus, although the elevation of ROS is known to induce cytoskeletal aberrations in general, this study shows that long-term protein phosphatase inhibition is the primary cause of MCY-LR induced spindle disorders. PMID:27186862

  2. Acid phosphatase purified from Mycoplasma fermentans has protein tyrosine phosphatase-like activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, K; Noda, M.; Sawa, Y; Watanabe, T.

    1994-01-01

    Acid phosphatase purified from Mycoplasma fermentans dephosphorylated phosphotyrosine-containing lysozyme and Raytide, a peptide substrate for protein tyrosine phosphatases. The optimum pH for Raytide was about 5.5. Raytide phosphatase activity was inhibited by potassium fluoride, sodium molybdate, and sodium orthovanadate and was found to exist in some mycoplasmas.

  3. Plant α-glucan phosphatases SEX4 and LSF2 display different affinity for amylopectin and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Auger, Kyle D.; Anderson, Nolan T.;

    2016-01-01

    The plant glucan phosphatases Starch EXcess 4 (SEX4) and Like Sex Four2 (LSF2) apply different starch binding mechanisms. SEX4 contains a carbohydrate binding module, and LSF2 has two surface binding sites (SBSs). We determined KDapp for amylopectin and amylose, and KD for β-cyclodextrin and...... support long-distance mutual effects of binding at SBSs and the active site in LSF2....

  4. Displacement affinity chromatography of protein phosphatase one (PP1 complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourlay Robert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphatase one (PP1 is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates target protein serine and threonine residues. PP1 is localized to its site of action by interacting with targeting or regulatory proteins, a majority of which contains a primary docking site referred to as the RVXF/W motif. Results We demonstrate that a peptide based on the RVXF/W motif can effectively displace PP1 bound proteins from PP1 retained on the phosphatase affinity matrix microcystin-Sepharose. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that each identified binding protein was either a direct PP1 interactor or was in a complex that contains PP1. Our results have linked PP1 to numerous new nuclear functions and proteins, including Ki-67, Rif-1, topoisomerase IIα, several nuclear helicases, NUP153 and the TRRAP complex. Conclusion This modification of the microcystin-Sepharose technique offers an effective means of purifying novel PP1 regulatory subunits and associated proteins and provides a simple method to uncover a link between PP1 and additional cellular processes.

  5. POPX2 phosphatase regulates the KIF3 kinesin motor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, Hui-Qun; Hoon, Jing-Ling; Lai, Soak-Kuan; Zeng, Yukai; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Li, Hoi-Yeung; Koh, Cheng-Gee

    2014-02-15

    The kinesin motors are important in the regulation of cellular functions such as protein trafficking, spindle organization and centrosome separation. In this study, we have identified POPX2, a serine-threonine phosphatase, as an interacting partner of the KAP3 subunit of the kinesin-2 motor. The kinesin-2 motor is a heterotrimeric complex composed of KIF3A, KIF3B motor subunits and KAP3, the non-motor subunit, which binds the cargo. Here we report that the phosphatase POPX2 is a negative regulator of the trafficking of N-cadherin and other cargoes; consequently, it markedly influences cell-cell adhesion. POPX2 affects trafficking by determining the phosphorylation status of KIF3A at serine 690. This is consistent with the observation that the KIF3A-S690A mutant is defective in cargo trafficking. Our studies also implicate CaMKII as the kinase that phosphorylates KIF3A at serine 690. These results strongly suggest that POPX2 and CaMKII are a phosphatase-kinase pair that regulates kinesin-mediated transport and cell-cell adhesion. PMID:24338362

  6. Metavanadate at the active site of the phosphatase VHZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Alexandrova, Anastassia N; Hengge, Alvan C

    2012-09-01

    Vanadate is a potent modulator of a number of biological processes and has been shown by crystal structures and NMR spectroscopy to interact with numerous enzymes. Although these effects often occur under conditions where oligomeric forms dominate, the crystal structures and NMR data suggest that the inhibitory form is usually monomeric orthovanadate, a particularly good inhibitor of phosphatases because of its ability to form stable trigonal-bipyramidal complexes. We performed a computational analysis of a 1.14 Å structure of the phosphatase VHZ in complex with an unusual metavanadate species and compared it with two classical trigonal-bipyramidal vanadate-phosphatase complexes. The results support extensive delocalized bonding to the apical ligands in the classical structures. In contrast, in the VHZ metavanadate complex, the central, planar VO(3)(-) moiety has only one apical ligand, the nucleophilic Cys95, and a gap in electron density between V and S. A computational analysis showed that the V-S interaction is primarily ionic. A mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of metavanadate in the active site from a dimeric vanadate species that previous crystallographic evidence has shown to be able to bind to the active sites of phosphatases related to VHZ. Together, the results show that the interaction of vanadate with biological systems is not solely reliant upon the prior formation of a particular inhibitory form in solution. The catalytic properties of an enzyme may act upon the oligomeric forms primarily present in solution to generate species such as the metavanadate ion observed in the VHZ structure. PMID:22876963

  7. Radioprotective effect of MPG and WR-2721 against gamma-radiolysis of human placental alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-radioprotective drugs - MPG and WR-2721 have been found to protect human placental alkaline phosphatase against gamma radiolysis. Based on current literature and results obtained here free radical scavenging shielding of active sites and/or conformational change due to binding of the drug may be suggested as the possible mechanism of chemical radioprotection. (author)

  8. Expression and Characterization of Recombinant Thermostable Alkaline Phosphatase from a Novel Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus thermophilus XM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianbo LI; Limei XU; Feng YANG

    2007-01-01

    A gene (tap) encoding a thermostable alkaline phosphatase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus XM was cloned and sequenced. It is 1506 bp long and encodes a protein of 501 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 54.7 kDa. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with other alkaline phosphatases showed that the regions in the vicinity of the phosphorylation site and metal binding sites are highly conserved. The recombinant thermostable alkaline phosphatase was expressed as a His6-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli and its enzymatic properties were characterized after purification. The pH and temperature optima for the recombinant thermostable alkaline phosphatases activity were pH 12 and 75 ℃. As expected, the enzyme displayed high thermostability, retaining more than 50% activity after incubating for 6 h at 80 ℃. Its catalytic function was accelerated in the presence of 0.1 mM Co2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, or Mn2+ but was strongly inhibited by 2.0 mM Fe2+. Under optimal conditions, the Michaelis constant (Km) for cleavage of p-nitrophenyl-phosphate was 0.034 mM. Although it has much in common with other alkaline phosphatases, the recombinant thermostable alkaline phosphatase possesses some unique features, such as high optimal pH and good thermostability.

  9. Identification of a human src homology 2-containing protein-tyrosine-phosphatase: a putative homolog of Drosophila corkscrew.

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, R. M.; Plutzky, J; Neel, B G

    1992-01-01

    src homology 2 (SH2) domains direct binding to specific phosphotyrosyl proteins. Recently, SH2-containing protein-tyrosine-phosphatases (PTPs) were identified. Using degenerate oligonucleotides and the PCR, we have cloned a cDNA for an additional PTP, SH-PTP2, which contains two SH2 domains and is expressed ubiquitously. When expressed in Escherichia coli, SH-PTP2 displays tyrosine-specific phosphatase activity. Strong sequence similarity between SH-PTP2 and the Drosophila gene corkscrew (csw...

  10. Effects of multivalent cations on cell wall-associated acid phosphatase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, S.I.; Brouillette, J.N.; Nagahashi, G.; Kumosinski, T.F.

    1988-09-01

    Primary cell walls, free from cytoplasmic contamination were prepared from corn (Zea mays L.) roots and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. After EDTA treatment, the bound acid phosphatase activities were measured in the presence of various multivalent cations. Under the conditions of minimized Donnan effect and at pH 4.2, the bound enzyme activity of potato tuber cell walls (PCW) was stimulated by Cu/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Za/sup 2 +/, and Mn/sup 2 +/; unaffected by Ba/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; and inhibited by Al/sup 3 +/. The bound acid phosphatase of PCW was stimulated by a low concentration but inhibited by a higher concentration of Hg/sup 2 +/. On the other hand, in the case of corn root cells walls (CCW), only inhibition of the bound acid phosphatase by Al/sup 3 +/ and Hg/sup 2 +/ was observed. Kinetic analyses revealed that PCW acid phosphatase exhibited a negative cooperativity under all employed experimental conditions except in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/. In contrast, CCW acid phosphatase showed no cooperative behavior. The presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ significantly reduced the effects of Hg/sup 2 +/ or Al/sup 3 +/, but not Mg/sup 2 +/, to the bound cell wall acid phosphatases. The salt solubilized (free) acid phosphatases from both PCW and CCW were not affected by the presence of tested cations except for Hg/sup 2 +/ or Al/sup 3 +/ which caused a Ca/sup 2 +/-insensitive inhibition of the enzymes. The induced stimulation or inhibition of bound acid phosphatases was quantitatively related to cation binding in the cell wall structure.

  11. Early glycogen synthase kinase-3β and protein phosphatase 2A independent tau dephosphorylation during global brain ischaemia and reperfusion following cardiac arrest and the role of the adenosine monophosphate kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Shohreh; Power, John H T; Koblar, Simon A; Grantham, Hugh J M

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal tau phosphorylation (p-tau) has been shown after hypoxic damage to the brain associated with traumatic brain injury and stroke. As the level of p-tau is controlled by Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3β, Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK), different activity levels of these enzymes could be involved in tau phosphorylation following ischaemia. This study assessed the effects of global brain ischaemia/reperfusion on the immediate status of p-tau in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We reported an early dephosphorylation of tau at its AMPK sensitive residues, Ser(396) and Ser(262) after 2 min of ischaemia, which did not recover during the first two hours of reperfusion, while the tau phosphorylation at GSK-3β sensitive but AMPK insensitive residues, Ser(202) /Thr(205) (AT8), as well as the total amount of tau remained unchanged. Our data showed no alteration in the activities of GSK-3β and PP2A during similar episodes of ischaemia of up to 8 min and reperfusion of up to 2 h, and 4 weeks recovery. Dephosphorylation of AMPK followed the same pattern as tau dephosphorylation during ischaemia/reperfusion. Catalase, another AMPK downstream substrate also showed a similar pattern of decline to p-AMPK, in ischaemic/reperfusion groups. This suggests the involvement of AMPK in changing the p-tau levels, indicating that tau dephosphorylation following ischaemia is not dependent on GSK-3β or PP2A activity, but is associated with AMPK dephosphorylation. We propose that a reduction in AMPK activity is a possible early mechanism responsible for tau dephosphorylation. PMID:27177932

  12. Biochemistry and structure of phosphoinositide phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Yil Bahk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositides are the phosphorylated derivatives ofphosphatidylinositol, and play a very significant role in adiverse range of signaling processes in eukaryotic cells. Anumber of phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, includingphosphoinositide-kinases and phosphatases are involved in thesynthesis and degradation of these phospholipids. Recently,the function of various phosphatases in the phosphatidylinositolsignaling pathway has been of great interest. In thepresent review we summarize the structural insights andbiochemistry of various phosphatases in regulating phosphoinositidemetabolism. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 1-8

  13. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  14. 金鱼PP2A调节亚基PR55γ基因的克隆及表达分析%MOLECULAR CLONING AND DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF THE GENE ENCODING THE PR55/Bγ OF PP-2A IN GOLDFISH.CARASSIUS AURATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珺琼; 谢斯思; 陈培超; 邹立军; 刘文彬; 肖亚梅; 刘少军; 刘筠; 李万程

    2011-01-01

    蛋白磷酸酶2A是一种重要的丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白磷酸酶,对于调控多细胞的生命活动起重要作用.以金鱼大脑为材料,运用RT-PCR技术克隆得到PP2A调节亚基B55家族中PR55γ基因编码区部分序列.结果显示PR55γ基因eDNA长1218 bp,编码的多肽共含405个氨基酸.序列分析表明,该基因编码的蛋白与已知其他物种对应的PR55γ蛋白质均有着很高的同源性.用RT-PCR的方法检测了PR55γ基因在金鱼不同组织和胚胎发育不同时期的mRNA表达水平.结果表明,PR55γ基因表达呈现明显的组织和胚胎发育阶段差异性.在成体组织中,仅在大脑和鳍中有表达.在胚胎发育过程中,PR55γ从神经胚开始出现,整体呈现上升趋势,在出膜期达到最高水平.据此推测,PR55γ基因可能在金鱼胚胎发育中具有多种重要作用.%The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is an important posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that modulates the functional status of more than thirty percent of total cellular proteins.In the present study, we reported the molecular cloning of a partial cDNA coding for the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A from the brain of goldfish through 5' RACE PCR strategy.The partial PR55γ cDNA contained 1218 nucleotides which encoded a deduced partial protein of 405 amino acids.Sequence homology analysis showed that the PR55/Bγ of PP-2A displayed a high level of amino acid identity with the counterpart from other species including human and rat, indicating the conservation of PR55/Bγ.RT-PCR analysis revealed that PR55/Bγ mRNA was specifically expressed in the brain and fin of goldfish.Our demonstration that PR55/Bγwas expressed in the fish fin was a novel finding for the first time.This result suggested that the PP-2A with PR55/Bγ as the regulatory subunit in fish likely played an important role in swimming, balancing and sensitivity to the water environment.Moreover, during the development of goldfish, PR55/Bγ mRNA was

  15. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  16. Redox and zinc signalling pathways converging on protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Elisa; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Zinc ions, though redox-inert, have either pro-antioxidant or pro-oxidant functions at critical junctures in redox metabolism and redox signalling. They are released from cells and in cells, e.g. from metallothionein, a protein that transduces redox signals into zinc signals (1). The released zinc ions inhibit enzymes such as protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), key regulatory enzymes of cellular phosphorylation signalling. The Ki(Zn) value for inhibition of receptor PTPB is 21pM (2). The binding is about as tight as the binding of zinc to zinc metalloenzymes and suggests tonic zinc inhibition. PTP1-B (PTPN1), an enzyme regulating the insulin and leptin receptors and involved in cancer and diabetes pathobiochemistry, has a Ki(Zn) value of about 5nM (3). Zinc ions bind to the enzyme in the closed conformation when additional metal-binding ligands are brought into the vicinity of the active site. In contrast, redox reactions target cysteines in the active sites of PTPs in the open conformation. This work provides a molecular basis how hydrogen peroxide and free zinc ions generated by growth factor signalling stimulate phosphorylation signalling differentially. (Supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council UK, grant BB/K001442/1.). PMID:26461422

  17. Lipophosphoglycan and secreted acid phosphatase of Leishmania tropica share species-specific epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, C L; Perez, L; Schnur, L F

    1990-06-01

    Several species-specific monoclonal antibodies (T11, T13-T15) which only react with Leishmania tropica, recognize phosphorlated carbohydrate epitopes on lipophosphoglycan and the structurally related molecule, phosphoglycan, which is shed by promastigotes into spent culture medium. During immunoaffinity isolation of [32P]orthophosphate-labeled phosphoglycan on monoclonal antibody T15 conjugated to Sepharose 4B, a high-Mr component (approx. 200,000) was co-purified. The latter material is metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine and [3H]glucosamine. This glycoprotein was separated from phosphoglycan by chromatography on lentil lectin resin. The glycoprotein exhibited a L-tatrate-sensitive acid phosphatase activity, typical of secreted acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from Leishmania. Monospecific antibodies to Leishmania donovani-secreted acid phosphatase selectively precipitated the L. tropica enzyme from immunoaffinity purified mixtures of the two antigens, and monoclonal antibodies to lipophosphoglycan precipitate the pure enzyme. Species-specific monoclonal antibodies to L. major lipophosphoglycan also recognized both L. tropica antigens. Treatment of the acid phosphatase with periodate or phosphodiesterase I abolished binding by the monoclonal antibodies to the pure enzyme. These results demonstrate that the two major secreted glycoconjugates of Leishmania tropica, the lipophosphoglycan and the acid phosphatase, share species-specific phosphorylated carbohydrate epitope(s). PMID:1697935

  18. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  19. Potentiometric assay for acid and alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple potentiometric kinetic assay for evaluation of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity has been developed. Enzymatically catalyzed hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate, the simplest inorganic compound containing P-F bond, has been investigated as the basis of the assays. Fluoride ions formed in the course of the hydrolysis of this specific substrate have been detected using conventional fluoride ion-selective electrode based on membrane made of lanthanum fluoride. The key analytical parameters necessary for sensitive and selective detection of both enzymes have been assessed. Maximal sensitivity of the assays was observed at monofluorophosphate concentration near 10-3 M. Maximal sensitivity of acid phosphatase assay was found at pH 6.0, but pH of 4.8 is recommended to eliminate effects from alkaline phosphatase. Optimal pH for alkaline phosphatase assay is 9.0. The utility of the developed substrate-sensor system for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum has been demonstrated

  20. Origin and production of phosphatases in the acid Lake Gardsjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, H.

    1983-01-01

    The activity of acid phosphatases was followed for one year in Lake Gardsjoen as well as in the inlet and the outlet of the lake. A budget of the phosphatases was calculated, including an estimation of the production of phosphatases. The phosphatase activity was also measured in two basins upstream of L. Gardsjoen: the north basin and the south basin of L. Stora Haestevatten. The acid phosphatase activity was very high compared with reported alkaline phosphatase activities in other lakes. About 95% of the phosphatases in L. Gardsjoen was produced in the lake, and the production was highest in early summer. Small Chrysophyceae (< 10 ..mu..m) probably produced the majority of the acid phosphatases in the investigated lakes, and accordingly could be favoured in environments with low phosphorus supply due to their ability to produce large amounts of phosphatases. 10 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Inhibition of CDC25B Phosphatase Through Disruption of Protein-Protein Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, George; Dudkin, Sergii; Borkin, Dmitry; Ni, Wendi; Grembecka, Jolanta; Cierpicki, Tomasz [Michigan

    2015-04-29

    CDC25 phosphatases are key cell cycle regulators and represent very attractive but challenging targets for anticancer drug discovery. Here, we explored whether fragment-based screening represents a valid approach to identify inhibitors of CDC25B. This resulted in identification of 2-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzonitrile, which directly binds to the catalytic domain of CDC25B. Interestingly, NMR data and the crystal structure demonstrate that this compound binds to the pocket distant from the active site and adjacent to the protein–protein interaction interface with CDK2/Cyclin A substrate. Furthermore, we developed a more potent analogue that disrupts CDC25B interaction with CDK2/Cyclin A and inhibits dephosphorylation of CDK2. Based on these studies, we provide a proof of concept that targeting CDC25 phosphatases by inhibiting their protein–protein interactions with CDK2/Cyclin A substrate represents a novel, viable opportunity to target this important class of enzymes.

  2. A systematic study of nuclear interactome of C-terminal domain small phosphatase-like 2 using inducible expression system and shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, NaNa; Koo, JaeHyung; Wang, Sen; Hur, Sun Jin; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-06-01

    RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatases are newly emerging family of phosphatases that contain FCPH domain with Mg+2-binding DXDX(T/V) signature motif. Its subfamily includes small CTD phosphatases (SCPs). Recently, we identified several interacting partners of human SCP1 with appearance of dephosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation. In this study, using an established cell line with inducible CTDSPL2 protein (a member of the new phosphatase family), proteomic screening was conducted to identify binding partners of CTDSPL2 in nuclear extract through immunoprecipitation of CTDSPL2 with its associated. This approach led to the identification of several interacting partners of CTDSPL2. This will provide a better understanding on CTDSPL2. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 319-324]. PMID:26674342

  3. SERUM PROTEINS, TRANSAMINASES AND PHOSPHATASES IN MALNUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadiha

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of serum tota1 protein, albumin, transaminases and phosphatases were estimated in a group of children with severe Marasmus or mild malnutrition in order to identify some of the associated deficiencies in these syndromes. The biochemical pattern was similar in the normal and malnourished children.

  4. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H;

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...

  5. Partial purification and characterization of phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase(s) from human erythrocyte cytosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity of human erythrocyte cytosol can be resolved into two fractions by DEAE-cellulose chromatography followed by P-cellulose chromatography. Both 32P-Tyr-phosphatases are able to dephosphorylate 32P-Tyr of poly (Glu-Tyr) 4:1 but no angiotensin II and synthetic peptide Asp-Ala-Glu-Tyr-Ala-Ala-Arg-Arg-Gly, previously phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by rat spleen tyrosine-protein kinase. Both 32P-Tyr-phosphatase activities distinctly differ from either 32P-Ser-casein phosphatase activity or acid and alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphatase activities with regard to catalytic and physico-chemical properties such as substrate specificity, chromatographic behavior, response to various effectors

  6. Revisiting histidine-dependent acid phosphatases: a distinct group of tyrosine phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Veeramani, Suresh; Lee, Ming-Shyue; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2009-01-01

    Although classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily members are cysteine-dependent, emerging evidence shows that many acid phosphatases (AcPs) function as histidine-dependent PTPs in vivo. These AcPs dephosphorylate phospho-tyrosine substrates intracellularly and could have roles in development and disease. In contrast to cysteine-dependent PTPs, they utilize histidine, rather than cysteine, for substrate dephosphorylation. Structural analyses reveal that active site histidine, ...

  7. Control of Sty1 MAPK activity through stabilisation of the Pyp2 MAPK phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Katarzyna M; Hartmuth, Sonya; Perera, David; Stansfield, Peter; Petersen, Janni

    2013-08-01

    In all eukaryotes tight control of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity plays an important role in modulating intracellular signalling in response to changing environments. The fission yeast MAPK Sty1 (also known as Spc1 or Phh1) is highly activated in response to a variety of external stresses. To avoid segregation of damaged organelles or chromosomes, strong Sty1 activation transiently blocks mitosis and cell division until such stresses have been dealt with. MAPK phosphatases dephosphorylate Sty1 to reduce kinase activity. Therefore, tight control of MAPK phosphatases is central for stress adaptation and for cell division to resume. In contrast to Pyp1, the fission yeast Pyp2 MAPK phosphatase is under environmental control. Pyp2 has a unique sequence (the linker region) between the catalytic domain and the N-terminal MAPK-binding site. Here we show that the Pyp2 linker region is a destabilisation domain. Furthermore, the linker region is highly phosphorylated to increase Pyp2 protein stability and this phosphorylation is Sty1 dependent. Our data suggests that Sty1 activation promotes Pyp2 phosphorylation to increase the stability of the phosphatase. This MAPK-dependent Pyp2 stabilisation allows cells to attenuate MAPK signalling and resume cell division, once stresses have been dealt with. PMID:23690545

  8. Golgi-mediated post-translational processing of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania donovani promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P A; Hermes, I; Dwyer, D M

    1990-03-01

    Monensin, an inhibitor of Golgi function, was used to investigate the role of this cell compartment in the glycosylation of Leishmania donovani promastigote secretory acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2). Monensin-treated cells demonstrated morphological changes in the Golgi complex and secreted enzyme with an altered electrophoretic mobility: two discrete bands of approximately 95 and 110 kDa were found, as compared to the heterodisperse nature of the enzyme from untreated controls. Chemical deglycosylation by mild acid hydrolysis resulted in a similar effect on the electrophoretic mobility of purified extracellular enzyme. Acid phosphatase was also treated with N-glycosidase F (EC 3.5.1.52) to remove N-linked oligosaccharides. The altered lectin-binding properties of the enzyme after these two treatments demonstrated that an unusual type of galactose-containing acid-labile carbohydrate was present in secretory acid phosphatase in addition to the N-linked oligosaccharides. Further, experiments with 32P-labelled enzyme indicated that phosphodiester bonds were the structural component responsible for the sensitivity of this carbohydrate to mild acid hydrolysis. Cumulatively, these results demonstrated that a novel form of Golgi-mediated posttranslational modification had occurred to the secretory acid phosphatase presumably by the addition of an acid-labile phosphoglycan. PMID:2320058

  9. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition. PMID:27043172

  10. The Structure of Fcp1, an Essential RNA Polymerase II CTD Phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, A.; Shuman, S.; Lima, C.D. (SKI)

    2009-03-27

    Kinases and phosphatases regulate mRNA synthesis and processing by phosphorylating and dephosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Fcp1 is an essential CTD phosphatase that preferentially hydrolyzes Ser2-PO{sub 4} of the tandem YSPTSPS CTD heptad array. Fcp1 crystal structures were captured at two stages of the reaction pathway: a Mg-BeF{sub 3} complex that mimics the aspartylphosphate intermediate and a Mg-AlF{sub 4}{sup -} complex that mimics the transition state of the hydrolysis step. Fcp1 is a Y-shaped protein composed of an acylphosphatase domain located at the base of a deep canyon formed by flanking modules that are missing from the small CTD phosphatase (SCP) clade: an Fcp1-specific helical domain and a C-terminal BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain. The structure and mutational analysis reveals that Fcp1 and Scp1 (a Ser5-selective phosphatase) adopt different CTD-binding modes; we surmise the CTD threads through the Fcp1 canyon to access the active site.

  11. Dimerization of the glucan phosphatase laforin requires the participation of cysteine 329.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Laforin, encoded by a gene that is mutated in Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, is a modular protein composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain. Laforin is the founding member of the glucan-phosphatase family and regulates the levels of phosphate present in glycogen. Multiple reports have described the capability of laforin to form dimers, although the function of these dimers and their relationship with LD remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that laforin dimerization depends on redox conditions, suggesting that disulfide bonds are involved in laforin dimerization. Using site-directed mutagenesis we constructed laforin mutants in which individual cysteine residues were replaced by serine and then tested the ability of each protein to dimerize using recombinant protein as well as a mammalian cell culture assay. Laforin-Cys329Ser was the only Cys/Ser mutant unable to form dimers in both assays. We also generated a laforin truncation lacking the last three amino acids, laforin-Cys329X, and this truncation also failed to dimerize. Interestingly, laforin-Cys329Ser and laforin-Cys329X were able to bind glucans, and maintained wild type phosphatase activity against both exogenous and biologically relevant substrates. Furthermore, laforin-Cys329Ser was fully capable of participating in the ubiquitination process driven by a laforin-malin complex. These results suggest that dimerization is not required for laforin phosphatase activity, glucan binding, or for the formation of a functional laforin-malin complex. Cumulatively, these results suggest that cysteine 329 is specifically involved in the dimerization process of laforin. Therefore, the C329S mutant constitutes a valuable tool to analyze the physiological implications of laforin's oligomerization.

  12. Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adão S; Espíndola, Suéllen P; Campos, Maria Rita C

    2016-05-31

    The activity and kinetics of soil phosphatases are important indicators to evaluate soil quality in specific sites such as the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). This study aimed to determine the activity and kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase in Cerrado systems. Soil phosphatase activity was assessed in samples of native Cerrado (NC), no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and pasture with Brachiaria brizantha (PBb) and evaluated with acetate buffer (AB), tris-HCl buffer (TB), modified universal buffer (MUB) and low MUB. The Michaelis-Menten equation and Eadie-Hofstee model were applied to obtain the kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase using different concentrations of p-nitrophenol phosphate (p-NPP). MUB showed the lowest soil phosphatase activity in all soils whereas AB in NC and NT presented the highest. Low MUB decreased interferences in the assessment of soil phosphatase activity when compared to MUB, suggesting that organic acids interfere on the soil phosphatase activity. In NC and NT, soil phosphatase activity performed with TB was similar to AB and low MUB. Km values from the Michaels-Menten equation were higher in NC than in NT, which indicate a lower affinity of phosphatase activity for the substrate in NC. Vmax values were also higher in NC than in NT. The Eadie-Hofstee model suggests that NC had more phosphatase isoforms than NT. The study showed that buffer type is of fundamental importance when assessing soil phosphatase activity in Cerrado soils. PMID:27254453

  13. Post-transcriptional regulation of dual-specificity phosphatase-1 by RNA-binding protein HuR T118 in heat shock%HuR蛋白118位苏氨酸对热应激状态下的双特异性磷酸酶1的转录后调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传丽; 罗海华; 姜勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the post-transcriptional regulation of dual-specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) by the RNA-binding protein HuR in heat shock. Methods The recombinant plasmids carrying wild-type (WT) HuR or its mutants at threonine 118 were constructed and transiently transfected into NIH 3T3 cells via liposome, and the changes in the expressions of DUSP1 mRNA and protein were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results Heat shock caused significantly enhanced phosphorylation of HuR at the residue T118. In 3T3 cells transfected with the plasmids carrying wild-type HuR for its over-expression showed significantly up-regulated DUSP1 mRNA and protein expressions at 24 h after transfection. Over-expression of HuR(T118A) down-regulated DUSP1 mRNA and protein expressions in cells challenged with heat shock, while HuR(T118E) over-expression significantly increased DISP1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. After heat shock, HuR(WT) translocated from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm to form particles. HuR(T118E) was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm before heat shock and formed particles after heat shock. HuR(T118A) did not undergo such translocation in response to heat shock challenge. Conclusion HuR regulates DUSP1 mRNA and protein expression at the post-transcriptional level to increase its expression after heat shock by enhancing the phosphorylation HuR T118.%目的:探讨RNA结合蛋白HuR 118位苏氨酸对热应激状态下的双特异性磷酸酶1(DUSP1)转录后调控机制。方法构建HuR 118位苏氨酸突变体真核表达质粒,并用脂质体转染NIH 3T3细胞,Real-time PCR检测其对DUSP1 mRNA水平的影响, Western blotting检测其对DUSP1蛋白表达的效应。结果(1)小鼠HuR不同突变体真核表达载体质粒构建成功;(2)热休克刺激后,HuR T118磷酸化明显增强;(3)过表达HuR(WT)与HuR(T118E),经过热休克刺激后,DUSP1 mRNA水平

  14. Rhizobiales-like Phosphatase 2 from Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Novel Phospho-tyrosine-specific Phospho-protein Phosphatase (PPP) Family Protein Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, R Glen; Labandera, Anne-Marie; Muhammad, Jamshed; Samuel, Marcus; Moorhead, Greg B

    2016-03-11

    Cellular signaling through protein tyrosine phosphorylation is well established in mammalian cells. Although lacking the classic tyrosine kinases present in humans, plants have a tyrosine phospho-proteome that rivals human cells. Here we report a novel plant tyrosine phosphatase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtRLPH2) that, surprisingly, has the sequence hallmarks of a phospho-serine/threonine phosphatase belonging to the PPP family. Rhizobiales/Rhodobacterales/Rhodospirillaceae-like phosphatases (RLPHs) are conserved in plants and several other eukaryotes, but not in animals. We demonstrate that AtRLPH2 is localized to the plant cell cytosol, is resistant to the classic serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin, but is inhibited by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate and is particularly sensitive to inhibition by the adenylates, ATP and ADP. AtRLPH2 displays remarkable selectivity toward tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides versus serine/threonine phospho-peptides and readily dephosphorylates a classic tyrosine phosphatase protein substrate, suggesting that in vivo it is a tyrosine phosphatase. To date, only one other tyrosine phosphatase is known in plants; thus AtRLPH2 represents one of the missing pieces in the plant tyrosine phosphatase repertoire and supports the concept of protein tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory event in plants. PMID:26742850

  15. Leishmanial phosphatase hydrolyzes phosphoproteins and inositol phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensively purified preparation of the predominant, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACP) from the external surface of Leishmania donovani promastigotes form catalyzes the dephosphorylation of several phosphoproteins; these include: pyruvate kinase, phosphorylase kinase and histones. However, the protein phosphatase activity of ACP is very low compared with that of other protein phosphates known to be involved in regulating various metabolic pathways. 32P-labelled inositoltriphosphate (IP3), a well-established second messenger derived from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate (PIP2), was a substrate for the leishmanial acid phosphatase; incubation of the IP3 preparation with 13.2 milliunits (1 unit equals 1 μmol 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (MUP) cleaved per min at pH 5.5) of ACP at pH 5.5 for 4 hr resulted in hydrolysis of 75% of the radiolabelled substrate resulting in a mixture of inositoldiphosphate and inositolmonophosphate. In addition PIP2 was hydrolyzed rapidly by ACP at pH 5.5 (V/sub max/, 71 units/mg protein; k/sub m/, 4.16 μM). In contrast, to MUP which is hydrolzyed most rapidly at pH 5.5, PIP2 hydrolysis was optimal at pH 6.8. These observations raise the possibility that ACP could play a role in the host-phagocyte interaction by degrading the precursor of the second messenger, PIP2 or the second messenger itself, IP3

  16. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. I. Preliminary studies on acid phosphatase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 was extracted with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer pH 5.1 from Poa pratensis seeds, and separated into three fractions by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The highest activity was found in fraction Il-b (acid phosphatase II. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 4.9. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate most readily among the various phosphomonoesters examined. Acid phosphatase II showed also a high activity toward β-naphtyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate, very low activity towards β-glycero phosphate, 5'-GMP and no activity with glucose-1 phosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca2+ and fluoride, but activated by Mg2+. EDTA had no influence on the activity of the enzyme.

  17. Primary structure of rat secretory acid phosphatase and comparison to other acid phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiko, K; Jänne, O A; Vihko, P

    1990-05-14

    Overlapping cDNA clones encoding rat prostatic acid phosphatase (rPAP) were isolated by using two human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP)-encoding cDNAs to screen rat prostatic cDNA libraries. The isolated cDNAs encompassed a total of 1626 nucleotides (nt), of which 1143 nt corresponded to the protein coding sequence encoding a mature polypeptide of 350 amino acids (aa) and a 31-aa long signal peptide-like sequence. The deduced Mr of the mature rPAP was 40,599. RNA blot analysis indicated the presence of three mRNA species (4.9, 2.3 and 1.5 kb in size) in the rat prostate. The deduced aa sequences of rPAP and hPAP show 75% identity, whereas the similarity between rPAP and human lysosomal acid phosphatase (hLAP) is only 45%. Furthermore, the sequence similarity between rPAP and rat lysosomal acid phosphatase (rLAP) is 46% at the aa level. Similar to hPAP, but unlike hLAP and rLAP, the rPAP sequence lacks a membrane-anchoring domain indicating the secretory character of this phosphatase. All six cysteines present in the overlapping areas of the mature rPAP, hPAP, rLAP and hLAP proteins are positionally conserved, suggesting that these residues are important for the tertiary structure of acid phosphatases (APs). The previously reported active site residues, two arginines and one histidine, are also conserved in these APs. PMID:2373368

  18. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  19. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (Scripps); (NWU); (Purdue); (UCR); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (NU Singapore)

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  20. Effect of andrographolide on phosphatases activity and cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Edwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide was isolated from ethanol extraction of Andrographis paniculata by column chromatography. Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy, enzymatic changes and cytotoxic activities against Spodoptera litura were conducted across a range of concentrations. The compound showed significant larvicidal activity between 5 - 25 ppm, post ingestion. Morphological deformities observed in larval-pupal stages. Enzymatic profiles were altered by reduction in acid phosphatase, ACP activity by 69.18 %, alkaline phosphatase, ALP activity 75.3 % and 74.9 % reduction in ATPase. Binding affinity to midgut epithelium cells suggests disintegration of cellular organelles observed was directly associated with ingestion of the compound. The results suggest that andrographolide has potential for development as a significant inhibitor of development against the pest Spodoptera litura.

  1. Serum proteins, trace metals and phosphatases in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatnagar M

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum proteins, zinc, copper, acid phosphatase (AcPase and alkaline phosphatase (AlPase were studied in both active and remission phases of psoriasis. Data were compared with healthy controls, ?1, ? and ? globulins were high in active phase while ?1 and ? globulins were at par in remission phase. Serum copper was low but zinc and alkaline phosphatase were significantly high in both active and remission phases of the disease. Acid phosphatase level was at par in all the experimental groups. Study suggests a positive correlation of globulin, zinc and Alpase in active and remission phase of psoriasis.

  2. The extended human PTPome: a growing tyrosine phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Tyr phosphatases are, by definition, enzymes that dephosphorylate phospho-Tyr (pTyr) from proteins. This activity is found in several structurally diverse protein families, including the protein Tyr phosphatase (PTP), arsenate reductase, rhodanese, haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) and His phosphatase (HP) families. Most of these families include members with substrate specificity for non-pTyr substrates, such as phospho-Ser/phospho-Thr, phosphoinositides, phosphorylated carbohydrates, mRNAs, or inorganic moieties. A Cys is essential for catalysis in PTPs, rhodanese and arsenate reductase enzymes, whereas this work is performed by an Asp in HAD phosphatases and by a His in HPs, via a catalytic mechanism shared by all of the different families. The category that contains most Tyr phosphatases is the PTP family, which, although it received its name from this activity, includes Ser, Thr, inositide, carbohydrate and RNA phosphatases, as well as some inactive pseudophosphatase proteins. Here, we propose an extended collection of human Tyr phosphatases, which we call the extended human PTPome. The addition of new members (SACs, paladin, INPP4s, TMEM55s, SSU72, and acid phosphatases) to the currently categorized PTP group of enzymes means that the extended human PTPome contains up to 125 proteins, of which ~ 40 are selective for pTyr. We set criteria to ascribe proteins to the extended PTPome, and summarize the more important features of the new PTPome members in the context of their phosphatase activity and their relationship with human disease. PMID:26573778

  3. RPM-1 uses both ubiquitin ligase and phosphatase-based mechanisms to regulate DLK-1 during neuronal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T Baker

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR proteins are key regulators of neuronal development that function in axon extension and guidance, termination of axon outgrowth, and synapse formation. Outside of development, the PHR proteins also regulate axon regeneration and Wallerian degeneration. The PHR proteins function in part by acting as ubiquitin ligases that degrade the Dual Leucine zipper-bearing Kinase (DLK. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans PHR protein, Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology 1 (RPM-1, also utilizes a phosphatase-based mechanism to regulate DLK-1. Using mass spectrometry, we identified Protein Phosphatase Magnesium/Manganese dependent 2 (PPM-2 as a novel RPM-1 binding protein. Genetic, transgenic, and biochemical studies indicated that PPM-2 functions coordinately with the ubiquitin ligase activity of RPM-1 and the F-box protein FSN-1 to negatively regulate DLK-1. PPM-2 acts on S874 of DLK-1, a residue implicated in regulation of DLK-1 binding to a short, inhibitory isoform of DLK-1 (DLK-1S. Our study demonstrates that PHR proteins function through both phosphatase and ubiquitin ligase mechanisms to inhibit DLK. Thus, PHR proteins are potentially more accurate and sensitive regulators of DLK than originally thought. Our results also highlight an important and expanding role for the PP2C phosphatase family in neuronal development.

  4. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaan C. Jagan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC morphology. Three-dimensional (3D colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42 to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC. This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3 were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2 accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1 in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system.

  5. A superfamily of metalloenzymes unifies phosphopentomutase and cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase with alkaline phosphatases and sulfatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, M. Y.; Bairoch, A.; Koonin, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the probable archaeal phosphoglycerate mutase resulted in the identification of a superfamily of metalloenzymes with similar metal-binding sites and predicted conserved structural fold. This superfamily unites alkaline phosphatase, N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase, and cerebroside sulfatase, enzymes with known three-dimensional structures, with phosphopentomutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase, phosphoglycerol transferase, phosphonate monoesterase, streptomycin-6-phosphate phosphatase, alkaline phosphodiesterase/nucleotide pyrophosphatase PC-1, and several closely related sulfatases. In addition to the metal-binding motifs, all these enzymes contain a set of conserved amino acid residues that are likely to be required for the enzymatic activity. Mutational changes in the vicinity of these residues in several sulfatases cause mucopolysaccharidosis (Hunter, Maroteaux-Lamy, Morquio, and Sanfilippo syndromes) and metachromatic leucodystrophy. PMID:10082381

  6. Water molecule network and active site flexibility of apo protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.K.; Peters, Günther H.J.; Møller, K.B.;

    2004-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a key role as a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signalling and is therefore considered to be an important molecular target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Detailed structural information about the structure of PTP1B, including...... the conformation and flexibility of active-site residues as well as the water-molecule network, is a key issue in understanding ligand binding and enzyme kinetics and in structure-based drug design. A 1.95 Angstrom apo PTP1B structure has been obtained, showing four highly coordinated water molecules...

  7. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHPTP2 couples platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta to Ras.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, A.M.; Tang, T. L.; SUGIMOTO, S; Walsh, C T; Neel, B G

    1994-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase SHPTP2 (Syp/PTP-1D/PTP2C) is the homologue of the Drosophila corkscrew (csw) gene product, which transmits positive signals from receptor tyrosine kinases. Likewise, SHPTP2 has been implicated in positive signaling from platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR). Upon PDGF stimulation, SHPTP2 binds to the PDGFR and becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated. We have identified tyrosine-542 (pY542TNI) as the major in vivo site of SHPTP2 tyrosine phosphorylation. The...

  8. Amino acid sequence of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Nielsen, Berit Noesgaard; Højrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic cod is a marine fish that lives at low temperatures of 0-10 degrees C and contains a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase (AP). Preparations of AP from either the lower part of the intestines or the pyloric caeca area were subjected to proteolytic digestion, mass spectrometry and amino acid...... sequencing by Edman degradation. The primary structure exhibits greatest similarity to human tissue non-specific AP (80%), and approximately 30% similarity to AP from Escherichia coli. The key residues required for catalysis are conserved in the cod AP, except for the third metal binding site, where cod AP...

  9. Rif1 Controls DNA Replication Timing in Yeast through the PP1 Phosphatase Glc7

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Mattarocci; Maksym Shyian; Laure Lemmens; Pascal Damay; Dogus Murat Altintas; Tianlai Shi; Clinton R. Bartholomew; Thomä, Nicolas H.; Christopher F.J. Hardy; David Shore

    2014-01-01

    The Rif1 protein, originally identified as a telomere-binding factor in yeast, has recently been implicated in DNA replication control from yeast to metazoans. Here, we show that budding yeast Rif1 protein inhibits activation of prereplication complexes (pre-RCs). This inhibitory function requires two N-terminal motifs, RVxF and SILK, associated with recruitment of PP1 phosphatase (Glc7). In G1 phase, we show both that Glc7 interacts with Rif1 in an RVxF/SILK-dependent manner and that two pro...

  10. YbiV from E. coli K12 is a HAD phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Anne; Lee, Seok-Yong; McCullagh, Emma; Silversmith, Ruth E.; Wemmer, David E.

    2004-03-16

    The protein YbiV from Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 is a hypothetical protein with sequence homology to the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily of proteins. Although numerous members of this family have been identified, the functions of few are known. Using the crystal structure, sequence analysis, and biochemical assays, we have characterized ybiV as a HAD phosphatase. The crystal structure of YbiV reveals a two domain protein, one with the characteristic HAD hydrolase fold, the other an inserted a/b fold. In an effort to understand the mechanism we also solved and report the structures of YbiV in complex with beryllofluoride (BeF3-) and aluminum trifluoride (AlF3) which have been shown to mimic the phosphorylated intermediate and transition state for hydrolysis, respectively, in analogy to other HAD phosphatases. Analysis of the structures reveals the substrate binding cavity, which is hydrophilic in nature. Both structure and sequence homology indicate ybiV may be a sugar phosphatase, which is supported by biochemical assays which measured the release of free phosphate on a number of sugar-like substrates. We also investigated available genomic and functional data in an effort to determine the physiological substrate.

  11. Active-site remodelling in the bifunctional fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Say, Rafael F; Lü, Wei; Fuchs, Georg; Einsle, Oliver

    2011-10-27

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase is a bifunctional, thermostable enzyme that catalyses two subsequent steps in gluconeogenesis in most archaea and in deeply branching bacterial lineages. It mediates the aldol condensation of heat-labile dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) to FBP, as well as the subsequent, irreversible hydrolysis of the product to yield the stable fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and inorganic phosphate; no reaction intermediates are released. Here we present a series of structural snapshots of the reaction that reveal a substantial remodelling of the active site through the movement of loop regions that create different catalytic functionalities at the same location. We have solved the three-dimensional structures of FBP aldolase/phosphatase from thermophilic Thermoproteus neutrophilus in a ligand-free state as well as in complex with the substrates DHAP and FBP and the product F6P to resolutions up to 1.3 Å. In conjunction with mutagenesis data, this pinpoints the residues required for the two reaction steps and shows that the sequential binding of additional Mg(2+) cations reversibly facilitates the reaction. FBP aldolase/phosphatase is an ancestral gluconeogenic enzyme optimized for high ambient temperatures, and our work resolves how consecutive structural rearrangements reorganize the catalytic centre of the protein to carry out two canonical reactions in a very non-canonical type of bifunctionality. PMID:21983965

  12. Involvement of Phosphatases in Proliferation, Maturation, and Hemoglobinization of Developing Erythroid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Fibach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of RBCs is triggered by the action of erythropoietin (Epo through its binding to surface receptors (Epo-R on erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. The intensity and the duration of the Epo signal are regulated by several factors, including the balance between the activities of kinesase and phosphatases. The Epo signal determines the proliferation and maturation of the precursors into hemoglobin (Hb-containing RBCs. The activity of various protein tyrosine phosphatases, including those involved in the Epo pathway, can be inhibited by sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4, vanadate. Adding vanadate to cultured erythroid precursors of normal donors and patients with β-thalassemia enhanced cell proliferation and arrested maturation. This was associated with an increased production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. Increased HbF in patients with β-hemoglobinopathies (β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease ameliorates the clinical symptoms of the disease. These results raise the possibility that specific and nontoxic inhibitors of phosphatases may be considered as a therapeutic modality for elevating HbF in patients with β-hemoglobinopathies as well as for intensifying the Epo response in other forms of anemia.

  13. Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Nan P; LaMarche, Matthew J; Chan, Ho Man; Fekkes, Peter; Garcia-Fortanet, Jorge; Acker, Michael G; Antonakos, Brandon; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Chen, Zhouliang; Cooke, Vesselina G; Dobson, Jason R; Deng, Zhan; Fei, Feng; Firestone, Brant; Fodor, Michelle; Fridrich, Cary; Gao, Hui; Grunenfelder, Denise; Hao, Huai-Xiang; Jacob, Jaison; Ho, Samuel; Hsiao, Kathy; Kang, Zhao B; Karki, Rajesh; Kato, Mitsunori; Larrow, Jay; La Bonte, Laura R; Lenoir, Francois; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shumei; Majumdar, Dyuti; Meyer, Matthew J; Palermo, Mark; Perez, Lawrence; Pu, Minying; Price, Edmund; Quinn, Christopher; Shakya, Subarna; Shultz, Michael D; Slisz, Joanna; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Wang, Ping; Warmuth, Markus; Williams, Sarah; Yang, Guizhi; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Zhu, Ping; Ramsey, Timothy; Keen, Nicholas J; Sellers, William R; Stams, Travis; Fortin, Pascal D

    2016-07-01

    The non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, has an important role in signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptor signalling and was the first reported oncogenic tyrosine phosphatase. Activating mutations of SHP2 have been associated with developmental pathologies such as Noonan syndrome and are found in multiple cancer types, including leukaemia, lung and breast cancer and neuroblastoma. SHP2 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cell survival and proliferation primarily through activation of the RAS–ERK signalling pathway. It is also a key mediator of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) immune checkpoint pathways. Reduction of SHP2 activity suppresses tumour cell growth and is a potential target of cancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent (IC50 = 0.071 μM), selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule SHP2 inhibitor, SHP099, that stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation. SHP099 concurrently binds to the interface of the N-terminal SH2, C-terminal SH2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains, thus inhibiting SHP2 activity through an allosteric mechanism. SHP099 suppresses RAS–ERK signalling to inhibit the proliferation of receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven human cancer cells in vitro and is efficacious in mouse tumour xenograft models. Together, these data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 is a valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27362227

  14. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts

  15. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen J; Silvander, Camilla; Cozier, Gyles; Trésaugues, Lionel; Nordlund, Pär; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-03-01

    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B-BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed "moving metal" mechanism. PMID:26854536

  16. Inositol monophosphate phosphatase genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Tanya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM, lipomannan (LM and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Results Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604 or suhB (Rv2701c were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137 when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained. Conclusions We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.

  17. Direct determination of phosphatase activity from physiological substrates in cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyuan Ren

    Full Text Available A direct and continuous approach to determine simultaneously protein and phosphate concentrations in cells and kinetics of phosphate release from physiological substrates by cells without any labeling has been developed. Among the enzymes having a phosphatase activity, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP performs indispensable, multiple functions in humans. It is expressed in numerous tissues with high levels detected in bones, liver and neurons. It is absolutely required for bone mineralization and also necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis. We provided the proof of concept that infrared spectroscopy is a reliable assay to determine a phosphatase activity in the osteoblasts. For the first time, an overall specific phosphatase activity in cells was determined in a single step by measuring simultaneously protein and substrate concentrations. We found specific activities in osteoblast like cells amounting to 116 ± 13 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for PPi, to 56 ± 11 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for AMP, to 79 ± 23 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for beta-glycerophosphate and to 73 ± 15 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for 1-alpha-D glucose phosphate. The assay was also effective to monitor phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and in matrix vesicles. The use of levamisole--a TNAP inhibitor--served to demonstrate that a part of the phosphatase activity originated from this enzyme. An IC50 value of 1.16 ± 0.03 mM was obtained for the inhibition of phosphatase activity of levamisole in osteoblast like cells. The infrared assay could be extended to determine any type of phosphatase activity in other cells. It may serve as a metabolomic tool to monitor an overall phosphatase activity including acid phosphatases or other related enzymes.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3H-fatty acids or [3H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [3H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3H-fatty acid and the [3H]ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [3H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [3H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [3H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3H-fatty acid and [3H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase

  19. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  20. Voltage sensitive phosphatases: emerging kinship to protein tyrosine phosphatases from structure-function research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin eHobiger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein Ci-VSP from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis was described as first member of a fascinating family of enzymes, the voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs. Ci-VSP and its voltage-activated homologs from other species are stimulated by positive membrane potentials and dephosphorylate the head groups of negatively charged phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs. In doing so, VSPs act as control centers at the cytosolic membrane surface, because they intervene in signaling cascades that are mediated by PIP lipids. The characteristic motif CX5RT/S in the active site classifies VSPs as members of the huge family of cysteine-based protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Although PTPs have already been well characterized regarding both, structure and function, their relationship to VSPs has drawn only limited attention so far. Therefore, the intention of this review is to give a short overview about the extensive knowledge about PTPs in relation to the facts known about VSPs. Here, we concentrate on the structural features of the catalytic domain which are similar between both classes of phosphatases and their consequences for the enzymatic function. By discussing results obtained from crystal structures, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutagenesis studies, a possible mechanism for the catalytic cycle of VSPs is presented based on that one proposed for PTPs. In this way, we want to link the knowledge about the catalytic activity of VSPs and PTPs.

  1. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Farelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B: II. Substrate-enzyme interactions and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.j.; Frimurer, T. M.; Andersen, J. N.; Olsen, O. H.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) complexed with the phosphorylated peptide substrate DADEpYL and the free substrate have been conducted to investigate 1) the physical forces involved in substrate-protein interactions, 2) the importance of enzyme and...... substrate binding. Based on essential dynamics analysis of the PTP1B/DADEpYL trajectory, it is shown that internal motions in the binding pocket occur in a subspace of only a few degrees of freedom. in particular, relatively large flexibilities are observed along several eigenvectors in the segments: Arg(24...

  3. Purification and properties of alkaline phosphatase of silkworm Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yunming; CEN Liang; CHU Bo; LI Changchun; XU Min; LUO Ying; LU Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase(AKP),from the succus entericus of silkworm,was purified using 10%-50% ammonium sulfate fractions,ion exchange chromatography Of DEAE-Sepharose,and size exclusion chromatography of Sephacryl S-200.The purification fold was 464 times and specified activity was 3936 U/mg.Optimum pH value of the phosphatase was 10.5,and was stable between pH 7.5 and 11.The optimum temperature of the phosphatase was 40℃ and it was unstable over 50℃.Km value of the phosphatase was 1.25 mmol/L.In a given condition,the phosphatase was selectively modified by PCMB,NBS,PMSE TNBS,SUAN,DTT,BrAc,and IAc,the results indicate that PMSF,SUA,BrAc,IAc,and TNBS could Obviously inhibit the activity of the phosphatase,and the degree of inhibition depended on the concentration of these reagents.There was little effect on the activity of phosphatase after treatment by PMSF,DTT,and NBT.We primarily conclude that mercapto and imidazole are essential for AKP from silkworm.Also,Lys residue and disulfide bands are necessary to protect the catalysis of the AKP.

  4. Plasma acid and alkaline phosphatase in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M; Bonneterre, J; Hecquet, B; Desoize, B; Demaille, A

    1991-01-01

    Acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 107 breast cancer patients to study their potential value in case of bone metastases. The patients were divided into 4 groups: A, patients without metastases (n = 34); B, metastatic patients without bone lesions (n = 37); C, patients with metastases in and outside of bones (n = 24), D, patients with bone-only metastases (n = 12). Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TR-ACP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (bone-ALP) were significantly higher in patients with metastases than in patients without. However, no difference in TR-ACP was observed between subgroups of metastatic patients. PMID:2064338

  5. Radiation-induced alterations in splenic acid phosphatase of pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of total body ν-irradiation with sub-lethal dose (400 rad) on acid phosphatase has been studied in spleen of pigeons. The specific activity of acid phosphatase increased significantly 48 hr and 72 hr after irradiation. This increase was accompanied by a substantial reduction in per cent 'bound' activity. The histochemical observation after irradiation confirmed the result obtained by quantitative biochemical study. This increase in acid phosphatase activity may be attributed to an increased permeability of lysosomal membrane caused by damaged lymphocytes (lymphocytolysis) after ν-irradiation. (author)

  6. Reversible oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) alters its interactions with signaling and regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrastro, Ivan; Tveen-Jensen, Karina; Woscholski, Rudiger; Spickett, Corinne M; Pitt, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is involved in a number of different cellular processes including metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. It is a redox-sensitive dual-specificity protein phosphatase that acts as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. While direct evidence of redox regulation of PTEN downstream signaling has been reported, the effect of PTEN redox status on its protein-protein interactions is poorly understood. PTEN-GST in its reduced and a DTT-reversible H2O2-oxidized form was immobilized on a glutathione-sepharose support and incubated with cell lysate to capture interacting proteins. Captured proteins were analyzed by LC-MSMS and comparatively quantified using label-free methods. 97 Potential protein interactors were identified, including a significant number that are novel. The abundance of fourteen interactors was found to vary significantly with the redox status of PTEN. Altered binding to PTEN was confirmed by affinity pull-down and Western blotting for Prdx1, Trx, and Anxa2, while DDB1 was validated as a novel interactor with unaltered binding. These results suggest that the redox status of PTEN causes a functional variation in the PTEN interactome. The resin capture method developed had distinct advantages in that the redox status of PTEN could be directly controlled and measured. PMID:26561776

  7. Synthesis of functionalized fluorescent gold nanoclusters for acid phosphatase sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2015-10-01

    A novel and convenient one-pot but two-step synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters, incorporating glutathione (GSH) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) as the functionalized ligands (i.e. AuNCs@GSH/MUA), is demonstrated. Herein, the mixing of HAuCl4 and GSH in aqueous solution results in the immediate formation of non-fluorescent GSH-Au+ complexes, and then a class of ~2.6 nm GSH-coated AuNCs (AuNCs@GSH) with mild orange-yellow fluorescence after several days. Interestingly, the intense orange-red emitting ~1.7 nm AuNCs@GSH/MUA can be synthesized within seconds by introducing an alkaline aqueous solution of MUA into the GSH-Au+ complexes or AuNC@GSH solution. Subsequently, a reliable AuNC@GSH/MUA-based real-time assay of acid phosphatase (ACP) is established for the first time, inspired by the selective coordination of Fe3+ with surface ligands of AuNCs, the higher binding affinity between the pyrophosphate ion (PPi) and Fe3+, and the hydrolysis of PPi into orthophosphate by ACP. Our fluorescent chemosensor can also be applied to assay ACP in a real biological sample and, furthermore, to screen the inhibitor of ACP. This report paves a new avenue for synthesizing AuNCs based on either the bottom-up reduction or top-down etching method, establishing real-time fluorescence assays for ACP by means of PPi as the substrate, and further exploring the sensing applications of fluorescent AuNCs.A novel and convenient one-pot but two-step synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters, incorporating glutathione (GSH) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) as the functionalized ligands (i.e. AuNCs@GSH/MUA), is demonstrated. Herein, the mixing of HAuCl4 and GSH in aqueous solution results in the immediate formation of non-fluorescent GSH-Au+ complexes, and then a class of ~2.6 nm GSH-coated AuNCs (AuNCs@GSH) with mild orange-yellow fluorescence after several days. Interestingly, the intense orange-red emitting ~1.7 nm AuNCs@GSH/MUA can be synthesized within seconds by

  8. Phosphorylcholine Phosphatase: A Peculiar Enzyme of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Domenech

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PchP when grown on choline, betaine, dimethylglycine or carnitine. In the presence of Mg2+ or Zn2+, PchP catalyzes the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP or phosphorylcholine (Pcho. The regulation of pchP gene expression is under the control of GbdR and NtrC; dimethylglycine is likely the metabolite directly involved in the induction of PchP. Therefore, the regulation of choline metabolism and consequently PchP synthesis may reflect an adaptive response of P. aeruginosa to environmental conditions. Bioinformatic and biochemistry studies shown that PchP contains two sites for alkylammonium compounds (AACs: one in the catalytic site near the metal ion-phosphoester pocket, and another in an inhibitory site responsible for the binding of the alkylammonium moiety. Both sites could be close to each other and interact through the residues 42E, 43E and 82YYY84. Zn2+ is better activator than Mg2+ at pH 5.0 and it is more effective at alleviating the inhibition produced by the entry of Pcho or different AACs in the inhibitory site. We postulate that Zn2+ induces at pH 5.0 a conformational change in the active center that is communicated to the inhibitory site, producing a compact or closed structure. However, at pH 7.4, this effect is not observed because to the hydrolysis of the [Zn2+L2−1L20(H2O2] complex, which causes a change from octahedral to tetrahedral in the metal coordination geometry. This enzyme is also present in P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. syringae, and other organisms. We have recently crystallized PchP and solved its structure.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of radioimmunoassay using the double antibody method for human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was first elaborated. The following results were obtained: 1) In this system, the optimal antibody concentration is 10,000 times the dilution of the original anti-serum, and the optimal assay range is 0.5 to 25 ng. Enzymatic activity of 1 ng intestinal ALP is 4.1 King-Armstrong units. 2) In this system, the sera including intestinal ALP are divided to two groups. One group shows a dose response curve similar to that of purified intestinal ALP, and the other shows a lesser one. This reason is not clear. Hepatic ALP, osseous ALP and placental ALP in the sera show no response in this system. 3) In this system, the B/T value of 50 μg of purified human placental ALP is almost equal to 1 ng of purified human intestinal ALP. Similarly, the B/T value of 50 μg of purified human intestinal ALP is equal to almost 5 ng of purified human placental ALP. This shows that cross-reaction exists between intestinal and placental ALPs at high concentrations. (J.P.N.)

  10. Regulation of myotubularin-related (MTMR)2 phosphatidylinositol phosphatase by MTMR5, a catalytically inactive phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo-A; Vacratsis, Panayiotis O.; Firestein, Ron; Cleary, Michael L.; Dixon, Jack E.

    2003-01-01

    The myotubularin (MTM) family constitutes one of the most highly conserved protein-tyrosine phosphatase subfamilies in eukaryotes. MTM1, the archetypal member of this family, is mutated in X-linked myotubular myopathy, whereas mutations in the MTM-related (MTMR)2 gene cause the type 4B1 Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease, a severe hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. In this study, we identified a protein that specifically interacts with MTMR2 but not MTM1. The interacting protein was shown by m...

  11. Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver and Its Association with Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiong Liu; Huixiang Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Protein kinases and protein phosphatases play key roles in regulating functions of diverse proteins which control numerous essential events in eukaryotes, such as transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, protein degradation and protein trafficking[1-3].

  12. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  13. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system... Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline phosphatase or its...

  14. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a neutral phosphatase from wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutral phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from wheat seedlings. The enzyme was a monomeric glycoprotein exhibiting a molecular weight of 35,000, frictional ratio of 1.22, Stokes' radius of 26 A, and sedimentation coefficient of 3.2 S. That the enzyme was a glycoprotein was surmised from its chromatographic property on Concanavalin A-Sepharose column. The phosphatase activity was assayed using either fructose-2,6-bisphosphate or p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. The phosphatase activity was not affected by high concentrations of chelating agents and did not require the addition of Mg+2 or Ca+2 for its activity. Molybdate, orthovanadate, Zn+2, and Hg+2 were all potent inhibitors of the phosphatase activity. The inhibition by Hg+2 was reversed by dithiothreitol. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Mn+2 about 2-fold. On the other hand, 3-phosphoglycerate, fructose-6-P and Pi as well as polyamines inhibited the enzyme activity. The ability of the neutral phosphatase to dephosphorylate protein phosphotyrosine was also investigated. The phosphotyrosyl-substrates, such as [32P] phosphotyrosyl-poly(Glu, Tyr)n, -alkylated bovine serum albumin, -angiotensin-1, and -band 3 of erythrocytes, were all substrates of the phosphatase. On the other hand, the enzyme had no activity toward protein phosphoserine and protein phosphothreonine

  16. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at pH 9.0].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopina, V A

    2007-01-01

    In the free-living amoeba Amoeba proteus (strain B), after PAAG disk-electrophoresis of the homogenate supernatant, at using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate and pH 9.0, three forms of phosphatase activity were revealed; they were arbitrarily called "fast", "intermediate", and "slow" phosphatases. The fast phosphatase has been established to be a fraction of lysosomal acid phosphatase that preserves some low activity at alkaline pH. The question as to which particular class the intermediate phosphatase belongs to has remained unanswered: it can be both acid phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). Based on data of inhibitor analysis, large substrate specificity, results of experiments with reactivation by Zn ions after inactivation with EDTA, other than in the fast and intermediate phosphatases localization in the amoeba cell, it is concluded that only slow phosphatase can be classified as alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1). PMID:17933343

  17. Expression of a truncated receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in the brain of an adult transgenic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, P; Canoll, P D; Sap, J;

    1999-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) comprise a family of proteins that feature intracellular phosphatase domains and an ectodomain with putative ligand-binding motifs. Several RPTPs are expressed in the brain, including RPTP-kappa which participates in homophilic cell-cell interactions...... developmental processes such as axonal growth and target recognition, as has been demonstrated for certain Drosophila RPTPs. The brain distribution of RPTP-kappa-expressing cells has not been determined, however. In a gene-trap mouse model with a beta-gal+neo (beta-geo) insertion in the endogenous RPTP......-kappa gene, the consequent loss of RPTP-kappa's enzymatic activity does not produce any obvious phenotypic defects [W.C. Skarnes, J.E. Moss, S.M. Hurtley, R.S.P. Beddington, Capturing genes encoding membrane and secreted proteins important for mouse development, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (1995) 6592...

  18. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita

    2000-01-01

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates with appearance of apoptosis. IL-2 deprivation induces Bad dephosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of a serine phosphatase. A serine/threonine phosphatase activity, sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, was detected in Bad immunoprecipitates from IL-2-stimulated cells, increasing after IL-2 deprivation. This enzymatic activity also dephosphorylates in vivo 32P-labeled Bad. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid blocks Bad dephosphorylation and prevents cell death. Finally, Ras activation controls the catalytic activity of PP1α. These results strongly suggest that Bad is an in vitro and in vivo substrate for PP1α phosphatase and that IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis may operate by regulating Bad phosphorylation through PP1α phosphatase, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by Ras. PMID:10811615

  19. Structural studies of human alkaline phosphatase in complex with strontium: Implication for its secondary effect in bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Paola; Masella, Michel; Stigbrand, Torgny; Ménez, André; Stura, Enrico A.; Le Du, Marie Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Strontium is used in the treatment of osteoporosis as a ranelate compound, and in the treatment of painful scattered bone metastases as isotope. At very high doses and in certain conditions, it can lead to osteomalacia characterized by impairment of bone mineralization. The osteomalacia symptoms resemble those of hypophosphatasia, a rare inherited disorder associated with mutations in the gene encoding for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Human alkaline phosphatases have four metal binding sites—two for zinc, one for magnesium, and one for calcium ion—that can be substituted by strontium. Here we present the crystal structure of strontium-substituted human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), a related isozyme of TNAP, in which such replacement can have important physiological implications. The structure shows that strontium substitutes the calcium ion with concomitant modification of the metal coordination. The use of the flexible and polarizable force-field TCPEp (topological and classical polarization effects for proteins) predicts that calcium or strontium has similar interaction energies at the calcium-binding site of PLAP. Since calcium helps stabilize a large area that includes loops 210–228 and 250–297, its substitution by strontium could affect the stability of this region. Energy calculations suggest that only at high doses of strontium, comparable to those found for calcium, can strontium substitute for calcium. Since osteomalacia is observed after ingestion of high doses of strontium, alkaline phosphatase is likely to be one of the targets of strontium, and thus this enzyme might be involved in this disease. PMID:16815919

  20. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  1. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA clone for human adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum); EC 3.1.3.1] was isolated from a λgt11 expression library. The cDNA insert of this clone is 2513 base pairs in length and contains an open reading frame that encodes a 528-amino acid polypeptide. This deduced polypeptide contains the first 40 amino acids of human intestinal ALP, as determined by direct protein sequencing. Intestinal ALP shows 86.5% amino acid identity to placental (type 1) ALP and 56.6% amino acid identity to liver/bone/kidney ALP. In the 3'-untranslated regions, intestinal and placental ALP cDNAs are 73.5% identical (excluding gaps). The evolution of this multigene enzyme family is discussed

  2. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  3. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  4. The catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases under various conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.

    2008-11-01

    A comparative study was performed to examine the catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli and bovine and chicken intestines. The activity of enzyme dimers and tetramers was determined. The activity of the dimer was three or four times higher than that of the tetramer. The maximum activity and affinity for 4-nitrophenylphosphate was observed for the bacterial alkaline phosphatase ( K M = 1.7 × 10-5 M, V max = 1800 μmol/(min mg of protein) for dimers and V max = 420 μmol/(min mg of protein) for tetramers). The Michaelis constants were equal for two animal phosphatases in various buffer media (pH 8.5) ((3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-4 M). Five buffer systems were investigated: tris, carbonate, hepes, borate, and glycine buffers, and the lowest catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatases at equal pH was observed in the borate buffer (for enzyme from bovine intestine, V max = 80 μmol/(min mg of protein)). Cu2+ cations formed a complex with tris-(oxymethyl)-aminomethane ( tris-HCl buffer) and inhibited the intestine alkaline phosphatases by a noncompetitive mechanism.

  5. Inhibitors of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase: design, synthesis, kinetics, biomineralization and cellular tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Julien; Chang, Lei; Marquès, Stéphanie; Pellet-Rostaing, Stéphane; Le Duy, Do; Mebarek, Saida; Buchet, René; Magne, David; Popowycz, Florence; Lemaire, Marc

    2013-12-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with numerous metabolic and endocrine disturbances, including abnormalities of calcium and phosphate metabolism and an inflammatory syndrome. The latter occurs early in the course of CKD and contributes to the development and progression of vascular calcification. A few therapeutic strategies are today contemplated to target vascular calcification in patients with CKD: vitamin K2, calcimimetics and phosphate binders. However, none has provided complete prevention of vascular calcification and there is an urgent need for alternate efficient treatments. Recent findings indicate that tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) may represent a very promising drug target due to its participation in mineralization by vascular smooth muscle cells. We report the synthesis of four levamisole derivatives having better inhibition property on TNAP than levamisole. Their IC50, Ki and water solubility have been determined. We found that the four inhibitors bind to TNAP in an uncompetitive manner and are selective to TNAP. Indeed, they do not inhibit intestinal and placental alkaline phosphatases. Survival MTT tests on human MG-63 and Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells have been performed in the presence of inhibitors. All the inhibitors are not toxic at concentrations that block TNAP activity. Moreover, they are able to significantly reduce mineralization in MG63 and Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells, indicating that they are promising molecules to prevent vascular calcification. PMID:24183741

  6. Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of a Serine Threonine Protein Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglel, Mark; Honkanel, Richard; Ciszak, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues is a well-recognized mechanism in eukaryotic cells for the regulation of cell-cycle progression, cell growth and metabolism. Human serine/threonine phosphatases can be placed into two major families, PPP and PPM. To date the structure on one PPP family member (PPl) has been determined. Here we present the structure of a 323-residue catalytic domain of a second phosphatase belonging to the PPP family of enzyme. catalytic domain of the enzyme has been determined to 1.60Angstrom resolution and refined to R=17.5 and Rfree = 20.8%. The catalytic domain possesses a unique fold consisting of a largely monolithic structure, divisible into closely-associated helical and sheet regions. The catalytic site contains two manganese ions that are involved in substrate binding and catalysis. The enzyme crystallizes as a dimer that completely buries catalytic surfaces of both monomers, Also, the structure shows evidence of some flexibility around the active site cleft that may be related to substrate specificity of this enzyme.

  7. Prostatic acid phosphatase, purification and iodination using Iodogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostatic acid phosphatase was purified from prostatic adenomas. The procedure involved chromatography on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, DEAE-cellulose, Bio-Gel P-150 and L-tartrate-Sepharose. The purified phosphatase hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate at a rate of 270 μmol.mg-1.min-1 (250C) and showed homogeneity upon polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The final prostatic acid phosphatase preparation was pure and the antisera were monospecific as judged by the highly-sensitive technique of crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Of the procedures evaluated for the radioiodination of the purified enzyme with iodine 125, oxidation with Iodogen was found to give the best radioiodinated product, to be used in radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  8. Association of erythrocyte acid phosphatase phenotypes with myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himabindu P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase is a polymorphic nonspecific orthophosphate monoesterase which catalyses the cleaving of phosphoric acid and subsequent breakdown of several monophosphoric esters under acidic pH conditions. Acid phosphatase has a physiologic function as a flavin mononucleotide phosphatase (FMN and regulates the intracellular concentrations of flavin coenzymes that are electron carriers in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Myopia or nearsightedness is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Myopic eyes when subjected to excessive oxidative stress results in retinal detachments .In the present study there is a significant elevation of AA phenotype in myopes when compared to controls. The AA phenotype is more susceptible to oxidative stress and its lower enzyme activity is known to be associated with increased intrauterine growth that further results in increased axial length in progressive myopia. The AA phenotype also confers risk for myopia development in males, early age group and cases with parental consanguinity.

  9. Direct Promotion of Collagen Calcification by Alkaline Phosphatase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase promotes hydrolysis of phosphate containing substrates, causes a rise in inorganic phosphate and, therefore, enhances calcification of biological tissues. In this work, the calcification of collagen in a model serum was used as a model of collagenous tissue biomaterials to study the possible calcification promotion mechanism of alkaline phosphatase. In the enzyme concentration range of 0.10.5mg/mL, the enzyme shows a direct calcification promoting effect which is independent of the hydrolysis of its phosphate containing substrates but proportional to the enzyme concentration. Potassium pyrophosphate somewhat inhibits the calcification promotion.

  10. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of arsenic compounds on protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic binding to biomolecules is considered one of the major toxic mechanisms, which may also be related to the carcinogenic risks of arsenic in humans. At the same time, arsenic is also known to activate the phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor, the mitogen-activated protein kinase and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathways. These signaling pathways originate at the level of receptor tyrosine kinases whose phosphorylation status is regulated by opposing protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation, which is governed by the balanced action of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, regulates important signaling pathways that are involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. In the present study, we have focused on the interaction of cellular PTPs with toxic trivalent arsenite (iAsIII) and its intermediate metabolites such as monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) in vitro, and then determined the arsenic binding site in PTP by the use of recombinant PTPs (e.g., PTP1B and CD45). Interestingly, the activities of PTP1B (cytoplasm-form) or CD45 (receptor-linked form) were observed to be strongly inhibited by both methylated metabolites (i.e., MMAIII and DMAIII) but not by iAsIII. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has clearly confirmed that the organic intermediate, DMAIII directly bound to the active site cysteine residue of PTP1B (e.g., Cys215), resulting in inhibition of enzyme activity. These results suggest that arsenic exposure may disturb the cellular signaling pathways through PTP inactivation. Highlights: ► This study focused on the interaction of PTPs with trivalent arsenicals in vitro. ► We for the first time confirmed that DMAIII strongly inhibited activity of PTP1B. ► DMAIII directly bound to PTP1B, resulting in inhibition of enzyme

  11. Negative regulation of caspase 3-cleaved PAK2 activity by protein phosphatase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is activated by binding of small G proteins, Cdc42 and Rac, or through proteolytic cleavage by caspases or caspase-like proteases. Activation by both small G protein and caspase requires autophosphorylation at Thr-402 of PAK2. Although activation of PAK2 has been investigated for nearly a decade, the mechanism of PAK2 downregulation is unclear. In this study, we have applied the kinetic theory of substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity to study the regulation mechanism of PAK2 activity by the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1α). On the basis of the kinetic equation of the substrate reaction during the reversible phosphorylation of PAK2, all microscopic kinetic constants for the free enzyme and enzyme-substrate(s) complexes have been determined. The results indicate that (1) PP1α can act directly on phosphorylated Thr-402 in the activation loop of PAK2 and down-regulate its kinase activity; (2) binding of the exogenous protein/peptide substrates at the active site of PAK2 decreases both the rates of PAK2 autoactivation and inactivation. The present method provides a novel approach for studying reversible phosphorylation reactions. The advantage of this method is not only its usefulness in study of substrate effects on enzyme modification but also its convenience in study of modification reaction directly involved in regulation of enzyme activity. This initial study should provide a foundation for future structural and mechanistic work of protein kinases and phosphatases.

  12. Negative regulation of caspase 3-cleaved PAK2 activity by protein phosphatase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) is activated by binding of small G proteins, Cdc42 and Rac, or through proteolytic cleavage by caspases or caspase-like proteases. Activation by both small G protein and caspase requires autophosphorylation at Thr-402 of PAK2. Although activation of PAK2 has been investigated for nearly a decade, the mechanism of PAK2 downregulation is unclear. In this study, we have applied the kinetic theory of substrate reaction during modification of enzyme activity to study the regulation mechanism of PAK2 activity by the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1α). On the basis of the kinetic equation of the substrate reaction during the reversible phosphorylation of PAK2, all microscopic kinetic constants for the free enzyme and enzyme-substrate(s) complexes have been determined. The results indicate that (1) PP1α can act directly on phosphorylated Thr-402 in the acti-vation loop of PAK2 and down-regulate its kinase activity; (2) binding of the exogenous protein/peptide substrates at the active site of PAK2 decreases both the rates of PAK2 autoactivation and inactivation. The present method provides a novel approach for studying reversible phosphorylation reactions. The advantage of this method is not only its usefulness in study of substrate effects on enzyme modifica-tion but also its convenience in study of modification reaction directly involved in regulation of enzyme activity. This initial study should provide a foundation for future structural and mechanistic work of protein kinases and phosphatases.

  13. X-ray structure reveals a new class and provides insight into evolution of alkaline phosphatases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C Bihani

    Full Text Available The alkaline phosphatase (AP is a bi-metalloenzyme of potential applications in biotechnology and bioremediation, in which phosphate monoesters are nonspecifically hydrolysed under alkaline conditions to yield inorganic phosphate. The hydrolysis occurs through an enzyme intermediate in which the catalytic residue is phosphorylated. The reaction, which also requires a third metal ion, is proposed to proceed through a mechanism of in-line displacement involving a trigonal bipyramidal transition state. Stabilizing the transition state by bidentate hydrogen bonding has been suggested to be the reason for conservation of an arginine residue in the active site. We report here the first crystal structure of alkaline phosphatase purified from the bacterium Sphingomonas. sp. Strain BSAR-1 (SPAP. The crystal structure reveals many differences from other APs: 1 the catalytic residue is a threonine instead of serine, 2 there is no third metal ion binding pocket, and 3 the arginine residue forming bidentate hydrogen bonding is deleted in SPAP. A lysine and an aspargine residue, recruited together for the first time into the active site, bind the substrate phosphoryl group in a manner not observed before in any other AP. These and other structural features suggest that SPAP represents a new class of APs. Because of its direct contact with the substrate phosphoryl group, the lysine residue is proposed to play a significant role in catalysis. The structure is consistent with a mechanism of in-line displacement via a trigonal bipyramidal transition state. The structure provides important insights into evolutionary relationships between members of AP superfamily.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of interaction between protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and a bidentate inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-xia LIU; Jin-zhi TAN; Chun-ying NIU; Jian-hua SHEN; Xiao-min LUO; Xu SHEN; Kai-xian CHEN; Hua-liang JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the dynamic properties of protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B and reveal the structural factors responsible for the high inhibitory potency and selectivity of the inhibitor SNA for PTP1B. Methods: We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a long time-scale for both PTP1B and PTP1B complexed with the inhibitor SNA, the most potent and selective PTP1B inhibitor reported to date. The trajectories were analyzed by using principal component analysis. Results: Trajectory analyses showed that upon binding the ligand, the flexibility of the entire PTP1B molecule decreases. The most notable change is the movement of the WPD-loop. Our simulation results also indicated that electrostatic interactions contribute more to PTP1B-SNA complex conformation than the van der Waals interactions, and that Lys41, Arg47, and Asp48 play important roles in determining the conformation of the inhibitor SNA and in the potency and selectivity of the inhibitor. Of these, Arg47 contributed most. These results were in agreement with previous experimental results. Conclusion: The information presented here suggests that potent and selective PTP1B inhibitors can be designed by targeting the surface residues, for example the region containing Lys41,Arg47, and Asp48, instead of the second phosphate binding site (besides the active phosphate binding site).

  15. Fluorescent assay for alkaline phosphatase activity based on graphene oxide integrating with λ exonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Guo; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Li, Bo; Guo, Yong-Ming; Zhang, Ye-Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Feng

    2016-07-15

    A novel fluorescence turn-on strategy for the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is developed based on the preferential binding of graphene oxide (GO) to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) over double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) coupled with λ exonuclease (λ exo) cleavage. Specifically, in the absence of ALP, the substrate-dsDNA constructed by one oligonucleotide with a fluorophore at the 3'-end (F-DNA) and its complementary sequence modified with a 5'-phosphoryl termini (p-DNA), is promptly cleaved by λ exo, and the resulting F-DNA is adsorbed on GO surface, allowing fluorescence quenching. Whereas the introduction of ALP leads to the hydrolysis of the P-DNA, and the yielding 5'-hydroxyl end product hampers the λ exo cleavage, inducing significant fluorescence enhancement due to the weak binding of dsDNA with GO. Under the optimized conditions, the approach exhibits high sensitivity and specificity to ALP with a detection limit of 0.19 U/L, and the determination of ALP in spiked human serum samples has also been realized. Notably, this new approach not only provides a novel and sensitive platform for the ALP activity detection but also promotes the exploitation of the GO-based biosensing for the detection of the protein with no specific binding element, and thus extending the GO-based sensing applications into a new field. PMID:27015149

  16. Regulation of Ikaros function by casein kinase 2 and protein phosphatase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy; K; Erbe; Aleksandar; Savic; Sinisa; Dovat

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene encodes a zinc finger,DNA-binding protein that regulates gene transcription and chromatin remodeling.Ikaros is a master regulator of hematopoiesis and an established tumor suppressor.Moderate alteration of Ikaros activity (e.g.haploinsufficiency) appears to be sufficient to promote malignant transformation in human hematopoietic cells.This raises questions about the mechanisms that normally regulate Ikaros function and the potential of these mechanisms to contribute to the development of leukemia.The focus of this review is the regulation of Ikaros function by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.Site-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros by casein kinase 2 (CK2) controls Ikaros DNA-binding ability and subcellular localization.As a consequence,the ability of Ikaros to regulate cell cycle progression,chromatin remodeling,target gene expression,and thymocyte differentiation are controlled by CK2.In addition,hyperphosphorylation of Ikaros by CK2 leads to decreased Ikaros levels due to ubiquitinmediated degradation.Dephosphorylation of Ikaros by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) acts in opposition to CK2 to increase Ikaros stability and restore Ikaros DNA binding ability and pericentromeric localization.Thus,the CK2 and PP1 pathways act in concert to regulate Ikaros activity in hematopoiesis and as a tumor suppressor.This highlights the importance of these signal transduction pathways as potential mediators of leukemogenesis via their role in regulating the activities of Ikaros.

  17. Binding Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the binding procurement process in purchasing Aerospace Flight Battery Systems. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) requested NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group to develop a set of guideline requirements document for Binding Procurement Contracts.

  18. Selective dephosphorylation of histone H1 by nuclear phosphatases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to characterize the sites of H1 phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (kinase A) and the Ca2+ phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (kinase C) and to study their dephosphorylation by nuclear protein phosphatases. H1 was phosphorylated on a ser residue to approx. 1 mole [32P]/mole H1 with either kinase A or C. The sites of phosphorylation were differentiated by digestion of the H1 by thrombin or N-bromosuccinimide. Phosphopeptide maps on reversed phase HPLC and gel filtration HPLC clearly showed that the kinase C phosphorylated a different site than the well characterized kinase A site. H1, phosphorylated by kinase C or kinase A, was used as a substrate for the nuclear phosphatases. The nuclear phosphatases were purified from salt extracted rat liver chromatin and separated into 2 forms based on heat-stable inhibitor sensitivity and polycation stimulation. Polycation-stimulated phosphatase rapidly dephosphorylated the kinase C site and slowly dephosphorylated the kinase A site. The inhibitor-sensitive enzyme showed little activity toward either site under standard assay conditions

  19. Selective dephosphorylation of histone H1 by nuclear phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakes, S.; Schlender, K.K.

    1987-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the sites of H1 phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (kinase A) and the CaS phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (kinase C) and to study their dephosphorylation by nuclear protein phosphatases. H1 was phosphorylated on a ser residue to approx. 1 mole (TSP)/mole H1 with either kinase A or C. The sites of phosphorylation were differentiated by digestion of the H1 by thrombin or N-bromosuccinimide. Phosphopeptide maps on reversed phase HPLC and gel filtration HPLC clearly showed that the kinase C phosphorylated a different site than the well characterized kinase A site. H1, phosphorylated by kinase C or kinase A, was used as a substrate for the nuclear phosphatases. The nuclear phosphatases were purified from salt extracted rat liver chromatin and separated into 2 forms based on heat-stable inhibitor sensitivity and polycation stimulation. Polycation-stimulated phosphatase rapidly dephosphorylated the kinase C site and slowly dephosphorylated the kinase A site. The inhibitor-sensitive enzyme showed little activity toward either site under standard assay conditions.

  20. Methods to distinguish various types of protein phosphatase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To distinguish the action of protein Tyr(P) and protein Ser(P)/Thr(P) phosphatases on 32P-labeled phosphoproteins in subcellular fractions different inhibitors and activators are utilized. Comparison of the effects of added compounds provides a convenient, indirect method to characterize dephosphorylation reactions. Protein Tyr(P) phosphatases are specifically inhibited by micromolar Zn2+ or vanadate, and show maximal activity in the presence of EDTA. The other class of cellular phosphatases, specific for protein Ser(P) and Thr(P) residues, are inhibited by fluoride and EDTA. In this class of enzymes two major functional types can be distinguished: those sensitive to inhibition by the heat-stable protein inhibitor-2 and not stimulated by polycations, and those not sensitive to inhibition and stimulated by polycations. Preparation of 32P-labeled Tyr(P) and Ser(P) phosphoproteins also is presented for the direct measurement of phosphatase activities in preparations by the release of acid-soluble [32P]phosphate

  1. A physiologic function for alkaline phosphatase : Endotoxin detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a common enzyme present in many species including humans, has been studied extensively. Although the enzyme is routinely applied as a marker for liver function, its biologic relevance is poorly understood. The reason for this is obvious: the pH optimum of AP in vitro, as m

  2. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  3. Detection of endogenous alkaline phosphatase activity in intact cells by flow cytometry using the fluorogenic ELF-97 phosphatase substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, W. G.; Cox, W. G.; Stiner, D.; Singer, V. L.; Doty, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The alkaline phosphatase (AP) substrate 2-(5'-chloro-2'-phosphoryloxyphenyl)-6-chloro-4-(3H)-quinazolinone (ELF((R))-97 for enzyme-labeled fluorescence) has been found useful for the histochemical detection of endogenous AP activity and AP-tagged proteins and oligonucleotide probes. In this study, we evaluated its effectiveness at detecting endogenous AP activity by flow cytometry. METHODS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate was used to detect endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 rat osteosarcoma cells and primary cultures of chick chondrocytes. Cells were labeled with the ELF-97 reagent and analyzed by flow cytometry using an argon ultraviolet (UV) laser. For comparison purposes, cells were also assayed for AP using a Fast Red Violet LB azo dye assay previously described for use in detecting AP activity by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The ELF-97 phosphatase substrate effectively detected endogenous AP activity in UMR-106 cells, with over 95% of the resulting fluorescent signal resulting from AP-specific activity (as determined by levamisole inhibition of AP activity). In contrast, less than 70% of the fluorescent signal from the Fast Red Violet LB (FRV) assay was AP-dependent, reflecting the high intrinsic fluorescence of the unreacted components. The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was also able to detect very low AP activity in chick chondrocytes that was undetectable by the azo dye method. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF-97 phosphatase assay was able to detect endogenous AP activity in fixed mammalian and avian cells by flow cytometry with superior sensitivity to previously described assays. This work also shows the applicability of ELF-97 to flow cytometry, supplementing its previously demonstrated histochemical applications. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Differentiation-dependent activation of the human intestinal alkaline phosphatase promoter by HNF-4 in intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Bressendorff, Simon; Troelsen, Jesper T;

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPI) encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme, which is highly upregulated during small intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. To identify new putative promoter motifs responsible for the regulation of ALPI expression during differentiation of the...... of HNF-4alpha to stimulate the expression from the ALPI promoter was investigated in the nonintestinal Hela cell line. Cotransfection with an HNF-4alpha expression vector demonstrated a direct activation of the ALPI promoter through this -94 to -82 element. EMSA showed that HNF-4alpha from nuclear...... extracts of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) bound with high affinity to the predicted HNF-4 binding site. A 521 bp promoter fragment containing the HNF-4 binding site demonstrated a differentiation-dependent increase in promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The presence of the HNF-4...

  5. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer's disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer's disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer's disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  6. Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Du

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs play an important role in regulating cell signaling events in coordination with tyrosine kinases to control cell proliferation, apoptosis, survival, migration, and invasion. Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPRs are a subgroup of PTPs that share a transmembrane domain with resulting similarities in function and target specificity. In this review, we summarize genetic and epigenetic alterations including mutation, deletion, amplification, and promoter methylation of PTPRs in cancer and consider the consequences of PTPR alterations in different types of cancers. We also summarize recent developments using PTPRs as prognostic or predictive biomarkers and/or direct targets. Increased understanding of the role of PTPRs in cancer may provide opportunities to improve therapeutic approaches.

  7. Promiscuity and electrostatic flexibility in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabis, Anna; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, that is, the ability of single enzymes to facilitate the turnover of multiple, chemically distinct substrates, is a widespread phenomenon that plays an important role in the evolution of enzyme function. Additionally, such pre-existing multifunctionality can be harnessed in artificial enzyme design. The members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily have served extensively as both experimental and computational model systems for enhancing our understanding of catalytic promiscuity. In this Opinion, we present key recent computational studies into the catalytic activity of these highly promiscuous enzymes, highlighting the valuable insight they have provided into both the molecular basis for catalytic promiscuity in general, and its implications for the evolution of phosphatase activity. PMID:26716576

  8. The development of determining human prostatic acid phosphatase by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We purified human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) from prostatic tissues by affinity chromatography, DEAE cellulose and gel filtration and also examined physicochemical properties of highly purified PAP. We developed a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for hPAP in serum, with use of antiserum raised in rabbit against highly purified PAP. The antiserum did not cross react with acid phosphatase from platelets and red blood cells. Experimental detail are outlined to assess the reproducibility and reliability of the method under various conditions. The upper limit of the serum PAP levels in the present assay was set at 3.0 ng/ml by 162 determinations of samples. The serum PAP levels of 2 untreated patients with prostatic carcinoma were higher than 3.0 ng/ml and 39 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were an average value of 1.9 ng/ml. (author)

  9. Effect of phenylmercuric acetate injections on phosphatase activity in chickens resistant and susceptible to Leukosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; Bearse, G.E.; Csonka, E.

    1972-01-01

    The weighted means of liver and kidney alkaline phosphatase activity was greater in three strains of chickens classified as susceptible to limphoid leukosis than in five strains classified as resistant. On the same basis, four strains classified as susceptible to Marek's disease had more liver alkaline phosphatase activity than four strains classified as resistant. The weighted means of liver and kidney acid phosphatase activity were not different among the same strains of chickens classified similarly. Kidney alkaline phosphatase activity was the most generally inhibited by phenylmercuric acetate injections, followed by liver acid and alkaline phosphatase. Kidney acid phosphatase activity was enhanced by phenylmercuric acetate injections in three strains of chickens classified as resistant to both lymphoid leukosis and Marek's disease. Liver acid phosphatase activity was depressed in three strains classed as resistant to lymphoid leukosis.

  10. Redox Regulation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity by Hydroxyl Radical

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Fan-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important signaling event triggered by the activation of various cell surface receptors. Major targets of H2O2 include protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Oxidation of the active site Cys by H2O2 abrogates PTP catalytic activity, thereby potentially furnishing a mechanism to ensure optimal tyrosine phosphorylation in response to a variety of physiological stimuli. ...

  11. Alkaline phosphatase for immunocytochemical labelling: problems with endogenous enzyme activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, A. S.; Heyderman, E

    1981-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase may be used as a label for immunocytochemistry and can be demonstrated in tissue sections using the single step naphthol phosphate method. Endogenous enzyme activity may not be destroyed by fixation in formalin, formol alcohol, Carnoy's or Baker's solutions and should be inhibited before results are assessed. Either Bouin's solution or periodic acid followed by potassium borohydride are satisfactory inhibitor and do not adversely affect immunocytochemical results.

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatases expression during development of mouse superior colliculus

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Horvat-Bröcker, Andrea; Illes, Sebastian; Zaremba, Angelika; Knyazev, Piotr; Ullrich, Axel; Faissner, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of different processes during development of the central nervous system. However, expression patterns and potential roles of PTPs in the developing superior colliculus remain poorly investigated. In this study, a degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach was used to isolate seven different intracellular PTPs and nine different receptor-type PTPs (RPTPs) from embryonic E15 mouse superior col...

  13. Monomeric Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase Induces Insulin Sensitive Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lång, Pernilla; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Rydén, Mikael; Kaaman, Maria; Parini, Paolo; Carneheim, Claes; Cassady, A. Ian; Hume, David A.; Andersson, Göran; Arner, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer. Principal Findings Using mice over expressing TRAP...

  14. Bioengineered protein phosphatase 2A: Update on need

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiolo, Juan A.; López-Alonso, Henar; Alfonso, Amparo; Vega, Félix V.; Vieytes, Mercedes Rodríguez; Botana, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms caused by phytoplankton can occur in all aquatic environments. Some of the algae present in these blooms are capable of producing extremely potent toxins. Due to climate change and eutrophication, harmful algal blooms are increasing on a global scale. One kind of toxin producing algae are those that produce okadaic acid, its derivatives (dinophysistoxin-1 and 2), and microcystins. These toxins are potent inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A, so this protein is used to det...

  15. Radioimmunoassay for human placental alkaline phosphatase and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay specific for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP) has been performed. Sera from blood donnors contain less than 15 μg of PALP per liter. The amounts of PALP found in sera of pregnant women are higher, as soon as the first trimester of the pregnancy, increasing untill delivery (50-600 μg of PALP/l). Only 3,5% of the patients with various cancer diseases have amounts higher than 25 μg PALP/l

  16. The relationship between the MMP system, adrenoceptors and phosphoprotein phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Rietz, A; Spiers, JP

    2012-01-01

    The MMPs and their inhibitors [tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMPs) ] form the mainstay of extracellular matrix homeostasis. They are expressed in response to numerous stimuli including cytokines and GPCR activation. This review highlights the importance of adrenoceptors and phosphoprotein phosphatases (PPP) in regulating MMPs in the cardiovascular system, which may help explain some of the beneficial effects of targeting the adrenoceptor system in tissue remodelling and will establish emerging c...

  17. Tyrosine Phosphatase Inhibition Induces an ASC-dependent Pyroptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghonime, Mohammed G.; Shamaa, Obada R.; Eldomany, Ramadan A.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Wewers, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Pyroptosis is a type of cell death in which danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) induce mononuclear phagocytes to activate caspase-1 and release mature IL-1β. Because the tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG126 can prevent DAMP/PAMP induced activation of caspase-1, we hypothesized that tipping the tyrosine kinase/phosphatase balance toward phosphorylation would promote caspase-1 activation and cell death. THP-1 derived macrophages were theref...

  18. Associations between Renal Hyperfiltration and Serum Alkaline Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Se Won; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Sang Youb

    2015-01-01

    Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS), and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in t...

  19. Light availability may control extracellular phosphatase production in turbid environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rychtecký, Pavel; Řeháková, Klára; Kozlíková, Eliška; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2015), s. 37-44. ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0309; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/2177; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/2182 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phytoplankton * phosphatase activity * ELF97 phosphate Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.973, year: 2014

  20. Mammalian-like Purple Acid Phosphatases in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) comprise of a family of binuclear metal-containing hydrolases, some members of which have been isolated and characterized from animal, plant and fungal sources[1]. PAPs not only catalyze the hydrolyses of a wide range of phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic reaction conditions,but also catalyze the generation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like reaction, by virtue of the presence of a redox-active binuclear metal center.

  1. Roles of phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzymes catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate, yielding diacylglycerol and inorganic phosphate. In eukaryotic cells, PAP activity has a central role in the synthesis of phospholipids and triacylglycerol through its product diacylglycerol, and it also generates and/or degrades lipid-signaling molecules that are related to phosphatidate. There are two types of PAP enzyme, Mg2+ dependent (PAP1) and Mg2+ independent (PAP2), but only genes encoding PAP2 en...

  2. Phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency in a patient with Williams syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeken, J; Detheux, M; Fryns, J P; Collet, J.F.; Alliet, P; Van Schaftingen, E

    1997-01-01

    Decreased serine levels were found in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a boy with pre- and postnatal growth retardation, moderate psychomotor retardation, and facial dysmorphism suggestive of Williams syndrome. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation with an elastin gene probe indicated the presence of a submicroscopic 7q11.23 deletion, confirming this diagnosis. Further investigation showed that the phosphoserine phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.3.) activity in lymphoblasts and fibroblasts amounted t...

  3. Adsorption of Acid Phosphatase on Minerals and Soil Colloids in Presence of Citrate and Phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of phosphate and citrate, which are common inorganic andorganic anions in soils, on the adsorption of acid phosphatase by kaolin, goethite and the colloids separatedfrom yellow-brown soil (YBS) and latosol (LS) in central-south China. The YBS colloid has the major claymineral composition of 1.4 nm mineral, illite and kaolinite while the LS colloid mainly contains kaolinite andoxides. The adsorption isotherm of acid phosphatase on the examined soil colloids and minerals fitted tothe Langmuir model. The amount of enzyme adsorbed in the absence of ligands was in the order of YBScolloid >LS colloid>kaolin≈goethite. In the presence of phosphate or citrate, the amounts of the enzymeadsorbed followed the sequence YBS colloid>kaolin>LS colloid>goethite. The presence of ligands alsodecreased the binding energy between the enzyme and soil colloids or minerals. With the increase of ligandconcentration from 10 mmol L-1 to 400 m mol L-1, different behaviors for the adsorption of enzyme werefound in the colloid and mineral systems studied. A sharp decrease in enzyme adsorption was observed ongoethite while gradual decreases of enzyme adsorption were recorded in the two soil colloid systems. However,no any decrease was found for the amount of enzyme adsorbed on kaolin at higher ligand concentrations.When phosphate or citrate was introduced to the system before the addition of enzyme, the ligands usuallyenhanced the adsorption of enzyme. The results obtained in this study suggested the important role ofkaolinite mineral in the adsorption of enzyme molecules in acidic soils in the presence of various ligands.

  4. Activation of Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase by Trifluoroethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志方; 徐真; 朴龙斗; 周海梦

    2001-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a stable enzyme which is strongly resistant to urea, guanidine hydrochloride, acid pH, and heat. But there have been few studies on the effect of organic cosolvents on the activity and structure of alkaline phosphatase. The activity of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) is markedly increased when incubated in solutions with elevated trifluoroethanol (TFE) concentrations. The activation is a time dependent course. There is a very fast phase in the activation kinetics in the mixing dead time (30 s) using convential methods. Further activation after the very fast phase follows biphasic kinetics. The structural basis of the activation has been monitored by intrinsic fluorescence and far ultraviolet circular dichroism. TFE (0 - 60%) did not lead to any significant change in the intrinsic fluorescence emission maximum, indicating no significant change in the tertiary structure of CIAP. But TFE did significantly change the secondary structure of CIAP, especially increasing α-helix content. We conclude that the activation of ClAP is due to its secondary structural change. The time for the secondary structure change induced by TFE preceds that of the activity increase. These results suggest that a rapid conformational change of ClAP induced by TFE results in the enhancement of ClAP activity, followed by further increase of this activity because of the further slightly slower rearrangements of the activated conformation. It is concluded that the higher catalytic activity of ClAP can be attained with various secondary structures.

  5. Testicular acid phosphatase induces odontoblast differentiation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwajung; Kim, Tak-Heun; Yun, Chi-Young; Kim, Jung-Wook; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-04-01

    Odontoblasts differentiate from dental mesenchyme during dentin formation and mineralization. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling odontoblast differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of testicular acid phosphatase (ACPT) is restricted in the early stage of odontoblast differentiation in proliferating dental mesenchymal cells and secretory odontoblasts. ACPT is expressed earlier than tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and partly overlaps with TNAP in differentiating odontoblasts. In MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells, expression of ACPT appears simultaneously with a decrease in β-catenin activity and is abolished with the expression of Phex and Dsp. Knockdown of ACPT in MDPC-23 cells stimulates cell proliferation together with an increase in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. In contrast, the overexpression of ACPT suppresses cell proliferation with a decrease in active β-catenin and cyclin D1. Expression of TNAP, Osx, Phex and Dsp is reduced by knockdown of ACPT but is enhanced by ACPT overexpression. When ACPT is blocked with IgG, alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited but cell proliferation is unchanged regardless of ACPT expression. These findings suggest that ACPT inhibits cell proliferation through β-catenin-mediated signaling in dental mesenchyme but elicits odontoblast differentiation and mineralization by supplying phosphate during dentin formation. Thus, ACPT might be a novel candidate for inducing odontoblast differentiation and mineralization for dentin regeneration. PMID:26547858

  6. Discovery and development of small molecule SHIP phosphatase modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viernes, Dennis R; Choi, Lydia B; Kerr, William G; Chisholm, John D

    2014-07-01

    Inositol phospholipids play an important role in the transfer of signaling information across the cell membrane in eukaryotes. These signals are often governed by the phosphorylation patterns on the inositols, which are mediated by a number of inositol kinases and phosphatases. The src homology 2 (SH2) containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) plays a central role in these processes, influencing signals delivered through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. SHIP modulation by small molecules has been implicated as a treatment in a number of human disease states, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, alteration of SHIP phosphatase activity may provide a means to facilitate bone marrow transplantation and increase blood cell production. This review discusses the cellular signaling pathways and protein-protein interactions that provide the molecular basis for targeting the SHIP enzyme in these disease states. In addition, a comprehensive survey of small molecule modulators of SHIP1 and SHIP2 is provided, with a focus on the structure, potency, selectivity, and solubility properties of these compounds. PMID:24302498

  7. A PTEN-like phosphatase with a novel substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarini, David J; Worby, Carolyn A; Dixon, Jack E

    2004-09-10

    We show that a novel PTEN-like phosphatase (PLIP) exhibits a unique preference for phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI(5)P) as a substrate in vitro. PI(5)P is the least characterized member of the phosphoinositide (PI) family of lipid signaling molecules. Recent studies suggest a role for PI(5)P in a variety of cellular events, such as tumor suppression, and in response to bacterial invasion. Determining the means by which PI(5)P levels are regulated is therefore key to understanding these cellular processes. PLIP is highly enriched in testis tissue and, similar to other PI phosphatases, exhibits poor activity against several proteinaceous substrates. Despite a recent report suggesting a role for PI(5)P in the regulation of Akt, the overexpression of wild-type or catalytically inactive PLIP in Chinese hamster ovary-insulin receptor cells or a dsRNA-mediated knockdown of PLIP mRNA levels in Drosophila S2 cells does not alter Akt activity or phosphorylation. The unique in vitro catalytic activity and detailed biochemical and kinetic analyses reported here will be of great value in our continued efforts to identify in vivo substrate(s) for this highly conserved phosphatase. PMID:15247229

  8. PTP-PEST phosphatase variations in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Sylvia; Ruhe, Jens Ernst; Knyazev, Pjotr; Knyazeva, Tatjana; Iacobelli, Stefano; Peter, Stephan; Hoefler, Heinz; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-10-01

    Signal transduction via tyrosine phosphorylation, normally fine-tuned by the concerted action of both protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), is a key mechanism in tumorigenesis. PTP-PEST, a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase, is thought to play an important role in cell adhesion and motility, and may be involved in metastasis. A search for sequence variations within the gene PTPN12 (alias PTP-PEST) was performed in breast cancer cell lines, leading to the identification of three amino acid substitutions at positions 322, 573, and 709. These alterations were also found in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and could be verified in primary human breast and kidney tumor samples. Analysis of peripheral blood samples confirmed the germline origin of these alterations. Furthermore, functional characterization of the Ile322 and Ala573 PTP-PEST mutants revealed an enhancement of in vitro phosphatase activity, whereas the Lys709 variant showed reduced catalytic activity. These data demonstrate the existence of PTP-PEST variants that might be meaningful for human cancer and underscore the need for further characterizing PTP-PEST and its signaling pathways in context of this disease. PMID:16965954

  9. A mutation in the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor of human LNCaP cells affects steroid binding characteristics and response to anti-androgens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldscholte (Jos); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); G.W. Jenster (Guido); C.A. Berrevoets (Cor); H.J.H.M. Claassen (Eric); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); J. Trapman (Jan); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); E. Mulder (Eppo)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract INCaP prostate tumor cells contain an abnormal androgen receptor system. Progestagens, estradiol and anti-androgens can compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor and can stimulate both cell growth and excretion of prostate specific acid phosphatase. We ha

  10. Association of Protein Phosphatase 1γ1 with Spinophilin Suppresses Phosphatase Activity in a Parkinson Disease Model*

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Abigail M.; Baucum, Anthony J.; Bass, Martha A.; Roger J Colbran

    2008-01-01

    Sustained nigrostriatal dopamine depletion increases the serine/threonine phosphorylation of multiple striatal proteins that play a role in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, including Thr286 phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα). Mechanisms underlying these changes are unclear, but protein phosphatases play a critical role in the acute modulation of striatal protein phosphorylation. Here we show that dopamine depletion for periods ranging from 3 weeks...

  11. Analysis of Two Putative Candida albicans Phosphopantothenoylcysteine Decarboxylase / Protein Phosphatase Z Regulatory Subunits Reveals an Unexpected Distribution of Functional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrényi, Katalin; Molero, Cristina; Kónya, Zoltán; Erdődi, Ferenc; Ariño, Joaquin; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase Z (Ppz) is a fungus specific enzyme that regulates cell wall integrity, cation homeostasis and oxidative stress response. Work on Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that the enzyme is inhibited by Hal3/Vhs3 moonlighting proteins that together with Cab3 constitute the essential phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) enzyme. In Candida albicans CaPpz1 is also involved in the morphological changes and infectiveness of this opportunistic human pathogen. To reveal the CaPpz1 regulatory context we searched the C. albicans database and identified two genes that, based on the structure of their S. cerevisiae counterparts, were termed CaHal3 and CaCab3. By pull down analysis and phosphatase assays we demonstrated that both of the bacterially expressed recombinant proteins were able to bind and inhibit CaPpz1 as well as its C-terminal catalytic domain (CaPpz1-Cter) with comparable efficiency. The binding and inhibition were always more pronounced with CaPpz1-Cter, indicating a protective effect against inhibition by the N-terminal domain in the full length protein. The functions of the C. albicans proteins were tested by their overexpression in S. cerevisiae. Contrary to expectations we found that only CaCab3 and not CaHal3 rescued the phenotypic traits that are related to phosphatase inhibition by ScHal3, such as tolerance to LiCl or hygromycin B, requirement for external K+ concentrations, or growth in a MAP kinase deficient slt2 background. On the other hand, both of the Candida proteins turned out to be essential PPCDC components and behaved as their S. cerevisiae counterparts: expression of CaCab3 and CaHal3 rescued the cab3 and hal3 vhs3 S. cerevisiae mutations, respectively. Thus, both CaHal3 and CaCab3 retained the PPCDC related functions and have the potential for CaPpz1 inhibition in vitro. The fact that only CaCab3 exhibits its phosphatase regulatory potential in vivo suggests that in C. albicans CaCab3, but not CaHal3, acts as a

  12. Have We Overlooked the Importance of Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases in Pancreatic Beta-Cells? Role Played by Protein Phosphatase 2A in Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esser V

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic predisposition and environmental influences insidiously converge to cause glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Beta-cell compensates by secreting more insulin and when it fails, overt diabetes mellitus ensues. The need to understand the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion cannot be stressed enough. Phosphorylation of proteins plays an important role in regulating insulin secretion. In order to understand how a particular cellular process is regulated by protein phosphorylation the nature of the protein kinases and protein phosphatases involved and the mechanisms that determine when and where these enzymes are active should be investigated. While the actions of protein kinases have been intensely studied within the beta-cell, less emphasis has been placed on protein phosphatases even though they play an important regulatory role. This review focuses on the importance of protein phosphatase 2A in insulin secretion. Most of the present knowledge on protein phosphatase 2A originates from protein phosphatase inhibitor studies on islets and beta-cell lines. The ability of protein phosphatase 2A to change its activity in the presence of glucose and inhibitors provides clues to its role in regulating insulin secretion. An aggressive approach to elucidate the substrates and mechanisms of action of protein phosphatases is crucial to the understanding of phosphorylation events within the beta-cell. Characterizing protein phosphatase 2A within the beta-cell will certainly help us in understanding the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion and provide valuable information for drug development.

  13. Dephosphorylation of chicken cardiac myofibril C-protein by protein phosphatases 1 and 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-Protein, which is a regulatory component of cardiac muscle myofibrils, is phosphorylated in response to β-adrenergic agonists by a cAMP-dependent mechanism and dephosphorylated in response to cholinergic agonists. It is believed that the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation is due to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The protein phosphatase(s) involved in the dephosphorylation of C-protein has not been determined. In this study, chicken cardiac C-protein was phosphorylated with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase to about 3 mol phosphate/mol C-protein. Incubation of [32P]C-protein with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 or 2A rapidly removed 30-40% of 32[P]. Phosphopeptide maps and phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that the major site(s) dephosphorylated by either phosphatase was a phosphothreonine residue(s) located on the same tryptic peptide and on the same CNBr fragment. Increasing the incubation period or the phosphatase concentration did not result in any further dephosphorylation of C-protein by phosphatase 1, but phosphatase 2A completely dephosphorylated C-protein. Preliminary studies showed that the major protein phosphatase associated with the myofibril was phosphatase 2A. These results indicate the phosphatase 2A may be important in the regulation of the phosphorylation state of C-protein

  14. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit α-glucosidase activity and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Yousof; Jannat, Susoma; Jung, Hyun Ah; Jeong, Hyong Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-05-25

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of six natural coumarins, 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (1), 4'-methoxy Pd-C-I (2), decursinol (3), decursidin (4), umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid (5), and 2'-isopropyl psoralene (6) isolated from Angelica decursiva and evaluated their inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α-glucosidase, and ONOO(-)-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. Coumarins 1-6 showed potent PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with ranges of IC50 values of 5.39-58.90 μM and 65.29-172.10 μM, respectively. In the kinetic study for PTP1B enzyme inhibition, compounds 1, 5, and 6 were competitive, whereas 2 and 4 showed mixed type, and 3 displayed noncompetitive type inhibition. For α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good mixed-type, while 2, 5, and 6 showed noncompetitive and 4 displayed competitive type inhibition. Furthermore, these coumarins also effectively suppressed ONOO(-)-mediated tyrosine nitration in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate PTP1B inhibition, we generated a 3D structure of PTP1B using Autodock 4.2 and simulated the binding of compounds 1-6. Docking simulations showed that different residues of PTP1B interacted with different functional groups of compounds 1-6 through hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, the binding energies of compounds 1-6 were negative, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may stabilize the open form of the enzyme and potentiate tight binding of the active site of PTP1B, thereby resulting in more effective PTP1B inhibition. These results demonstrate that the whole plant of A. decursiva and its coumarins are useful as potential functional food ingredients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27085377

  15. Monoclonal antibodies directed against Leishmania secreted acid phosphatase and lipophosphoglycan. Partial characterization of private and public epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, T; Harbecke, D; Wiese, M; Overath, P

    1993-10-15

    Leishmania promastigotes, the stage of the parasite characteristic for the sandfly vector, express an abundant glycoconjugate, called lipophosphoglycan, at their surface. Lipophosphoglycan consists of lysoalkyl-sn-glycerophosphoinositol linked to a phosphosaccharide core conserved in all species, which is connected to PO4-6Gal beta 1,4Man alpha 1 repeats with species-specific substitutions at the Gal residue; the repeats are capped by conserved and species-specific oligosaccharides. Most Leishmania species also secrete an acid phosphatase, which, in Leishmania mexicana, is a filamentous complex composed of a phosphorylated glycoprotein and non-covalently associated proteo-(high-molecular-mass)phosphoglycan. The secreted acid phosphatase complex was used as an antigen to derive a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A total of 25 mAbs (17 novel and 8 previously described) were tested by different techniques for their specificity against lipophosphoglycan and secreted acid phosphatase from several Leishmania species. This comparison and the modification of the antigens by chemical or enzymic treatments allowed a classification of the mAbs into several groups. First, from 25 mAbs examined, 22 recognize lipophosphoglycan and the enzyme complex of L. mexicana; only three are specific for secreted acid phosphatase. Two of the latter group are also directed against carbohydrate structures, whereas the third mAb recognizes the 100-kDa polypeptide of the complex. The secreted acid-phosphatase-specific class detects antigen in the flagellar pocket of promastigotes while all anti-lipophosphoglycan mAbs bind to the cell surface. Second, all 15 anti-lipophosphoglycan mAbs investigated in detail appear to be directed against the phosphosaccharide repeats or the cap structure rather than the phosphosaccharide core. Two mAbs recognize terminal cap-structures containing Man alpha 1,2Man residues. Four antibodies are specific for L. mexicana and are probably directed against PO4

  16. Integrin α1β1 Promotes Caveolin-1 Dephosphorylation by Activating T Cell Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Corina M.; Chen, Xiwu; Mathew, Sijo; Mont, Stacey; Sanders, Charles R.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor that down-regulates collagen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mice lacking this receptor show increased ROS levels and exacerbated glomerular sclerosis following injury. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to injury and has been implicated in ROS-mediated injury. Cav-1 interacts with integrins, and integrin α1β1 binds/activates T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which is homologous to the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B known to dephosphorylate Cav-1. In this study, we analyzed whether phosphorylated Cav-1 (pCav-1) is a substrate of TCPTP and if integrin α1β1 is essential for promoting TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation. We found that Cav-1 phosphorylation is significantly higher in cells lacking integrin α1β1 at base line and following oxidative stress. Overexpression of TCPTP leads to reduced pCav-1 levels only in cells expressing integrin α1β1. Using solid phase binding assays, we demonstrated that 1) purified Cav-1 directly interacts with TCPTP and the integrin α1 subunit, 2) pCav-1 is a substrate of TCPTP, and 3) TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation is highly increased by the addition of purified integrin α1β1 or an integrin α1 cytoplasmic peptide to which TCPTP has been shown to bind. Thus, our results demonstrate that pCav-1 is a new substrate of TCPTP and that integrin α1β1 acts as a negative regulator of Cav-1 phosphorylation by activating TCPTP. This could explain the protective function of integrin α1β1 in oxidative stress-mediated damage and why integrin α1-null mice are more susceptible to fibrosis following injury. PMID:20940300

  17. Integrin {alpha}1{beta}1 promotes caveolin-1 dephosphorylation by activating T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Corina M; Chen, Xiwu; Mathew, Sijo; Mont, Stacey; Sanders, Charles R; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-12-17

    Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor that down-regulates collagen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mice lacking this receptor show increased ROS levels and exacerbated glomerular sclerosis following injury. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to injury and has been implicated in ROS-mediated injury. Cav-1 interacts with integrins, and integrin α1β1 binds/activates T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which is homologous to the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B known to dephosphorylate Cav-1. In this study, we analyzed whether phosphorylated Cav-1 (pCav-1) is a substrate of TCPTP and if integrin α1β1 is essential for promoting TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation. We found that Cav-1 phosphorylation is significantly higher in cells lacking integrin α1β1 at base line and following oxidative stress. Overexpression of TCPTP leads to reduced pCav-1 levels only in cells expressing integrin α1β1. Using solid phase binding assays, we demonstrated that 1) purified Cav-1 directly interacts with TCPTP and the integrin α1 subunit, 2) pCav-1 is a substrate of TCPTP, and 3) TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation is highly increased by the addition of purified integrin α1β1 or an integrin α1 cytoplasmic peptide to which TCPTP has been shown to bind. Thus, our results demonstrate that pCav-1 is a new substrate of TCPTP and that integrin α1β1 acts as a negative regulator of Cav-1 phosphorylation by activating TCPTP. This could explain the protective function of integrin α1β1 in oxidative stress-mediated damage and why integrin α1-null mice are more susceptible to fibrosis following injury. PMID:20940300

  18. A complex between contactin-1 and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRZ controls the development of oligodendrocyte precursor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprianou, Smaragda; Chatzopoulou, Elli; Thomas, Jean-Léon; Bouyain, Samuel; Harroch, Sheila (IP-Korea); (UPMC); (UMKC)

    2013-09-23

    The six members of the contactin (CNTN) family of neural cell adhesion molecules are involved in the formation and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS) and have been linked to mental retardation and neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism. Five of the six CNTNs bind to the homologous receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases gamma (PTPRG) and zeta (PTPRZ), but the biological roles of these interactions remain unclear. We report here the cocrystal structure of the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of PTPRZ bound to tandem Ig repeats of CNTN1 and combine these structural data with binding assays to show that PTPRZ binds specifically to CNTN1 expressed at the surface of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Furthermore, analyses of glial cell populations in wild-type and PTPRZ-deficient mice show that the binding of PTPRZ to CNTN1 expressed at the surface of oligodendrocyte precursor cells inhibits their proliferation and promotes their development into mature oligodendrocytes. Overall, these results implicate the PTPRZ/CNTN1 complex as a previously unknown modulator of oligodendrogenesis.

  19. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium U(VI) phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO43- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 (micro)M dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  20. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert (co-PI); and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  1. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone...... alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.8), peak serum alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.5), or mean serum phosphate (p = 0.2) at term. CONCLUSION:Routine measurements of serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are of no use in predicting bone mineralisation outcome in premature infants....

  2. A description of alkaline phosphatases from marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Jia, Hongbing; Yu, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are non-specific phosphohydrolases, and they are widely used in clinical diagnostics and biological studies. APs are widespread in nature and exhibit different structural formulations. Based on the diversity of biogenetic sources, APs exhibit temperature-propensity traits, and they are classified as psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic. In this article, the characteristics of psychrophilic APs from marine organisms were described, accompanied by a simple description of APs from other organisms. This review will facilitate better utilization of marine APs in the biotechnology field.

  3. Chromatographic separation of alkaline phosphatase from dental enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S; Salling, E

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) was prepared from partly mineralized bovine enamel by extraction in phosphate buffer, centrifugation and various chromatographic techniques. Chromatofocusing showed that the enamel enzyme possessed five isoelectric points at the acid pH level ranging from pH 5.7 to pH 4.......4. Three enzyme peaks were eluted using low pressure chromatography with a Bio-gel column. With a HPLC gel filtration column the separation of the enamel extract resulted in only one peak with AP activity. The fractions of this peak were used to produce an antibody against bovine AP....

  4. ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AS A MARKER OF DOG SEMEN FREEZABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was performed to evaluate the dog semen freezability and itsquality after thawing allowing its use for artificial insemination (AI. On the basis ofsperm motility, concentration and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in semenplasma it was possible to establish that AP activity corresponds with the basic factorof semen examination. Significant statistical differences occurred between thequality of ejaculates which were qualified or disqualified to deep freezing and AI.These results show that AP activity in raw dog semen plasma can be used as amarker for the dog semen qualification for deep freezing and AI with 95%probability of the prognosis of the results.

  5. PROTEN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ASCITES HEPATOMA CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Saadat

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of target proteins involved in several aspects of cellular functions. Enzyme activities of the PTPases in cytosolic and particulate fractions of rat ascites hepatoma cell lines were determined and compared with those of normal rat liver. Our present data revealed that although there was no neoplatic-specific alteration of the PTPase activity in examined hepatomas, the activity in particulate fractions of island type of hepatomas was remarkably decreased compared with either rat liver or free type hepatomas.

  6. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO43-. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO43--irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO43--irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 (micro)M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these amplified phosphatases are being

  7. A description of alkaline phosphatases from marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Jia, Hongbing; Yu, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are non-specific phosphohydrolases, and they are widely used in clinical diagnostics and biological studies. APs are widespread in nature and exhibit different structural formulations. Based on the diversity of biogenetic sources, APs exhibit temperature-propensity traits, and they are classified as psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic. In this article, the characteristics of psychrophilic APs from marine organisms were described, accompanied by a simple description of APs from other organisms. This review will facilitate better utilization of marine APs in the biotechnology field.

  8. Direct Electrochemistry of Porcine Purple Acid Phosphatase (Uteroferrin)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Paul V; Schenk, Gerhard; Wilson, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry of the non-heme diiron enzyme porcine purple acid phosphatase (uteroferrin, Uf) has been reported for the first time. Totally reversible one-electron oxidation responses (FeIII-FeII f FeIII-FeIII) are seen both in the absence and in the presence of weak competitive inhibitors phosphate and arsenate, and dissociation constants of these oxoanion complexes formed with uteroferrin in its oxidized state (Ufo) have been determined. The effect of pH on the redox potent...

  9. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  10. A double antibody radioimmunoassay specific for placental alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is normally found in enzymically measurable amounts in second and third trimester pregnancy serum. Its occurrence in sera and tumours from patients with malignant disease has led to the development of methods to specifically identify and quantitate the enzyme. Recently immunological techniques have been used, employing antibodies raised to purified PLAP; these include solid phase radioimmunoassays and enzyme-immunoassay. The development of a sensitive, specific, automated double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the measurement of PLAP in serum is reported. (Auth.)

  11. ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AS A MARKER OF DOG SEMEN FREEZABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was performed to evaluate the dog semen freezability and itsquality after thawing allowing its use for artificial insemination (AI. On the basis ofsperm motility, concentration and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in semenplasma it was possible to establish that AP activity corresponds with the basic factorof semen examination. Significant statistical differences occurred between thequality of ejaculates which were qualified or disqualified to deep freezing and AI.These results show that AP activity in raw dog semen plasma can be used as amarker for the dog semen qualification for deep freezing and AI with 95%probability of the prognosis of the results.

  12. Acid phosphatase localization in neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, L J; Fisher, S K

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the ganglia and the ultrastructure of the neurons of Bulla gouldiana are similar to those described for other molluscs. Acid phosphatase positive reactions were found in the large pigmented granules, small dense bodies, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi lamellae and associated vesicles. The small dense bodies and multivesicular bodies may be stages in the formation of the larger pigmented granules which are interpreted as lysosomes. Comparison is made between the pigmented granules in Bulla and the lipofuscin bodies of vertebrate neurons. The possible involvement of these pigmented granules in the hyperpolarization of Bulla and Aplysia neurons to light is discussed. PMID:1122539

  13. Study on prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) immunoradiometric assay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This coat-antibody-count PAP IRMA is a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay based on two strains of monoclonal antibodies, designed for the quantitative measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum. The minimal detectable concentration is 0.1 μg/L. The intra and inter coefficients of variation are 8.8%-9.6% and 7.7%-12.3%, respectively. The recovery is 96.3%-105.0% and the range of detection is 2.5-200.0 μg/L

  14. Structure determination of T-cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L.F.; Møller, K. B.; Pedersen, A.K.;

    2002-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has recently received much attention as a potential drug target in type 2 diabetes. This has in particular been spurred by the finding that PTP1B knockout mice show increased insulin sensitivity and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, the highly......-crystallize TC-PTP with the same set of inhibitors. This seems to be due to a multimerization process where residues 130-132, the DDQ loop, from one molecule is inserted into the active site of the neighboring molecule, resulting in a continuous string of interacting TC-PTP molecules. Importantly, despite the...

  15. Fluorescence spectroscopy measures yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase interaction with liposome membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zhi; Su, Wen-Min; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in triacylglycerol synthesis, is a cytosolic enzyme that must associate with the membrane where its substrate PA resides. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to measure the interaction of yeast PAH1-encoded PA phosphatase with model liposome membranes. PA phosphatase contains five tryptophan residues and exhibited inherit fluorescence that increased upon interaction with phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The interactio...

  16. Distinct alkaline phosphatase in serum of patients with lymphatic leukemia and infectious mononucleosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.; Moran, E.M.; Russell, R.M.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1974-10-11

    A distinct alkaline phosphatase (phosphatase N) was demonstrated in the serum of patients with acute lymphatic leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, and infectious mononucleosis. This enzyme closely resembles that extracted from the thymus of mice with lymphoma or lymphatic leukemia, both in its electrophoretic mobility and its substrate specificity. The phosphatase N activity was related to the clinical state of patients with lymphatic leukemia and disappeared with recovery from infectious mononucleosis.

  17. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Deb Prabal; Iyer Venkateswaran; Bhatla Neerja; Markovic O; Verma Kusum

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation ...

  18. Memantine Attenuates Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Pathology and Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaochuan; Blanchard, Julie; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency of protein phosphatase-2A is a key event in Alzheimer’s disease. An endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-2A, inhibitor-1, I1 PP2A, which inhibits the phosphatase activity by interacting with its catalytic subunit protein phosphatase-2Ac, is known to be upregulated in Alzheimer’s disease brain. In the present study, we overexpressed I1 PP2A by intracerebroventricular injection with adeno-associated virus vector-1-I1 PP2A in Wistar rats. The I1 PP2A rats showed a decrease in b...

  19. Methods to determine biotin-binding capacity of streptavidin-coated magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Lonnie; Magnotti, Ralph; Hou, Janming; Engle, Terri; Ruley, Kevin; Shull, Bruce

    1999-04-01

    Two assays to determine the biotin-binding capacity of streptavidin magnetic particles are described and compared. The two assays are based on the use of biotinylated alkaline phosphatase and biotinylated fluorescein, respectively. Also, an assay for bound protein is presented. When the biotin-binding methods are combined with the protein assay, the specific activity can be determined. The fluorescent version is used to compare the streptavidin magnetic particles from several manufacturers.

  20. Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of Wzb, an O-phosphatase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Christophe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversible phosphorylation events within a polymerisation complex have been proposed to modulate capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Similar phosphatase and kinase genes are present in the exopolysaccharide (EPS biosynthesis loci of numerous lactic acid bacteria genomes. Results The protein sequence deduced from the wzb gene in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 reveals four motifs of the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP superfamily of prokaryotic O-phosphatases. Native and modified His-tag fusion Wzb proteins were purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Extracts showed phosphatase activity towards tyrosine-containing peptides. The purified fusion protein Wzb was active on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate (pNPP, with an optimal activity in presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA 1% at pH 7.3 and a temperature of 75°C. At 50°C, residual activity decreased to 10 %. Copper ions were essential for phosphatase activity, which was significantly increased by addition of cobalt. Mutated fusion Wzb proteins exhibited reduced phosphatase activity on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate. However, one variant (C6S showed close to 20% increase in phosphatase activity. Conclusion These characteristics reveal significant differences with the manganese-dependent CpsB protein tyrosine phosphatase described for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as with the polysaccharide-related phosphatases of Gram negative bacteria.

  1. Prostatic acid phosphatase is the main acid phosphatase with 5'-ectonucleotidase activity in the male mouse saliva and regulates salivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, César L; Quintero, Ileana B; Kipar, Anja; Herrala, Annakaisa M; Pulkka, Anitta E; Saarinen, Lilli; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Vihko, Pirkko

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that in addition to the well-known secreted isoform of prostatic acid phosphatase (sPAP), a transmembrane isoform exists (TMPAP) that interacts with snapin (a SNARE-associated protein) and regulates the endo-/exocytic pathways. We have also shown that PAP has 5'-ectonucleotidase and thiamine monophosphatase activity and elicits antinociceptive effects in mouse models of chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Therefore, to determine the physiological role of PAP in a typical exocrine organ, we studied the submandibular salivary gland (SMG) of PAP(-/-) and wild-type C57BL/6J mice by microarray analyses, microRNA sequencing, activity tests, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical and physiological analyses of saliva. We show that PAP is the main acid phosphatase in the wild-type male mouse saliva, accounting for 50% of the total acid phosphatase activity, and that it is expressed only in the granular convoluted tubules of the SMGs, where it is the only 5'-ectonucleotidase. The lack of PAP in male PAP(-/-) mice was associated with a significant increase in the salivation volume under secretagogue stimulation, overexpression of genes related to cell proliferation (Mki67, Aurkb, Birc5) and immune response (Irf7, Cxcl9, Ccl3, Fpr2), and upregulation of miR-146a in SMGs. An increased and sustained acinar cell proliferation was detected without signs of glandular hyperplasia. Our results indicate that in PAP(-/-) mice, SMG homeostasis is maintained by an innate immune response. Additionally, we suggest that in male mice, PAP via its 5'-ectonucleotidase activity and production of adenosine can elicit analgesic effects when animals lick their wounds. PMID:24717577

  2. Bacillus cereus Phosphopentomutase Is an Alkaline Phosphatase Family Member That Exhibits an Altered Entry Point into the Catalytic Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panosian, Timothy D.; Nannemann, David P.; Watkins, Guy R.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, Tina M. (Vanderbilt)

    2011-09-15

    Bacterial phosphopentomutases (PPMs) are alkaline phosphatase superfamily members that interconvert {alpha}-D-ribose 5-phosphate (ribose 5-phosphate) and {alpha}-D-ribose 1-phosphate (ribose 1-phosphate). We investigated the reaction mechanism of Bacillus cereus PPM using a combination of structural and biochemical studies. Four high resolution crystal structures of B. cereus PPM revealed the active site architecture, identified binding sites for the substrate ribose 5-phosphate and the activator {alpha}-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (glucose 1,6-bisphosphate), and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate increased phosphorylation of the active site residue Thr-85. The phosphorylation of Thr-85 was confirmed by Western and mass spectroscopic analyses. Biochemical assays identified Mn{sup 2+}-dependent enzyme turnover and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate treatment increases enzyme activity. These results suggest that protein phosphorylation activates the enzyme, which supports an intermolecular transferase mechanism. We confirmed intermolecular phosphoryl transfer using an isotope relay assay in which PPM reactions containing mixtures of ribose 5-[{sup 18}O{sub 3}]phosphate and [U-{sup 13}C{sub 5}]ribose 5-phosphate were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This intermolecular phosphoryl transfer is seemingly counter to what is anticipated from phosphomutases employing a general alkaline phosphatase reaction mechanism, which are reported to catalyze intramolecular phosphoryl transfer. However, the two mechanisms may be reconciled if substrate encounters the enzyme at a different point in the catalytic cycle.

  3. Functional Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases in Thrombosis and Hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmouni, Souad; Hego, Alexandre; Delierneux, Céline; Wéra, Odile; Musumeci, Lucia; Tautz, Lutz; Oury, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Platelets are small blood cells derived from cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes and play an essential role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet activation depends on the rapid phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of key signaling molecules, and a number of kinases and phosphatases have been identified as major regulators of platelet function. However, the investigation of novel signaling proteins has suffered from technical limitations due to the anucleate nature of platelets and their very limited levels of mRNA and de novo protein synthesis. In the past, experimental methods were restricted to the generation of genetically modified mice and the development of specific antibodies. More recently, novel (phospho)proteomic technologies and pharmacological approaches using specific small-molecule inhibitors have added additional capabilities to investigate specific platelet proteins.In this chapter, we report methods for using genetic and pharmacological approaches to investigate the function of platelet signaling proteins. While the described experiments focus on the role of the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling, the presented methods are applicable to any signaling enzyme. Specifically, we describe a testing strategy that includes (1) aggregation and secretion experiments with mouse and human platelets, (2) immunoprecipitation and immunoblot assays to study platelet signaling events, (3) detailed protocols to use selected animal models in order to investigate thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo, and (4) strategies for utilizing pharmacological inhibitors on human platelets. PMID:27514813

  4. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg2+ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg2+ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in mitochondrial DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahbaz, Nasser; Subedi, Sudip; Weinfeld, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in a broad range of human diseases and in aging. Compared to nuclear DNA, mtDNA is more highly exposed to oxidative damage due to its proximity to the respiratory chain and the lack of protection afforded by chromatin-associated proteins. While repair of oxidative damage to the bases in mtDNA through the base excision repair pathway has been well studied, the repair of oxidatively induced strand breaks in mtDNA has been less thoroughly examined. Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) processes strand-break termini to render them chemically compatible for the subsequent action of DNA polymerases and ligases. Here, we demonstrate that functionally active full-length PNKP is present in mitochondria as well as nuclei. Downregulation of PNKP results in an accumulation of strand breaks in mtDNA of hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. Full restoration of repair of the H2O2-induced strand breaks in mitochondria requires both the kinase and phosphatase activities of PNKP. We also demonstrate that PNKP contains a mitochondrial-targeting signal close to the C-terminus of the protein. We further show that PNKP associates with the mitochondrial protein mitofilin. Interaction with mitofilin may serve to translocate PNKP into mitochondria. PMID:22210862

  6. Transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase (TMPAP interacts with snapin and deficient mice develop prostate adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana B Quintero

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying prostate carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, a prostatic epithelial secretion marker, has been linked to prostate cancer since the 1930's. However, the contribution of PAP to the disease remains controversial. We have previously cloned and described two isoforms of this protein, a secretory (sPAP and a transmembrane type-I (TMPAP. The goal in this work was to understand the physiological function of TMPAP in the prostate. We conducted histological, ultra-structural and genome-wide analyses of the prostate of our PAP-deficient mouse model (PAP(-/- with C57BL/6J background. The PAP(-/- mouse prostate showed the development of slow-growing non-metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. In order to find out the mechanism behind, we identified PAP-interacting proteins byyeast two-hybrid assays and a clear result was obtained for the interaction of PAP with snapin, a SNARE-associated protein which binds Snap25 facilitating the vesicular membrane fusion process. We confirmed this interaction by co-localization studies in TMPAP-transfected LNCaP cells (TMPAP/LNCaP cells and in vivo FRET analyses in transient transfected LNCaP cells. The differential gene expression analyses revealed the dysregulation of the same genes known to be related to synaptic vesicular traffic. Both TMPAP and snapin were detected in isolated exosomes. Our results suggest that TMPAP is involved in endo-/exocytosis and disturbed vesicular traffic is a hallmark of prostate adenocarcinoma.

  7. Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase PIPKIγ and phosphatase INPP5E coordinate initiation of ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingwen; Zhang, Yuxia; Wei, Qing; Huang, Yan; Hu, Jinghua; Ling, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Defective primary cilia are causative to a wide spectrum of human genetic disorders, termed ciliopathies. Although the regulation of ciliogenesis is intensively studied, how it is initiated remains unclear. Here we show that type Iγ phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) 5-kinase (PIPKIγ) and inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase E (INPP5E), a Joubert syndrome protein, localize to the centrosome and coordinate the initiation of ciliogenesis. PIPKIγ counteracts INPP5E in regulating tau-tubulin kinase-2 (TTBK2) recruitment to the basal body, which promotes the removal of microtubule capping protein CP110 and the subsequent axoneme elongation. Interestingly, INPP5E and its product-PtdIns(4)P-accumulate at the centrosome/basal body in non-ciliated, but not ciliated, cells. PtdIns(4)P binding to TTBK2 and the distal appendage protein CEP164 compromises the TTBK2-CEP164 interaction and inhibits the recruitment of TTBK2. Our results reveal that PtdIns(4)P homoeostasis, coordinated by PIPKIγ and INPP5E at the centrosome/ciliary base, is vital for ciliogenesis by regulating the CEP164-dependent recruitment of TTBK2. PMID:26916822

  8. A Novel Molecular Diagnostic of Glioblastomas: Detection of an Extracellular Fragment of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase μ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Burden-Gulley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently found that normal human brain and low-grade astrocytomas express the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPμ and that the more invasive astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, downregulate full-length PTPμ expression. Loss of PTPμ expression in GBMs is due to proteolytic cleavage that generates an intracellular and potentially a cleaved and released extracellular fragment of PTPμ. Here, we identify that a cleaved extracellular fragment containing the domains required for PTPμ-mediated adhesion remains associated with GBM tumor tissue. We hypothesized that detection of this fragment would make an excellent diagnostic tool for the localization of tumor tissue within the brain. To this end, we generated a series of fluorescently tagged peptide probes that bind the PTPμ fragment. The peptide probes specifically recognize GBM cells in tissue sections of surgically resected human tumors. To test whether the peptide probes are able to detect GBM tumors in vivo, the PTPμ peptide probes were tested in both mouse flank and intracranial xenograft human glioblastoma tumor model systems. The glial tumors were molecularly labeled with the PTPμ peptide probes within minutes of tail vein injection using the Maestro FLEX In Vivo Imaging System. The label was stable for at least 3 hours. Together, these results indicate that peptide recognition of the PTPμ extracellular fragment provides a novel molecular diagnostic tool for detection of human glioblastomas. Such a tool has clear translational applications and may lead to improved surgical resections and prognosis for patients with this devastating disease.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu

    2012-01-01

    L-Galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPPase) is an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis in higher plants. We isolated a cDNA encoding GPPase from tobacco, and named it NtGPPase. The putative amino acid sequence of NtGPPase contained inositol monophosphatase motifs and metal binding sites. Recombinant NtGPPase hydrolyzed not only L-galactose-1-phosphate, but also myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The optimum pH for the GPPase activity of NtGPPase was 7.5. Its enzyme activity required Mg2+, and was inhibited by Li+ and Ca2+. Its fluorescence, fused with green fluorescence protein in onion cells and protoplasts of tobacco BY-2 cells, was observed in both the cytosol and nucleus. The expression of NtGPPase mRNA and protein was clearly correlated with L-ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of BY-2 cells during culture. The AsA contents of NtGPPase over expression lines were higher than those of empty lines at 13 d after subculture. This suggests that NtGPPase contributes slightly to AsA biosynthesis. PMID:22790939

  10. Role of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase γ in Sensing Extracellular CO2 and HCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehan; Skelton, Lara A; Xu, Lumei; Chandler, Margaret P; Berthiaume, Jessica M; Boron, Walter F

    2016-09-01

    Regulation of blood pH-critical for virtually every facet of life-requires that the renal proximal tubule (PT) adjust its rate of H(+) secretion (nearly the same as the rate of HCO3 (-) reabsorption, JHCO3 ) in response to changes in blood [CO2] and [HCO3 (-)]. Yet CO2/HCO3 (-) sensing mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Because receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors render JHCO3 in the PT insensitive to changes in CO2 concentration, we hypothesized that the structural features of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-γ (RPTPγ) that are consistent with binding of extracellular CO2 or HCO3 (-) facilitate monitoring of blood CO2/HCO3 (-) concentrations. We now report that PTs express RPTPγ on blood-facing membranes. Moreover, RPTPγ deletion in mice eliminated the CO2 and HCO3 (-) sensitivities of JHCO3 as well as the normal defense of blood pH during whole-body acidosis. Thus, RPTPγ appears to be a novel extracellular CO2/HCO3 (-) sensor critical for pH homeostasis. PMID:26839367

  11. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum Translation Initiation eIF2β Subunit: Direct Interaction with Protein Phosphatase Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Géraldine; Lenne, Astrid; Cailliau-Maggio, Katia; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J.; Martoriati, Alain; Aliouat, El M.; Gosset, Pierre; Delaire, Baptiste; Fréville, Aline; Pierrot, Christine; Khalife, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c) is one of the main phosphatases whose function is shaped by many regulators to confer a specific location and a selective function for this enzyme. Here, we report that eukaryotic initiation factor 2β of Plasmodium falciparum (PfeIF2β) is an interactor of PfPP1c. Sequence analysis of PfeIF2β revealed a deletion of 111 amino acids when compared to its human counterpart and the presence of two potential binding motifs to PfPP1 (29FGEKKK34, 103KVAW106). As expected, we showed that PfeIF2β binds PfeIF2γ and PfeIF5, confirming its canonical interaction with partners of the translation complex. Studies of the PfeIF2β-PfPP1 interaction using wild-type, single and double mutated versions of PfeIF2β revealed that both binding motifs are critical. We next showed that PfeIF2β is able to induce Germinal Vesicle Break Down (GVBD) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes, an indicator of its capacity to regulate PP1. Only combined mutations of both binding motifs abolished the interaction with PP1 and the induction of GVBD. In P. falciparum, although the locus is accessible for genetic manipulation, PfeIF2β seems to play an essential role in intraerythrocytic cycle as no viable knockout parasites were detectable. Interestingly, as for PfPP1, the subcellular fractionation of P. falciparum localized PfeIF2β in cytoplasm and nuclear extracts, suggesting a potential effect on PfPP1 in both compartments and raising the question of a non-canonical function of PfeIf2β in the nucleus. Hence, the role played by PfeIF2β in blood stage parasites could occur at multiple levels involving the binding to proteins of the translational complex and to PfPP1. PMID:27303372

  12. Specific dephosphorylation by phosphatases 1 and 2A of a nuclear protein structurally and immunologically related to nucleolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, H R; Mieskes, G; Issinger, O G

    1989-01-01

    A new nuclear substrate (N-60) for phosphatase 1 and 2Ac has been described. In contrast to nucleolin (C23), to which it is structurally and immunologically related, N-60 becomes dephosphorylated to 51% and 41% by phosphatases 1 and 2Ac, respectively, within 10 min. Incubation up to 20 min led to a...... complete dephosphorylation of N-60. The two other phosphatases tested (2B and 2C) did not dephosphorylate protein N-60 to the same extent as phosphatases 1 and 2Ac. In the case of nucleolin only 18% phosphate was released by all four phosphatases tested. The activity of both phosphatases, 1 and 2A, could...

  13. The structural insights of stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit interaction with tyrosine phosphatase-2 (Shp-2: An in silico analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutta Gangenahalli U

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell factor (SCF receptor c-Kit is recognized as a key signaling molecule, which transduces signals for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of stem cells. Binding of SCF to its receptor triggers transactivation, leading to the recruitment of kinases and phosphatases to the docking platforms of c-Kit catalytic domain. Tyrosine phosphatase-1 (Shp-1 deactivates/attenuates 'Kit' kinase activity. Whereas, Asp816Val mutation in the Kit activation loop transforms kinase domain to a constitutively activated state (switch off-to-on state, in a ligand-independent manner. This phenomenon completely abrogates negative regulation of Shp-1. To predict the possible molecular basis of interaction between c-Kit and Shp-1, we have performed an in silico protein-protein docking study between crystal structure of activated c-Kit (phosphorylated c-Kit and full length crystal structure of Shp-2, a close structural counterpart of Shp-1. Findings Study revealed a stretch of conserved amino acids (Lys818 to Ser821 in the Kit activation domain, which makes decisive H-bonds with N-sh2 and phosphotyrosine binding pocket residues of the phosphatase. These H-bonds may impose an inhibitory steric hindrance to the catalytic domain of c-Kit, there by blocking further interaction of the activation loop molecules with incoming kinases. We have also predicted a phosphotyrosine binding pocket in SH2 domains of Shp-1, which is found to be predominantly closer to a catalytic groove like structure in c-Kit kinase domain. Conclusions This study predicts that crucial hydrogen bonding between N-sh2 domain of Shp-1 and Kit activation loop can modulate the negative regulation of c-Kit kinase by Shp-1. Thus, this finding is expected to play a significant role in designing suitable gain-of-function c-Kit mutants for inducing conditional proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells.

  14. Inhibition of Alkaline Phosphatase from Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata by o-Phthalaldehyde: Involvement of Lysine and Histidine Residues at the Active Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hongtao; XIE Liping; YU Zhenyan; ZHANG Rongqing

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase from Pinctada fucata was inactivated by o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The inactivation followed pseudo first-order kinetics with a second rate constant of 0.167 (mmol/L)-1·min-1 at pH 7.5 and 25°C. A Tsou's plot analysis showed that inactivation occurred upon formation of one isoindole group. The OPA-modified enzyme lost the ability to bind with the specific affinity column and the presence of substrates or competitive inhibitors protected the enzyme from inactivation. The results revealed that the OPA-reaction site was at the enzyme substrate binding site. Prior modification of the enzyme by lysine or histidine specific reagent abolished formation of the isoindole derivatives, suggesting that lysine and histidine residues were involved in the OPA-induced inactivation. Taken together, OPA inactivated the alkaline phosphatase from Pinctada fucata by cross-linking lysine and histidine residues at the active site and formed an isoindole group at the substrate binding site of the enzyme.

  15. VPS29 is not an active metallo-phosphatase but is a rigid scaffold required for retromer interaction with accessory proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Swarbrick

    Full Text Available VPS29 is a key component of the cargo-binding core complex of retromer, a protein assembly with diverse roles in transport of receptors within the endosomal system. VPS29 has a fold related to metal-binding phosphatases and mediates interactions between retromer and other regulatory proteins. In this study we examine the functional interactions of mammalian VPS29, using X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. We find that although VPS29 can coordinate metal ions Mn(2+ and Zn(2+ in both the putative active site and at other locations, the affinity for metals is low, and lack of activity in phosphatase assays using a putative peptide substrate support the conclusion that VPS29 is not a functional metalloenzyme. There is evidence that structural elements of VPS29 critical for binding the retromer subunit VPS35 may undergo both metal-dependent and independent conformational changes regulating complex formation, however studies using ITC and NMR residual dipolar coupling (RDC measurements show that this is not the case. Finally, NMR chemical shift mapping indicates that VPS29 is able to associate with SNX1 via a conserved hydrophobic surface, but with a low affinity that suggests additional interactions will be required to stabilise the complex in vivo. Our conclusion is that VPS29 is a metal ion-independent, rigid scaffolding domain, which is essential but not sufficient for incorporation of retromer into functional endosomal transport assemblies.

  16. Sensitive and direct electrochemical detection of double-stranded DNA utilizing alkaline phosphatase-labelled zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soodong; Ha, Dat Thinh; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Moon-Soo

    2015-06-21

    Direct detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) is of great importance in biomedical applications such as identifying pathogens and circulating DNAs. However, its sensitivity is still not sufficiently high because limited signalling labels can be conjugated or fused. Herein, we report sensitive and direct detection of dsDNA using (i) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a fast catalytic label conjugated to ZFPs along with (ii) electrochemical measurement of an ALP product (l-ascorbic acid) at the indium-tin oxide electrode with a high signal-to-background ratio. ALP is simply conjugated to a ZFP through lysine residues in a ZFP purification tag, a maltose binding protein (MBP). Sandwich-type electrochemical detection of dsDNA allows a detection limit of ca. 100 fM without using DNA amplification. PMID:25969923

  17. High degree of homology between primary structure of human lysosomal acid phosphatase and human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C; Geier, C; Pohlmann, R; Waheed, A; von Figura, K; Roiko, K; Virkkunen, P; Henttu, P; Vihko, P

    1989-02-01

    Alignment of the amino-acid sequences of the human lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) and human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) yielded an extensive homology between the two mature polypeptide chains. In the overlapping part, which extends over the entire PAP sequence and the N-terminal 90% of the LAP sequence, the identity is 49.1%. The LAP has an additional C-terminal sequence, which is encoded by the last exon of the LAP gene. This sequence contains the transmembrane domain of LAP, which is lacking in the secretory PAP. All six cysteine residues as well as 20 out of 27 (LAP) and 26 (PAP) proline residues present in the overlapping part of the proteins are conserved, suggesting that they are involved in stabilization of the tertiary structure of both proteins. Only two out of 8 N-glycosylation sites in LAP and 3 in PAP are conserved, suggesting that the dense N-glycosylation of LAP is related to its function in lysosomes. PMID:2706086

  18. Improved double immunohistochemical staining method for cryostat and paraffin wax sections, combining alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase and indirect immunofluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Q.; Srivastava, G; Loke, S L; Chan, E. Y.; Ho, F C

    1994-01-01

    Aims - To develop an immunohistochemical staining method for cryostat and paraffin wax sections so that two different antigens in the same section of tissues could be detected by combining immunoenzyme and immunofluorescence techniques. Methods - This double immunohistochemical staining method combines alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) using New Fuchsin as a chromogen and indirect immunofluorescence. Results - APAAP staining for one antigen of this double immunohistochemi...

  19. Structural basis for inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by phosphotyrosine peptide mimetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Yao, Z J; Roller, P P; Burke, T R; Barford, D

    1998-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate diverse cellular processes and represent important targets for therapeutic intervention in a number of diseases. The crystal structures of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in complex with small molecule inhibitors based upon two classes of phosphotyrosin

  20. Fluorescence labelling of phosphatase activity in digestive glands of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, B J; Adamec, L; Lichtscheidl, I K; Peroutka, M; Adlassnig, W; Vrba, J

    2006-11-01

    A new ELF (enzyme labelled fluorescence) assay was applied to detect phosphatase activity in glandular structures of 47 carnivorous plant species, especially Lentibulariaceae, in order to understand their digestive activities. We address the following questions: (1) Are phosphatases produced by the plants and/or by inhabitants of the traps? (2) Which type of hairs/glands is involved in the production of phosphatases? (3) Is this phosphatase production a common feature among carnivorous plants or is it restricted to evolutionarily advanced species? Our results showed activity of the phosphatases in glandular structures of the majority of the plants tested, both from the greenhouse and from sterile culture. In addition, extracellular phosphatases can also be produced by trap inhabitants. In Utricularia, activity of phosphatase was detected in internal glands of 27 species from both primitive and advanced sections and different ecological groups. Further positive reactions were found in Genlisea, Pinguicula, Aldrovanda, Dionaea, Drosera, Drosophyllum, Nepenthes, and Cephalotus. In Utricularia and Genlisea, enzymatic secretion was independent of stimulation by prey. Byblis and Roridula are usually considered as "proto-carnivores", lacking digestive enzymes. However, we found high activity of phosphatases in both species. Thus, they should be classified as true carnivores. We suggest that the inflorescence of Byblis and some Pinguicula species might also be an additional "carnivorous organ", which can trap a prey, digest it, and finally absorb available nutrients. PMID:16865659

  1. Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ishibashi, Matsujiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Matsumoto, Fumiko; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tokunaga, Hiroko [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Blaber, Michael [Florida State University, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300 (United States); Tokunaga, Masao [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the halophilic characteristics of an alkaline phosphatase derived from the moderate halophile Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP), the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined to 2.1 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structural properties of surface negative charge and core hydrophobicity were shown to be intermediate between those characteristic of halophiles and non-halophiles, and may explain the unique functional adaptation to a wide range of salt concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4 M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1 Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded β-sheet core with 19 surrounding α-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (C{sup α} r.m.s.d. of 0.82 Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior

  2. Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the halophilic characteristics of an alkaline phosphatase derived from the moderate halophile Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP), the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined to 2.1 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structural properties of surface negative charge and core hydrophobicity were shown to be intermediate between those characteristic of halophiles and non-halophiles, and may explain the unique functional adaptation to a wide range of salt concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4 M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1 Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded β-sheet core with 19 surrounding α-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (Cα r.m.s.d. of 0.82 Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior comprising 329

  3. The wip1 phosphatase (PPM1D) antagonizes activation of the CHK2 tumor suppressor kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ). Our group previously demonstrated that type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C) Ptc2 and Ptc3 are required for DNA checkpoint inactivation after DNA double-strand break repair or adaptation in S. cerevisiae. Here we show the conservation of this pathway in mammalian cells. In response to DNA damage, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) phosphorylates the Chk2 tumor suppressor kinase at threonine 68 (Thr68), allowing Chk2 kinase dimerization and activation by auto-phosphorylations in the T-loop. The oncogenic protein Wip1, a PP2C phosphatase, binds Chk2 and de-phosphorylates phospho-Thr68. Consequently, Wip1 opposes Chk2 activation by ATM after ionizing irradiation of cells. The recombinant Chk2 protein is fully phosphorylated and activated, due to the high protein concentrations obtained during production. In vitro, Wip 1 de-phosphorylates the phospho-T68 of Chk2, but does not reduce Chk2 kinase activity on its usual GST-CDC25C substrate. These observations suggest that Wip1 phosphatase controls Chk2 activation rather than its enzymatic activity that relies on phosphorylations in the T-loop. The physiological consequences of Wip1 overexpression were tested in human adenocarcinoma cells: the HCT15 cell line. The specificities of this cell line are (i ) the absence of functional p53 proteins, leading to a G2 delay in response to a genotoxic stress, and (ii) the absence of functional Chk2 proteins, because of one CHK2 allele being unexpressed and because the second allele codes for a mutated protein that is unstable and inactive. The HCT15 cell line was complemented by a functional form of HA-Chk2 and the selected clone expresses the protein to a level similar to that observed in other cell lines. In HCT15 colorectal cancer cells corrected for functional Chk2 activity, Wip 1 modest overexpression suppressed the contribution of Chk2 to the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint. These results indicate that Wip1 is one of the phosphatases regulating the activity of Chk2 in response to DNA

  4. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  5. The influence of complexing pharmaceutical compositions on alkaline phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Stepina, N. D.; Novikova, N. N.; Yur'eva, E. A.

    2011-06-01

    It is established that the pharmaceutical compositions xydiphon, medifon, succimer, and EDTA, which are used as complexing agents for accelerating the excretion of heavy metals from human organism, at certain concentrations inhibit enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP). It is concluded that xydiphon and EDTA have a noticeable effect on AP activity at concentrations over 0.01 mM; medifon and succimer, at concentrations of over 0.3-0.5 mM. The enzyme's inhibition constants and type of inhibition are determined. Xydiphon is found to manifest the highest affinity to AP ( K I = 0.35 mM). It is shown by kinetic analysis that dissociative chemoinactivation of the enzyme takes place under the action of complexing agents. The corresponding kinetic parameters are calculated.

  6. The involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the involvement of glucose-6-phosphatase in mucilage secretion by root cap cells, we have cytochemically localized the enzyme in columella and peripheral cells of root caps of Zea mays. Glucose-6-phosphatase is associated with the plasmalemma and cell wall of columella cells. As columella cells differentiate into peripheral cells and begin to produce and secrete mucilage, glucose-6-phosphatase staining intensifies and becomes associated with the mucilage and, to a lesser extent, the cell wall. Cells being sloughed from the cap are characterized by glucose-6-phosphatase staining being associated with the vacuole and plasmalemma. These changes in enzyme localization during cellular differentiation in root caps suggest that glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in the production and/or secretion of mucilage by peripheral cells of Z. mays.

  7. Hyperphosphatemia, Phosphoprotein Phosphatases, and Microparticle Release in Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Nima; Burton, James O; Herbert, Karl E; Tregunna, Barbara-Emily; Brown, Jeremy R; Ghaderi-Najafabadi, Maryam; Brunskill, Nigel J; Goodall, Alison H; Bevington, Alan

    2015-09-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in patients with advanced CKD is thought to be an important contributor to cardiovascular risk, in part because of endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi). Such patients also have an elevated circulating concentration of procoagulant endothelial microparticles (MPs), leading to a prothrombotic state, which may contribute to acute occlusive events. We hypothesized that hyperphosphatemia leads to MP formation from ECs through an elevation of intracellular Pi concentration, which directly inhibits phosphoprotein phosphatases, triggering a global increase in phosphorylation and cytoskeletal changes. In cultured human ECs (EAhy926), incubation with elevated extracellular Pi (2.5 mM) led to a rise in intracellular Pi concentration within 90 minutes. This was mediated by PiT1/slc20a1 Pi transporters and led to global accumulation of tyrosine- and serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins, a marked increase in cellular Tropomyosin-3, plasma membrane blebbing, and release of 0.1- to 1-μm-diameter MPs. The effect of Pi was independent of oxidative stress or apoptosis. Similarly, global inhibition of phosphoprotein phosphatases with orthovanadate or fluoride yielded a global protein phosphorylation response and rapid release of MPs. The Pi-induced MPs expressed VE-cadherin and superficial phosphatidylserine, and in a thrombin generation assay, they displayed significantly more procoagulant activity than particles derived from cells incubated in medium with a physiologic level of Pi (1 mM). These data show a mechanism of Pi-induced cellular stress and signaling, which may be widely applicable in mammalian cells, and in ECs, it provides a novel pathologic link between hyperphosphatemia, generation of MPs, and thrombotic risk. PMID:25745026

  8. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  9. PTPRT regulates the interaction of Syntaxin-binding protein 1 with Syntaxin 1 through dephosphorylation of specific tyrosine residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •PTPRT is a brain-specific, expressed, protein tyrosine phosphatase. •PTPRT regulated the interaction of Syntaxin-binding protein 1 with Syntaxin 1. •PTPRT dephosphorylated the specific tyrosine residue of Syntaxin-binding protein 1. •Dephosphorylation of Syntaxin-binding protein 1 enhanced the interaction with Syntaxin 1. •PTPRT appears to regulate the fusion of synaptic vesicle through dephosphorylation. -- Abstract: PTPRT (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T), a brain-specific tyrosine phosphatase, has been found to regulate synaptic formation and development of hippocampal neurons, but its regulation mechanism is not yet fully understood. Here, Syntaxin-binding protein 1, a key component of synaptic vesicle fusion machinery, was identified as a possible interaction partner and an endogenous substrate of PTPRT. PTPRT interacted with Syntaxin-binding protein 1 in rat synaptosome, and co-localized with Syntaxin-binding protein 1 in cultured hippocampal neurons. PTPRT dephosphorylated tyrosine 145 located around the linker between domain 1 and 2 of Syntaxin-binding protein 1. Syntaxin-binding protein 1 directly binds to Syntaxin 1, a t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein, and plays a role as catalysts of SNARE complex formation. Syntaxin-binding protein 1 mutant mimicking non-phosphorylation (Y145F) enhanced the interaction with Syntaxin 1 compared to wild type, and therefore, dephosphorylation of Syntaxin-binding protein 1 appeared to be important for SNARE-complex formation. In conclusion, PTPRT could regulate the interaction of Syntaxin-binding protein 1 with Syntaxin 1, and as a result, the synaptic vesicle fusion appeared to be controlled through dephosphorylation of Syntaxin-binding protein 1

  10. Inhibition of acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatases by novel vanadium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlan, Craig C; Hooker, Jaqueline D; Jones, Marjorie A; Dymon, Zaneta; Backhus, Emily A; Greiner, Bradley A; Dorner, Nicole A; Youkhana, Mary A; Manus, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    In the course of our investigations of vanadium-containing complexes for use as insulin-enhancing agents, we have generated a series of novel vanadium coordination complexes with bidentate ligands. Specifically we have focused on two ligands: anthranilate (anc(-)), a natural metabolite of tryptophan, and imidizole-4-carboxylate (imc(-)), meant to mimic naturally occurring N-donor ligands. For each ligand, we have generated a series of complexes containing the V(III), V(IV), and V(V) oxidation states. Each complex was investigated using phosphatase inhibition studies of three different phosphatases (acid, alkaline, and tyrosine (PTP1B) phosphatase) as prima facia evidence for potential use as an insulin-enhancing agent. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as an artificial phosphatase substrate, the levels of inhibition were determined by measuring the absorbance of the product at 405nm using UV/vis spectroscopy. Under our experimental conditions, for instance, V(imc)(3) appears to be as potent an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase as sodium orthovanadate when comparing the K(cat)/K(m) term. VO(anc)(2) is as potent an inhibitor of acid phosphatase and tyrosine phosphatase as the Na(3)VO(4). Thus, use of these complexes can increase our mechanistic understanding of the effects of vanadium in vivo. PMID:20071031

  11. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-19

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding. PMID:26735581

  12. Chicoric acid binds to two sites and decreases the activity of the YopH bacterial virulence factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Sahu, Kamlesh K.; Gorska, Magdalena; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Chicoric acid (CA) is a phenolic compound present in dietary supplements with a large spectrum of biological properties reported ranging from antioxidant, to antiviral, to immunostimulatory properties. Due to the fact that chicoric acid promotes phagocytic activity and was reported as an allosteric inhibitor of the PTP1B phosphatase, we examined the effect of CA on YopH phosphatase from pathogenic bacteria, which block phagocytic processes of a host cell. We performed computational studies of chicoric acid binding to YopH as well as validation experiments with recombinant enzymes. In addition, we performed similar studies for caffeic and chlorogenic acids to compare the results. Docking experiments demonstrated that, from the tested compounds, only CA binds to both catalytic and secondary binding sites of YopH. Our experimental results showed that CA reduces activity of recombinant YopH phosphatase from Yersinia enterocolitica and human CD45 phosphatase. The inhibition caused by CA was irreversible and did not induce oxidation of catalytic cysteine. We proposed that inactivation of YopH induced by CA is involved with allosteric inhibition by interacting with essential regions responsible for ligand binding. PMID:26735581

  13. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A phage-displayed chicken scFv antibody, FvSG7, binds on the surface antigen of conidiospores and the mycelia of F. verticillioides. Its fusion with alkaline phosphatase (AP) through a 218 linker displayed a 4-fold higher affinity compared with the parent scFv antibody and efficiently detected toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. Highlights: ► Generation of a highly reactive scFv antibody against F. verticillioides. ► Localization of the antibody binding to the surface target of F. verticillioides. ► Expression of the antibody–alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion linked by a 218 linker. ► The antibody–AP fusion has a higher affinity than the parental antibody. ► The antibody–AP fusion detects toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. -- Abstract: Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv–AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding capacity to

  14. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zu-Quan [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, He-Ping [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing-Bo [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Tao [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Jin-Long; Xue, Sheng [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Ai-Bo [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Liao, Yu-Cai, E-mail: ycliao06@yahoo.com.cn [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); National Center of Plant Gene Research, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-02-18

    Graphical abstract: A phage-displayed chicken scFv antibody, FvSG7, binds on the surface antigen of conidiospores and the mycelia of F. verticillioides. Its fusion with alkaline phosphatase (AP) through a 218 linker displayed a 4-fold higher affinity compared with the parent scFv antibody and efficiently detected toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. Highlights: ► Generation of a highly reactive scFv antibody against F. verticillioides. ► Localization of the antibody binding to the surface target of F. verticillioides. ► Expression of the antibody–alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion linked by a 218 linker. ► The antibody–AP fusion has a higher affinity than the parental antibody. ► The antibody–AP fusion detects toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. -- Abstract: Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv–AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding

  15. Catalytic activity of a novel serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP5 from Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris-Mullins Brianna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Our knowledge of protein phosphatases (PPs and their implication in signaling events is very limited. Here we report the expression, characterization and mutagenesis analysis of a novel protein phosphatase 5 (PP5 in Leishmania major. Recombinant PP5 is a bona fide phosphatase and is enzymatically active. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed auto-inhibitory roles of the N-terminal region. This is a rational first approach to understand the role of PP5 in the biology of the parasite better as well as its potential future applicability to anti-parasitic intervention.

  16. Research on Phosphatases of Belladona Leaves and Their Purification (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorsand

    1956-07-01

    Full Text Available Belladona leaves as well as all other studied leaves contains two distinct phosphatase fractions belonging respectively to types II and IIIi the major parts of these enzymes is extraetible by water. It was not possible to extract the non soluble fraction which is solidly retained by the cellular constituents. Phosphatase II does not differ from other phosphatnses of the same type. Whereas phosphatase III is distinetely different from enzymes of the same type of vegetal or animal origins. It is activated by bivalent metallic ions which are specific activators of the alkaline phcspbatnses: Mg-Zn-Ni and Co.

  17. Underexpression of the 43 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase is associated with cellular transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. Speed; Little, P J; Hayman, J. A.; Mitchell, C A

    1996-01-01

    The 43 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (5-phosphatase) hydrolyses the second messenger molecules inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4]. We have underexpressed the 43 kDa 5-phosphatase by stably transfecting normal rat kidney cells with the cDNA encoding the enzyme, cloned in the antisense orientation into the tetracycline-inducible expression vector pUHD10-3. Antisense-transfected cells demonstrated a 45% reduction in Ins(...

  18. Is phosphoadenosine phosphate phosphatase a target of lithium’s therapeutic effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Shaltiel, G.; Deutsch, J.; Rapoport, S I; Basselin, M.; Belmaker, R. H.; Agam, G.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium, which is approved for treating patients with bipolar disorder, is reported to inhibit 3′(2′)-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphate (PAP) phosphatase activity. In yeast, deletion of PAP phosphatase results in elevated PAP levels and in inhibition of sulfation and of growth. The effect of lithium on PAP phosphatase is remarkable for the low Ki (~0.2 mM), suggesting that this system would be almost completely shut down in vivo with therapeutic levels of 1 mM lithium, thereby elevating PAP level...

  19. The use of the tyrosine phosphatase antagonist orthovanadate in the study of a cell proliferation inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enebo, D. J.; Hanek, G.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Incubation of murine fibroblasts with orthovanadate, a global tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, was shown to confer a "pseudo-transformed" phenotype with regard to cell morphology and growth characteristics. This alteration was manifested by both an increasing refractile appearance of the cells, consistent with many transformed cell lines, as well as an increase in maximum cell density was attained. Despite the abrogation of cellular tyrosine phosphatase activity, orthovanadate-treated cells remained sensitive to the biological activity of a naturally occurring sialoglycopeptide (SGP) cell surface proliferation inhibitor. The results indicated that tyrosine phosphatase activity, inhibited by orthovanadate, was not involved in the signal transduction pathway of the SGP.

  20. Research on Phosphatases of Belladona Leaves and Their Purification (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorsand

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Belladona leaves as well as all other studied leaves contains two distinct phosphatase fractions belonging respectively to types II and IIIi the major parts of these enzymes is extraetible by water. It was not possible to extract the non soluble fraction which is solidly retained by the cellular constituents. Phosphatase II does not differ from other phosphatnses of the same type. Whereas phosphatase III is distinetely different from enzymes of the same type of vegetal or animal origins. It is activated by bivalent metallic ions which are specific activators of the alkaline phcspbatnses: Mg-Zn-Ni and Co.

  1. Cloning of the gene and characterization of the enzymatic properties of the monomeric alkaline phosphatase (PhoX) from Pasteurella multocida strain X-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Ru; Shien, Jui-Hung; Shieh, Happy K; Hu, Chung-Chi; Gong, Shuen-Rong; Chen, Ling-Yun; Chang, Poa-Chun

    2007-02-01

    We have identified a new phoX gene encoding the monomeric alkaline phosphatase from Pasteurella multocida X-73. This gene was not found in the published genome sequence of Pasteurella multocida pm70. Characterization of the recombinant PhoX of Pasteurella multocida X-73 showed that it is a monomeric enzyme, activated by Ca(2+) and possibly secreted by the Tat pathway. These features distinguish phosphatases of the PhoX family from those of the PhoA family. All proteins of the PhoX family were found to contain a conserved motif that shares significant sequence homology with the calcium-binding site of a phosphotriesterase known as diisopropylfluorophosphatase. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that D527 of PhoX might be the ligand bound to the catalytic calcium. This is the first report on identification of homologous sequences between PhoX and the phosphotriesterase and on the potential calcium-binding site of PhoX. PMID:17156125

  2. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP regulates lipolysis in adipose tissue by modulating the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Okumura

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and perilipin by protein kinase A (PKA promotes the hydrolysis of lipids in adipocytes. Although activation of lipolysis by PKA has been well studied, inactivation via protein phosphatases is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP, a binding partner for protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, is involved in lipolysis by regulating phosphatase activity. PRIP knockout (PRIP-KO mice displayed reduced body-fat mass as compared with wild-type mice fed with standard chow ad libitum. Most other organs appeared normal, suggesting that mutant mice had aberrant fat metabolism in adipocytes. HSL in PRIP-KO adipose tissue was highly phosphorylated compared to that in wild-type mice. Starvation of wild-type mice or stimulation of adipose tissue explants with the catabolic hormone, adrenaline, translocated both PRIP and PP2A from the cytosol to lipid droplets, but the translocation of PP2A was significantly reduced in PRIP-KO adipocytes. Consistently, the phosphatase activity associated with lipid droplet fraction in PRIP-KO adipocytes was significantly reduced and was independent of adrenaline stimulation. Lipolysis activity, as assessed by measurement of non-esterified fatty acids and glycerol, was higher in PRIP-KO adipocytes. When wild-type adipocytes were treated with a phosphatase inhibitor, they showed a high lipolysis activity at the similar level to PRIP-KO adipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that PRIP promotes the translocation of phosphatases to lipid droplets to trigger the dephosphorylation of HSL and perilipin A, thus reducing PKA-mediated lipolysis.

  3. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jin; Jong Hyun Ham; Rosemary Hage; Wanying Zhao; Jaricelis Soto-Hernández; Sang Yeol Lee; Seung-Mann Paek; Min Gab Kim; Charles Boone; Coplin, David L.; David Mackey

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, w...

  4. Antagonistic regulation of PIN phosphorylation by PP2A and PINOID directs auxin flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michniewicz, M.; Zago, M.K.; Abas, L.; Weijers, D.; Schweighofer, A.; Meskiene, I.; Heisler, M.G.; Ohno, C.; Zhang, J.; Huang, F.; Schwab, R.; Weigel, D.; Meyerowitz, E.M.; Luschnig, C.; Offringa, R.; Friml, J.

    2007-01-01

    In plants, cell polarity and tissue patterning are connected by intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin, whose directional signaling depends on polar subcellular localization of PIN auxin transport proteins. The mechanism of polar targeting of PINs or other cargos in plants is largely unidentif

  5. Phosphorylation influences the binding of the yeast RAP1 protein to the upstream activating sequence of the PGK gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, J S; Henry, Y A; Chambers, A.; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M

    1990-01-01

    Yeast repressor activator protein 1 (RAP1) binds in vitro to specific DNA sequences that are found in diverse genetic elements. Expression of the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK) requires the binding of RAP1 to the activator core sequence within the upstream activating sequence (UAS) of PGK. A DNA fragment Z+ which contains the activator core sequence of the PGK(UAS) has been shown to bind RAP1. Here we report that phosphatase treatment of RAP1 affected its binding to the PGK(UAS) but...

  6. Elongation factor-1A1 is a novel substrate of the protein phosphatase 1-TIMAP complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratkó, Anita; Péter, Margit; Thalwieser, Zsófia; Kovács, Előd; Csortos, Csilla

    2015-12-01

    TIMAP (TGF-β inhibited membrane associated protein) is a protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit highly abundant in endothelial cells and it is involved in the maintenance of pulmonary endothelial barrier function. It localizes mainly in the plasma membrane, but it is also present in the nuclei and cytoplasm. Direct interaction of TIMAP with the eukaryotic elongation factor 1 A1 (eEF1A1) is shown by pull-down, LC-MS/MS, Far-Western and immunoprecipitations. In connection with the so called moonlighting functions of the elongation factor, eEF1A is thought to establish protein-protein interactions through a transcription-dependent nuclear export motif, TD-NEM, and to aid nuclear export of TD-NEM containing proteins. We found that a TD-NEM-like motif of TIMAP has a critical role in its specific binding to eEF1A1. However, eEF1A1 is not or not exclusively responsible for the nuclear export of TIMAP. On the contrary, TIMAP seems to regulate membrane localization of eEF1A1 as the elongation factor co-localized with TIMAP in the plasma membrane fraction of control endothelial cells, but it has disappeared from the membrane in TIMAP depleted cells. It is demonstrated that membrane localization of eEF1A1 depends on the phosphorylation state of its Thr residue(s); and ROCK phosphorylated eEF1A1 is a novel substrate for TIMAP-PP1 underlining the complex regulatory role of TIMAP in the endothelium. The elongation factor seems to be involved in the regulation of endothelial cell attachment and spreading as silencing of eEF1A1 positively affected these processes which were monitored by transendothelial resistance measurements. PMID:26497934

  7. Optimization of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatase PPM1D (Wip1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryo; Tanoue, Kan; Durell, Stewart R; Chatterjee, Deb K; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Appella, Daniel H; Appella, Ettore

    2011-05-31

    PPM1D (PP2Cδ or Wip1) was identified as a wild-type p53-induced Ser/Thr phosphatase that accumulates after DNA damage and classified into the PP2C family. It dephosphorylates and inactivates several proteins critical for cellular stress responses, including p38 MAPK, p53, and ATM. Furthermore, PPM1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Thus, inhibition of its activity could constitute an important new strategy for therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of several different cancers. Previously, we reported the development of a cyclic thioether peptide with low micromolar inhibitory activity toward PPM1D. Here, we describe important improvements in the inhibitory activity of this class of cyclic peptides and also present a binding model based upon the results. We found that specific interaction of an aromatic ring at the X1 position and negative charge at the X5 and X6 positions significantly increased the inhibitory activity of the cyclic peptide, with the optimized molecule having a K(i) of 110 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest inhibitory activity reported for an inhibitor of PPM1D. We further developed an inhibitor selective for PPM1D over PPM1A with a K(i) of 2.9 μM. Optimization of the cyclic peptide and mutagenesis experiments suggest that a highly basic loop unique to PPM1D is related to substrate specificity. We propose a new model for the catalytic site of PPM1D and inhibition by the cyclic peptides that will be useful both for the subsequent design of PPM1D inhibitors and for identification of new substrates. PMID:21528848

  8. Activity and Tissue Expression of Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP-MEG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hong-bo; LI Guo-dong; WANG Shao-feng; FU Xue-qi; ZHAO Zhi-zhuang Joe

    2011-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases(PTPs) are crucial regulators of signal transduction. Among them,PTP-MEG2 is an intracellular enzyme of 593 amino acid residues with a putative lipid-binding domain at the N-terminus. In the present study, we cloned the full-length form of the enzyme and expressed it in E. coli cells as a 6xHis-tagged protein. The majority of the expressed enzyme was found in the inclusion body of E. coli cell extracts.Upon extraction with a buffer containing urea, the recombinant enzyme was purified to near homogeneity on a single Ni-NTA-agarose column. This procedure resulted in the production of over 100 mg of purified recombinant PTP-MEG2 from 1 L E. coli cell culture. The purified protein displayed a single polypeptide band with expected molecular size on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Isolated under denatured conditions in urea, the purified enzyme was re-natured by dialyzing against a refolding buffer. The re-natured enzyme effectively dephosphorylated the common PTP substrate para-nitrophenylphosphate with a specific activity of 2000 units/mg. Meanwhile, the denatured enzyme was used to immunize a rabbit to produce antibodies. The resulting antiserum had extremely high sensitivity and specificity. When used for Western blot analysis, the anti-serum revealed a wide expression of PTP-MEG2 in many tissues of mice. Together, we developed a highly effective way to purify a large amount of PTP-MEG2 and generated highly sensitive antibodies that can specifically detect endogenous expression of the enzyme in tissues.

  9. Changes in GDP binding to brown adipose tissue mitochondria and the uncoupling protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation in vitro of brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria with divalent cations, spermine, or alkaline phosphatase led to a marked increase in the binding of [3H]GDP. The effect of Mg2+ appeared to be the most specific and led to the largest increase in GDP binding. A simplified method was developed for measuring GDP binding to purified uncoupling protein from rat BAT mitochondria. Application of this method indicates that uncoupling protein from cold-acclimated rats binds twice as much GDP as uncoupling protein from cold-acclimated rats that were briefly returned to thermoneutrality, paralleling changes in GDP binding to the mitochondria. Incubation of BAT mitochondria with Mg2+ led to a smaller increase in GDP binding to the subsequently purified uncoupling protein, suggesting that divalent cations may somehow participate in the regulation of the activity of the uncoupling protein

  10. Role of Striatal-Enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase in Neuronal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamceva, Marija; Benedict, Jessie; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a CNS-enriched protein implicated in multiple neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. STEP regulates key signaling proteins required for synaptic strengthening as well as NMDA and AMPA receptor trafficking. Both high and low levels of STEP disrupt synaptic function and contribute to learning and behavioral deficits. High levels of STEP are present in human postmortem samples and animal models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia and in animal models of fragile X syndrome. Low levels of STEP activity are present in additional disorders that include ischemia, Huntington's chorea, alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. Thus the current model of STEP is that optimal levels are required for optimal synaptic function. Here we focus on the role of STEP in Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms by which STEP activity is increased in this illness. Both genetic lowering of STEP levels and pharmacological inhibition of STEP activity in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease reverse the biochemical and cognitive abnormalities that are present. These findings suggest that STEP is an important point for modulation of proteins required for synaptic plasticity. PMID:27190655

  11. Uranium Biomineralization By Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillefert, Martial [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This project investigated the geochemical and microbial processes associated with the biomineralization of radionuclides in subsurface soils. During this study, it was determined that microbial communities from the Oak Ridge Field Research subsurface are able to express phosphatase activities that hydrolyze exogenous organophosphate compounds and result in the non-reductive bioimmobilization of U(VI) phosphate minerals in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The changes of the microbial community structure associated with the biomineralization of U(VI) was determined to identify the main organisms involved in the biomineralization process, and the complete genome of two isolates was sequenced. In addition, it was determined that both phytate, the main source of natural organophosphate compounds in natural environments, and polyphosphate accumulated in cells could also be hydrolyzed by native microbial population to liberate enough orthophosphate and precipitate uranium phosphate minerals. Finally, the minerals produced during this process are stable in low pH conditions or environments where the production of dissolved inorganic carbon is moderate. These findings suggest that the biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate minerals is an attractive bioremediation strategy to uranium bioreduction in low pH uranium-contaminated environments. These efforts support the goals of the SBR long-term performance measure by providing key information on "biological processes influencing the form and mobility of DOE contaminants in the subsurface".

  12. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-04-06

    In this project, inter-disciplinary research activities were conducted in collaboration among investigators at The University of Alabama (UA), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source (SSRL) to: (i) confirm that phosphatase activities of subsurface bacteria in Area 2 and 3 from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center result in solid U-phosphate precipitation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (ii) investigate the eventual competition between uranium biomineralization via U-phosphate precipitation and uranium bioreduction; (iii) determine subsurface microbial community structure changes of Area 2 soils following organophosphate amendments; (iv) obtain the complete genome sequences of the Rahnella sp. Y9-602 and the type-strain Rahnella aquatilis ATCC 33071 isolated from these soils; (v) determine if polyphosphate accumulation and phytate hydrolysis can be used to promote U(VI) biomineralization in subsurface sediments; (vi) characterize the effect of uranium on phytate hydrolysis by a new microorganism isolated from uranium-contaminated sediments; (vii) utilize positron-emission tomography to label and track metabolically-active bacteria in soil columns, and (viii) study the stability of the uranium phosphate mineral product. Microarray analyses and mineral precipitation characterizations were conducted in collaboration with DOE SBR-funded investigators at LBNL. Thus, microbial phosphorus metabolism has been shown to have a contributing role to uranium immobilization in the subsurface.

  13. SERUM VALUES OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN OSTEOSARCOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUMÁRRAGA, JUAN PABLO; BAPTISTA, ANDRÉ MATHIAS; ROSA, LUIS PABLO DE LA; CAIERO, MARCELO TADEU; CAMARGO, OLAVO PIRES DE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the relationship between the pre and post chemotherapy (CT) serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) found in specimens after the pre surgical CT in patients with osteosarcoma. Methods: Series of cases with retrospective evaluation of patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma. Participants were divided into two groups according to serum values of both enzymes. The values of AP and LDH were obtained before and after preoperative CT. The percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) of surgical specimens of each patient was also included. Results: One hundred and thirty seven medical records were included from 1990 to 2013. Both the AP as LDH decreased in the patients studied, being the higher in pre CT than post CT. The average LHD decrease was 795.12U/L and AP decrease was 437.40 U/L. The average TN was 34.10 %. There was no statistically significant correlation between the serums values and the percentage of tumoral necrosis. Conclusion: The serum levels values of AP and LDH are not good predictors for the chemotherapy-induced necrosis in patients with osteosarcoma. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27217815

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatases expression during development of mouse superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Jacqueline; Horvat-Bröcker, Andrea; Illes, Sebastian; Zaremba, Angelika; Knyazev, Piotr; Ullrich, Axel; Faissner, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of different processes during development of the central nervous system. However, expression patterns and potential roles of PTPs in the developing superior colliculus remain poorly investigated. In this study, a degenerate primer-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach was used to isolate seven different intracellular PTPs and nine different receptor-type PTPs (RPTPs) from embryonic E15 mouse superior colliculus. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 11 PTPs (TC-PTP, PTP1C, PTP1D, PTP-MEG2, PTP-PEST, RPTPJ, RPTPε, RPTPRR, RPTPσ, RPTPκ and RPTPγ) were further analyzed in detail in superior colliculus from embryonic E13 to postnatal P20 stages by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Each of the 11 PTPs exhibits distinct spatiotemporal regulation of mRNAs and proteins in the developing superior colliculus suggesting their versatile roles in genesis of neuronal and glial cells and retinocollicular topographic mapping. At E13, additional double-immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of PTPs in collicular nestin-positive neural progenitor cells and RC-2-immunoreactive radial glia cells, indicating the potential functional importance of PTPs in neurogenesis and gliogenesis. PMID:19727691

  15. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds. PMID:26118418

  16. Diagnostic value of prostatic acid phosphatase as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) were determined with 4 different radioimmunoassays and with the standard enzymatic method (p-nitrophenylphosphate) in 35 patients with prostatic carcinoma. Staging of localized tumors was based on histopathological evaluation after radial prostatectomy and pelvic lymphnode dissection (pTsub(1-3), pN0). In tumor lesions Tsub(1-2) N0 M0 elevated PAP-serum concentrations were found by RIA-determination in only one patient. Increased PAP serum levels were observed in 43-78% of carcinomas stage T3 N0 M0 and in 54-83% in stage Tsub(2-4) Nsub(x) M1 tumors, depending on the test kit used for the PAP determination. Concentrations for PAP obtained with the 4 different RIA-kits used, varied significantly and thus are not comparable. No false positive results were observed in sera of 9 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Elevated PAP serum levels were found in a significantly higher frequency when determined by radioimmunoassay than by the enzymatic method. The results clearly indicate, that PAP is of no value for early recognition of carcinoma of the prostate even when measured by radioimmunoassay. However, the RIA-method seems to be of clinical importance in estimating the course of advanced local and metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate. (orig.)

  17. Protein Phosphatase-1 regulates Rift Valley fever virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Alan; Shafagati, Nazly; Benedict, Ashwini; Ammosova, Tatiana; Ivanov, Andrey; Hakami, Ramin M; Terasaki, Kaori; Makino, Shinji; Nekhai, Sergei; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2016-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), genus Phlebovirus family Bunyaviridae, is an arthropod-borne virus endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Recent outbreaks have resulted in cyclic epidemics with an increasing geographic footprint, devastating both livestock and human populations. Despite being recognized as an emerging threat, relatively little is known about the virulence mechanisms and host interactions of RVFV. To date there are no FDA approved therapeutics or vaccines for RVF and there is an urgent need for their development. The Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) has previously been shown to play a significant role in the replication of several viruses. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PP1 plays a prominent role in RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle. Both siRNA knockdown of PP1α and a novel PP1-targeting small molecule compound 1E7-03, resulted in decreased viral titers across several cell lines. Deregulation of PP1 was found to inhibit viral RNA production, potentially through the disruption of viral RNA transcript/protein interactions, and indicates a potential link between PP1α and the viral L polymerase and nucleoprotein. These results indicate that PP1 activity is important for RVFV replication early on during the viral life cycle and may prove an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:26801627

  18. MAP kinase phosphatase 2 regulates macrophage-adipocyte interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Jiao

    Full Text Available Inflammation is critical for the development of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study aims to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 (MKP-2 in inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction.White adipose tissues (WAT from mice either on a high-fat diet (HFD or normal chow (NC were isolated to examine the expression of MKP-2. Murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 stably expressing MKP-2 was used to study the regulation of MKP-2 in macrophages in response to saturated free fatty acid (FFA and its role in macrophage M1/M2 activation. Macrophage-adipocyte co-culture system was employed to investigate the role of MKP-2 in regulating inflammation during adipocyte-macrophage interaction. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK- and p38-specific inhibitors were used to examine the mechanisms by which MKP-2 regulates macrophage activation and macrophage-adipocytes interaction.HFD changed the expression of MKP-2 in WAT, and MKP-2 was highly expressed in the stromal vascular cells (SVCs. MKP-2 inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to FFA stimulation in macrophages. MKP-2 inhibited macrophage M1 activation through JNK and p38. In addition, overexpression of MKP-2 in macrophages suppressed inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction.MKP-2 is a negative regulator of macrophage M1 activation through JNK and p38 and inhibits inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction.

  19. Phosphoglycosylation of a secreted acid phosphatase from Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, D N; Dwyer, D W; Li, F; Olafson, R W

    1999-06-01

    The secreted acid phosphatase (SAcP) of L.donovani is a heterogeneous glycoprotein that displays a wide array of N- and O-linked glycosylations. The O-linked sugars are of particular interest due to their similarity to the phosphoglycan structures of the major lipophosphoglycan surface antigen and released phosphoglycan (Turco et al., 1987; Greis et al., 1992). This study describes a structural analysis of the SAcP O-linked glycosylations using mass spectroscopy, amino acid sequencing, and enzymatic carbohydrate sequencing. Analysis of glycan chain lengths and peptide glycosylation site distribution was performed, revealing that the average O-linked structure was approximately 32 repeat units in length. Amino acid sequence analysis of glycosylated peptides showed that phosphoglycosylations did not occur randomly but were localized to specific serine residues within an array of degenerate serine/threonine-rich repeat sequences localized in the C-terminus. No evidence was obtained for modification of threonine residues. The observed pattern suggested that a consensus sequence may exist for localization of phosphoglycan structures. PMID:10336996

  20. Sensitive optical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiangling [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chen, Zhenzhen; Chen, Xiaoying; Liu, Jing [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Tang, Fangqiong, E-mail: tangfq@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-01-15

    A simple method has been developed to detect the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by the changing of fluorescence intensities of the quantum dots (QDs). In this system, the fluorescence intensities of the QDs were quenched by p-nitrophenol (pNP) which was produced in the process of ALP catalytic reaction. A series of linear calibration curves of the activity of ALP were obtained in different pH buffer solutions. The wide linear range was 3–1000 U L{sup −1} and the detection limit was 3 U L{sup −1} (S/N=3). Furthermore, the experimental conditions of biosensor were optimized, and anti-interference ability was presented. The activity of ALP was also detected in serum and the recovery of ALP in serum samples was more than 95%. The excellent performance of this biosensor indicates that it can be used in practice detection of ALP. -- Highlights: • A sensitive ALP biosensor is constructed based on QDs without complex processes. • The analysis processing is very convenient, simple and rapid. • The detection mechanism of the ALP biosensor is studied by XPS. • The paper proposes a feasible approach for some substrates or enzymes detecting.

  1. Sensitive optical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method has been developed to detect the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by the changing of fluorescence intensities of the quantum dots (QDs). In this system, the fluorescence intensities of the QDs were quenched by p-nitrophenol (pNP) which was produced in the process of ALP catalytic reaction. A series of linear calibration curves of the activity of ALP were obtained in different pH buffer solutions. The wide linear range was 3–1000 U L−1 and the detection limit was 3 U L−1 (S/N=3). Furthermore, the experimental conditions of biosensor were optimized, and anti-interference ability was presented. The activity of ALP was also detected in serum and the recovery of ALP in serum samples was more than 95%. The excellent performance of this biosensor indicates that it can be used in practice detection of ALP. -- Highlights: • A sensitive ALP biosensor is constructed based on QDs without complex processes. • The analysis processing is very convenient, simple and rapid. • The detection mechanism of the ALP biosensor is studied by XPS. • The paper proposes a feasible approach for some substrates or enzymes detecting

  2. How Should an Increase in Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Be Interpreted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level laser therapy, commonly known as LLLT, is the application of low power, monochromatic, and coherent light to injuries and lesions to stimulate healing and give pain relief. There are conflicting reports in the literature regarding the role of ALP. Objective: this study aimed to compare the cellular responses of wounded human skin fibroblasts exposed to doses of 0.5 J/cm2, 2.5 J/cm2, 5 J/cm2, or 16 J/cm2 using LLLT with a Helium-Neon laser (632.8 nm, 18.8 mW power output, 2.07 mW/cm2 power density, and 3.4 cm diameter spot size or area 9.1?cm2) to elucidate the role of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in cell proliferation. Methods: cellular responses to laser irradiation were evaluated using ALP enzyme activity, LDH membrane integrity, neutral red for cell proliferation, optical density at 540?nm, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. Results: results suggest that an increase in ALP is negatively correlated with cell growth depending on the concentration of growth factors in the medium. Results also indicate that an increase in ALP may be related to cellular damage. Conclusion: since the exact role of ALP is unknown, the ALP enzyme activity assay should be considered in conjunction with other cell proliferation assays such as neutral red, optical density, or more specifically bFGF expression.

  3. Radioimmunoassay for human prostatic acid phosphatase: Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After PAP RIA has been established, serum prostatic acid phosphatase concentration was measured in 40 healthy males, 20 healthy females, 57 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 20 patients with prostate cancers at various stages, 11 patients with cancers after prostatectomy or orchiectomy, and 36 patients with cancers other than prostate cancer. An upper cutoff value was calculated from the x + 2S of healthy males, which yielded a value of 2.2 μg/L of serum. More male patients with cancers other than prostate cancer had serum PAP values of less than 2.2 g/L. 91% (52/57) of BPH patients had normal value, 9% (5/57) exhibited elevated serum PAP levels. If cutoff the limit of x + 2S, the calculated value from 57 BPH patients was used, i.e. 3.0 μg/L, as hormal limit, the false positives presented by BPH were almost eliminated. 95% (1/20) patients with prostate cancers demonstrated an evidently elevated PAP, only one of those patients had a normal PAP value. After prostatectomy of prostate cancer, PAP declined to normal range or near upper cutoff value. The values obtained by this PAP assay were able to distinguish patients with prostate cancer from those with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and the course of disease could be monitored by the assay. Intraindividual sequential studies of PAP could be used to evaluate therapeutic response and prognosis

  4. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, inter-disciplinary research activities were conducted in collaboration among investigators at The University of Alabama (UA), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source (SSRL) to: (i) confirm that phosphatase activities of subsurface bacteria in Area 2 and 3 from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center result in solid U-phosphate precipitation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (ii) investigate the eventual competition between uranium biomineralization via U-phosphate precipitation and uranium bioreduction; (iii) determine subsurface microbial community structure changes of Area 2 soils following organophosphate amendments; (iv) obtain the complete genome sequences of the Rahnella sp. Y9-602 and the type-strain Rahnella aquatilis ATCC 33071 isolated from these soils; (v) determine if polyphosphate accumulation and phytate hydrolysis can be used to promote U(VI) biomineralization in subsurface sediments; (vi) characterize the effect of uranium on phytate hydrolysis by a new microorganism isolated from uranium-contaminated sediments; (vii) utilize positron-emission tomography to label and track metabolically-active bacteria in soil columns, and (viii) study the stability of the uranium phosphate mineral product. Microarray analyses and mineral precipitation characterizations were conducted in collaboration with DOE SBR-funded investigators at LBNL. Thus, microbial phosphorus metabolism has been shown to have a contributing role to uranium immobilization in the subsurface.

  5. Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling by small molecule agonist of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP/TC45) is a ubiquitously expressed intra-cellular non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in the negative regulation of several cancer relevant cellular signalling pathways. We have previously shown that interaction between the α-cytoplasmic tail of α1β1 integrin and TCPTP activates TCPTP by disrupting an inhibitory intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Thus, inhibition of the regulatory interaction in TCPTP is a desirable strategy for TCPTP activation and attenuation of oncogenic RTK signalling. However, this is challenging with low molecular weight compounds. We developed a high-throughput compatible assay to analyse activity of recombinant TCPTP in vitro. Using this assay we have screened 64280 small molecules to identify novel agonists for TCPTP. Dose-dependent response to TCPTP agonist was performed using the in vitro assay. Inhibition effects and specificity of TCPTP agonists were evaluated using TCPTP expressing and null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate attenuation of PDGFRβ and EGFR phosphorylation. Inhibition of VEGF signalling was analysed with VEGF-induced endothelial cell sprouting assays. From the screen we identified six TCPTP agonists. Two compounds competed with α1-cytoplasmic domain for binding to TCPTP, suggesting that they activate TCPTP similar to α1-cyt by disrupting the intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Importantly, one of the compounds (spermidine) displayed specificity towards TCPTP in cells, since TCPTP -/- cells were 43-fold more resistant to the compound than TCPTP expressing cells. This compound attenuates PDGFRβ and VEGFR2 signalling in cells in a TCPTP-dependent manner and functions as a negative regulator of EGFR phosphorylation in cancer cells. In this study we showed that small molecules mimicking TCPTP-α1 interaction can be used as TCPTP agonists. These data provide the first proof-of-concept description of the use of high-throughput screening

  6. Characterization of alkaline phosphatase activity in seminal plasma and in fresh and frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Diego; Giaretta, Elisa; Spinaci, Marcella; Rizzato, Giovanni; Isani, Gloria; Mislei, Beatrice; Mari, Gaetano; Tamanini, Carlo; Galeati, Giovanna

    2016-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been studied in several situations to elucidate its role in reproductive biology of the male from different mammalian species; at present, its role in horse sperm physiology is not clear. The aim of the present work was to measure AP activity in seminal plasma and sperm extracts from freshly ejaculated as well as in frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa and to verify whether relationship exists between AP activity and sperm quality parameters. Our data on 40 freshly ejaculated samples from 10 different stallions demonstrate that the main source of AP activity is seminal plasma, whereas sperm extracts contribution is very low. In addition, we found that AP activity at physiological pH (7.0) is significantly lower than that observed at pH 8.0, including the optimal AP pH (pH 10.0). Alkaline phosphatase did not exert any effect on sperm-oocyte interaction assessed by heterologous oocyte binding assay. Additionally, we observed a thermal stability of seminal plasma AP, concluding that it is similar to that of bone isoforms. Positive correlations were found between seminal plasma AP activity and sperm concentration, whereas a negative correlation was present between both spermatozoa extracts and seminal plasma AP activity and seminal plasma protein content. A significant decrease in sperm extract AP activity was found in frozen-thawed samples compared with freshly ejaculated ones (n = 21), concomitantly with the decrease in sperm quality parameters. The positive correlation between seminal plasma AP activity measured at pH 10 and viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa suggests that seminal plasma AP activity could be used as an additional predictive parameter for stallion sperm freezability. In conclusion, we provide some insights into AP activity in both seminal plasma and sperm extracts and describe a decrease in AP after freezing and thawing. PMID:26433714

  7. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Day, Danton H.; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer’s disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer’s disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer’s disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  8. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa S3 cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-[35S]methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S3 cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S3 cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product

  9. High-Throughput Screening of Substrate Specificity for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) on Phosphopeptide Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liqian; Lee, Su Seong; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyan; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Hu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatases are a family of enzymes responsible for the dephosphorylation of biomolecules. Phosphatases play essential roles in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, and cellular communication. In recent years, one type of phosphatases, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), emerges as important therapeutic targets for complex and devastating diseases. Nevertheless, the physiological roles, substrate specificity, and downstream targets for PTPs remain largely unknown. To demonstrate how microarrays can be applied to characterizing PTPs, we describe here a phosphopeptide microarray strategy for activity-based high-throughput screening of PTPs substrate specificity. This is followed by a kinetic microarray assay and microplate assay to determine the rate constants of dephosphorylation by PTPs. This microarray strategy has been successfully applied to identifying several potent and selective substrates against different PTPs. These substrates could be used to design potent and selective PTPs inhibitors in the future. PMID:26614076

  10. Characterization of the phosphatidylinositol-glycan membrane anchor of human placental alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placental alkaline phosphatase [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1] is a member of a diverse group of membrane proteins whose attachment to the lipid bilayer is mediated by a phosphatidylinositol-glycan. To investigate structural aspects of the glycolipid anchor, cultured WISH cells were used because, they produce the enzyme in abundant quantities. When cell suspensions were incubated with purified phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, most of the placental alkaline phosphatase was released from membranes in a hydrophilic form. On incubation of the cells with [14C]ethanolamine, [14C]myristic acid, or myo[3H]inositol, each was incorporated into the phosphatase near the carboxyl terminus, showing that these components, which are found in other phosphatidylinositol membrane-linked proteins, are also present in placental alkaline phosphatase

  11. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone...... mineral content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p < 0.001). Bone mineral content was not associated with mean serum...

  12. Alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma and liver of rats submitted to chronic exposure to fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileni da Silva Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of fluoride (F on alkaline phosphatase activity in the liver and plasma of the rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats (n=6, which received drinking water containing 5, 15 or 50 ppm F or deionized water (control throughout the experiment were included in the study. The animals were euthanized and had their tissues and blood plasma collected for the analysis of fluoride and alkaline phosphatase. There was an increase in F concentration in most tissues in the animals treated with higher F concentrations, except for the heart. The alkaline phosphatase assay showed an increase in the activity in the liver and blood plasma of the animals treated with fluoride concentrations of 15 and 50 ppm (p<0.05. This study suggested that F at a concentration of 50 ppm in drinking water promotes increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the liver and blood plasma.

  13. Cloning and sequencing of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial protein sequence data obtained on intestinal alkaline phosphatase indicated a high degree of homology with the reported sequence of the placental isoenzyme. Accordingly, placental alkaline phosphatase cDNA was cloned and used as a probe to clone intestinal alkaline phosphatase cDNA. The latter is somewhat larger (3.1 kilobases) than the cDNA for the placental isozyme (2.8 kilobases). Although the 3' untranslated regions are quite different, there is almost 90% homology in the translated regions of the two isozymes. There are, however, significant differences at their amino and carboxyl termini and a substitution of an alanine in intestinal alkaline phosphatase for a glycine in the active site of the placental isozyme

  14. Stimulation of protein phosphatase activity by insulin and growth factors in 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incubation of Swiss mouse 3T3-D1 cells with physiological concentrations of insulin resulted in a rapid and transient activation of protein phosphatase activity as measure by using [32P]phosphorylase α as substrate. Activation reached a maximum level (140% of control value) within 5 min of addition and returned to control levels within 20 min. The effect of insulin was dose-dependent with half-maximal activation occurring at ∼5 nM insulin. This activity could be completely inhibited by addition of the heat-stable protein inhibitor 2, which suggests the presence of an activated type-1 phosphatase. Similar effects on phosphatase activity were seen when epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor were tested. These results suggest that some of the intracellular effects caused by insulin and growth factors are mediated through the activation of a protein phosphatase

  15. Protein phosphatase 2A in stretch-induced endothelial cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    We previously proposed that activation of protein kinase C is a key mechanism for control of cell growth enhanced by cyclic strain [Rosales and Sumpio (1992): Surgery 112:459-466]. Here we examined protein phosphatase 1 and 2A activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells exposed to cyclic stain. Protein phosphatase 2A activity in the cytosol was decreased by 36.1% in response to cyclic strain for 60 min, whereas the activity in the membrane did not change. Treatment with low concentration (0.1 nM) of okadaic acid enhanced proliferation of both static and stretched endothelial cells in 10% fetal bovine serum. These data suggest that protein phosphatase 2A acts as a growth suppressor and cyclic strain may enhance cellular proliferation by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A as well as stimulating protein kinase C.

  16. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, B; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation.

  17. Dexamethasone Causes Sustained Expression of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Phosphatase 1 and Phosphatase-Mediated Inhibition of MAPK p38

    OpenAIRE

    Lasa, Marina; Abraham, Sonya M.; Boucheron, Christine; Saklatvala, Jeremy; Clark, Andrew R.

    2002-01-01

    The stress-activated protein kinase p38 stabilizes a number of mRNAs encoding inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2). In HeLa cells the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid dexamethasone destabilizes Cox-2 mRNA by inhibiting p38 function. Here we demonstrate that this effect is phosphatase dependent. Furthermore, in HeLa cells dexamethasone induced the sustained expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), a potent inhibitor of p38 function. The inhibiti...

  18. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  19. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase in the immune and nervous system : Distribution and pathophysiological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Lång, Pernilla

    2007-01-01

    Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) belongs to the family of purple acid phosphatases (PAP). It is a glycoprotein synthesized as a monomer with low enzyme activity containing a redox active diiron centre in the active site. Post-translational proteolytic processing of this monomer into a dimeric protein increases the enzyme activity. Traditionally, TRAP has been used as a marker for bone resorbing cells but the biological function of TRAP is still not fully elucidated...

  20. Application of Intracellular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Measurement in Detection of Neutrophil Adherence In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Bednarska; Magdalena Klink; Zofia Sulowska

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed the use of the fluorimetric method with 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) specific substrate for the alkaline phosphatase determination in the neutrophil adhesion assay. We provide evidence that the endogenous neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity evaluation is reliable to quantify neutrophil adhesion at a wide range of cell numbers (104–106). The results obtained by fluorimetric NAP activity test correlate to the results of adherence evaluated using...

  1. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, acid phosphatases and RN-ases from three potato varieties

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kubicz; E. Wieczorek; B. Morawiecka

    2015-01-01

    Studies on variety differences in the protein and acid phosphatase patterns as well as ribunuclease activity distribution were carried out by disc electrophoresis on saline extracts of three varieties of the potato Solanum tuberosum (L.). The protein bands varied in number, position and relative abundance. One main zone of the acid phosphatase activity was detected consisting of 2-3 electrophoretically different bands. Variety differences were concerned with the number and relative abundance ...

  2. A Novel Sit4 Phosphatase Complex Is Involved in the Response to Ceramide Stress in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Woodacre; Lone, Museer A.; Daniel Jablonowski; Roger Schneiter; Flaviano Giorgini; Raffael Schaffrath

    2013-01-01

    Ceramide is a building block for complex sphingolipids in the plasma membrane, but it also plays a significant role in secondary signalling pathways regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in response to stress. Ceramide activated protein phosphatase activity has been previously observed in association with the Sit4 protein phosphatase. Here we find that sit4Δ mutants have decreased ceramide levels and display resistance to exogenous ceramides and phytosphingosine. Mutants lacking SIT4 or...

  3. Optical Algal Biosensor using Alkaline Phosphatase for Determination of Heavy Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Durrieu, Claude; Tran-Minh, Canh

    2002-01-01

    International audience A biosensor is constructed to detect heavy metals from inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) present on the external membrane of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The microalgal cells are immobilized on removable membranes placed in front of the tip of an optical fiber bundle inside a homemade microcell. C. vulgaris was cultivated in the laboratory and its alkaline phosphatase activity is strongly inhibited in the presence of heavy metals. This property has been used ...

  4. Phosphorus resorption by young beech trees and soil phosphatase activity as dependent on phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Kerstin; Heuck, Christine; Spohn, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by decreasing foliar phosphorus (P) concentrations in Fagus sylvatica L. forests, we studied P recycling depending on P fertilization in mesocosms with juvenile trees and soils of two contrasting F. sylvatica L. forests in a greenhouse. We hypothesized that forests with low soil P availability are better adapted to recycle P than forests with high soil P availability. The P resorption efficiency from senesced leaves was significantly higher at the P-poor site (70 %) than at the P-rich site (48 %). P fertilization decreased the resorption efficiency significantly at the P-poor site to 41 %, while it had no effect at the P-rich site. Both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were higher in the rhizosphere of the P-poor than of the P-rich site by 53 and 27 %, respectively, while the activities did not differ in the bulk soil. Fertilization decreased acid phosphatase activity significantly at the P-poor site in the rhizosphere, but had no effect on the alkaline, i.e., microbial, phosphatase activity at any site. Acid phosphatase activity in the P-poor soil was highest in the rhizosphere, while in the P-rich soil, it was highest in the bulk soil. We conclude that F. sylvatica resorbed P more efficiently from senescent leaves at low soil P availability than at high P availability and that acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere but not in the bulk soil was increased at low P availability. Moreover, we conclude that in the P-rich soil, microbial phosphatases contributed more strongly to total phosphatase activity than plant phosphatases. PMID:26875186

  5. Chemical properties population of nitrites oxidizers, urease and phosphatase activities in sewage sludge-amended soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bonmati Pont, Manuel; Pujolà Cunill, Montserrat; Saña Vilaseca, Josep; Soliva Torrentó, Montserrat; Felipó, Ma. Teresa (María Teresa); Garau, M; B. Ceccanti; P. Nannipieri

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to determine the effect of sterilized and non-sterilized, aerobically or anaerobically digested sewage sludges on urease and phosphatase aetivities, on populations of nitrite oxidizers and on some chemical properties in laboratory conditions and for long incubation periods. Both urease an phosphatase activities were affected when anaerobic sludges were added to the soil. The inhibitory effects on both enzyme activities attributed to the presence of...

  6. Subcellular localization of alkaline phosphatase in Bacillus licheniformis 749/C by immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold.

    OpenAIRE

    Tinglu, G; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, B K

    1984-01-01

    Subcellular distribution of the alkaline phosphatase of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C was determined by an immunoelectron microscopy method. Anti-alkaline phosphatase antibody labeled with 15- to 18-nm colloidal gold particles (gold-immunoglobulin G [IgG] complex) were used for the study. Both the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic material were labeled with the gold-IgG particles. These particles formed clusters in association with the plasma membrane; in contrast, in the cytoplasm the particles...

  7. Kidney alkaline phosphatase in mercuric chloride injected chicks resistant and susceptible to leukosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, V.L.; McIntyre, J.A.; Bearse, G.E.

    1969-01-01

    Two strains of chickens were selected for resistance and susceptibility to avian leukosis. Researchers found that the resistant chicks retained two to four times as much mercury in the liver and kidneys as did the susceptible chicks following injection of mercuric chloride or phenylmercuric acetate. Differences in alkaline phosphatase in the kidneys of the resistant and susceptible chicks, and the effect of the mercuric chloride injection on the alkaline phosphatase activity were reported in this paper. 19 references, 2 tables.

  8. STRIATAL-ENRICHED PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE (STEP) KNOCKOUT MICE HAVE ENHANCED HIPPOCAMPAL MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Venkitaramani, Deepa V.; Moura, Paula J.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    STEP is a brain-specific phosphatase that opposes synaptic strengthening by the regulation of key synaptic signaling proteins. Previous studies suggest a possible role for STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) in learning and memory. To demonstrate the functional importance of STEP in learning and memory, we generated STEP knockout (KO) mice and examined the effect of deletion of STEP on behavioral performance, as well as the phosphorylation and expression of its substrates. H...

  9. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    OpenAIRE

    W. Huang; Liu, J; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D; Deng, Q

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation t...

  10. Differentiating Intracellular from Extracellular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Soil by Sonication

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating intracellular from extracellular enzyme activity is important in soil enzymology, but not easy. Here, we report on an adjusted sonication method for the separation of intracellular from extracellular phosphatase activity in soil. Under optimal sonication conditions [soil:water ratio  =  1/8 (w/v) and power density  =  15 watt ml-1], the activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (phosphatase) in a Haplic Cambisol soil increased with sonication time in two distinct steps. A first...

  11. Differentiating Intracellular from Extracellular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Soil by Sonication

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, S.P.; C. S. Hu; Oenema, O.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating intracellular from extracellular enzyme activity is important in soil enzymology, but not easy. Here, we report on an adjusted sonication method for the separation of intracellular from extracellular phosphatase activity in soil. Under optimal sonication conditions [soil:water ratio = 1/8 (w/v) and power density = 15 watt ml(-1)], the activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (phosphatase) in a Haplic Cambisol soil increased with sonication time in two distinct steps. A first p...

  12. Lipid phosphate phosphatases regulate lysophosphatidic acid production and signaling in platelets: studies using chemical inhibitors of lipid phosphate phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Susan S; Sciorra, Vicki A; Sigal, Yury J; Pamuklar, Zehra; Wang, Zuncai; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D; Morris, Andrew J

    2003-10-31

    Blood platelets play an essential role in ischemic heart disease and stroke contributing to acute thrombotic events by release of potent inflammatory agents within the vasculature. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator produced by platelets and found in the blood and atherosclerotic plaques. LPA receptors on platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells regulate growth, differentiation, survival, motility, and contractile activity. Definition of the opposing pathways of synthesis and degradation that control extracellular LPA levels is critical to understanding how LPA bioactivity is regulated. We show that intact platelets and platelet membranes actively dephosphorylate LPA and identify the major enzyme responsible as lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1). Localization of LPP1 to the platelet surface is increased by exposure to LPA. A novel receptor-inactive sn-3-substituted difluoromethylenephosphonate analog of phosphatidic acid that is a potent competitive inhibitor of LPP1 activity potentiates platelet aggregation and shape change responses to LPA and amplifies LPA production by agonist-stimulated platelets. Our results identify LPP1 as a pivotal regulator of LPA signaling in the cardiovascular system. These findings are consistent with genetic and cell biological evidence implicating LPPs as negative regulators of lysophospholipid signaling and suggest that the mechanisms involve both attenuation of lysophospholipid actions at cell surface receptors and opposition of lysophospholipid production. PMID:12909631

  13. Single and Combined Effects of As (III) and Acetochlor on Phosphatase Activity in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Guan-cai; GUAN Lian-zhu

    2013-01-01

    The actions and interactions of acetochlor and As on the soil phosphatase activity were investigated after 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 30 and 60 d of exposure under control conditions. The soils were exposed to various concentrations of acetochlor and As individually and simultaneously. The results showed that acetochlor, As only, and combined pollution all clearly inhibited soil phosphatase activity. The maximum inhibition ratios of soil phosphatase activity by acetochlor, As only and combined pollution were 36.44, 74.12 and 61.29%, respectively. Two kinetic models,ν=c/(1+bi) (model 1) andν=c(1+ai)/(l+bi) (model 2), were used to describe the relationship between the concentrations of As and acetochlor and the activity of soil phosphatase. The semi-effect dose (ED50) values induced by As and acetochlor stress based on the inhibition of soil phosphatase were 18.1 and 33.11 mg kg-1, respectively, according to calculation by model 1. The interactive effect of acetochlor with As on soil phosphatase primarily consisted of significant antagonism effects at the higher concentrations tested. The step regression results show that the toxicity order was As (III)>acetochlor>As (III)×acetochlor throughout the incubation period.

  14. Response to DNA damage: why do we need to focus on protein phosphatases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MidoriShimada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells are continuously threatened by unavoidable errors during normal DNA replication or various sources of genotoxic stresses that cause DNA damage or stalled replication. To maintain genomic integrity, cells have developed a coordinated signaling network, known as the DNA damage response (DDR. Following DNA damage, sensor molecules detect the presence of DNA damage and transmit signals to downstream transducer molecules. This in turn conveys the signals to numerous effectors, which initiate a large number of specific biological responses, including transient cell cycle arrest mediated by checkpoints, DNA repair, and apoptosis. It is recently becoming clear that dephosphorylation events are involved in keeping DDR factors inactive during normal cell growth. Moreover, dephosphorylation is required to shut off checkpoint arrest following DNA damage and has been implicated in the activation of the DDR. Spatial and temporal regulation of phosphorylation events is essential for the DDR, and fine-tuning of phosphorylation is partly mediated by protein phosphatases. While the role of kinases in the DDR has been well documented, the complex roles of protein dephosphorylation have only recently begun to be investigated. Therefore, it is important to focus on the role of phosphatases and to determine how their activity is regulated upon DNA damage. In this work, we summarize current knowledge on the involvement of serine/threonine phosphatases, especially the protein phosphatase 1, protein phosphatase 2A, and protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+-dependent families, in the DDR.

  15. The Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin binds biotin-containing proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Du; Nickerson, K W

    1996-01-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles from larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, contain protein bands of 85 and 120 kDa which react directly with streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. The binding could be prevented either by including 10 microM biotin in the reaction mixture or by prior incubation of the brush border membrane vesicles with an activated 60- to 65-kDa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-73. The ability of B. thuringiensis toxins to recognize biotin-containing pro...

  16. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all living organisms, and has been recognized as a limiting nutrient in some oceanic systems (Cotner et al., 1997; Karl et al., 1995; Michaels et al., 1996; Wu et al., 2000). However, relatively little is known about the extent of P limitation in natural environments, how P limitation varies spatially and temporally, and what determines how and when P becomes limiting (Benitez-Nelson, 2000). A more direct estimate of the degree of P limitation in a variety of oceanic systems is needed to better understand P cycling and dynamics within the ocean and how these have and will change in response to global climate and environmental perturbation. Accordingly, the objective this study is to assess the P-status of marine planktonic communities in Monterey and San Francisco Bays using the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the water column. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the most widely used enzyme that marine organisms use to hydrolize organic P compounds to biologically available orthophosphate. Accordingly it is expected that in areas where P is a limiting nutrient organisms will produce and release more AP to seawater so they can utilize the dissolved and particulate organic P compounds. Indeed it has been suggested that the AP activity is a reliable indicator of P-availability to planktonic communities (Ammerman and Azam, 1985; Cotner and Wetzel, 1991; Hong et al., 1998). High enzyme activities indicate low dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) availability while low levels suggest that DIP supply satisfies the community P-demand. This study examines AP activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays over a 12 month period, from November, 2001 through November, 2002 using two enzyme assays. The study encompasses data from a three-station transect in Monterey Bay, at depths ranging from 0-60 meters. The stations range from coastal waters to open ocean depths of several thousand meters. In San Francisco Bay, surface water from

  17. Downscaling Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in a Subtropical Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This research was conducted by downscaling study to understand phosphorus (P)-deficient status of different plankton and the role of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in subtropical Feitsui Reservoir. Results from field survey showed that bulk APA (1.6~95.2 nM h-1) was widely observed in the epilimnion (0~20 m) with an apparent seasonal variations, suggesting that plankton in the system were subjected to P-deficient seasonally. Mixed layer depth (an index of phosphate availability) is the major factor influencing the variation of bulk APA and specific APA (124~1,253 nmol mg C-1 h-1), based on multiple linear regression analysis. Size-fractionated APA assays showed that picoplankton (size 0.2~3 um) contributed most of the bulk APA in the system. In addition, single-cell APA detected by enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF) assay indicated that heterotrophic bacteria are the major contributors of APA. Thus, we can infer that bacteria play an important role in accelerating P-cycle within P-deficient systems. Light/nutrient manipulation bioassays showed that bacterial growth was directly controlled by phosphate, while picocyanobacterial growth is controlled by light and can out-compete bacteria under P-limited condition with the aid of light. Further analysis revealed that the strength of summer typhoon is a factor responsible for the inter-annual variability of bulk and specific APA. APA study demonstrated the episodic events (e.g. strong typhoon and extreme precipitation) had significant influence on APA variability in sub-tropical to tropical aquatic ecosystems. Hence, the results herein will allow future studies on monitoring typhoon disturbance (intensity and frequency) as well as the APA of plankton during summer-to-autumn in subtropical systems.

  18. [Glucose-6-phosphatase from nuclear envelope in rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mujica, Freddy

    2008-06-01

    Nuclear envelope (NE) and microsomal glucosa-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activities were compared. Intact microsomes were unable to hydrolyze mannose-6-phosphate (M-6-P), on the other hand, intact NE hydrolyzes this substrate. Galactose-6-phosphate showed to be a good substrate for both NE and microsomal enzymes, with similar latency to that obtained with M-6-P using microsomes. In consequence, this substrate was used to measure the NE integrity. The kinetic parameters (Kii and Kis) of the intact NE G-6-Pase for the phlorizin inhibition using glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and M-6-P as substrates, were very similar. The NE T1 transporter was more sensitive to amiloride than the microsomal T1. The microsomal system was more sensitive to N-ethylmalemide (NEM) than the NE and the latter was insensitive to anion transport inhibitors DIDS and SITS, which strongly affect the microsomal enzyme. The above results allowed to postulate the presence of a hexose-6-phosphate transporter in the NE which is able to carry G-6-P and M-6-P, and perhaps other hexose-6-phosphate which could be different from that present in microsomes or, if it is the same, its activity could by modified by the membrane system where it is included. The higher PPi hydrolysis activity of the intact NE G-6-Pase in comparison to the intact microsomal, suggests differences between the Pi/PPi transport (T2) of both systems. The lower sensitivity of the NE G-6-Pase to NEM suggests that the catalytic subunit of this system has some differences with the microsomal isoform. PMID:18717264

  19. Generic phosphatase activity detection using zinc mediated aggregation modulation of polypeptide-modified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selegård, Robert; Enander, Karin; Aili, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme. Phosphatase activity generates inorganic phosphate that forms an insoluble complex with Zn2+. In a sample containing a preset concentration of Zn2+, phosphatase activity will markedly reduce the concentration of dissolved Zn2+ from the original value, which in turn affects the aggregation of gold nanoparticles functionalized with a designed Zn2+ responsive polypeptide. The change in nanoparticle stability thus provides a rapid and sensitive readout of the phosphatase activity. The assay is not limited to a particular enzyme or enzyme substrate, which is demonstrated using three completely different phosphatases and five different substrates, and thus constitutes a highly interesting system for drug screening and diagnostics.A challenge in the design of plasmonic nanoparticle-based colorimetric assays is that the change in colloidal stability, which generates the colorimetric response, is often directly linked to the biomolecular recognition event. New assay strategies are hence required for every type of substrate and enzyme of interest. Here, a generic strategy for monitoring of phosphatase activity is presented where substrate recognition is completely decoupled from the nanoparticle stability modulation mechanism, which enables detection of a wide range of enzymes using different natural substrates with a single simple detection scheme

  20. Taperin (c9orf75, a mutated gene in nonsyndromic deafness, encodes a vertebrate specific, nuclear localized protein phosphatase one alpha (PP1α docking protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ferrar

    2012-02-01

    The promiscuous activity of protein phosphatase one (PP1 is controlled in the cell by associated proteins termed regulatory or targeting subunits. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches we demonstrate that the autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss gene, taperin (C9orf75, encodes a protein that preferentially docks the alpha isoform of PP1. Taperin associates with PP1 through a classic ‘RVxF’ motif and suppresses the general phosphatase activity of the enzyme. The steady-state localization of taperin is predominantly nuclear, however we demonstrate here that the protein can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and that it is found complexed to PP1 in both of these cellular compartments. Although originally identified as a hearing loss gene, Western blot analyses with taperin-specific antibodies revealed that the protein is widely expressed across mammalian tissues as multiple splice variants. Taperin is a recent proteome addition appearing during the vertebrate lineage with the PP1 binding site embedded within the most conserved region of the protein. Taperin also shares an ancestral relationship with the cytosolic actin binding protein phostensin, another PP1 interacting partner. Quantitative Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Culture (SILAC-based mass spectrometry was employed to uncover additional taperin binding partners, and revealed an interaction with the DNA damage response proteins Ku70, Ku80, PARP and topoisomerases I and IIα. Consistent with this, we demonstrate the active recruitment of taperin to sites of DNA damage. This makes taperin a new addition to the family of PP1 targeting subunits involved in the DNA damage repair pathway.

  1. Associations between renal hyperfiltration and serum alkaline phosphatase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Won Oh

    Full Text Available Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM or metabolic syndrome (MS, and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008-2011 was performed. Renal hyperfiltration was defined as exceeding the age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentile. We divided participants into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: >120, 90-119, 60-89, and 120 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed the highest risk for MS, in the highest ALP quartiles (3.848, 95% CI, 1.876-7.892, compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, the highest risk for DM, in the highest ALP quartiles, was observed in participants with eGFR >120 ml/min/1.73 m2 (2.166, 95% CI, 1.084-4.329. ALP quartiles were significantly associated with albuminuria in participants with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The highest ALP quartile had a 1.631-fold risk elevation for albuminuria with adjustment of age and sex. (95% CI, 1.158-2.297, P = 0.005. After adjustment, the highest ALP quartile had a 1.624-fold risk elevation, for renal hyperfiltration (95% CI, 1.204-2.192, P = 0.002. In addition, hyperfiltration was significantly associated with hemoglobin, triglyceride, white blood cell count, DM, smoking, and alcohol consumption (P<0.05. The relationship between serum ALP and metabolic disorders is stronger in participants with an upper-normal range of eGFR. Higher ALP levels are significantly associated with renal hyperfiltration in Korean general population.

  2. Rapid Determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning in Shellfish by Colorimetric Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay%磷酸酶抑制比色法快速测定贝类中腹泻性贝毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萌萌; 吴海燕; 薛瑞宇; 谭志军; 李兆新; 翟毓秀

    2014-01-01

    基于腹泻性贝毒素(Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning,DSP)的致腹泻性组分大田软海绵酸(okadaic acid,OA)及其衍生物鳍藻毒素(dinophysistoxins,DTXs)能抑制蛋白磷酸酶活性的特点,建立了快速测定贝类中DSP的磷酸酶抑制比色分析方法.采用对硝基苯磷酸二钠(p-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium,p-NPP)为底物,其与蛋白磷酸酶2A(protein phosphatase 2A,PP2A)反应生成的黄色水解产物在碱性条件下于405 nm波长处有强烈的吸收峰,根据吸光废值计算抑制剂的浓度.酶抑制法继承了小鼠生物法能建立剂量-效应关系的优势,直接反映毒素的相对毒性大小,测定的是DSP毒素致腹泻性成分的总量,以OA浓度计.本研究优化了样品前处理方法并考察了基质浓度的影响.方法的筛选检出限为80 μg/kg.采用该方法进行加标回收实验,回收率在90.43%~118.52%范围内,相对标准偏差(RSD)为6.85%~13.93%.该方法操作简便、快捷,回收率高,重现性好,可作为快速筛查工具用于贝毒的日常监控.

  3. Centromere binding and a conserved role in chromosome stability for SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes A L van de Pasch

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5/8 complex is the founding member of a recently defined class of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs. Slx5/8 has been implicated in genome stability and transcription, but the precise contribution is unclear. To characterise Slx5/8 function, we determined genome-wide changes in gene expression upon loss of either subunit. The majority of mRNA changes are part of a general stress response, also exhibited by mutants of other genome integrity pathways and therefore indicative of an indirect effect on transcription. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals a uniquely centromeric location for Slx5. Detailed phenotype analyses of slx5Δ and slx8Δ mutants show severe mitotic defects that include aneuploidy, spindle mispositioning, fish hooks and aberrant spindle kinetics. This is associated with accumulation of the PP2A regulatory subunit Rts1 at centromeres prior to entry into anaphase. Knockdown of the human STUbL orthologue RNF4 also results in chromosome segregation errors due to chromosome bridges. The study shows that STUbLs have a conserved role in maintenance of chromosome stability and links SUMO-dependent ubiquitination to a centromere-specific function during mitosis.

  4. Centromere binding and a conserved role in chromosome stability for SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pasch, Loes A L; Miles, Antony J; Nijenhuis, Wilco; Brabers, Nathalie A C H; van Leenen, Dik; Lijnzaad, Philip; Brown, Markus K; Ouellet, Jimmy; Barral, Yves; Kops, Geert J P L; Holstege, Frank C P

    2013-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slx5/8 complex is the founding member of a recently defined class of SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases (STUbLs). Slx5/8 has been implicated in genome stability and transcription, but the precise contribution is unclear. To characterise Slx5/8 function, we determined genome-wide changes in gene expression upon loss of either subunit. The majority of mRNA changes are part of a general stress response, also exhibited by mutants of other genome integrity pathways and therefore indicative of an indirect effect on transcription. Genome-wide binding analysis reveals a uniquely centromeric location for Slx5. Detailed phenotype analyses of slx5Δ and slx8Δ mutants show severe mitotic defects that include aneuploidy, spindle mispositioning, fish hooks and aberrant spindle kinetics. This is associated with accumulation of the PP2A regulatory subunit Rts1 at centromeres prior to entry into anaphase. Knockdown of the human STUbL orthologue RNF4 also results in chromosome segregation errors due to chromosome bridges. The study shows that STUbLs have a conserved role in maintenance of chromosome stability and links SUMO-dependent ubiquitination to a centromere-specific function during mitosis. PMID:23785440

  5. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    CORRYANTI; J SOEDARSONO; B RADJAGUKGUK; S M WIDYASTUTI

    2007-01-01

    To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tissera...

  6. Binuclear Metal Centers in Plant Purple Acid Phosphatases: Fe-Mn in Sweet Potato and Fe-Zn in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Gerhard; Ge, Yubin; Carrington, Lyle E; Wynne, Ceridwen J.; Searle, Iain R.; Carroll, Bernard J; Hamilton, Susan E.; de Jersey, John

    1999-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases comprise a family of binuclear metal-containing acid hydrolases, representatives of which have been found in animals, plants, and fungi. The goal of this study was to characterize purple acid phosphatases from sweet potato tubers and soybean seeds and to establish their relationship with the only well-characterized plant purple acid phosphatase, the FeIII–ZnII-containing red kidney bean enzyme. Metal analysis indicated the presence in the pu...

  7. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of a Protein-Serine/Threonine Phosphatase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrodictium abyssi TAG11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Bianca; Frey, Gerhard; Swanson, Ronald V.; Mathur, Eric J.; Stetter, K. O.

    1998-01-01

    An open reading frame coding for a putative protein-serine/threonine phosphatase was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrodictium abyssi TAG11 and named Py-PP1. Py-PP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified from inclusion bodies, and biochemically characterized. The phosphatase gene is part of an operon which may provide, for the first time, insight into a physiological role for archaeal protein phosphatases in vivo. PMID:9696747

  8. Structural basis of Rap phosphatase inhibition by Phr peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gallego del Sol

    Full Text Available Two-component systems, composed of a sensor histidine kinase and an effector response regulator (RR, are the main signal transduction devices in bacteria. In Bacillus, the Rap protein family modulates complex signaling processes mediated by two-component systems, such as competence, sporulation, or biofilm formation, by inhibiting the RR components involved in these pathways. Despite the high degree of sequence homology, Rap proteins exert their activity by two completely different mechanisms of action: inducing RR dephosphorylation or blocking RR binding to its target promoter. However the regulatory mechanism involving Rap proteins is even more complex since Rap activity is antagonized by specific signaling peptides (Phr through a mechanism that remains unknown at the molecular level. Using X-ray analyses, we determined the structure of RapF, the anti-activator of competence RR ComA, alone and in complex with its regulatory peptide PhrF. The structural and functional data presented herein reveal that peptide PhrF blocks the RapF-ComA interaction through an allosteric mechanism. PhrF accommodates in the C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain of RapF by inducing its constriction, a conformational change propagated by a pronounced rotation to the N-terminal ComA-binding domain. This movement partially disrupts the ComA binding site by triggering the ComA disassociation, whose interaction with RapF is also sterically impaired in the PhrF-induced conformation of RapF. Sequence analyses of the Rap proteins, guided by the RapF-PhrF structure, unveil the molecular basis of Phr recognition and discrimination, allowing us to relax the Phr specificity of RapF by a single residue change.

  9. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  10. MALDI mass sequencing and biochemical characterization of Setaria cervi protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Reeta; Singh, Neetu; Elesela, Srikanth; Tiwari, Savitri; Rathaur, Sushma

    2013-01-01

    A 30-kDa acid phosphatase with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was identified in Setaria cervi (ScPTP). The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using three-step column chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of purified ScPTP yielded a total of eight peptides matching most closely to phosphoprotein phosphatase of Ricinus communis (RcPP). A hydrophilicity plot of RcPP revealed the presence of these peptides in the hydrophilic region, suggesting their antigenic nature. The substrate specificity of ScPTP with ortho-phospho-L-tyrosine and inhibition with sodium orthovanadate and ammonium molybdate affirmed it as a protein tyrosine phosphatase. ScPTP was also found to be tartrate resistant. The Km and Vmax were 6.60 mM and 83.3 μM/ml/min, respectively, with pNPP and 8.0 mM and 111 μM/ml/min, respectively, with ortho-phospho-L-tyrosine as the substrate. The Ki value with sodium orthovanadate was calculated to be 16.10 mM. Active site modification with DEPC, EDAC and pHMB suggested the presence of histidine, cysteine and aspartate at its active site. Thus, on the basis of MALDI-TOF and biochemical studies, it was confirmed that purified acid phosphatase is a PTP. PMID:23052758

  11. MKP-8, a novel MAPK phosphatase that inhibits p38 kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracellular signaling pathways and their relationship to malignant progression have become a major focus of cancer biology. The dual-specificity phosphatase (DSP) family is a more recently identified family of intracellular signaling modulators. We have identified a novel protein phosphatase with a well-conserved DSP catalytic domain containing the DSP catalytic motif, xHCxxGxSRS, and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP) motif, AYLM. Because of these unique characteristics, the protein was named mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-8 (MKP-8). This protein is approximately 20 kDa in size and mainly localizes to the nuclear compartment of the cell. MKP-8 is expressed in embryonal cancers (retinoblastoma, neuroepithelioma, and neuroblastoma) and has limited expression in normal tissues. MKP-8 displays significant phosphatase activity that is inhibited by a cysteine to serine substitution in the catalytic domain. When co-expressed with activated MAPKs, MKP-8 is able to inhibit p38 kinase phosphorylation and downstream activity

  12. Biochemical Properties and Inhibition Kinetics of Phosphatase from Wheat Thylakoid Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A phosphatase that hydrolyses phosphate monoesters has been isolated from wheat thylakoid membranes.Biochemical properties and inhibition kinetics of the phosphatase were investigated using several ions, organic solvents, and inhibitors. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PH82-2-2) thylakoid membrane phosphatase activity was activated by Mg2+, Ca2+, and Fe2+ and was inhibited by Mn2+ and Cu2+. For example, enzyme activity was activated 34.81% by 2 mmol/L Mg2+, but was inhibited 22.3% and 8.5% by 2 and 1 mmol/L Cu2+, respectively.Methanol, ethanol and glycol were all able to activate enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was activated 58.5%, 48.2%,and 8.7% by 40% ethanol, methanol and glycol, respectively. From these results, it can be seen that the degree of activation of the phosphatase was greatest for ethanol and the type of activation was uncompetitive. Moreover,the activity of the thylakoid membrane phosphatase was inhibited by molybdate, vanadate, phosphate, and fluoride and the type of inhibition produced by these elements was uncompetitive, non-competitive, competitive and mixed, respectively.

  13. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  14. [Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii yeast in vitro and in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibirnyi, A A; Shavlovskii, G M

    1978-01-01

    The rate of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) hydrolysis by the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii flavinogenic yeast was studied as affected by different substrates and inorganic ions. Their Km was established to be 2.0 X 10(-4) m and 2.5 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenylphosphate and FMN was inhibited competitively by beta-glycerophosphate (Ki = 3.1 X 10(-3) M, respectively). The presence of inorganic phosphate ions in the reaction mixture decreases or removes inhibition of these compounds hydrolysis by other substrates of alkaline phosphatase I. The activity of alkaline phosphatase I increases in the presence of Mg2+ and was strongly inhibited in the presence of Be2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and inorganic phosphate, the mixture of Be2+ and F- being the most effective. This mixture inhibited the phosphatase activity of the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of the cell-free extract as well as of intact cells in both the alkaline and acid zones of pH (8.6 and 5.5, respectively). Incubation of the washed iron-deficient P. guilliermondii cells in the presence of Be2+ and F- did not result in accumulation of FMN in the yeast culture. A possible role of nonspecific phosphomonoesterases in hydrolysis of FMN in vivo is discussed. PMID:208203

  15. Interaction with Tap42 Is Required for the Essential Function of Sit4 and Type 2A Phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pph21 and Pph22 are the two catalytic subunits of type 2A phosphatase (PP2Ac), and Sit4 is a major form of 2A-like phosphatase. The function of these phosphatases requires their association with different regulatory subunits. In addition to the conventional regulatory subunits, namely, the A and B subunits for Pph21/22 and the Sap proteins for Sit4, these phosphatases have been found to associate with a protein termed Tap42. In this study, we demonstrated that Sit...

  16. Focused library with a core structure extracted from natural products and modified: application to phosphatase inhibitors and several biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Go; Sodeoka, Mikiko

    2015-05-19

    Synthesis of a focused library is an important strategy to create novel modulators of specific classes of proteins. Compounds in a focused library are composed of a common core structure and different diversity structures. In this Account, we describe our design and synthesis of libraries focused on selective inhibitors of protein phosphatases (PPases). We considered that core structures having structural and electronic features similar to those of PPase substrates, phosphate esters, would be a reasonable choice. Therefore, we extracted core structures from natural products already identified as PPase inhibitors. Since many PPases share similar active-site structures, such phosphate-mimicking core structures should interact with many enzymes in the same family, and therefore the choice of diversity structures is pivotal both to increase the binding affinity and to achieve specificity for individual enzymes. Here we present case studies of application of focused libraries to obtain PPase inhibitors, covering the overall process from selection of core structures to identification and evaluation of candidates in the focused libraries. To synthesize a library focused on protein serine-threonine phosphatases (PPs), we chose norcantharidin as a core structure, because norcantharidin dicarboxylate shows a broad inhibition profile toward several PPs. From the resulting focused library, we identified a highly selective PP2B inhibitor, NCA-01. On the other hand, to find inhibitors of dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DSPs), we chose 3-acyltetronic acid extracted from natural product RK-682 as a core structure, because its structure resembles the transition state in the dephosphorylation reaction of DSPs. However, a highly selective inhibitor was not found in the resulting focused library. Furthermore, an inherent drawback of compounds having the highly acidic 3-acyltetronic acid as a core structure is very weak potency in cellulo, probably due to poor cell membrane

  17. Plant Hormone Binding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Richard

    2004-01-01

    • Aims Receptors for plant hormones are becoming identified with increasing rapidity, although a frustrating number remain unknown. There have also been many more hormone‐binding proteins described than receptors. This Botanical Briefing summarizes what has been discovered about hormone binding sites, their discovery and descriptions, and will not dwell on receptor functions or activities except where these are relevant to understand binding.

  18. Malawi Polyomavirus Is a Prevalent Human Virus That Interacts with Known Tumor Suppressors

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, Christian; Jung, Joonil; Primi, Blake; Wang, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandrasekhar; Duke, Fujiko; Marcelus, Christina; Cheng, Jingwei; Robert L. Garcea; Meyerson, Matthew; DeCaprio, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Malawi polyomavirus (MWPyV) is a recently identified human polyomavirus. Serology for MWPyV VP1 indicates that infection frequently occurs in childhood and reaches a prevalence of 75% in adults. The MWPyV small T antigen (ST) binds protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the large T antigen (LT) binds pRb, p107, p130, and p53. However, the MWPyV LT was less stable than the simian virus 40 (SV40) LT and was unable to promote the growth of normal cells. This report confirms that MWPyV is a widesprea...

  19. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, B;

    2006-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are required for repair, recombination and replication in all organisms. Eukaryotic SSBs are regulated by phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues. To our knowledge, phosphorylation of SSBs in bacteria has not been reported. A systematic search...... antagonistically by kinase YwqD and phosphatase YwqE. Phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB increased binding almost 200-fold to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B.subtilis, S.coelicolor and Escherichia coli SSBs occured while they were expressed in E.coli, indicating that tyrosine...

  20. Effect of nutrient limitation on biofilm formation and phosphatase activity of a Citrobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Victoria J M; Callow, Maureen E; Macaskie, Lynne E; Paterson-Beedle, Marion

    2002-01-01

    A phosphatase-overproducing Citrobacter sp. (NCIMB 40259) was grown in an air-lift reactor in steady-state continuous culture under limitation of carbon, phosphorus or nitrogen. Substantial biofilm formation, and the highest phosphatase activity, were observed under lactose limitation. However, the total amount of biofilm wet biomass and the phosphatase specific activity were reduced in phosphorus- or nitrogen-limited cultures or when glucose was substituted for lactose as the limiting carbon source. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed differences in cell and biofilm morphology in relation to medium composition. Electron microscopy suggested that the differences in biofilm formation may relate to differential expression of fimbriae on the cell surface. PMID:11782520

  1. Application of intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity measurement in detection of neutrophil adherence in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Sulowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed the use of the fluorimetric method with 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) specific substrate for the alkaline phosphatase determination in the neutrophil adhesion assay. We provide evidence that the endogenous neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity evaluation is reliable to quantify neutrophil adhesion at a wide range of cell numbers (10(4)-10(6)). The results obtained by fluorimetric NAP activity test correlate to the results of adherence evaluated using the MTT reduction assay. The fluorimetric NAP activity test may be applied for resting as well as activated neutrophils without the risk of the activators interferences into the test. The alkaline phosphatase survey with the use of 4-MUP substrate is recommended herein as a sensitive, repeatable, simple, and reliable method of the neutrophil adherence determination in vitro. PMID:17047286

  2. The Rtr1p CTD phosphatase autoregulates its mRNA through a degradation pathway involving the REX exonucleases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodko, Domagoj; Ward, Taylor; Chanfreau, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Rtr1p is a phosphatase that impacts gene expression by modulating the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Here, we show that Rtr1p is a component of a novel mRNA degradation pathway that promotes its autoregulation through turnover of its own mRNA. We show that the 3′UTR of the RTR1 mRNA contains a cis element that destabilizes this mRNA. RTR1 mRNA turnover is achieved through binding of Rtr1p to the RTR1 mRNP in a manner that is dependent on this cis element. Genetic evidence shows that Rtr1p-mediated decay of the RTR1 mRNA involves the 5′-3′ DExD/H-box RNA helicase Dhh1p and the 3′-5′ exonucleases Rex2p and Rex3p. Rtr1p and Rex3p are found associated with Dhh1p, suggesting a model for recruiting the REX exonucleases to the RTR1 mRNA for degradation. Rtr1p-mediated decay potentially impacts additional transcripts, including the unspliced BMH2 pre-mRNA. We propose that Rtr1p may imprint its RNA targets cotranscriptionally and determine their downstream degradation mechanism by directing these transcripts to a novel turnover pathway that involves Rtr1p, Dhh1p, and the REX family of exonucleases. PMID:26843527

  3. Protein-protein interactions in crystals of the human receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase ICA512 ectodomain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Primo

    Full Text Available ICA512 (or IA-2 is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase located in secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Initially, it was identified as one of the main antigens of autoimmune diabetes. Later, it was found that during insulin secretion, the cytoplasmic domain of ICA512 is cleaved and relocated to the nucleus, where it stimulates the transcription of the insulin gene. The role of the other parts of the receptor in insulin secretion is yet to be unveiled. The structures of the intracellular pseudocatalytic and mature extracellular domains are known, but the transmembrane domain and several intracellular and extracellular parts of the receptor are poorly characterized. Moreover the overall structure of the receptor remains to be established. We started to address this issue studying by X-ray crystallography the structure of the mature ectodomain of ICA512 (ME ICA512 and variants thereof. The variants and crystallization conditions were chosen with the purpose of exploring putative association interfaces, metal binding sites and all other structural details that might help, in subsequent works, to build a model of the entire receptor. Several structural features were clarified and three main different association modes of ME ICA512 were identified. The results provide essential pieces of information for the design of new experiments aimed to assess the structure in vivo.

  4. PTP-S2, a nuclear tyrosine phosphatase, is phosphorylated and excluded from condensed chromosomes during mitosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sundaram Nambirajan; Vegesna Radha; Shubhangi Kamatkar; Ghanshyam Swarup

    2000-03-01

    PTP-S2 is a tyrosine specific protein phosphatase that binds to DNA and is localized to the nucleus in association with chromatin. It plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation. Here we show that the subcellular distribution of this protein changes during cell division. While PTP-S2 was localized exclusively to the nucleus in interphase cells, during metaphase and anaphase it was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and excluded from condensed chromosomes. At telophase PTP-S2 began to associate with chromosomes and at cytokinesis it was associated with chromatin in the newly formed nucleus. It was hyperphosphorylated and showed retarded mobility in cells arrested in metaphase. In vitro experiments showed that it was phosphorylated by CK2 resulting in mobility shift. Using a deletion mutant we found that CK2 phosphorylated PTP-S2 in the C-terminal non-catalytic domain. A heparin sensitive kinase from mitotic cell extracts phosphorylated PTP-S2 resulting in mobility shift. These results are consistent with the suggestion that during metaphase PTP-S2 is phosphorylated (possibly by CK2 or a CK2-like enzyme), resulting in its dissociation from chromatin.

  5. Tumor suppressor PTEN affects tau phosphorylation: deficiency in the phosphatase activity of PTEN increases aggregation of an FTDP-17 mutant Tau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant hyperphosphorylation of tau protein has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Although a number of protein kinases have been shown to phosphorylate tau in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms by which tau phosphorylation is regulated pathophysiologically are largely unknown. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests a link between tau phosphorylation and PI3K signaling. In this study, phosphorylation, aggregation and binding to the microtubule of a mutant frontal temporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17 tau in the presence of tumor suppressor PTEN, a major regulatory component in PI3K signaling, were investigated. Results Phosphorylation of the human mutant FTDP-17 tau, T40RW, was evaluated using different phospho-tau specific antibodies in the presence of human wild-type or phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN. Among the evaluated phosphorylation sites, the levels of Ser214 and Thr212 phospho-tau proteins were significantly decreased in the presence of wild-type PTEN, and significantly increased when the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN was ectopically expressed. Fractionation of the mutant tau transfected cells revealed a significantly increased level of soluble tau in cytosol when wild-type PTEN was expressed, and an elevated level of SDS-soluble tau aggregates in the presence of the mutant PTEN. In addition, the filter/trap assays detected more SDS-insoluble mutant tau aggregates in the cells overexpressing the mutant PTEN compared to those in the cells overexpressing wild-type PTEN and control DNA. This notion was confirmed by the immunocytochemical experiment which demonstrated that the overexpression of the phosphatase activity null mutant PTEN caused the mutant tau to form aggregates in the COS-7 cells. Conclusion Tumor suppressor PTEN can alleviate the phosporylation of the mutant FTDP-17 tau at specific sites, and the phosphatase activity

  6. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation in three successional forests in southern China was carried out. The three forests include Masson pine forest (MPF, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed by no precipitation treatment in the three forests. However, doubled precipitation treatment exerted a significantly negative effect on it only in MEBF. These results indicate that the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. A decrease in organic P turnover would occur in the three forests if there was a drought in a whole year in the future. More rainfall in the wet season would also be adverse to organic P turnover in MEBF due to its high soil moisture.

  7. Crystallization of a newly discovered histidine acid phosphatase from Francisella tularensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A histidine acid phosphatase from the CDC Category A pathogen F. tularensis has been crystallized in space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. A 1.75 Å resolution data set was collected at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious bacterial pathogen that is considered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to be a potential bioterrorism weapon. Here, the crystallization of a 37.2 kDa phosphatase encoded by the genome of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica live vaccine strain is reported. This enzyme shares 41% amino-acid sequence identity with Legionella pneumophila major acid phosphatase and contains the RHGXRXP motif that is characteristic of the histidine acid phosphatase family. Large diffraction-quality crystals were grown in the presence of Tacsimate, HEPES and PEG 3350. The crystals belong to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain one protein molecule, with a solvent content of 53%. A 1.75 Å resolution native data set was recorded at beamline 4.2.2 of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source. Molecular-replacement trials using the human prostatic acid phosphatase structure as the search model (28% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of F. tularensis histidine acid phosphatase will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative

  8. Targeting the active site of the placental isozyme of alkaline phosphatase by phage-displayed scFv antibodies selected by a specific uncompetitive inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Mrinalini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The isozymes of alkaline phosphatase, the tissue non-specific, intestinal and placental, have similar properties and a high degree of identity. The placental isozyme (PLAP is an oncofetal antigen expressed in several malignancies including choriocarcinoma, seminoma and ovarian carcinoma. We had earlier attempted to isolate PLAP-specific scFv from a synthetic human immunoglobulin library but were unable to do so, presumably because of the similarity between the isozymes. In this work, we have employed a PLAP-specific uncompetitive inhibitor, L-Phe-Gly-Gly, to select isozyme specific scFvs. An uncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme in the presence of substrate and stabilizes the enzyme-substrate complex. Several uncompetitive inhibitors have varying degrees of isozyme specificity for human alkaline phosphatase isozymes. A specific uncompetitive inhibitor would be able to unmask conformational differences between the otherwise very similar molecules. Also, such inhibitors would be directed to regions at/close to the active site of the enzyme. In this work, the library was first incubated with PLAP and the bound clones then eluted by incubation with L-Phe-Gly-Gly along with the substrate, para-nitro phenyl phosphate (pNPP. The scFvs were then studied with regard to the biochemical modulation of their binding, isozyme specificity and effect on enzyme activity. Results Of 13 clones studied initially, the binding of 9 was inhibited by L-Phe-Gly-Gly (with pNPP and 2 clones were inhibited by pNPP alone. Two clones had absolute and 2 clones had partial specificity to PLAP. Two clones were cross-reactive with only one other isozyme. Three scFv clones, having an accessible His6-tag, were purified and studied for their modulation of enzyme activity. All the three scFvs inhibited PLAP activity with the kinetics of competitive inhibition. Cell ELISA could demonstrate binding of the specific scFvs to the cell surface expressed PLAP

  9. Subcellular localisation and properties of histone phosphate phosphatase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: alterations in pregnancy and chronic granulocytic leukaemia and relationship to alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using [32P]histone as substrate, an assay for histone phosphate phosphatase was optimised for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Kinetic studies showed that the activity was optimal at pH 6.8, was stimulated by Mn2+ and Co2+, and inhibited by sodium sulphite and zinc chloride. The apparent Ksub(m) of the enzyme for histone phosphate was 0.89 μmol/l. (Auth.)

  10. Molecular cloning of rat type 2C (IA) protein phosphatase mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamura, S; Lynch, K. R.; Larner, J.; Fox, J.; Yasui, A; Kikuchi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsuiki, S

    1989-01-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding rat type 2C (IA) protein phosphatase was isolated from a kidney cDNA library. The cDNA was identified by screening the library with oligonucleotides based on a partial amino acid sequence determined from purified rat liver phosphatase. This clone is 2.35 kilobase pairs long and has a single extended translation reading frame that predicts a 382-amino acid protein of 42,416 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence contains segments corresponding to three peptides fr...

  11. Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus–cucumber symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Thingstrup, Ida; Jakobsen, Iver;

    1996-01-01

    Short-term effects of benomyl on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus caledonium (Nicol. & Gerd.) Trappe and Gerdeman associated with Cucumis sativus L. were studied by measuring effects on fungal P transport and on fungal alkaline phosphatase activity. Mycorrhizal plants were grown in three...... when benomyl was applied to the HC at 10 µg g-1 soil, whereas the uptake of 32P from RHC I roots + hyphae) was reduced only at the highest dose of application to the RHC (100 µ g g-1 soil). In contrast to the marked reduction of benomyl on fungal P transport, the activity of fungal alkaline phosphatase...

  12. Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana da Silva Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno Nogueira; Elza Iouko Ida

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p < 0.05). The phytase and acid phosphatase activities of sunflowers BRS191 and C11 were the highest on the 4th and 5th days of germination, respectively, with the release of the phosphor...

  13. A new fluorescence-based method identifies protein phosphatases regulating lipid droplet metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Bozaquel-Morais

    Full Text Available In virtually every cell, neutral lipids are stored in cytoplasmic structures called lipid droplets (LDs and also referred to as lipid bodies or lipid particles. We developed a rapid high-throughput assay based on the recovery of quenched BODIPY-fluorescence that allows to quantify lipid droplets. The method was validated by monitoring lipid droplet turnover during growth of a yeast culture and by screening a group of strains deleted in genes known to be involved in lipid metabolism. In both tests, the fluorimetric assay showed high sensitivity and good agreement with previously reported data using microscopy. We used this method for high-throughput identification of protein phosphatases involved in lipid droplet metabolism. From 65 yeast knockout strains encoding protein phosphatases and its regulatory subunits, 13 strains revealed to have abnormal levels of lipid droplets, 10 of them having high lipid droplet content. Strains deleted for type I protein phosphatases and related regulators (ppz2, gac1, bni4, type 2A phosphatase and its related regulator (pph21 and sap185, type 2C protein phosphatases (ptc1, ptc4, ptc7 and dual phosphatases (pps1, msg5 were catalogued as high-lipid droplet content strains. Only reg1, a targeting subunit of the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p, and members of the nutrient-sensitive TOR pathway (sit4 and the regulatory subunit sap190 were catalogued as low-lipid droplet content strains, which were studied further. We show that Snf1, the homologue of the mammalian AMP-activated kinase, is constitutively phosphorylated (hyperactive in sit4 and sap190 strains leading to a reduction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. In conclusion, our fast and highly sensitive method permitted us to catalogue protein phosphatases involved in the regulation of LD metabolism and present evidence indicating that the TOR pathway and the SNF1/AMPK pathway are connected through the Sit4p-Sap190p pair in the control of lipid droplet biogenesis.

  14. The activity of some phosphatases in tissues of adult Hymenolepis nana Siebold (Csetoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humiczewska, M

    1989-01-01

    Histochemical methods were used to study the localization and activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases, ATP-ase, 5-nucleotidase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in tissues of the mature form of Hymenolepis nana. Considerable differences in activity and localization of particular enzymes were observed in the organs of the parasite. The results obtained permit the statement that the integument is the most active enzymatically; in connection with the literature data, this gives grounds for the thesis that the integument of the cestodes functions as an absorbent-digestive organ. PMID:2558920

  15. Identification of a macro-alkaline phosphatase complex in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Malcolm P; Rawson, Catherine; Lawrence, David; Raney, Barbara S; Jaundrill, Linnet; Miller, Lorna A; Murtinho-Braga, Joseph; Kearney, Edward M

    2012-07-01

    We report the rare finding of a macro-alkaline phosphatase (macroALP) complex in a patient with a previously unexplained raised alkaline phosphatase activity. The clinical symptoms were persistent, daily diarrhoea for two months with blood in the stool. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, specifically ulcerative colitis, following a rectal biopsy and colonoscopy. Two cases of macroALP associated with ulcerative colitis have been reported before, suggesting there could be an increased prevalence of macroALP in these patients. PMID:22454544

  16. A novel role for protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B as a positive regulator of neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Gyun Jee; Jung, Myungsu; Kim, Jong-Heon; Park, Hana; Rahman, Md. Habibur; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-01-01

    Background Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a member of the non-transmembrane phosphotyrosine phosphatase family. Recently, PTP1B has been proposed to be a novel target of anti-cancer and anti-diabetic drugs. However, the role of PTP1B in the central nervous system is not clearly understood. Therefore, in this study, we sought to define PTP1B’s role in brain inflammation. Methods PTP1B messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels were examined in mouse brain and microglial cel...

  17. OB protein binds specifically to the choroid plexus of mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, R; Richards, J G; Campfield, L A; Tartaglia, L A; Guisez, Y; van der Heyden, J; Travernier, J; Plaetinck, G; Burn, P

    1996-05-28

    Binding studies were conducted to identify the anatomical location of brain target sites for OB protein, the ob gene product. 125I-labeled recombinant mouse OB protein or alkaline phosphatase-OB fusion proteins were used for in vitro and in vivo binding studies. Coronal brain sections or fresh tissue from lean, obese ob/ob, and obese db/db mice as well as lean and obese Zucker rats were probed to identify potential central OB protein-binding sites. We report here that recombinant OB protein binds specifically to the choroid plexus. The binding of OB protein (either radiolabeled or the alkaline phosphatase-OB fusion protein) and its displacement by unlabeled OB protein was similar in lean, obese ob/ob, and obese db/db mice as well as lean and obese Zucker rats. These findings suggest that OB protein binds with high affinity to a specific receptor in the choroid plexus. After binding to the choroid plexus receptor, OB protein may then be transported across the blood-brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid. Alternatively, binding of OB protein to a specific receptor in the choroid plexus may activate afferent neural inputs to the neural network that regulates feeding behavior and energy balance or may result in the clearance or degradation of OB protein. The identification of the choroid plexus as a brain binding site for OB protein will provide the basis for the construction of expression libraries and facilitate the rapid cloning of the choroid plexus OB receptor. PMID:8643634

  18. Cardiac sodium channel Na(v)1.5 interacts with and is regulated by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Gavillet, Bruno; van Bemmelen, Miguel X; Cordonier, Sophie; Thomas, Marc A; Staub, Olivier; Abriel, Hugues

    2006-10-01

    In order to identify proteins interacting with the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.5, we used the last 66 amino acids of the C-terminus of the channel as bait to screen a human cardiac cDNA library. We identified the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPH1 as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments confirmed the interaction, and indicated that it depends on the PDZ-domain binding motif of Na(v)1.5. Co-expression experiments in HEK293 cells showed that PTPH1 shifts the Na(v)1.5 availability relationship toward hyperpolarized potentials, whereas an inactive PTPH1 or the tyrosine kinase Fyn does the opposite. The results of this study suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation destabilizes the inactivated state of Na(v)1.5. PMID:16930557

  19. Using a Personal Glucose Meter and Alkaline Phosphatase for Point-of-Care Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase in Clinical Galactosemia Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiang, Yu; Novak, Donna E; Hoganson, George E; Zhu, Junjie; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    The personal glucose meter (PGM) was recently shown to be a general meter to detect many targets. Most studies, however, focus on transforming either target binding or enzymatic activity that cleaves an artificial substrate into the production of glucose. More importantly, almost all reports exhibit their methods by using artificial samples, such as buffers or serum samples spiked with the targets. To expand the technology to even broader targets and to validate its potential in authentic, more complex clinical samples, we herein report expansion of the PGM method by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that links the enzymatic activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase to the production of glucose, which allows point-of-care galactosemia diagnosis in authentic human clinical samples. Given the presence of ALP in numerous enzymatic assays for clinical diagnostics, the methods demonstrated herein advance the field closer to point-of-care detection of a wide range of targets in real clinical samples. PMID:26350570

  20. Altered binding of 125I-labeled calmodulin to a 46.5-kilodalton protein in skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins have been determined in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and age- and sex-matched controls. Calmodulin ranged from 0.20 to 0.76 microgram/mg protein; there was no difference between calmodulin concentration in fibroblasts from CF patients and controls. Calmodulin-binding proteins of 230, 212, 204, 164, 139, 70, 59, 46.5, and 41 kD were identified. A protein with a mobility identical to the 59-kD calmodulin-binding protein was labeled by antiserum against calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. Although Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase activity was detected, there was no different in activity between control and CF fibroblasts or in the level of phosphatase protein as determined by radioimmunoassay. Lower amounts of 125I-calmodulin were bound to the 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein in CF fibroblasts as compared with controls. The 46.5-kD calmodulin-binding protein may be reduced in CF fibroblasts or its structure may be altered resulting in a reduced binding capacity and/or affinity for calmodulin and perhaps reflecting, either directly or indirectly, the genetic defect responsible for cystic fibrosis

  1. Concentrations of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin in the serum as well as comparisons of sensitivity between radioimmunoassays and enzyme assays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase in the presence of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between carcinomas of the prostate and the plasma levels of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin as well as the possible influence of these neoplasms on the testosterone binding capacity and free testosterone index are investigated for various tumour stages and degrees of histological differentiation, in connection with several forms of local therapy as well as a variety of contrasexual methods. The sensitivity of enzyme assays and radioimmunoassays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase is evaluated within the framework of this study. (MBL)

  2. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.; Gahoonia, T.S.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal...

  3. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORRYANTI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

  4. DMPD: DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory response. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17114416 DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory response...ml) (.csml) Show DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory response...tases in control of theinflammatory response. Authors Lang R, Hammer M, Mages J. Publication J Immunol. 2006

  5. Extreme Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase in a Pregnancy Complicated by Gestational Diabetes and Infant with Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozo, Svjetlana; Atabeygi, Amir; Healey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There have been few case reports of isolated elevation of alkaline phosphatase beyond the normal physiologic amount with subsequent return to baseline after delivery. Here we present a similar case of extreme elevation of alkaline phosphatase in a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes and subsequently by neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). PMID:27610256

  6. PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID PHOSPHATASE FROM SPIRODELA OLIGORRHIZA AND ITS AFFINITY FOR SELECTED ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acid phosphatase from the aquatic plant Spirodela oligorrhiza (duckweed) was isolated by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and partially characterized. The enzyme was purified 1871-fold with a total yield of 40%. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the pure acid phosphatase ...

  7. Effects of sub-lethal dose of gamma-irradiation on levels of acid phosphatase in cerebellum of pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in the activities of acid phosphatase in the sham-irradiated and γ-irradiated cerebellum of pigeons have been studied both biochemically as well as histochemically after 400 rads. The specific activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly after 48h and 72h of irradiation. The histochemical observations following total body irradiation confirmed the results obtained by quantitative biochemical studies. (author)

  8. Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling by small molecule agonist of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tähtinen Siri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP/TC45 is a ubiquitously expressed intra-cellular non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in the negative regulation of several cancer relevant cellular signalling pathways. We have previously shown that interaction between the α-cytoplasmic tail of α1β1 integrin and TCPTP activates TCPTP by disrupting an inhibitory intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Thus, inhibition of the regulatory interaction in TCPTP is a desirable strategy for TCPTP activation and attenuation of oncogenic RTK signalling. However, this is challenging with low molecular weight compounds. Methods We developed a high-throughput compatible assay to analyse activity of recombinant TCPTP in vitro. Using this assay we have screened 64280 small molecules to identify novel agonists for TCPTP. Dose-dependent response to TCPTP agonist was performed using the in vitro assay. Inhibition effects and specificity of TCPTP agonists were evaluated using TCPTP expressing and null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate attenuation of PDGFRβ and EGFR phosphorylation. Inhibition of VEGF signalling was analysed with VEGF-induced endothelial cell sprouting assays. Results From the screen we identified six TCPTP agonists. Two compounds competed with α1-cytoplasmic domain for binding to TCPTP, suggesting that they activate TCPTP similar to α1-cyt by disrupting the intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Importantly, one of the compounds (spermidine displayed specificity towards TCPTP in cells, since TCPTP -/- cells were 43-fold more resistant to the compound than TCPTP expressing cells. This compound attenuates PDGFRβ and VEGFR2 signalling in cells in a TCPTP-dependent manner and functions as a negative regulator of EGFR phosphorylation in cancer cells. Conclusions In this study we showed that small molecules mimicking TCPTP-α1 interaction can be used as TCPTP agonists. These data provide the first

  9. Stimulation by parathyroid hormone of 45Ca2+ uptake in osteoblast-like cells: Possible involvement of alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the actions of human PTH [hPTH-(1-34)] on the association of 45Ca2+ with two human (SaOS-2 and MG-63) and two rat (ROS 17/2.8 and UMR-106) osteoblast-like cell types. In SaOS-2 cells, hPTH-(1-34) binds to specific membrane receptors to activate adenylate cyclase. Treatment of SaOS-2 cells with hPTH-(1-34) resulted in an increase in 45Ca2+ uptake, in a dose-dependent fashion, up to 2- to 4-fold above control values. The increase was first evident at 10 min and persisted for at least 30 min. Treatment with nimodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, was without effect on the stimulatory action of PTH. A similar enhancement of cell-associated 45Ca2+ was observed when the cells were incubated with vasoactive intestinal peptide, which acts via different receptors to activate adenylate cyclase in SaOS-2 cells. Treatment with (Bu)2cAMP also induced an increase in cell-associated 45Ca2+. Pretreatment of SaOS-2 cells with hPTH-(1-34) for 4 h, which induced homologous desensitization to a second challenge with the same peptide for stimulation of cAMP production, did not attenuate the further enhancement of cell-associated 45Ca2+ by a second treatment with hPTH-(1-34). We then examined a possible relationship between alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and 45Ca2+ uptake. SaOS-2 cells contained high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and continuously released the enzyme into the medium. Release was enhanced by treatment with hPTH-(1-34) for 10 min. Incubation of cells with levamisole (an inhibitor of the liver/bone/kidney type of ALPase) resulted in a rapid decrease in basal and PTH-stimulated 45Ca2+ uptake, while treatment with L-Phe-Gly-Gly was without effect. Treatment of the cells with ALPase (bovine kidney) enhanced 45Ca2+ uptake. In MG-63 cells, a stimulatory effect of hPTH-(1-34) on cell-associated 45Ca2+ was also observed; however, hPTH-(1-34) did not stimulate cAMP production in MG-63 cells

  10. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  11. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    OpenAIRE

    Jarecka, Dorota; Arabas, Sylwester; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python ...

  12. Expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in the major insulin target tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norris, K; Norris, F; Kono, D H;

    1997-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulators of the insulin receptor signal transduction pathway. We have performed a detailed analysis of PTP expression in the major human insulin target tissues or cells (liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and endothelial cells). To obtain a repre...

  13. Acceleration of gelation and promotion of mineralization of chitosan hydrogels by alkaline phosphatase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Skwarczynska, A.; Modrzejewska, Z.; Balcaen, L.; Schaubroeck, D.; Lycke, S.; Vanhaecke, F.; Vandenabeele, P.; Dubruel, P.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels containing sodium beta-glycerophosphate (beta-GP), whose gelation is induced by increasing temperature to body temperature, were functionalized by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone. ALP incorporation led to ac

  14. The effect of potassium iodide on the production of acid phosphatase by Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Grover

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the in vitro effect of potassium iodide (KI on the production of acid phosphatase by fully characterized strain of S.schenckii isolated from a patient of Cutaneous Sporotrichosis. The enzyme acid phosphatase was estimated during the 3 phases of growth of S.schenckii, without and with three concentrations of KI incorporated in the culture medium. In the control and in the test proper, with various concentrations of KI, no adverse effect of KI was observed on the production of acid phosphatase in early and mid log phase of fungal growth. Whereas in the exponential phase in test proper, there was a statistical significant decrease in the enzyme production with 0.8% and 3.2% of KI. The low activity at 0.8% and 3.2% KI indicates that KI has inhibitory effect on the growth of S.schenckii and has led to decrease in the activity of the enzyme. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 65-8 Keywords: S.schenckii, acid phosphatase, potassium iodide

  15. Crystallization of a newly discovered histidine acid phosphatase from Francisella tularensis

    OpenAIRE

    Felts, Richard L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-01-01

    A histidine acid phosphatase from the CDC Category A pathogen F. tularensis has been crystallized in space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.96, c = 210.78 Å. A 1.75 Å resolution data set was collected at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2.

  16. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihko, P; Virkkunen, P; Henttu, P; Roiko, K; Solin, T; Huhtala, M L

    1988-08-29

    lambda gt11 clones encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) (EC 3.1.3.2) were isolated from human prostatic cDNA libraries by immunoscreening with polyclonal antisera. Sequence data obtained from several overlapping clones indicated that the composite cDNAs contained the complete coding region for PAP, which encodes a 354-residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 41,126 Da. In the 5'-end, the cDNA codes for a signal peptide of 32 amino acids. Direct protein sequencing of the amino-terminus of the mature protein and its proteolytic fragments confirmed the identity of the predicted protein sequence. PAP has no apparent sequence homology to other known proteins. However, both the cDNA clones coding for human placental alkaline phosphatase and PAP have an alu-type repetitive sequence about 900 nucleotides downstream from the coding region in the 3'-untranslated region. Two of our cDNA clones differed from others at the 5'-ends. RNA blot analysis indicated mRNA of 3.3 kb. We are continuing to study whether acid phosphatases form a gene family as do alkaline phosphatases. PMID:2842184

  17. Vanadate inhibition of fungal phyA and bacterial appA2 histidine acid phosphatases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal PhyA protein, which was first identified as an acid optimum phosphomonoesterase (EC 3.1.3.8), could also serve as a vanadate haloperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10) provided the acid phosphatase activity is shutdown by vanadate. To understand how vanadate inhibits both phytate and pNPP degrading ac...

  18. Cytochrome c forms complexes and is partly reduced at interaction with GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dadák, V.; Janiczek, O.; Vrána, Oldřich

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1570, č. 1 (2002), s. 9-18. ISSN 0304-4165 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : cytochrome c * aromatic amino acid * alkaline phosphatase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.845, year: 2002

  19. Alkaline phosphatase activity and some minerals concentration in canine blood plasma with radiation combined injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase activity, Ca, P and Mg concentration were investigated in the blood plasma of dogs with a bone fracture as well as in those ones with a bone fracture combined with irradiation (2Gy). Obtained results show that none of the investigated parameters were significantly changed during the experiment. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  20. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GADD34:PP1 eIF2α Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng S. Choy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The attenuation of protein synthesis via the phosphorylation of eIF2α is a major stress response of all eukaryotic cells. The growth-arrest- and DNA-damage-induced transcript 34 (GADD34 bound to the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 is the necessary eIF2α phosphatase complex that returns mammalian cells to normal protein synthesis following stress. The molecular basis by which GADD34 recruits PP1 and its substrate eIF2α are not fully understood, hindering our understanding of the remarkable selectivity of the GADD34:PP1 phosphatase for eIF2α. Here, we report detailed structural and functional analyses of the GADD34:PP1 holoenzyme and its recruitment of eIF2α. The data highlight independent interactions of PP1 and eIF2α with GADD34, demonstrating that GADD34 functions as a scaffold both in vitro and in cells. This work greatly enhances our molecular understanding of a major cellular eIF2α phosphatase and establishes the foundation for future translational work.

  1. Purification and characterization of a protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates pyruvate kinase in an anoxia tolerant animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P; Storey, K B

    1996-05-01

    A protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates pyruvate kinase (PK) in vitro was purified and characterized from the foot muscle of the anoxia tolerant gastropod mollusc Busycon canaliculatum. Purification involved three steps: negative chromatography through Blue Dextran and CM Sephadex, affinity chromatography on DEAE Sephadex and gel exclusion chromatography on Sephacryl S-400. Pyruvate kinase phosphatase (PK-Pase) activity was monitored by following changes in PK I50 values for L-alanine that had previously been linked to changes in the degree of PK phosphorylation. The purified PK-Pase gave a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 41 +/- 1 kdaltons. Isoelectric focusing analysis showed that the PK-Pase had an isoelectric point of 4.2 +/- 0.1. Kinetic analysis showed that the enzyme was a Type 2C protein phosphatase with a pH optimum of 6.5. Maximal activity required the presence of magnesium ions (KM = 7.9 +/- 0.6 microM) although high concentrations of Mg2+ were inhibitory (I50 = 2.3 +/- 0.4 mM). The protein phosphatase activity was not affected by either spermine, cAMP, cGMP, potassium phosphate, tartrate, NaF, HgCl2, citrate or concentrations of CaCl2 less than 10 mM. The enzyme could also use ATP, ADP, and GTP as substrates. PMID:8739044

  2. Identification, purification, and characterization of phosphotyrosine-specific protein phosphatases from cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrosine phosphorylation catalyzed by a unique class of protein kinases is an important process in both normal cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation. In this study, phosphoprotein phosphatases specific for the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine residues were partially purified from secondary chicken embryo fibroblasts, using 32P-labeled immunoglobulin G. The soluble activity was purified by using DEAE-cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose column chromatography and gel filtration, and at least three enzyme species of apparent Mr 55,000 (pTPI), 50,000 (pTPII), and 95,000 (pTPIII) were resolved. All three enzymes possessed somewhat similar properties. They had a pH optimum of about 7.4, they were inhibited by Zn2+, vanadate, ATP, and ADP, and they were unaffected by divalent metal cations, EDTA, and F- under standard assay conditions employing a physiological ionic strength. These properties suggest that they represent a class of enzymes distinct from well-known phosphoseryl-phosphothreonyl-protein phosphatases and that dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins may be carried out by a unique family of phosphoprotein phosphatases. Transformation by Rous sarcoma virus resulted in a small increase in phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activity

  3. Phosphatase activities in soil after repeated untreated and alum-treated poultry litter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeated additions of untreated and aluminum sulfate (alum)-treated poultry litter to soil affect ecology and consequent nutrient dynamics. The objective of this study was to determine how repeated annual poultry litter additions affected phosphatase activities in concert with changes in soil phosph...

  4. Reduced expression of PNUTS leads to activation of Rb-phosphatase and caspase-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Gabriel; Sherry, Tara C; Krucher, Nancy A

    2008-06-01

    There is abundant evidence that Retinoblastoma (Rb) activity is important in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reversible phosphorylation of the Rb protein that is carried out by cyclin dependent kinases and Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulates its functions. A PP1 interacting protein, PNUTS (Phosphatase Nuclear Targeting Subunit) is proposed to be a regulator of Rb phosphorylation. In this study, PNUTS knockdown in MCF7, SKA and HCT116 cancer cells causes a reduction in viability due to increased apoptosis. However, normal cells (MCF10A breast and CCD-18Co colon) do not exhibit reduced viability when PNUTS expression is diminished. PNUTS knockdown has no effect in Rb-null Saos-2 cells. However, when Rb is stably expressed in Saos-2 cells, PNUTS knockdown reduces cell number. Knockdown of PNUTS in p53-/- HCT116 cells indicates that p53 is dispensable for the induction of apoptosis. Loss of PNUTS expression results in increased Rb-phosphatase activity and Rb dephosphorylation. E2F1 dissociates from Rb in cells depleted of PNUTS and the resulting apoptosis is dependent on caspase-8. These results indicate that Rb phosphorylation state can be manipulated by targeting Rb phosphatase activity and suggest that PNUTS may be a potential target for therapeutic pro-apoptotic strategies. PMID:18360108

  5. Effect of andrographolide on phosphatases activity and cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura

    OpenAIRE

    Edwin, E.; P Vasantha-Srinivasan; A Thanigaivel; A Ponsankar; S Selin-Rani; K. Kalaivani; WB Hunter; Duraipandiyan, V; NA AlDhabi

    2016-01-01

    Andrographolide was isolated from ethanol extraction of Andrographis paniculata by column chromatography. Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy, enzymatic changes and cytotoxic activities against Spodoptera litura were conducted across a range of concentrations. The compound showed significant larvicidal activity between 5 - 25 ppm, post ingestion. Morphological deformities observed in larval-pupal stages. Enzymatic profiles were altered by reduction in acid phosphatase, ACP activity ...

  6. Purification and Characterization of Two Extracellular Alkaline Phosphatases from a Psychrophilic Arthrobacter Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Prada, P; Brenchley, J E

    1997-01-01

    Two extracellular, heat-labile alkaline phosphatases were purified from a psychrophilic Arthrobacter isolate, D10. The enzymes were active over different pH ranges, used distinct substrates, and had different kinetic properties. Each enzyme reacted specifically to its own antibody during immunoblot analysis. One had both monophosphatase and diesterase activities.

  7. Application of modern fluorescence techniques in studying growth, viability and phosphatase production of phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    RYCHTECKÝ, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the modern fluorescence techniques (PDMPO, SYTOX Green and FLEA) coupled with image cytometry were employed to study phytoplankton growth, viability and production of extracellular phosphatases. Seasonal studies at the Římov Reservoir and the Lipno Reservoir were conducted, as well as laboratory experiments.

  8. Latent phosphorylase phosphatases from rat liver: relationship with the heat-stable inhibitory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, M F; Hers, H G

    1981-08-01

    A high-speed supernatant from rat liver contains at least two latent phosphorylase phosphatases the activities of which are revealed by treatment with ethanol, urea, mercaptoethanol or trypsin. This fraction also contains at least one protein which, after heating, inhibits to various degrees the activated form(s) of the two phosphatases. The two latent enzymes can be separated by cellulase-phosphate chromatography and can be differentiated by their preferential activation by ethanol or trypsin and by their different sensitivity to the inhibitory protein after ethanol activation. Activation of the latent phosphorylase phosphatases by ethanol, urea or mercaptoethanol is not accompanied by the destruction of the precursor of the inhibitory protein whereas activation by trypsin is. However, trypsin treatment of fractions previously activated by ethanol decreases their activity and also increases their sensitivity to the inhibitory protein in a way which is unrelated to the destruction of this inhibitor. Furthermore, some protein fractions, almost free of the precursor of the inhibitory protein can be readily activated by trypsin. In is concluded that the activation of the latent phosphorylase phosphorylase phosphatases is unrelated to the destruction of the inhibitory protein. PMID:6269850

  9. ZN2+ INDUCES COX-2 EXPRESSION THROUGH DOWNREGULATION OF LIPID PHOSPHATASE PTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zn2+ Induces COX-2 Expression through Downregulation of Lipid Phosphatase PTEN Weidong Wu*, James M. Samet, Philip A. Bromberg*?, Young E. Whang?, and Lee M. Graves* ?*CEMALB, ?Department of Medicine, and ?Department of Pharmacology, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC27599; Human Studie...

  10. Ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Rhodnius prolixus salivary glands: modulation by carbohydrates and Trypanosoma rangeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Suzete A O; Fonseca de Souza, André L; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Dick, Claudia F; dos Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2008-05-01

    The salivary glands of insect's vectors are target organs to study the vectors-pathogens interactions. Rhodnius prolixus an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi can also transmit Trypanosoma rangeli by bite. In the present study we have investigated ecto-phosphatase activity on the surface of R. prolixus salivary glands. Ecto-phosphatases are able to hydrolyze phosphorylated substrates in the extracellular medium. We characterized these ecto-enzyme activities on the salivary glands external surface and employed it to investigate R. prolixus-T. rangeli interaction. Salivary glands present a low level of hydrolytic activity (4.30+/-0.35 nmol p-nitrophenol (p-NP)xh(-1)xgland pair(-1)). The salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity was not affected by pH variation; and it was insensitive to alkaline inhibitor levamisole and inhibited approximately 50% by inorganic phosphate (Pi). MgCl2, CaCl2 and SrCl2 enhanced significantly the ecto-phosphatase activity detected on the surface of salivary glands. The ecto-phosphatase from salivary glands surface efficiently releases phosphate groups from different phosphorylated amino acids, giving a higher rate of phosphate release when phospho-tyrosine is used as a substrate. This ecto-phosphatase activity was inhibited by carbohydrates as d-galactose and d-mannose. Living short epimastigotes of T. rangeli inhibited salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity at 75%, while boiled parasites did not. Living long epimastigote forms induced a lower, but significant inhibitory effect on the salivary glands phosphatase activity. Interestingly, boiled long epimastigote forms did not loose the ability to modulate salivary glands phosphatase activity. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role for ecto-phosphatase on the R. prolixus salivary glands-T. rangeli interaction. PMID:18407240

  11. Dual 4- and 5-phosphatase activities regulate SopB-dependent phosphoinositide dynamics to promote bacterial entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Heather L; Li, Menghan; Zhou, Daoguo

    2016-05-01

    Salmonella are able to invade non-phagocytic cells such as intestinal epithelial cells by modulating the host actin cytoskeleton to produce membrane ruffles. Two type III effector proteins SopB and SopE play key roles to this modulation. SopE is a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) capable of activating Rac1 and CDC42. SopB is a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase promoting membrane ruffles and invasion of Salmonella through undefined mechanisms. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 4-phosphatase activity of SopB is required for PtdIns-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) accumulation and SopB-mediated invasion. We show here that both the 4-phosphatase as well as the 5-phosphatase activities of SopB are essential in ruffle formation and subsequent invasion. We found that the 5-phosphatase activity of SopB is likely responsible for generating PtdIns-3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2 ) and subsequent recruitment of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), an actin modulating protein. Intriguingly, the 4-phosphatase activity is responsible for the dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 into PtdIns(3)P. Alone, neither activity is sufficient for ruffling but when acting in conjunction with one another, the 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activities led to SNX9-mediated ruffling and Salmonella invasion. This work reveals the unique ability of bacterial effector protein SopB to utilize both its 4- and 5-phosphatase activities to regulate phosphoinositide dynamics to promote bacterial entry. PMID:26537021

  12. DNS & Bind Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Cricket

    2011-01-01

    The DNS & BIND Cookbook presents solutions to the many problems faced by network administrators responsible for a name server. Following O'Reilly's popular problem-and-solution cookbook format, this title is an indispensable companion to DNS & BIND, 4th Edition, the definitive guide to the critical task of name server administration. The cookbook contains dozens of code recipes showing solutions to everyday problems, ranging from simple questions, like, "How do I get BIND?" to more advanced topics like providing name service for IPv6 addresses. It's full of BIND configuration files that yo

  13. Python bindings for libcloudph++

    CERN Document Server

    Jarecka, Dorota; Del Vento, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This technical note introduces the Python bindings for libcloudph++. The libcloudph++ is a C++ library of algorithms for representing atmospheric cloud microphysics in numerical models. The bindings expose the complete functionality of the library to the Python users. The bindings are implemented using the Boost.Python C++ library and use NumPy arrays. This note includes listings with Python scripts exemplifying the use of selected library components. An example solution for using the Python bindings to access libcloudph++ from Fortran is presented.

  14. Phylogenetic and genetic linkage between novel atypical dual-specificity phosphatases from non-metazoan organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Sacristán-Reviriego, Almudena; Beresford, Nicola J; Caparrós-Martín, José Antonio; Culiáñez-Macià, Francisco A; Martín, Humberto; Molina, María; Tabernero, Lydia; Pulido, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) constitute a large protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, with examples in distant evolutive phyla. PFA-DSPs (Plant and Fungi Atypical DSPs) are a group of atypical DSPs present in plants, fungi, kinetoplastids, and slime molds, the members of which share structural similarity with atypical- and lipid phosphatase DSPs from mammals. The analysis of the PFA-DSPs from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPFA-DSPs) showed differential tissue mRNA expression, substrate specificity, and catalytic activity for these proteins, suggesting different functional roles among plant PFA-DSPs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of novel PFA-DSP-related proteins in fungi (Oca1, Oca2, Oca4 and Oca6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and protozoa, which were segregated from plant PFA-DSPs. The closest yeast homolog for these proteins was the PFA-DSP from S. cerevisiae ScPFA-DSP1/Siw14/Oca3. Oca1, Oca2, Siw14/Oca3, Oca4, and Oca6 were involved in the yeast response to caffeine and rapamycin stresses. Siw14/Oca3 was an active phosphatase in vitro, whereas no phosphatase activity could be detected for Oca1. Remarkably, overexpression of Siw14/Oca3 suppressed the caffeine sensitivity of oca1, oca2, oca4, and oca6 deleted strains, indicating a genetic linkage and suggesting a functional relationship for these proteins. Functional studies on mutations targeting putative catalytic residues from the A. thaliana AtPFA-DSP1/At1g05000 protein indicated the absence of canonical amino acids acting as the general acid/base in the phosphor-ester hydrolysis, which suggests a specific mechanism of reaction for PFA-DSPs and related enzymes. Our studies demonstrate the existence of novel phosphatase protein families in fungi and protozoa, with active and inactive enzymes linked in common signaling pathways. This illustrates the catalytic and functional complexity of the expanding family of atypical dual-specificity phosphatases in non-metazoans, including

  15. Phosphatase activity in sandy soil influenced by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops may difffer in the way they affect rhizosphere microbiota nutrient dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops on soil phosphatase activity and its persistence in subsequent crops. A three-year experiment was carried out with a Typic Quartzipsamment. Treatments were winter species, either mycorrhizal black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb or the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. The control treatment consisted of resident vegetation (fallow in the winter season. In the summer, a mixture of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. with sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. or with soybean (Glycine max L. was sown in all plots. Soil cores (0-10 cm and root samples were collected in six growing seasons (winter and summer of each year. Microbial biomass P was determined by the fumigation-extraction method and phosphatase activity using p-nitrophenyl-phosphate as enzyme substrate. During the flowering stage of the winter cover crops, acid phosphatase activity was 30-35 % higher in soils with the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish, than in the control plots, regardless of the amount of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The values of enzyme activity were intermediate in the plots with corn spurry and black oat. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 10-fold lower and less sensitive to the treatments, despite the significant relationship between the two phosphatase activities. The effect of plant species on the soil enzyme profile continued in the subsequent periods, during the growth of mycorrhizal summer crops, after completion of the life cycle of the cover crops.

  16. Bacterial and plant HAD enzymes catalyse a missing phosphatase step in thiamin diphosphate biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Ghulam; Roje, Sanja; Sa, Na; Zallot, Rémi; Ziemak, Michael J; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D

    2016-01-15

    The penultimate step of thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) synthesis in plants and many bacteria is dephosphorylation of thiamin monophosphate (ThMP). Non-specific phosphatases have been thought to mediate this step and no genes encoding specific ThMP phosphatases (ThMPases) are known. Comparative genomic analysis uncovered bacterial haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) phosphatase family genes (from subfamilies IA and IB) that cluster on the chromosome with, or are fused to, thiamin synthesis genes and are thus candidates for the missing phosphatase (ThMPase). Three typical candidates (from Anaerotruncus colihominis, Dorea longicatena and Syntrophomonas wolfei) were shown to have efficient in vivo ThMPase activity by expressing them in an Escherichia coli strain engineered to require an active ThMPase for growth. In vitro assays confirmed that these candidates all preferred ThMP to any of 45 other phosphate ester substrates tested. An Arabidopsis thaliana ThMPase homologue (At4g29530) of unknown function whose expression pattern and compartmentation fit with a role in ThDP synthesis was shown to have in vivo ThMPase activity in E. coli and to prefer ThMP to any other substrate tested. However, insertional inactivation of the At4g29530 gene did not affect growth or the levels of thiamin or its phosphates, indicating that Arabidopsis has at least one other ThMPase gene. The Zea mays orthologue of At4g29530 (GRMZM2G035134) was also shown to have ThMPase activity. These data identify HAD genes specifying the elusive ThMPase activity, indicate that ThMPases are substrate-specific rather than general phosphatases and suggest that different evolutionary lineages have recruited ThMPases independently from different branches of the HAD family. PMID:26537753

  17. PTEN Protein Phosphatase Activity Correlates with Control of Gene Expression and Invasion, a Tumor-Suppressing Phenotype, But Not with AKT Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tibarewal, P; Zilidis, G; Spinelli, L.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has a well-characterized lipid phosphatase activity and a poorly characterized protein phosphatase activity. We show that both activities are required for PTEN to inhibit cellular invasion and to mediate most of its largest effects on gene expression. PTEN appears to dephosphorylate itself at threonine 366, and mutation of this site makes lipid phosphatase activity sufficient for PTEN to inhibit invasion. We p...

  18. Immunoelectron microscopic double labeling of alkaline phosphatase and penicillinase with colloidal gold in frozen thin sections of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C.

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, T; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, B K

    1985-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of alkaline phosphatase and penicillinase was determined by double labeling frozen thin sections of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C with colloidal gold-immunoglobulin G (IgG). Antipenicillinase and anti-alkaline phosphatase antibodies were used to prepare complexes with 5- and 15-nm colloidal gold particles, respectively. The character of the labeling of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase and penicillinase was different: the immunolabels for alkaline phosphatase (15...

  19. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P; Greenberg, D; Hannon, S J

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  20. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed

  1. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  2. Carboxyl-terminal receptor domains control the differential dephosphorylation of somatostatin receptors by protein phosphatase 1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lehmann

    Full Text Available We have recently identified protein phosphatase 1β (PP1β as G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR phosphatase for the sst2 somatostatin receptor using siRNA knockdown screening. By contrast, for the sst5 somatostatin receptor we identified protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ as GPCR phosphatase using the same approach. We have also shown that sst2 and sst5 receptors differ substantially in the temporal dynamics of their dephosphorylation and trafficking patterns. Whereas dephosphorylation and recycling of the sst2 receptor requires extended time periods of ∼30 min, dephosphorylation and recycling of the sst5 receptor is completed in less than 10 min. Here, we examined which receptor domains determine the selection of phosphatases for receptor dephosphorylation. We found that generation of tail-swap mutants between sst2 and sst5 was required and sufficient to reverse the patterns of dephosphorylation and trafficking of these two receptors. In fact, siRNA knockdown confirmed that the sst5 receptor carrying the sst2 tail is predominantly dephosphorylated by PP1β, whereas the sst2 receptor carrying the sst5 tail is predominantly dephosphorylated by PP1γ. Thus, the GPCR phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of individual somatostatin receptor subtypes is primarily determined by their different carboxyl-terminal receptor domains. This phosphatase specificity has in turn profound consequences for the dephosphorylation dynamics and trafficking patterns of GPCRs.

  3. Label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics with novel pairwise abundance normalization reveals synergistic RAS and CIP2A signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Kauko, O.; Laajala, T. D.; Jumppanen, M.; Hintsanen, P; Suni, V.; Haapaniemi, P.; Corthals, G.; Aittokallio, T.; Westermarck, J; Imanishi, S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactivated RAS drives progression of many human malignancies. However, oncogenic activity of RAS is dependent on simultaneous inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Although PP2A is known to regulate some of the RAS effector pathways, it has not been systematically assessed how these proteins functionally interact. Here we have analyzed phosphoproteomes regulated by either RAS or PP2A, by phosphopeptide enrichment followed by mass-spectrometry-based label-free quantificat...

  4. FIN13, a novel growth factor-inducible serine-threonine phosphatase which can inhibit cell cycle progression.

    OpenAIRE

    Guthridge, M A; Bellosta, P; Tavoloni, N; Basilico, C.

    1997-01-01

    We have identified a novel type 2C serine-threonine phosphatase, FIN13, whose expression is induced by fibroblast growth factor 4 and serum in late G1 phase. The protein encoded by FIN13 cDNA includes N- and C-terminal domains with significant homologies to type 2C phosphatases, a domain homologous to collagen, and an acidic domain. FIN13 expression predominates in proliferating tissues. Bacterially expressed FIN13 and FIN13 expressed in mammalian cells exhibit serine-threonine phosphatase ac...

  5. Interleukin 2 induces a transient downregulation of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A activity in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Nielsen, M; Dobson, P; Geisler, C; Röpke, C; Svejgaard, A; Odum, N

    Stimulation of human CD4+ T cell lines with interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphorylation of a series of proteins involved in the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling pathway. Here, we examined whether IL-2 induces changes in the activity of protein serine/threonine phosp......Stimulation of human CD4+ T cell lines with interleukin 2 (IL-2) induces tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphorylation of a series of proteins involved in the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling pathway. Here, we examined whether IL-2 induces changes in the activity of protein serine...... activity (p < 0.0005, n = 17) and a seven percent decrease in PP1 activity (p < 0.00005, n = 17). Cytokine-induced downregulation of PP2A activity reaches a maximum 60 min after IL-2R ligation, and returns to baseline levels within two hours. Downregulation of PPI activity reaches a maximum after 30 min...

  6. A Loss-of-Function Screen for Phosphatases that Regulate Neurite Outgrowth Identifies PTPN12 as a Negative Regulator of TrkB Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Malene; Dubreuil, Véronique; Miozzo, Federico; Nigon, Fabienne; Møller, Bente; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Berg, Jacob; Lees, Michael; Sap, Jan

    2013-01-01

    phosphatases belong to multiple independently evolved families, which are rarely studied together. We undertook a loss-of-function RNA-interference-based screen of virtually all known (254) human phosphatases to understand their function in BDNF/TrkB-mediated neurite outgrowth in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells...... outgrowth. They reveal the complexity of phosphatase control, with several evolutionarily unrelated phosphatase families cooperating to affect this biological response, and hence the relevance of considering all phosphatase families when mining for potentially druggable targets....

  7. Crystal structure of the karyopherin Kap121p bound to the extreme C-terminus of the protein phosphatase Cdc14p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Junya [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Hirano, Hidemi [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Matsuura, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: matsuura.yoshiyuki@d.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan); Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein phosphatase Cdc14p is an antagonist of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases and is a key regulator of late mitotic events such as chromosome segregation, spindle disassembly and cytokinesis. The activity of Cdc14p is controlled by cell-cycle dependent changes in its association with its competitive inhibitor Net1p (also known as Cfi1p) in the nucleolus. For most of the cell cycle up to metaphase, Cdc14p is sequestered in the nucleolus in an inactive state. During anaphase, Cdc14p is released from Net1p, spreads into the nucleus and cytoplasm, and dephosphorylates key mitotic targets. Although regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Cdc14p has been suggested to be important for exit from mitosis, the mechanism underlying Cdc14p nuclear trafficking remains poorly understood. Here we show that the C-terminal region (residues 517–551) of Cdc14p can function as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in vivo and also binds to Kap121p (also known as Pse1p), an essential nuclear import carrier in yeast, in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Moreover we report a crystal structure, at 2.4 Å resolution, of Kap121p bound to the C-terminal region of Cdc14p. The structure and structure-based mutational analyses suggest that either the last five residues at the extreme C-terminus of Cdc14p (residues 547–551; Gly-Ser-Ile-Lys-Lys) or adjacent residues with similar sequence (residues 540–544; Gly-Gly-Ile-Arg-Lys) can bind to the NLS-binding site of Kap121p, with two residues (Ile in the middle and Lys at the end of the five residues) of Cdc14p making key contributions to the binding specificity. Based on comparison with other structures of Kap121p-ligand complexes, we propose “IK-NLS” as an appropriate term to refer to the Kap121p-specific NLS. - Highlights: • The C-terminus of Cdc14p binds to Kap121p in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner. • The crystal structure of Kap121p-Cdc14p complex is determined. • The structure reveals how

  8. Crystal structure of the karyopherin Kap121p bound to the extreme C-terminus of the protein phosphatase Cdc14p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the protein phosphatase Cdc14p is an antagonist of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases and is a key regulator of late mitotic events such as chromosome segregation, spindle disassembly and cytokinesis. The activity of Cdc14p is controlled by cell-cycle dependent changes in its association with its competitive inhibitor Net1p (also known as Cfi1p) in the nucleolus. For most of the cell cycle up to metaphase, Cdc14p is sequestered in the nucleolus in an inactive state. During anaphase, Cdc14p is released from Net1p, spreads into the nucleus and cytoplasm, and dephosphorylates key mitotic targets. Although regulated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Cdc14p has been suggested to be important for exit from mitosis, the mechanism underlying Cdc14p nuclear trafficking remains poorly understood. Here we show that the C-terminal region (residues 517–551) of Cdc14p can function as a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in vivo and also binds to Kap121p (also known as Pse1p), an essential nuclear import carrier in yeast, in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner in vitro. Moreover we report a crystal structure, at 2.4 Å resolution, of Kap121p bound to the C-terminal region of Cdc14p. The structure and structure-based mutational analyses suggest that either the last five residues at the extreme C-terminus of Cdc14p (residues 547–551; Gly-Ser-Ile-Lys-Lys) or adjacent residues with similar sequence (residues 540–544; Gly-Gly-Ile-Arg-Lys) can bind to the NLS-binding site of Kap121p, with two residues (Ile in the middle and Lys at the end of the five residues) of Cdc14p making key contributions to the binding specificity. Based on comparison with other structures of Kap121p-ligand complexes, we propose “IK-NLS” as an appropriate term to refer to the Kap121p-specific NLS. - Highlights: • The C-terminus of Cdc14p binds to Kap121p in a Gsp1p-GTP-dependent manner. • The crystal structure of Kap121p-Cdc14p complex is determined. • The structure reveals how

  9. Tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 mediates the estrogen biological action in breast cancer via interaction with the estrogen extranuclear receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available The extranuclear estrogen receptor pathway opens up novel perspectives in many physiological and pathological processes, especially in breast carcinogenesis. However, its function and mechanisms are not fully understood. Herein we present data identifying Shp2, a SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase, as a critical component of extranuclear ER pathway in breast cancer. The research checked that the effect of Shp2 on the tumor formation and growth in animal model and investigated the regulation of Shp2 on the bio-effect and signaling transduction of estrogen in breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that Shp2 was highly expressed in more than 60% of total 151 breast cancer cases. The inhibition of Shp2 activity by PHPS1 (a Shp2 inhibitor delayed the development of dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced tumors in the rat mammary gland and also blocked tumor formation in MMTV-pyvt transgenic mice. Estradiol (E2 stimulated protein expression and phosphorylation of Shp2, and induced Shp2 binding to ERα and IGF-1R around the membrane to facilitate the phosphorylation of Erk and Akt in breast cancer cells MCF7. Shp2 was also involved in several biological effects of the extranuclear ER-initiated pathway in breast cancer cells. Specific inhibitors (phps1, phps4 and NSC87877 or small interference RNAs (siRNA of Shp2 remarkably suppressed E2-induced gene transcription (Cyclin D1 and trefoil factor 1 (TFF1, rapid DNA synthesis and late effects on cell growth. These results introduced a new mechanism for Shp2 oncogenic action and shed new light on extranuclear ER-initiated action in breast tumorigenesis by identifying a novel associated protein, Shp2, for extranuclear ER pathway, which might benefit the therapy of breast cancer.

  10. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhetskyy, A

    2008-01-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fourth chapter devoted to creation and optimization of conductometric biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase active microalgae and sol gel technology, the last chapter described application of the proposed algal biosensor for measurements of heavy metal ions toxicity of waste water, general conclusions stating the progresses achieved in the field of environmental monitoring

  11. Study on alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protective potential of diethyl barbituric acid sodium salt is studied, in comparison with that of acetazolamide, on kidneys under acute uranium intoxication. Experiments involved rats given intraperitoneal injections with uranyl acetate on 12 successive days up to a total dose of 0.5, 2.0 or 7.0 mg/kg. The resulting effects are measured by chemical assays of serum and urine for alkaline and acid phosphatase and histochemical assays for phosphatase activities in kidneys, kinetics being followed over a 30-day period after total dose administration. Protection of kidneys from toxic uranium effects was found to be of about the same degree with sodium diethyl barbiturate as with acetazolamide. (A.B.)

  12. Significance of bone specific alkaline phosphatase as a tumor marker in malignant bone tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between total alkaline phosphatase activity and bone forming lesion is a well known fact. But alkaline phosphatase consist mainly of two portion (liver, bone). To clarify the exact activity of bone forming tissue, quantitative measurement of BALP is essential. Two finds of tests were performed for their feasibility as a laboratory test (wheat germ lectin vs electrophoresis). We analyzed 40 bony lesion and got 58 samples. Lectin method was simple, economic, with reliable resproducability. Owing to the small number of test sample, we could not identify the relationship between the disease activity and measured BALP level. Further collection of clinical sample and analysis the pattern of BALP on each clinical settings. (author). 8 refs

  13. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, M. R.; Honkanen, R.; Ciszak, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    Serinehhreonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) affects many signaling networks that regulate cell growth and cellular responses to stress. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 A. From this structure we resolved the mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a con served Aspn-271-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His-427-His-304-Asp-274 catalytic motif. The structure of PPSc provides a structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  14. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human SER/THR Protein Phosphatase-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, M. R.; Honkanen, R.; Ciszak, E.

    2004-01-01

    Serinekhreonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) affects many signaling networks that regulate cell growth. Here we report the 1.6 Angstrom resolution crystal structure of PP5 catalytic domain with metal and phosphate ions in the active site. The structure reveals a mechanism for PPS-mediated catalysis that requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1),-M(sub 2)-His(sup 427)-W(sup 2)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif, and provides a structural basis for the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases placing them among the most powerful catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of PP5 should aid development of specific inhibitors.

  15. Acrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins, acid phosphatases and RN-ases from three potato varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kubicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on variety differences in the protein and acid phosphatase patterns as well as ribunuclease activity distribution were carried out by disc electrophoresis on saline extracts of three varieties of the potato Solanum tuberosum (L.. The protein bands varied in number, position and relative abundance. One main zone of the acid phosphatase activity was detected consisting of 2-3 electrophoretically different bands. Variety differences were concerned with the number and relative abundance of these bands. RNase activity was detected in 4 main zones, in some of them additional subbands were visible. Differences between the three examined varieties were reflected in the occurence of the particular activity zones or their subbands.

  16. The phosphatase domains of CD45 are required for ligand induced T-cell receptor downregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C;

    2000-01-01

    Down-regulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) plays an important role in modulating T-cell responses, both during T-cell development and in mature T cells. At least two distinct pathways exist for TCR down-regulation: down-regulation following TCR ligation; and down-regulation following activation...... of protein kinase C (PKC). Ligand-induced TCR down-regulation is dependent on protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity and seems to be closely related to T-cell activation. In addition, previous studies have indicated that ligand-induced TCR down-regulation is dependent on the expression of CD45, a...... transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase. The role of the different domains of CD45 in TCR down-regulation was investigated in this study. We found that the phosphatase domains of CD45 are required for efficient ligand-induced TCR down-regulation. In contrast, the extracellular domain of CD45 is dispensable...

  17. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  18. Genetic interaction network of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 1 phosphatase Glc7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neszt Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases and phosphatases regulate protein phosphorylation, a critical means of modulating protein function, stability and localization. The identification of functional networks for protein phosphatases has been slow due to their redundant nature and the lack of large-scale analyses. We hypothesized that a genome-scale analysis of genetic interactions using the Synthetic Genetic Array could reveal protein phosphatase functional networks. We apply this approach to the conserved type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7, which regulates numerous cellular processes in budding yeast. Results We created a novel glc7 catalytic mutant (glc7-E101Q. Phenotypic analysis indicates that this novel allele exhibits slow growth and defects in glucose metabolism but normal cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation. This suggests that glc7-E101Q is a hypomorphic glc7 mutant. Synthetic Genetic Array analysis of glc7-E101Q revealed a broad network of 245 synthetic sick/lethal interactions reflecting that many processes are required when Glc7 function is compromised such as histone modification, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, nutrient sensing and DNA damage. In addition, mitochondrial activity and inheritance and lipid metabolism were identified as new processes involved in buffering Glc7 function. An interaction network among 95 genes genetically interacting with GLC7 was constructed by integration of genetic and physical interaction data. The obtained network has a modular architecture, and the interconnection among the modules reflects the cooperation of the processes buffering Glc7 function. Conclusion We found 245 genes required for the normal growth of the glc7-E101Q mutant. Functional grouping of these genes and analysis of their physical and genetic interaction patterns bring new information on Glc7-regulated processes.

  19. Identification and characterization of a mammalian 14-kDa phosphohistidine phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Pia; Zetterqvist, Örjan; Li, Jin-Ping; Ek, Bo; Pettersson, Gunilla; Gong, Feng

    2002-01-01

    Protein histidine phosphorylation in eukaryotes has beensparsely studied compared to protein serine/threonine andtyrosine phosphorylation. In an attempt to rectify this byprobing porcine liver cytosol with the phosphohistidinecontainingpeptide succinyl-Ala-His(P)-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide(phosphopeptide I), we observed a phosphataseactivity that was insensitive towards okadaic acid andEDTA. This suggested the existence of a phosphohistidinephosphatase different from protein phosphatase 1, 2Aand ...

  20. Increased Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase Expression in Osteoblasts and Osteocytes in Experimental Osteoporosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Lene B.; Brorson, Sverre-Henning; Stordalen, Gunhild A.; Bækkevold, Espen S; Andersson, Göran; Reinholt, Finn P.

    2014-01-01

    Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is known as an osteoclast marker, but osteoblasts and osteocytes in the vicinity of bone remodeling sites also express TRAP. Cell culture studies suggest that osteoblasts endocytose osteoclastic TRAP for inactivation. To evaluate whether changes in osteoclast activity could alter TRAP expression in osteoblasts and/or osteocytes in vivo, we studied the ovariectomized and vitamin D-deficient rat (Ovx-D) and rats healing from rickets. Bone sections were...