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Sample records for binds histone h3

  1. Nucleosome Binding Alters the Substrate Bonding Environment of Histone H3 Lysine 36 Methyltransferase NSD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Myles B; Schneck, Jessica L; Matico, Rosalie E; Hou, Wangfang; McDevitt, Patrick J; Holbert, Marc; Schramm, Vern L

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein 2 (NSD2) is a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36)-specific methyltransferase enzyme that is overexpressed in a number of cancers, including multiple myeloma. NSD2 binds to S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) and nucleosome substrates to catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from SAM to the ε-amino group of histone H3K36. Equilibrium binding isotope effects and density functional theory calculations indicate that the SAM methyl group is sterically constrained in complex with NSD2, and that this steric constraint is released upon nucleosome binding. Together, these results show that nucleosome binding to NSD2 induces a significant change in the chemical environment of enzyme-bound SAM.

  2. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia; Hödl, Martina; Strandsby, Anne; González-Aguilera, Cristina; Chen, Shoudeng; Groth, Anja; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2015-08-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, chaperones histones H3-H4. Our first structure shows an H3-H4 tetramer bound by two MCM2 histone-binding domains (HBDs), which hijack interaction sites used by nucleosomal DNA. Our second structure reveals MCM2 and ASF1 cochaperoning an H3-H4 dimer. Mutational analyses show that the MCM2 HBD is required for MCM2-7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3-H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling histones genome wide during DNA replication.

  3. A unique binding mode enables MCM2 to chaperone histones H3-H4 at replication forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hongda; Strømme, Caroline B; Saredi, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    During DNA replication, chromatin is reassembled by recycling of modified old histones and deposition of new ones. How histone dynamics integrates with DNA replication to maintain genome and epigenome information remains unclear. Here, we reveal how human MCM2, part of the replicative helicase......, chaperones histones H3-H4. Our first structure shows an H3-H4 tetramer bound by two MCM2 histone-binding domains (HBDs), which hijack interaction sites used by nucleosomal DNA. Our second structure reveals MCM2 and ASF1 cochaperoning an H3-H4 dimer. Mutational analyses show that the MCM2 HBD is required...... for MCM2-7 histone-chaperone function and normal cell proliferation. Further, we show that MCM2 can chaperone both new and old canonical histones H3-H4 as well as H3.3 and CENPA variants. The unique histone-binding mode of MCM2 thus endows the replicative helicase with ideal properties for recycling...

  4. The SUVR4 histone lysine methyltransferase binds ubiquitin and converts H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 on transposon chromatin in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje V Veiseth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin structure and gene expression are regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs on the N-terminal tails of histones. Mono-, di-, or trimethylation of lysine residues by histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTases can have activating or repressive functions depending on the position and context of the modified lysine. In Arabidopsis, trimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3 is mainly associated with euchromatin and transcribed genes, although low levels of this mark are also detected at transposons and repeat sequences. Besides the evolutionarily conserved SET domain which is responsible for enzyme activity, most HKMTases also contain additional domains which enable them to respond to other PTMs or cellular signals. Here we show that the N-terminal WIYLD domain of the Arabidopsis SUVR4 HKMTase binds ubiquitin and that the SUVR4 product specificity shifts from di- to trimethylation in the presence of free ubiquitin, enabling conversion of H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunocytological analysis showed that SUVR4 in vivo specifically converts H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 at transposons and pseudogenes and has a locus-specific repressive effect on the expression of such elements. Bisulfite sequencing indicates that this repression involves both DNA methylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Transcribed genes with high endogenous levels of H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H2Bub1, but low H3K9me1, are generally unaffected by SUVR4 activity. Our results imply that SUVR4 is involved in the epigenetic defense mechanism by trimethylating H3K9 to suppress potentially harmful transposon activity.

  5. High Affinity Binding of Chp1 Chromodomain to K9 Methylated Histone H3 is Required to Establish Centromeric Hterochromatin

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    Schalch, T.; Job, G; Noffsinger, V; Shanker, S; Kuscu, C; Joshua-Tor, L; Partridge, J

    2009-01-01

    In fission yeast, assembly of centromeric heterochromatin requires the RITS complex, which consists of Ago1, Tas3, Chp1, and siRNAs derived from centromeric repeats. Recruitment of RITS to centromeres has been proposed to depend on siRNA-dependent targeting of Ago1 to centromeric sequences. Previously, we demonstrated that methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me) acts upstream of siRNAs during heterochromatin establishment. Our crystal structure of Chp1's chromodomain in complex with a trimethylated lysine 9 H3 peptide reveals extensive sites of contact that contribute to Chp1's high-affinity binding. We found that this high-affinity binding is critical for the efficient establishment of centromeric heterochromatin, but preassembled heterochromatin can be maintained when Chp1's affinity for H3K9me is greatly reduced.

  6. Distribution pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Histones are the major eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications on N-terminal tails of histones that form nucleosomes are often associated with distinct biological functions. Some theories suggest that one of these modifications, the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10ph) plays a role ...

  7. The Histone-H3K4-Specific Demethylase KDM5B Binds to Its Substrate and Product through Distinct PHD Fingers

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    Brianna J. Klein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The histone lysine demethylase KDM5B regulates gene transcription and cell differentiation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. It contains multiple conserved chromatin-associated domains, including three PHD fingers of unknown function. Here, we show that the first and third, but not the second, PHD fingers of KDM5B possess histone binding activities. The PHD1 finger is highly specific for unmodified histone H3 (H3K4me0, whereas the PHD3 finger shows preference for the trimethylated histone mark H3K4me3. RNA-seq analysis indicates that KDM5B functions as a transcriptional repressor for genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Biochemical analysis reveals that KDM5B associates with components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD complex and may cooperate with the histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 in gene repression. KDM5B is downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer relative to estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of KDM5B in the MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasion, and the PHD1-H3K4me0 interaction is essential for inhibiting migration. These findings highlight tumor-suppressive functions of KDM5B in triple-negative breast cancer cells and suggest a multivalent mechanism for KDM5B-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  8. High-affinity binding of Chp1 chromodomain to K9 methylated histone H3 is required to establish centromeric heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalch, Thomas; Job, Godwin; Noffsinger, Victoria J; Shanker, Sreenath; Kuscu, Canan; Joshua-Tor, Leemor; Partridge, Janet F

    2009-04-10

    In fission yeast, assembly of centromeric heterochromatin requires the RITS complex, which consists of Ago1, Tas3, Chp1, and siRNAs derived from centromeric repeats. Recruitment of RITS to centromeres has been proposed to depend on siRNA-dependent targeting of Ago1 to centromeric sequences. Previously, we demonstrated that methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me) acts upstream of siRNAs during heterochromatin establishment. Our crystal structure of Chp1's chromodomain in complex with a trimethylated lysine 9 H3 peptide reveals extensive sites of contact that contribute to Chp1's high-affinity binding. We found that this high-affinity binding is critical for the efficient establishment of centromeric heterochromatin, but preassembled heterochromatin can be maintained when Chp1's affinity for H3K9me is greatly reduced.

  9. Damaged DNA-binding protein down-regulates epigenetic mark H3K56Ac through histone deacetylase 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qianzheng; Battu, Aruna; Ray, Alo; Wani, Gulzar; Qian, Jiang; He, Jinshan; Wang, Qi-en [Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wani, Altaf A., E-mail: wani.2@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • HDAC1 and HDAC2 co-localize with UV radiation-induced DNA damage sites. • HDAC1 translocation to chromatin is dependent on DDB2 function. • HDAC1 and HDAC2 are involved in H3K56Ac deacetylation. • H3K56Ac deacetylation requires DDB1 and DDB2 but not XPA or XPC functions. • HDAC1/2 depletion decreases XPC ubiquitination and local γH2AX accumulation. - Abstract: Acetylated histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56Ac) is one of the reversible histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) responsive to DNA damage. We previously described a biphasic decrease and increase of epigenetic mark H3K56Ac in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage. Here, we report a new function of UV damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB) in deacetylation of H3K56Ac through specific histone deacetylases (HDACs). We show that simultaneous depletion of HDAC1/2 compromises the deacetylation of H3K56Ac, while depletion of HDAC1 or HDAC2 alone has no effect on H3K56Ac. The H3K56Ac deacetylation does not require functional nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors XPA and XPC, but depends on the function of upstream factors DDB1 and DDB2. UVR enhances the association of DDB2 with HDAC1 and, enforced DDB2 expression leads to translocation of HDAC1 to UVR-damaged chromatin. HDAC1 and HDAC2 are recruited to UVR-induced DNA damage spots, which are visualized by anti-XPC immunofluorescence. Dual HDAC1/2 depletion decreases XPC ubiquitination, but does not affect the recruitment of DDB2 to DNA damage. By contrast, the local accumulation of γH2AX at UVR-induced DNA damage spots was compromised upon HDAC1 as well as dual HDAC1/2 depletions. Additionally, UVR-induced ATM activation decreased in H12899 cells expressing H3K56Ac-mimicing H3K56Q. These results revealed a novel role of DDB in H3K56Ac deacetylation during early step of NER and the existence of active functional cross-talk between DDB-mediated damage recognition and H3K56Ac deacetylation.

  10. PHD finger of the SUMO ligase Siz/PIAS family in rice reveals specific binding for methylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and arginine 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Heisaburo; Suzuki, Rintaro; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Taichi, Misako; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    2012-06-21

    We determined the three-dimensional structure of the PHD finger of the rice Siz/PIAS-type SUMO ligase, OsSiz1, by NMR spectroscopy and investigated binding ability for a variety of methylated histone H3 tails, showing that OsSiz1-PHD primarily recognizes dimethylated Arg2 of the histone H3 and that methylations at Arg2 and Lys4 reveal synergy effect on binding to OsSiz1-PHD. The K4 cage of OsSiz1-PHD for trimethylated Lys4 of H3K4me3 was similar to that of the BPTF-PHD finger, while the R2 pocket for Arg2 was different. It is intriguing that the PHD module of Siz/PIAS plays an important role, with collaboration with the DNA binding domain SAP, in gene regulation through SUMOylation of a variety of effectors associated with the methylated arginine-riched chromatin domains. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DAXX envelops a histone H3.3-H4 dimer for H3.3-specific recognition

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    Elsässer, Simon J; Huang, Hongda; Lewis, Peter W; Chin, Jason W; Allis, C David; Patel, Dinshaw J [MSKCC; (Rockefeller); (MRC)

    2013-01-24

    Histone chaperones represent a structurally and functionally diverse family of histone-binding proteins that prevent promiscuous interactions of histones before their assembly into chromatin. DAXX is a metazoan histone chaperone specific to the evolutionarily conserved histone variant H3.3. Here we report the crystal structures of the DAXX histone-binding domain with a histone H3.3–H4 dimer, including mutants within DAXX and H3.3, together with in vitro and in vivo functional studies that elucidate the principles underlying H3.3 recognition specificity. Occupying 40% of the histone surface-accessible area, DAXX wraps around the H3.3–H4 dimer, with complex formation accompanied by structural transitions in the H3.3–H4 histone fold. DAXX uses an extended α-helical conformation to compete with major inter-histone, DNA and ASF1 interaction sites. Our structural studies identify recognition elements that read out H3.3-specific residues, and functional studies address the contributions of Gly90 in H3.3 and Glu225 in DAXX to chaperone-mediated H3.3 variant recognition specificity.

  12. Specific loss of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and HP1gamma/cohesin binding at D4Z4 repeats is associated with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD.

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    Weihua Zeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy in which no mutation of pathogenic gene(s has been identified. Instead, the disease is, in most cases, genetically linked to a contraction in the number of 3.3 kb D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4q. How contraction of the 4qter D4Z4 repeats causes muscular dystrophy is not understood. In addition, a smaller group of FSHD cases are not associated with D4Z4 repeat contraction (termed "phenotypic" FSHD, and their etiology remains undefined. We carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using D4Z4-specific PCR primers to examine the D4Z4 chromatin structure in normal and patient cells as well as in small interfering RNA (siRNA-treated cells. We found that SUV39H1-mediated H3K9 trimethylation at D4Z4 seen in normal cells is lost in FSHD. Furthermore, the loss of this histone modification occurs not only at the contracted 4q D4Z4 allele, but also at the genetically intact D4Z4 alleles on both chromosomes 4q and 10q, providing the first evidence that the genetic change (contraction of one 4qD4Z4 allele spreads its effect to other genomic regions. Importantly, this epigenetic change was also observed in the phenotypic FSHD cases with no D4Z4 contraction, but not in other types of muscular dystrophies tested. We found that HP1gamma and cohesin are co-recruited to D4Z4 in an H3K9me3-dependent and cell type-specific manner, which is disrupted in FSHD. The results indicate that cohesin plays an active role in HP1 recruitment and is involved in cell type-specific D4Z4 chromatin regulation. Taken together, we identified the loss of both histone H3K9 trimethylation and HP1gamma/cohesin binding at D4Z4 to be a faithful marker for the FSHD phenotype. Based on these results, we propose a new model in which the epigenetic change initiated at 4q D4Z4 spreads its effect to other genomic regions, which compromises muscle-specific gene regulation leading to FSHD pathogenesis.

  13. Biochemical Analysis Reveals the Multifactorial Mechanism of Histone H3 Clipping by Chicken Liver Histone H3 Protease

    KAUST Repository

    Chauhan, Sakshi

    2016-09-02

    Proteolytic clipping of histone H3 has been identified in many organisms. Despite several studies, the mechanism of clipping, the substrate specificity, and the significance of this poorly understood epigenetic mechanism are not clear. We have previously reported histone H3 specific proteolytic clipping and a protein inhibitor in chicken liver. However, the sites of clipping are still not known very well. In this study, we attempt to identify clipping sites in histone H3 and to determine the mechanism of inhibition by stefin B protein, a cysteine protease inhibitor. By employing site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical assays, we have identified three distinct clipping sites in recombinant human histone H3 and its variants (H3.1, H3.3, and H3t). However, post-translationally modified histones isolated from chicken liver and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type cells showed different clipping patterns. Clipping of histone H3 N-terminal tail at three sites occurs in a sequential manner. We have further observed that clipping sites are regulated by the structure of the N-terminal tail as well as the globular domain of histone H3. We also have identified the QVVAG region of stefin B protein to be very crucial for inhibition of the protease activity. Altogether, our comprehensive biochemical studies have revealed three distinct clipping sites in histone H3 and their regulation by the structure of histone H3, histone modifications marks, and stefin B.

  14. The PR-Set7 binding domain of Riz1 is required for the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail ‘histone code’ and Riz1 tumor suppressor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Lauren M.; Sims, Jennifer K.; Tuzon, Creighton T.; Rice, Judd C.

    2014-01-01

    PR-Set7/Set8/KMT5a is the sole histone H4 lysine 20 monomethyltransferase (H4K20me1) in metazoans and is essential for proper cell division and genomic stability. We unexpectedly discovered that normal cellular levels of monomethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me1) were also dependent on PR-Set7, but independent of its catalytic activity. This observation suggested that PR-Set7 interacts with an H3K9 monomethyltransferase to establish the previously reported H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail ‘histone code’. Here we show that PR-Set7 specifically and directly binds the C-terminus of the Riz1/PRDM2/KMT8 tumor suppressor and demonstrate that the N-terminal PR/SET domain of Riz1 preferentially monomethylates H3K9. The PR-Set7 binding domain was required for Riz1 nuclear localization and maintenance of the H4K20me1-H3K9me1 trans-tail ‘histone code’. Although Riz1 can function as a repressor, Riz1/H3K9me1 was dispensable for the repression of genes regulated by PR-Set7/H4K20me1. Frameshift mutations resulting in a truncated Riz1 incapable of binding PR-Set7 occur frequently in various aggressive cancers. In these cancer cells, expression of wild-type Riz1 restored tumor suppression by decreasing proliferation and increasing apoptosis. These phenotypes were not observed in cells expressing either the Riz1 PR/SET domain or PR-Set7 binding domain indicating that Riz1 methyltransferase activity and PR-Set7 binding domain are both essential for Riz1 tumor suppressor function. PMID:24423864

  15. The putative oncogene GASC1 demethylates tri- and dimethylated lysine 9 on histone H3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloos, Paul A C; Christensen, Jesper; Agger, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Methylation of lysine and arginine residues on histone tails affects chromatin structure and gene transcription. Tri- and dimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3/me2) is required for the binding of the repressive protein HP1 and is associated with heterochromatin formation...

  16. BRPF3-HBO1 regulates replication origin activation and histone H3K14 acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Yunpeng; Vlassis, Arsenios; Roques, Céline

    2016-01-01

    that specifically acetylates histone H3K14, and genomewide analysis shows high enrichment of BRPF3, HBO1 and H3K14ac at ORC1-binding sites and replication origins found in the vicinity of TSSs. Consistent with this, BRPF3 is necessary for H3K14ac at selected origins and efficient origin activation. CDC45...

  17. Structural basis for recognition of H3K56-acetylated histone H3-H4 by the chaperone Rtt106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dan; Hu, Qi; Li, Qing; Thompson, James R; Cui, Gaofeng; Fazly, Ahmed; Davies, Brian A; Botuyan, Maria Victoria; Zhang, Zhiguo; Mer, Georges [Mayo

    2013-04-08

    Dynamic variations in the structure of chromatin influence virtually all DNA-related processes in eukaryotes and are controlled in part by post-translational modifications of histones. One such modification, the acetylation of lysine 56 (H3K56ac) in the amino-terminal α-helix (αN) of histone H3, has been implicated in the regulation of nucleosome assembly during DNA replication and repair, and nucleosome disassembly during gene transcription. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the histone chaperone Rtt106 contributes to the deposition of newly synthesized H3K56ac-carrying H3-H4 complex on replicating DNA, but it is unclear how Rtt106 binds H3-H4 and specifically recognizes H3K56ac as there is no apparent acetylated lysine reader domain in Rtt106. Here, we show that two domains of Rtt106 are involved in a combinatorial recognition of H3-H4. An N-terminal domain homodimerizes and interacts with H3-H4 independently of acetylation while a double pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain binds the K56-containing region of H3. Affinity is markedly enhanced upon acetylation of K56, an effect that is probably due to increased conformational entropy of the αN helix of H3. Our data support a mode of interaction where the N-terminal homodimeric domain of Rtt106 intercalates between the two H3-H4 components of the (H3-H4)2 tetramer while two double PH domains in the Rtt106 dimer interact with each of the two H3K56ac sites in (H3-H4)2. We show that the Rtt106-(H3-H4)2 interaction is important for gene silencing and the DNA damage response.

  18. Low Proteolytic Clipping of Histone H3 in Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Basilio, Jorge; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio D.; Serafín-Higuera, Idanya; Leija-Montoya, Gabriela; Blanco-Morales, Magali; Sierra-Martínez, Monica; Ramos-Mondragon, Roberto; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3 clipping was performed by serine and aspartyl proteases in HeLa cells. These results suggest that histone H3 clipping operates as part of post-translational modification system in CC. PMID:27698925

  19. Esperanto for histones: CENP-A, not CenH3, is the centromeric histone H3 variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, W C; Allshire, R C; Black, B E; Bloom, K; Brinkley, B R; Brown, W; Cheeseman, I M; Choo, K H A; Copenhaver, G P; Deluca, J G; Desai, A; Diekmann, S; Erhardt, S; Fitzgerald-Hayes, M; Foltz, D; Fukagawa, T; Gassmann, R; Gerlich, D W; Glover, D M; Gorbsky, G J; Harrison, S C; Heun, P; Hirota, T; Jansen, L E T; Karpen, G; Kops, G J P L; Lampson, M A; Lens, S M; Losada, A; Luger, K; Maiato, H; Maddox, P S; Margolis, R L; Masumoto, H; McAinsh, A D; Mellone, B G; Meraldi, P; Musacchio, A; Oegema, K; O'Neill, R J; Salmon, E D; Scott, K C; Straight, A F; Stukenberg, P T; Sullivan, B A; Sullivan, K F; Sunkel, C E; Swedlow, J R; Walczak, C E; Warburton, P E; Westermann, S; Willard, H F; Wordeman, L; Yanagida, M; Yen, T J; Yoda, K; Cleveland, D W

    2013-04-01

    The first centromeric protein identified in any species was CENP-A, a divergent member of the histone H3 family that was recognised by autoantibodies from patients with scleroderma-spectrum disease. It has recently been suggested to rename this protein CenH3. Here, we argue that the original name should be maintained both because it is the basis of a long established nomenclature for centromere proteins and because it avoids confusion due to the presence of canonical histone H3 at centromeres.

  20. Phosphorylation of histone H3T6 by PKCbeta(I) controls demethylation at histone H3K4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eric; Imhof, Axel; Patel, Dharmeshkumar; Kahl, Philip; Hoffmeyer, Katrin; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Müller, Judith M; Greschik, Holger; Kirfel, Jutta; Ji, Sujuan; Kunowska, Natalia; Beisenherz-Huss, Christian; Günther, Thomas; Buettner, Reinhard; Schüle, Roland

    2010-04-01

    Demethylation at distinct lysine residues in histone H3 by lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) causes either gene repression or activation. As a component of co-repressor complexes, LSD1 contributes to target gene repression by removing mono- and dimethyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). In contrast, during androgen receptor (AR)-activated gene expression, LSD1 removes mono- and dimethyl marks from lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9). Yet, the mechanisms that control this dual specificity of demethylation are unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of histone H3 at threonine 6 (H3T6) by protein kinase C beta I (PKCbeta(I), also known as PRKCbeta) is the key event that prevents LSD1 from demethylating H3K4 during AR-dependent gene activation. In vitro, histone H3 peptides methylated at lysine 4 and phosphorylated at threonine 6 are no longer LSD1 substrates. In vivo, PKCbeta(I) co-localizes with AR and LSD1 on target gene promoters and phosphorylates H3T6 after androgen-induced gene expression. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of PKCbeta(I) abrogates H3T6 phosphorylation, enhances demethylation at H3K4, and inhibits AR-dependent transcription. Activation of PKCbeta(I) requires androgen-dependent recruitment of the gatekeeper kinase protein kinase C (PKC)-related kinase 1 (PRK1). Notably, increased levels of PKCbeta(I) and phosphorylated H3T6 (H3T6ph) positively correlate with high Gleason scores of prostate carcinomas, and inhibition of PKCbeta(I) blocks AR-induced tumour cell proliferation in vitro and cancer progression of tumour xenografts in vivo. Together, our data establish that androgen-dependent kinase signalling leads to the writing of the new chromatin mark H3T6ph, which in consequence prevents removal of active methyl marks from H3K4 during AR-stimulated gene expression.

  1. Cadmium Induces Histone H3 Lysine Methylation by Inhibiting Histone Demethylase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chunlian; Liu, Yin; Xie, Chengfeng; Tu, Wei; Xia, Yujie; Costa, Max; Zhou, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is an established human lung carcinogen with weak mutagenicity. However, the mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced carcinogenesis remain obscure. It has been suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in cadmium-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium on histone methylation and histone demethylases, and the role of histone methylation in transformation of immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Exposure to 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 μM of cadmium for 6, 24, and 48 h increased global trimethylated histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and dimethylated histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me2) in BEAS-2B cells compared with untreated cells, and most of these changes remained after the removal of cadmium (P cadmium inhibited the activities of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4) and histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylases which were detected by histone demethylation assay. However, there was no significant change in the protein levels of the H3K4 demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 5A (KDM5A) and the H3K9 demethylase lysine-specific demethylase 3A (KDM3A). Interestingly, during transformation of BEAS-2B cells by 20 weeks of exposure to 2.0 μM cadmium as assessed by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, global H3K4me3, and H3K9me2 were significantly increased at 4 weeks (P cadmium increases global H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 by inhibiting the activities of histone demethylases, and aberrant histone methylation that occurs early (48 h) and at 4 weeks is associated with cadmium-induced transformation of BEAS-2B cells at the early stage. PMID:25673502

  2. Characterization of a novel WDR5-binding site that recruits RbBP5 through a conserved motif to enhance methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 by mixed lineage leukemia protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odho, Zain; Southall, Stacey M; Wilson, Jon R

    2010-10-22

    Histone modification is well established as a fundamental mechanism driving the regulation of transcription, replication, and DNA repair through the control of chromatin structure. Likewise, it is apparent that incorrect targeting of histone modifications contributes to misregulated gene expression and hence to developmental disorders and diseases of genomic instability such as cancer. The KMT2 family of SET domain methyltransferases, typified by mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1), is responsible for histone H3 lysine 4 methylation, a marker of active genes. To ensure that this modification is correctly targeted, a multiprotein complex associates with the methyltransferase and directs activity. We have identified a novel interaction site on the core complex protein WD repeat protein-5 (WDR5), and we mapped the complementary site on its partner retinoblastoma-binding protein-5 (RbBP5). We have characterized this interaction by x-ray crystallography and show how it is fundamental to the assembly of the complex and to the regulation of methyltransferase activity. We show which region of RbBP5 contributes directly to mixed lineage leukemia activation, and we combine our structural and biochemical data to produce a model to show how WDR5 and RbBP5 act cooperatively to stimulate activity.

  3. CFP1 Regulates Histone H3K4 Trimethylation and Developmental Potential in Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine-4 (H3K4me3 is associated with eukaryotic gene promoters and poises their transcriptional activation during development. To examine the in vivo function of H3K4me3 in the absence of DNA replication, we deleted CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1, the DNA-binding subunit of the SETD1 histone H3K4 methyltransferase, in developing oocytes. We find that CFP1 is required for H3K4me3 accumulation and the deposition of histone variants onto chromatin during oocyte maturation. Decreased H3K4me3 in oocytes caused global downregulation of transcription activity. Oocytes lacking CFP1 failed to complete maturation and were unable to gain developmental competence after fertilization, due to defects in cytoplasmic lattice formation, meiotic division, and maternal-zygotic transition. Our study highlights the importance of H3K4me3 in continuous histone replacement for transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, and normal developmental progression in a non-replicative system.

  4. Modification of the histone tetramer at the H3-H3 interface impacts tetrasome conformations and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordu, Orkide; Kremser, Leopold; Lusser, Alexandra; Dekker, Nynke H.

    2018-03-01

    Nucleosomes consisting of a short piece of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins form the fundamental unit of chromatin in eukaryotes. Their role in DNA compaction comes with regulatory functions that impact essential genomic processes such as replication, transcription, and repair. The assembly of nucleosomes obeys a precise pathway in which tetramers of histones H3 and H4 bind to the DNA first to form tetrasomes, and two dimers of histones H2A and H2B are subsequently incorporated to complete the complex. As viable intermediates, we previously showed that tetrasomes can spontaneously flip between a left-handed and right-handed conformation of DNA-wrapping. To pinpoint the underlying mechanism, here we investigated the role of the H3-H3 interface for tetramer flexibility in the flipping process at the single-molecule level. Using freely orbiting magnetic tweezers, we studied the assembly and structural dynamics of individual tetrasomes modified at the cysteines close to this interaction interface by iodoacetamide (IA) in real time. While such modification did not affect the structural properties of the tetrasomes, it caused a 3-fold change in their flipping kinetics. The results indicate that the IA-modification enhances the conformational plasticity of tetrasomes. Our findings suggest that subnucleosomal dynamics may be employed by chromatin as an intrinsic and adjustable mechanism to regulate DNA supercoiling.

  5. Hinge and chromoshadow of HP1α participate in recognition of K9 methylated histone H3 in nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Yuichi; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawakami, Toru; Jayasinghe, Chanika D; Otani, Junji; Kikugawa, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Osamu; Aimoto, Saburo; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2013-01-09

    The majority of the genome in eukaryotes is packaged into transcriptionally inactive chromatin. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a major player in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. HP1 specifically recognizes a methylated lysine residue at position 9 in histone H3 through its N-terminal chromo domain (CD). To elucidate the binding properties of HP1α to nucleosomes in vitro, we reconstituted nucleosomes containing histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9. HP1α exhibited high-affinity binding to nucleosomes containing methylated histone H3 in a nucleosome core-number-dependent manner. The hinge region (HR) connecting the CD and C-terminal chromoshadow domain (CSD), and the CSD contributed to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 with trimethylated lysine 9 through weak DNA binding and by suppressing the DNA binding, respectively. We propose that not only the specific recognition of lysine 9 methylation of histone H3 by the CD but also the HR and the CSD cooperatively contribute to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 lysine 9 methylated nucleosomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. K4, K9 and K18 in human histone H3 are targets for biotinylation by biotinidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Keyna; Camporeale, Gabriela; Rueckert, Brian; Kueh, Alice; Griffin, Jacob B; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2005-08-01

    Histones are modified post-translationally, e.g. by methylation of lysine and arginine residues, and by phosphorylation of serine residues. These modifications regulate processes such as gene expression, DNA repair, and mitosis and meiosis. Recently, evidence has been provided that histones are also modified by covalent binding of the vitamin biotin. The aims of this study were to identify biotinylation sites in histone H3, and to investigate the crosstalk among histone biotinylation, methylation and phosphorylation. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence of human histone H3 were used as substrates for enzymatic biotinylation by biotinidase; biotin in peptides was probed using streptavidin peroxidase. These studies provided evidence that K4, K9 and K18 in histone H3 are good targets for biotinylation; K14 and K23 are relatively poor targets. Antibodies were generated to histone H3, biotinylated either at K4, K9 or K18. These antibodies localized to nuclei in human placental cells in immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting experiments, suggesting that lysines in histone H3 are biotinylated in vivo. Dimethylation of R2, R8 and R17 increased biotinylation of K4, K9 and K18, respectively, by biotinidase; phosphorylation of S10 abolished biotinylation of K9. These observations are consistent with crosstalk between biotinylation of histones and other known modifications of histones. We speculate that this crosstalk provides a link to known roles for biotin in gene expression and cell proliferation.

  7. A jumonji (Jarid2) protein complex represses cyclin D1 expression by methylation of histone H3-K9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Haruki; Ogawa, Satoko; Nakajima, Kuniko; Inagawa, Masayo; Kojima, Mizuyo; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2009-01-09

    Covalent modifications of histone tails have critical roles in regulating gene expression. Previously, we identified the jumonji (jmj, Jarid2) gene, the jmjC domain, and a Jmj family. Recently, many Jmj family proteins have been shown to be histone demethylases, and jmjC is the catalytic domain. However, Jmj does not have histone demethylase activity because the jmjC domain lacks conserved residues for binding to cofactors. Independently of these studies, we previously showed that Jmj binds to the cyclin D1 promoter and represses the transcription of cyclin D1. Here, we show the mechanisms by which Jmj represses the transcription of cyclin D1. We found that a protein complex of Jmj had histone methyltransferase activity toward histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9). We also found that Jmj bound to the H3-K9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP. Expression of Jmj recruited G9a and GLP to the cyclin D1 promoter and increased H3-K9 methylation. Inactivation of both G9a and GLP, but not of only G9a, inhibited the methylation of H3-K9 in the cyclin D1 promoter and repression of cyclin D1 expression by Jmj. These results suggest that Jmj methylates H3-K9 and represses cyclin D1 expression through G9a and GLP, and that Jmj family proteins can regulate gene expression by not only histone demethylation but also other histone modification.

  8. Histone H3 Methylated at Arginine 17 Is Essential for Reprogramming the Paternal Genome in Zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hatanaka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At fertilization, the paternal genome undergoes extensive reprogramming through protamine-histone exchange and active DNA demethylation, but only a few maternal factors have been defined in these processes. We identified maternal Mettl23 as a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT, which most likely catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3R17 (H3R17me2a, as indicated by in vitro assays and treatment with TBBD, an H3R17 PRMT inhibitor. Maternal histone H3.3, which is essential for paternal nucleosomal assembly, is unable to be incorporated into the male pronucleus when it lacks R17me2a. Mettl23 interacts with Tet3, a 5mC-oxidizing enzyme responsible for active DNA demethylation, by binding to another maternal factor, GSE (gonad-specific expression. Depletion of Mettl23 from oocytes resulted in impaired accumulation of GSE, Tet3, and 5hmC in the male pronucleus, suggesting that Mettl23 may recruit GSE-Tet3 to chromatin. Our findings establish H3R17me2a and its catalyzing enzyme Mettl23 as key regulators of paternal genome reprogramming.

  9. Histone H3 Acetyl K9 and Histone H3 Tri Methyl K4 as Prognostic Markers for Patients with Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Susanne; Zhu, Junyan; Mayr, Doris; Kuhn, Christina; Schulze, Sandra; Hofmann, Simone; Dannecker, Christian; Jeschke, Udo; Kost, Bernd P

    2017-02-23

    Chromatin remodeling alters gene expression in carcinoma tissue. Although cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, a systematic study about the prognostic value of specific changes in the chromatin structure, such as histone acetylation or histone methylation, is missing. In this study, the expression of histone H3 acetyl K9, which is known to denote active regions at enhancers and promoters, and histone H3 tri methyl K4, which preferentially identifies active gene promoters, were examined as both show high metastatic potential. A panel of patients with cervical cancer was selected and the importance of the histone modifications concerning survival-time (overall survival and relapse-free survival) was analyzed in 250 cases. Histone H3 acetyl K9 staining was correlated with low grading, low FIGO (TNM classification and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) status, negative N-status and low T-status in cervical cancer, showing a higher expression in adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic expression of histone H3 tri methyl K4 in a cervical cancer specimen was correlated with advanced T-status and poor prognosis. While cytoplasmic H3K4me3 expression seemed to be a marker of relapse-free survival, nuclear expression showed a correlation to poor prognosis in overall survival. Within this study, we analyzed the chemical modification of two histone proteins that are connected to active gene expression. Histone H3 acetyl K9 was found to be an independent marker of overall survival. Histone H3 tri methyl K4 was correlated with poor prognosis and it was found to be an independent marker of relapse-free survival. Therefore, we could show that chromatin remodeling plays an important role in cervical cancer biology.

  10. Histone H3 Acetyl K9 and Histone H3 Tri Methyl K4 as Prognostic Markers for Patients with Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Beyer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin remodeling alters gene expression in carcinoma tissue. Although cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, a systematic study about the prognostic value of specific changes in the chromatin structure, such as histone acetylation or histone methylation, is missing. In this study, the expression of histone H3 acetyl K9, which is known to denote active regions at enhancers and promoters, and histone H3 tri methyl K4, which preferentially identifies active gene promoters, were examined as both show high metastatic potential. A panel of patients with cervical cancer was selected and the importance of the histone modifications concerning survival-time (overall survival and relapse-free survival was analyzed in 250 cases. Histone H3 acetyl K9 staining was correlated with low grading, low FIGO (TNM classification and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics status, negative N-status and low T-status in cervical cancer, showing a higher expression in adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic expression of histone H3 tri methyl K4 in a cervical cancer specimen was correlated with advanced T-status and poor prognosis. While cytoplasmic H3K4me3 expression seemed to be a marker of relapse-free survival, nuclear expression showed a correlation to poor prognosis in overall survival. Within this study, we analyzed the chemical modification of two histone proteins that are connected to active gene expression. Histone H3 acetyl K9 was found to be an independent marker of overall survival. Histone H3 tri methyl K4 was correlated with poor prognosis and it was found to be an independent marker of relapse-free survival. Therefore, we could show that chromatin remodeling plays an important role in cervical cancer biology.

  11. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Wang, Zhentian; Ma, Honghui; Hu, Lulu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yan; Guo, Rui; Wu, Feizhen; Li, Haitao; Lan, Fei; Shi, Yujiang Geno; Xu, Yanhui; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Shi, Yang (MSKCC); (Constellation); (Fudan); (Tsinghua)

    2011-08-29

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  12. PHD Finger Recognition of Unmodified Histone H3R2 Links UHRF1 to Regulation of Euchromatic Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Rajakumara; Z Wang; H Ma; L Hu; H Chen; Y Lin; R Guo; F Wu; H Li; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Histone methylation occurs on both lysine and arginine residues, and its dynamic regulation plays a critical role in chromatin biology. Here we identify the UHRF1 PHD finger (PHD{sub UHRF1}), an important regulator of DNA CpG methylation, as a histone H3 unmodified arginine 2 (H3R2) recognition modality. This conclusion is based on binding studies and cocrystal structures of PHD{sub UHRF1} bound to histone H3 peptides, where the guanidinium group of unmodified R2 forms an extensive intermolecular hydrogen bond network, with methylation of H3R2, but not H3K4 or H3K9, disrupting complex formation. We have identified direct target genes of UHRF1 from microarray and ChIP studies. Importantly, we show that UHRF1's ability to repress its direct target gene expression is dependent on PHD{sub UHRF1} binding to unmodified H3R2, thereby demonstrating the functional importance of this recognition event and supporting the potential for crosstalk between histone arginine methylation and UHRF1 function.

  13. Structure-based nuclear import mechanism of histones H3 and H4 mediated by Kap123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sojin [Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan, United States; Yoon, Jungmin [Structural Biology Laboratory of Epigenetics, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate school of Nanoscience and Technology (World Class University), KI for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea; Kim, Hanseong [Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan, United States; Song, Ji-Joon [Structural Biology Laboratory of Epigenetics, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate school of Nanoscience and Technology (World Class University), KI for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea; Cho, Uhn-soo [Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan, United States

    2017-10-16

    Kap123, a major karyopherin protein of budding yeast, recognizes the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of cytoplasmic histones H3 and H4 and translocates them into the nucleus during DNA replication. Mechanistic questions include H3- and H4-NLS redundancy toward Kap123 and the role of the conserved diacetylation of cytoplasmic H4 (K5ac and K12ac) in Kap123-mediated histone nuclear translocation. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length Kluyveromyces lactis Kap123 alone and in complex with H3- and H4-NLSs. Structures reveal the unique feature of Kap123 that possesses two discrete lysine-binding pockets for NLS recognition. Structural comparison illustrates that H3- and H4-NLSs share at least one of two lysine-binding pockets, suggesting that H3- and H4-NLSs are mutually exclusive. Additionally, acetylation of key lysine residues at NLS, particularly H4-NLS diacetylation, weakens the interaction with Kap123. These data support that cytoplasmic histone H4 diacetylation weakens the Kap123-H4-NLS interaction thereby facilitating histone Kap123-H3-dependent H3:H4/Asf1 complex nuclear translocation.

  14. Histone H3 Lysine Methylation in Cognition and Intellectual Disability Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkel, Sven; Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P.; Barco, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Recent research indicates that epigenetic mechanisms and, in particular, the post-translational modification (PTM) of histones may contribute to memory encoding and storage. Among the dozens of possible histone PTMs, the methylation/demethylation of lysines in the N-terminal tail of histone H3 exhibits particularly strong links with cognitive…

  15. Apoptotic phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 by protein kinase Cδ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Ho Park

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 is regarded as an epigenetic mitotic marker and is tightly correlated with chromosome condensation during both mitosis and meiosis. However, it was also reported that histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation occurs when cells are exposed to various death stimuli, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of apoptosis. Here we report that histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation is mediated by the pro-apoptotic kinase protein kinase C (PKC δ during apoptosis. We observed that PKCδ robustly phosphorylates histone H3 on Ser-10 both in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of catalytically active PKCδ efficiently induces condensed chromatin structure in the nucleus. We also discovered that activation of PKCδ is required for histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation after treatment with DNA damaging agents during apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that PKCδ is the kinase responsible for histone H3 Ser-10 phosphoryation during apoptosis and thus contributes to chromatin condensation together with other apoptosis-related histone modifications. As a result, histone H3 Ser-10 phosphorylation can be designated a new 'apoptotic histone code' mediated by PKCδ.

  16. A cell cycle-regulated histone H3 gene of alfalfa with an atypical promoter structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A J; Kapros, T; Waterborg, J H

    1997-01-01

    The control of cell cycle expression of histone genes in plants is incompletely understood. A new histone H3 gene was cloned from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) that codes for the replication-dependent histone H3.1 variant protein. Despite lacking all promoter sequence motifs that have been associated with cell cycle-dependent histone gene expression in plants, northern analysis of synchronized cells clearly linked gene expression to DNA replication. TTAATNA was recognized as a new sequence element in the 3' untranslated regions of this and all other cell cycle-dependent histone H3 genes of dicotyledonous plants. It is not found in the replication-independent histone H3 genes.

  17. Drosophila Kismet regulates histone H3 lysine 27 methylation and early elongation by RNA polymerase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrividhya Srinivasan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb and trithorax group proteins regulate cellular pluripotency and differentiation by maintaining hereditable states of transcription. Many Polycomb and trithorax group proteins have been implicated in the covalent modification or remodeling of chromatin, but how they interact with each other and the general transcription machinery to regulate transcription is not well understood. The trithorax group protein Kismet-L (KIS-L is a member of the CHD subfamily of chromatin-remodeling factors that plays a global role in transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II. Mutations in CHD7, the human counterpart of kis, are associated with CHARGE syndrome, a developmental disorder affecting multiple tissues and organs. To clarify how KIS-L activates gene expression and counteracts Polycomb group silencing, we characterized defects resulting from the loss of KIS-L function in Drosophila. These studies revealed that KIS-L acts downstream of P-TEFb recruitment to stimulate elongation by Pol II. The presence of two chromodomains in KIS-L suggested that its recruitment or function might be regulated by the methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 by the trithorax group proteins ASH1 and TRX. Although we observed significant overlap between the distributions of KIS-L, ASH1, and TRX on polytene chromosomes, KIS-L did not bind methylated histone tails in vitro, and loss of TRX or ASH1 function did not alter the association of KIS-L with chromatin. By contrast, loss of kis function led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of TRX and ASH1 associated with chromatin and was accompanied by increased histone H3 lysine 27 methylation-a modification required for Polycomb group repression. A similar increase in H3 lysine 27 methylation was observed in ash1 and trx mutant larvae. Our findings suggest that KIS-L promotes early elongation and counteracts Polycomb group repression by recruiting the ASH1 and TRX histone methyltransferases to chromatin.

  18. Accumulation of histone variant H3.3 with age is associated with profound changes in the histone methylation landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvardovskiy, Andrey; Schwämmle, Veit; Kempf, Stefan J

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of replication-independent histone variant H3.3 into chromatin is essential for many biological processes, including development and reproduction. Unlike replication-dependent H3.1/2 isoforms, H3.3 is expressed throughout the cell cycle and becomes enriched in postmitotic cells with age...

  19. Identification of three highly expressed replacement histone H3 genes of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A J; Kapros, T; Dudits, D; Waterborg, J H

    1996-01-01

    One genomic and six cDNA clones for the replacement histone H3.2 protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were isolated and sequenced. By gene organization they represent 3 distinct genes. PCR methods were used to confirm that only three intron-bearing histone H3.2 genes of this type exist per haploid genome. They co-exist with approximately 56 copies of the previously characterized replication-dependent, intronless histone H3.1 variant gene. Comparison of the relative expression of few constitutive H3.2 genes with the high S phase expression of the abundant cell cycle-dependent H3.1 genes by mRNA levels and protein synthesis measurements revealed that the replacement histone H3.2 genes are very highly expressed. Structural analysis of the genomic replacement H3.2 gene revealed a unique feature. A repeated polypyrimidine sequence motif in the 5' untranslated region of this gene replaces the ubiquitous intron present in all known replacement H3 genes. A hypothesis is presented that this motif and other, non-randomly distributed polypyrimidine sequences in the introns of replacement histone H3 genes of alfalfa and Arabidopsis, may affect nucleosome assembly. Chromatin repression of these replacement genes would be avoided, consistent with the high, constitutive expression of replacement H3 histone genes in plants.

  20. histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric chromatin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    Seishin ..... specific fashion. Simultaneously, Salvador et al. (2001) sug- gested that both H3S10ph and H3K14ac together medi- ate transcriptional activation of mammalian genes in ovary differentiation. Further, in case of ...

  1. Quantitative Histone Mass Spectrometry Identifies Elevated Histone H3 Lysine 27 (Lys27) Trimethylation in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Deepanwita; Byrum, Stephanie D; Avaritt, Nathan L; Davis, Lauren; Shields, Bradley; Mahmoud, Fade; Reynolds, Matthew; Orr, Lisa M; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Shalin, Sara C; Tackett, Alan J

    2016-03-01

    Normal cell growth is characterized by a regulated epigenetic program that drives cellular activities such as gene transcription, DNA replication, and DNA damage repair. Perturbation of this epigenetic program can lead to events such as mis-regulation of gene transcription and diseases such as cancer. To begin to understand the epigenetic program correlated to the development of melanoma, we performed a novel quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of histone post-translational modifications mis-regulated in melanoma cell culture as well as patient tumors. Aggressive melanoma cell lines as well as metastatic melanoma were found to have elevated histone H3 Lys(27) trimethylation (H3K27me3) accompanied by overexpressed methyltransferase EZH2 that adds the specific modification. The altered epigenetic program that led to elevated H3K27me3 in melanoma cell culture was found to directly silence transcription of the tumor suppressor genes RUNX3 and E-cadherin. The EZH2-mediated silencing of RUNX3 and E-cadherin transcription was also validated in advanced stage human melanoma tissues. This is the first study focusing on the detailed epigenetic mechanisms leading to EZH2-mediated silencing of RUNX3 and E-cadherin tumor suppressors in melanoma. This study underscores the utility of using high resolution mass spectrometry to identify mis-regulated epigenetic programs in diseases such as cancer, which could ultimately lead to the identification of biological markers for diagnostic and prognostic applications. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on rat thymus arginine-rich H3 histone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, M.S.; Narasimhan, Saroja; Sreenivasan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of rat thymus H3 histone have been studied following gamma radiation (25-90 krad) in 0.2 N HCl. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern (PGE) of H3 histone indicated that aggregates were formed in the histone fraction following gamma irradiation. The PGE pattern of the irradiated-histone fraction remained unaltered even after it was treated with 8.0 M urea to eliminate noncovalent bonding. On the other hand, the irradiated sample treated with β-mercaptoethanol exhibited the PGE pattern which was essentially similar to that of unirradiated sample. These results indicate that the aggregates seen in the PGE pattern of irradiated-H3 histone may be formed through interpolypeptide chain disulphide linkeges rather than by noncovalent bonding. This contention is also supported by the fact that irradiated-H3 histone exhibited hyperchromic shift at 240-250 nm region as well as increased disulphide content. Other results revealed that DNA-dependent RNA synthesis in vitro was inhibited to a greater extent by irradiated-H3 histone than by unirradiated-H3 histone. (author)

  3. A histone H3K9M mutation traps histone methyltransferase Clr4 to prevent heterochromatin spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Chun-Min; Wang, Jiyong; Xu, Ke; Chen, Huijie; Yue, Jia-Xing; Andrews, Stuart; Moresco, James J.; Yates, John R.; Nagy, Peter L.; Tong, Liang; Jia, Songtao

    2016-09-20

    Histone lysine-to-methionine (K-to-M) mutations are associated with multiple cancers, and they function in a dominant fashion to block the methylation of corresponding lysines on wild type histones. However, their mechanisms of function are controversial. Here we show that in fission yeast, introducing the K9M mutation into one of the three histone H3 genes dominantly blocks H3K9 methylation on wild type H3 across the genome. In addition, H3K9M enhances the interaction of histone H3 tail with the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4 in a SAM (S-adenosyl-methionine)-dependent manner, and Clr4 is trapped at nucleation sites to prevent its spreading and the formation of large heterochromatin domains. We further determined the crystal structure of an H3K9M peptide in complex with human H3K9 methyltransferase G9a and SAM, which reveales that the methionine side chain had enhanced van der Waals interactions with G9a. Therefore, our results provide a detailed mechanism by which H3K9M regulates H3K9 methylation.

  4. acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epigenetic regulatory posttranslational histone modification marks not only function individually but also capable to act in combination as a unique pattern. A total of 16 plant species belonging to 11 genera of eight families (five dicots and threemonocots) including land plants, epiphytes (orchids) and the holokinetic taxa ...

  5. histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric chromatin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANTOSH KUMAR SHARMA

    2Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Kansai University of Welfare Sciences, Kashiwara, Osaka 582-0026, Japan. Abstract. Epigenetic regulatory posttranslational histone modification marks not only function individually but also capable to act in combination as a unique pattern. A total of 16 plant species belonging to 11 ...

  6. Holocarboxylase synthetase is a chromatin protein and interacts directly with histone H3 to mediate biotinylation of K9 and K18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Baolong; Pestinger, Valerie; Hassan, Yousef I; Borgstahl, Gloria E O; Kolar, Carol; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-05-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) mediates the binding of biotin to lysine (K) residues in histones H2A, H3 and H4; HCS knockdown disturbs gene regulation and decreases stress resistance and lifespan in eukaryotes. We tested the hypothesis that HCS interacts physically with histone H3 for subsequent biotinylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were conducted and provided evidence that HCS co-localizes with histone H3 in human cells; physical interactions between HCS and H3 were confirmed using limited proteolysis assays. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) studies revealed that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains in HCS participate in H3 binding. Recombinant human HCS was produced and exhibited biological activity, as evidenced by biotinylation of its known substrate, recombinant p67. Recombinant histone H3.2 and synthetic H3-based peptides were also good targets for biotinylation by recombinant HCS (rHCS) in vitro, based on tracing histone-bound biotin with [(3)H]biotin, streptavidin and anti-biotin antibody. Biotinylation site-specific antibodies were generated and revealed that both K9 and K18 in H3 were biotinylated by HCS. Collectively, these studies provide conclusive evidence that HCS interacts directly with histone H3, causing biotinylation of K9 and K18. We speculate that the targeting of HCS to distinct regions in human chromatin is mediated by DNA sequence, biotin, RNA, epigenetic marks or chromatin proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Somatic mutations of the histone H3K27 demethylase, UTX, in human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, Gijs; Dalgliesh, Gillian L; Davies, Helen; Chen, Lina; Bignell, Graham; Greenman, Chris; Edkins, Sarah; Hardy, Claire; O’Meara, Sarah; Teague, Jon; Butler, Adam; Hinton, Jonathan; Latimer, Calli; Andrews, Jenny; Barthorpe, Syd; Beare, Dave; Buck, Gemma; Campbell, Peter J; Cole, Jennifer; Dunmore, Rebecca; Forbes, Simon; Jia, Mingming; Jones, David; Kok, Chai Yin; Leroy, Catherine; Lin, Meng-Lay; McBride, David J; Maddison, Mark; Maquire, Simon; McLay, Kirsten; Menzies, Andrew; Mironenko, Tatiana; Lee, Mulderrig; Mudie, Laura; Pleasance, Erin; Shepherd, Rebecca; Smith, Raffaella; Stebbings, Lucy; Stephens, Philip; Tang, Gurpreet; Tarpey, Patrick S; Turner, Rachel; Turrell, Kelly; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Wray, Paul; Collins, V Peter; Ichimura, Koichi; Law, Simon; Wong, John; Yuen, Siu Tsan; Leung, Suet Yi; Tonon, Giovanni; DePinho, Ronald A; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C; Kahnoski, Richard J.; Massie, Aaron; Khoo, Sok Kean; Teh, Bin Tean; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Somatically acquired epigenetic changes are present in many cancers. Epigenetic regulation is maintained via post-translational modifications of core histones. Here, we describe inactivating somatic mutations in the histone lysine demethylase, UTX, pointing to histone H3 lysine methylation deregulation in multiple tumour types. UTX reintroduction into cancer cells with inactivating UTX mutations resulted in slowing of proliferation and marked transcriptional changes. These data identify UTX as a new human cancer gene. PMID:19330029

  8. GmPHD5 acts as an important regulator for crosstalk between histone H3K4 di-methylation and H3K14 acetylation in response to salinity stress in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence suggest that specific patterns of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs and their crosstalks may determine transcriptional outcomes. However, the regulatory mechanisms of these "histone codes" in plants remain largely unknown. Results In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a salinity stress inducible PHD (plant homeodomain finger domain containing protein GmPHD5 can read the "histone code" underlying the methylated H3K4. GmPHD5 interacts with other DNA binding proteins, including GmGNAT1 (an acetyl transferase, GmElongin A (a transcription elongation factor and GmISWI (a chromatin remodeling protein. Our results suggest that GmPHD5 can recognize specific histone methylated H3K4, with preference to di-methylated H3K4. Here, we illustrate that the interaction between GmPHD5 and GmGNAT1 is regulated by the self-acetylation of GmGNAT1, which can also acetylate histone H3. GmGNAT1 exhibits a preference toward acetylated histone H3K14. These results suggest a histone crosstalk between methylated H3K4 and acetylated H3K14. Consistent to its putative roles in gene regulation under salinity stress, we showed that GmPHD5 can bind to the promoters of some confirmed salinity inducible genes in soybean. Conclusion Here, we propose a model suggesting that the nuclear protein GmPHD5 is capable of regulating the crosstalk between histone methylation and histone acetylation of different lysine residues. Nevertheless, GmPHD5 could also recruit chromatin remodeling factors and transcription factors of salt stress inducible genes to regulate their expression in response to salinity stress.

  9. Formaldehyde-induced histone H3 phosphorylation via JNK and the expression of proto-oncogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ikuma; Ibuki, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formaldehyde modified histones. • The phosphorylation of H3S10 was increased at the promoter regions of proto-oncogenes. • The phosphorylation of H2AXS139 was attributed to FA-induced DNA damage. • The FA-induced initiation and promotion of cancer could be judged by these modifications. - Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) is a very reactive compound that forms DNA adducts and DNA-protein crosslinks, which are known to contribute to FA-induced mutations and carcinogenesis. Post-translational modifications to histones have recently attracted attention due to their link with cancer. In the present study, we examined histone modifications following a treatment with FA. FA significantly phosphorylated histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10), and at serine 28 (H3S28), the time-course of which was similar to the phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double strand breaks. The temporal deacetylation of H3 was observed due to the reaction of FA with the lysine residues of histones. The phosphorylation mechanism was then analyzed by focusing on H3S10. The nuclear distribution of the phosphorylation of H3S10 and γ-H2AX did not overlap, and the phosphorylation of H3S10 could not be suppressed with an inhibitor of ATM/ATR, suggesting that the phosphorylation of H3S10 was independent of the DNA damage response. ERK and JNK in the MAPK pathways were phosphorylated by the treatment with FA, in which the JNK pathway was the main target for phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of H3S10 increased at the promoter regions of c-fos and c-jun, indicating a relationship between FA-induced tumor promotion activity and phosphorylation of H3S10. These results suggested that FA both initiates and promotes cancer, as judged by an analysis of histone modifications

  10. Formaldehyde-induced histone H3 phosphorylation via JNK and the expression of proto-oncogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ikuma; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Formaldehyde modified histones. • The phosphorylation of H3S10 was increased at the promoter regions of proto-oncogenes. • The phosphorylation of H2AXS139 was attributed to FA-induced DNA damage. • The FA-induced initiation and promotion of cancer could be judged by these modifications. - Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) is a very reactive compound that forms DNA adducts and DNA-protein crosslinks, which are known to contribute to FA-induced mutations and carcinogenesis. Post-translational modifications to histones have recently attracted attention due to their link with cancer. In the present study, we examined histone modifications following a treatment with FA. FA significantly phosphorylated histone H3 at serine 10 (H3S10), and at serine 28 (H3S28), the time-course of which was similar to the phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX), a marker of DNA double strand breaks. The temporal deacetylation of H3 was observed due to the reaction of FA with the lysine residues of histones. The phosphorylation mechanism was then analyzed by focusing on H3S10. The nuclear distribution of the phosphorylation of H3S10 and γ-H2AX did not overlap, and the phosphorylation of H3S10 could not be suppressed with an inhibitor of ATM/ATR, suggesting that the phosphorylation of H3S10 was independent of the DNA damage response. ERK and JNK in the MAPK pathways were phosphorylated by the treatment with FA, in which the JNK pathway was the main target for phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of H3S10 increased at the promoter regions of c-fos and c-jun, indicating a relationship between FA-induced tumor promotion activity and phosphorylation of H3S10. These results suggested that FA both initiates and promotes cancer, as judged by an analysis of histone modifications.

  11. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation and the response to DNA replication fork damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtele, Hugo; Kaiser, Gitte Schalck; Bacal, Julien

    2012-01-01

    damage response. However, the links between histone acetylation, the nascent chromatin structure, and the DNA damage response are poorly understood. Here we report that cells devoid of H3K56ac are sensitive to DNA damage sustained during transient exposure to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or camptothecin......In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) occurs in newly synthesized histones that are deposited throughout the genome during DNA replication. Defects in H3K56ac sensitize cells to genotoxic agents, suggesting that this modification plays an important role in the DNA...... but are only mildly affected by hydroxyurea. We demonstrate that, after exposure to MMS, H3K56ac-deficient cells cannot complete DNA replication and eventually segregate chromosomes with intranuclear foci containing the recombination protein Rad52. In addition, we provide evidence that these phenotypes...

  12. Altered nucleosomes of active nucleolar chromatin contain accessible histone H3 in its hyperacetylated forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.M.; Sterner, R.; Allfrey, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    Chromatin of the organism Physarum polycephalum contains a class of conformationally altered nucleosomes previously localized to the transcribing regions of ribosomal genes in nucleoli. When nuclei are treated with 2-iodo[2-tritium]acetate, the histone H3 sulfhydryl group of the altered nucleosomes is derivatized while that of folded nucleosomes is not, and the labeled histones can then be identified by autoradiography of gels that separate H3 isoforms. The H3 derivatized is predominantly of tri- and tetraacetylated forms. In contrast, total free histone reacted with iodoacetate shows no preferential labeling of isoforms. Selective reaction of acetylated H3 is prevalent in both nucleolar and non-nucleolar chromatin. The results link specific patterns of H3 acetylation to changes in nucleosome conformation that occur during transcription

  13. acetyl (Lys14)-histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... chromosomes during meiotic metaphase I. Colocalization of anti-H3S10phK14ac with an onion's CENH3 antibody on mitotic chromosomes of Allium revealed the chromosomal location .... prophase stages in all the plants during mitosis (figure 1, a and i; figure 2a ; arrow marked). The immunosignals could.

  14. Distribution pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-06

    Aug 6, 2013 ... Photoshop CS3 (for brightness and contrast only). The dis- tribution pattern of H3 S10ph was based on both occurrence and nonoccurrence of immunodetection in at least 100 slides and approximately 1200 cells of each species evaluated during mitosis and meiosis. Results and discussion. A summary of ...

  15. Characterization of histone H3K27 modifications in the β-globin locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The β-globin locus control region is hyperacetylated and monomethylated at histone H3K27. → Highly transcribed globin genes are marked by H3K27ac, but H3K27me2 is remarkable at silent globin genes in erythroid K562 cells. → Association of PRC2 subunits is comparable with H3K27me3 pattern. → Modifications of histone H3K27 are established in an enhancer-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Histone H3K27 is acetylated or methylated in the environment of nuclear chromatin. Here, to characterize the modification pattern of H3K27 in locus control region (LCR) and to understand the correlation of various H3K27 modifications with transcriptional activity of genes, we analyzed the human β-globin locus using the ChIP assay. The LCR of the human β-globin locus was enriched by H3K27ac and H3K27me1 in erythroid K562 cells. The highly transcribed globin genes were hyperacetylated at H3K27, but the repressed globin genes were highly dimethylated at this lysine in these cells. However, in non-erythroid 293FT cells, the β-globin locus was marked by a high level of H3K27me3. EZH2 and SUZ12, subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2, were comparably detected with the H3K27me3 pattern in K562 and 293FT cells. In addition, H3K27ac, H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 were established in an enhancer-dependent manner in a model minichromosomal locus containing an enhancer and its target gene. Taken together, these results show that H3K27 modifications have distinctive correlations with the chromatin state or transcription level of genes and are influenced by an enhancer.

  16. Histone H3-K9 methyltransferase ESET is essential for early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Jonathan E; Kang, Yong-Kook; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lei, Hong; Li, En

    2004-03-01

    Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3-K9) mediates heterochromatin formation by forming a binding site for HP1 and also participates in silencing gene expression at euchromatic sites. ESET, G9a, SUV39-h1, SUV39-h2, and Eu-HMTase are histone methyltransferases that catalyze H3-K9 methylation in mammalian cells. Previous studies demonstrate that the SUV39-h proteins are preferentially targeted to the pericentric heterochromatin, and mice lacking both Suv39-h genes show cytogenetic abnormalities and an increased incidence of lymphoma. G9a methylates H3-K9 in euchromatin, and G9a null embryos die at 8.5 days postcoitum (dpc). G9a null embryo stem (ES) cells show altered DNA methylation in the Prader-Willi imprinted region and ectopic expression of the Mage genes. So far, an Eu-HMTase mouse knockout has not been reported. ESET catalyzes methylation of H3-K9 and localizes mainly in euchromatin. To investigate the in vivo function of Eset, we have generated an allele that lacks the entire pre- and post-SET domains and that expresses lacZ under the endogenous regulation of the Eset gene. We found that zygotic Eset expression begins at the blastocyst stage and is ubiquitous during postimplantation mouse development, while the maternal Eset transcripts are present in oocytes and persist throughout preimplantation development. The homozygous mutations of Eset resulted in peri-implantation lethality between 3.5 and 5.5 dpc. Blastocysts null for Eset were recovered but in less than Mendelian ratios. Upon culturing, 18 of 24 Eset(-/-) blastocysts showed defective growth of the inner cell mass and, in contrast to the approximately 65% recovery of wild-type and Eset(+/-) ES cells, no Eset(-/-) ES cell lines were obtained. Global H3-K9 trimethylation and DNA methylation at IAP repeats in Eset(-/-) blastocyst outgrowths were not dramatically altered. Together, these results suggest that Eset is required for peri-implantation development and the survival of ES cells.

  17. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Amaya, Maria F.; Xu, Chao; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yanming; Min, Jinrong (Toronto); (Penn)

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.

  18. Excess free histone H3 localizes to centrosomes for proteasome-mediated degradation during mitosis in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Candice L; Graves, Hillary K; Wason, Arpit; Hawkins, Reva; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Schumacher, Jill; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-08-17

    The cell tightly controls histone protein levels in order to achieve proper packaging of the genome into chromatin, while avoiding the deleterious consequences of excess free histones. Our accompanying study has shown that a histone modification that loosens the intrinsic structure of the nucleosome, phosphorylation of histone H3 on threonine 118 (H3 T118ph), exists on centromeres and chromosome arms during mitosis. Here, we show that H3 T118ph localizes to centrosomes in humans, flies, and worms during all stages of mitosis. H3 abundance at the centrosome increased upon proteasome inhibition, suggesting that excess free histone H3 localizes to centrosomes for degradation during mitosis. In agreement, we find ubiquitinated H3 specifically during mitosis and within purified centrosomes. These results suggest that targeting of histone H3 to the centrosome for proteasome-mediated degradation is a novel pathway for controlling histone supply, specifically during mitosis.

  19. Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Negatively Regulates Thermogenic Program in Brown Adipocytes via Coordinated Regulation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) Deacetylation and Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenfen; Wu, Rui; Cui, Xin; Zha, Lin; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-02-26

    Inhibiting class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increases energy expenditure, reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. However, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC1 is a negative regulator of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program. The Hdac1 level is lower in mouse brown fat (BAT) than white fat, is suppressed in mouse BAT during cold exposure or β3-adrenergic stimulation, and is down-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation. Remarkably, overexpressing Hdac1 profoundly blocks, whereas deleting Hdac1 significantly enhances, β-adrenergic activation-induced BAT-specific gene expression in brown adipocytes. β-Adrenergic activation in brown adipocytes results in a dissociation of HDAC1 from promoters of BAT-specific genes, including uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (Pgc1α), leading to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), an epigenetic mark of gene activation. This is followed by dissociation of the polycomb repressive complexes, including the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue (EZH2), suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12), and ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) from (and concomitant recruitment of H3K27 demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX) to) Ucp1 and Pgc1α promoters, leading to decreased H3K27 trimethylation, a histone transcriptional repression mark. Thus, HDAC1 negatively regulates the brown adipocyte thermogenic program, and inhibiting Hdac1 promotes BAT-specific gene expression through a coordinated control of increased acetylation and decreased methylation of H3K27, thereby switching the transcriptional repressive state to the active state at the promoters of Ucp1 and Pgc1α. Targeting HDAC1 may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity by enhancing BAT thermogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of 15-lipoxygenase expression by histone h3 lysine 4 methylation/demethylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    Full Text Available 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1 oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids to a rich spectrum of biologically active metabolites and is implicated in physiological membrane remodelling, inflammation and apoptosis. Its deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse cancer and immune diseases. Recent experimental evidence reveals that dynamic histone methylation/demethylation mediated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases plays a critical role in regulation of chromatin remodelling and gene expression. In the present study, we compared the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3-K4 methylation status of the 15-LOX-1 promoter region of the two Hodgkin lymphoma (HL cell lines L1236 and L428 with abundant and undetectable 15-LOX-1 expression, respectively. We identified a potential role of H3-K4 methylation in positive regulation of 15-LOX-1 transcription. Furthermore, we found that histone methyltransferase SMYD3 inhibition reduced 15-LOX-1 expression by decreasing promoter activity in L1236 cells. SMYD3 knock down in these cells abolished di-/trimethylation of H3-K4, attenuated the occupancy by the transactivator STAT6, and led to diminished histone H3 acetylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter. In contrast, inhibition of SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing H3-K4 tri-demethylase, upregulated 15-LOX-1 expression through induction of H3-K4 trimethylation, histone acetylation and STAT6 recruitment at the 15-LOX-1 promoter in L428 cells. In addition, we observed strong SMYD3 expression in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and its inhibition led to decreased 15-LOX-1 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that regulation of histone methylation/demethylation at the 15-LOX-1 promoter is important in 15-LOX-1 expression.

  1. Structure and Activity of the Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Domain from the Histone Chaperone Fpr4 toward Histone H3 Proline Isomerization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneau, Yoan R.; Soufari, Heddy; Nelson, Christopher J.; Mackereth, Cameron D.

    2013-01-01

    The FK506-binding protein (FKBP) family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) is characterized by a common catalytic domain that binds to the inhibitors FK506 and rapamycin. As one of four FKBPs within the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fpr4 has been described as a histone chaperone, and is in addition implicated in epigenetic function in part due to its mediation of cis-trans conversion of proline residues within histone tails. To better understand the molecular details of this activity, we have determined the solution structure of the Fpr4 C-terminal PPIase domain by using NMR spectroscopy. This canonical FKBP domain actively increases the rate of isomerization of three decapeptides derived from the N terminus of yeast histone H3, whereas maintaining intrinsic cis and trans populations. Observation of the uncatalyzed and Fpr4-catalyzed isomerization rates at equilibrium demonstrate Pro16 and Pro30 of histone H3 as the major proline targets of Fpr4, with little activity shown against Pro38. This alternate ranking of the three target prolines, as compared with affinity determination or the classical chymotrypsin-based fluorescent assay, reveals the mechanistic importance of substrate residues C-terminal to the peptidyl-prolyl bond. PMID:23888048

  2. Arabidopsis TFL2/LHP1 specifically associates with genes marked by trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Turck

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available TERMINAL FLOWER 2/LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (TFL2/LHP1 is the only Arabidopsis protein with overall sequence similarity to the HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (HP1 family of metazoans and S. pombe. TFL2/LHP1 represses transcription of numerous genes, including the flowering-time genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, as well as the floral organ identity genes AGAMOUS (AG and APETALA 3 (AP3. These genes are also regulated by proteins of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2, and it has been proposed that TFL2/LHP1 represents a potential stabilizing factor of PRC2 activity. Here we show by chromatin immunoprecipitation and hybridization to an Arabidopsis Chromosome 4 tiling array (ChIP-chip that TFL2/LHP1 associates with hundreds of small domains, almost all of which correspond to genes located within euchromatin. We investigated the chromatin marks to which TFL2/LHP1 binds and show that, in vitro, TFL2/LHP1 binds to histone H3 di- or tri-methylated at lysine 9 (H3K9me2 or H3K9me3, the marks recognized by HP1, and to histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3, the mark deposited by PRC2. However, in vivo TFL2/LHP1 association with chromatin occurs almost exclusively and co-extensively with domains marked by H3K27me3, but not H3K9me2 or -3. Moreover, the distribution of H3K27me3 is unaffected in lhp1 mutant plants, indicating that unlike PRC2 components, TFL2/LHP1 is not involved in the deposition of this mark. Rather, our data suggest that TFL2/LHP1 recognizes specifically H3K27me3 in vivo as part of a mechanism that represses the expression of many genes targeted by PRC2.

  3. Nuclear levels and patterns of histone H3 modification and HP1 proteins after inhibition of histone deacetylases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Pacherník, J.; Harničarová, Andrea; Kovařík, Aleš; Kovaříková, Martina; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Skalníková, M.; Kozubek, Michal; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 21 (2005), s. 5035-5046 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : histone H3 * HDAC inhibitors * HP1 proteins Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Acidic ribosomal proteins and histone H3 from Leishmania present a high rate of divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysabel Montoya

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Another additional peculiarity in Leishmania will be discussed about of the amino acid divergence rate of three structural proteins: acidic ribosomal P1 and P2b proteins, and histone H3 by using multiple sequence alignment and dendrograms. These structural proteins present a high rate of divergence regarding to their homologous protein in Trypanosoma cruzi. At this regard, L. (V. peruviana P1 and T. cruzi P1 showed 57.4% of divergence rate. Likewise, L. (V. braziliensis histone H3 and acidic ribosomal P2 protein exhibited 31.8% and 41.7% respectively of rate of divergence in comparison with their homologous in T. cruzi.

  5. Testis-Specific Histone Variant H3t Gene Is Essential for Entry into Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ueda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes. Thus, by incorporating H3t into the genome during spermatogonial differentiation, male germ cells are able to enter meiosis and beyond.

  6. Individual Impact of Distinct Polysialic Acid Chain Lengths on the Cytotoxicity of Histone H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Zlatina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are able to neutralize pathogens by phagocytosis, by the release of antimicrobial components, as well as by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. The latter possibility is a DNA-meshwork mainly consisting of highly concentrated extracellular histones, which are not only toxic for pathogens, but also for endogenous cells triggering several diseases. To reduce the negative outcomes initiated by extracellular histones, different approaches like antibodies against histones, proteases, and the polysaccharide polysialic acid (polySia were discussed. We examined whether each of the individual histones is a binding partner of polySia, and analyzed their respective cytotoxicity in the presence of this linear homopolymer. Interestingly, all of the histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 seem to interact with α2,8-linked sialic acids. However, we observed strong differences regarding the required chain length of polySia to bind histone H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Moreover, distinct degrees of polymerization were necessary to act as a cytoprotective agent in the presence of the individual histones. In sum, the outlined results described polySia-based strategies to bind and/or to reduce the cytotoxicity of individual histones using distinct polySia chain length settings.

  7. Characterization of a Novel WDR5-binding Site That Recruits RbBP5 through a Conserved Motif to Enhance Methylation of Histone H3 Lysine 4 by Mixed Lineage Leukemia Protein-1*

    OpenAIRE

    Odho, Zain; Southall, Stacey M.; Wilson, Jon R.

    2010-01-01

    Histone modification is well established as a fundamental mechanism driving the regulation of transcription, replication, and DNA repair through the control of chromatin structure. Likewise, it is apparent that incorrect targeting of histone modifications contributes to misregulated gene expression and hence to developmental disorders and diseases of genomic instability such as cancer. The KMT2 family of SET domain methyltransferases, typified by mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1), is re...

  8. ICBP90, a Novel Methyl K9 H3 Binding Protein Linking Protein Ubiquitination with Heterochromatin Formation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianni, Panagiota; Amazit, Larbi; Qin, Jun; Wong, Jiemin

    2008-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 is critical for diverse biological processes including transcriptional repression, heterochromatin formation, and X inactivation. The biological effects of histone methylation are thought to be mediated by effector proteins that recognize and bind to specific patterns of methylation. Using an unbiased in vitro biochemical approach, we have identified ICBP90, a transcription and cell cycle regulator, as a novel methyl K9 H3-specific binding protein. ICBP90 and its murine homologue Np95 are enriched in pericentric heterochromatin of interphase nuclei, and this localization is dependent on H3K9 methylation. Specific binding of ICBP90 to methyl K9 H3 depends on two functional domains, a PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that defines the binding specificity and an SRA (SET- and RING-associated) domain that promotes binding activity. Furthermore, we present evidence that ICBP90 is required for proper heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells. PMID:17967883

  9. ICBP90, a novel methyl K9 H3 binding protein linking protein ubiquitination with heterochromatin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianni, Panagiota; Amazit, Larbi; Qin, Jun; Wong, Jiemin

    2008-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 is critical for diverse biological processes including transcriptional repression, heterochromatin formation, and X inactivation. The biological effects of histone methylation are thought to be mediated by effector proteins that recognize and bind to specific patterns of methylation. Using an unbiased in vitro biochemical approach, we have identified ICBP90, a transcription and cell cycle regulator, as a novel methyl K9 H3-specific binding protein. ICBP90 and its murine homologue Np95 are enriched in pericentric heterochromatin of interphase nuclei, and this localization is dependent on H3K9 methylation. Specific binding of ICBP90 to methyl K9 H3 depends on two functional domains, a PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that defines the binding specificity and an SRA (SET- and RING-associated) domain that promotes binding activity. Furthermore, we present evidence that ICBP90 is required for proper heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells.

  10. Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation affects temperature-induced alternative splicing and flowering in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoro, A; Severing, E; Angenent, G C; Immink, R G H

    2017-06-01

    Global warming severely affects flowering time and reproductive success of plants. Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is an important mechanism underlying ambient temperature-controlled responses in plants, yet its regulation is poorly understood. An increase in temperature promotes changes in plant morphology as well as the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in Arabidopsis thaliana via changes in splicing of key regulatory genes. Here we investigate whether a particular histone modification affects ambient temperature-induced alternative splicing and flowering time. We use a genome-wide approach and perform RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses and histone H3 lysine 36 tri-methylation (H3K36me3) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in plants exposed to different ambient temperatures. Analysis and comparison of these datasets reveal that temperature-induced differentially spliced genes are enriched in H3K36me3. Moreover, we find that reduction of H3K36me3 deposition causes alteration in temperature-induced alternative splicing. We also show that plants with mutations in H3K36me3 writers, eraser, or readers have altered high ambient temperature-induced flowering. Our results show a key role for the histone mark H3K36me3 in splicing regulation and plant plasticity to fluctuating ambient temperature. Our findings open new perspectives for the breeding of crops that can better cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  11. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme induces hypomethylation of genome DNA and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2 in human oral cancer cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and lysine residues of histone H3 and H4 tails regulates gene transcription. Inhibition of polyamine synthesis by ornithine decarboxylase antizyme-1 (OAZ in human oral cancer cell line resulted in accumulation of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM, which acts as a competitive inhibitor of methylation reactions. We anticipated that accumulation of dcSAM impaired methylation reactions and resulted in hypomethylation of genome DNA and histone tails.Global methylation state of genome DNA and lysine residues of histone H3 and H4 tails were assayed by Methylation by Isoschizomers (MIAMI method and western blotting, respectively, in the presence or absence of OAZ expression. Ectopic expression of OAZ mediated hypomethylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2. Protein level of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B and histone H3K9me specific methyltransferase G9a were down-regulated in OAZ transfectant.OAZ induced hypomethylation of CpG islands of global genome DNA and H3K9me2 by down-regulating DNMT3B and G9a protein level. Hypomethylation of CpG islands of genome DNA and histone H3K9me2 is a potent mechanism of induction of the genes related to tumor suppression and DNA double strand break repair.

  12. A mouse speciation gene encodes a meiotic histone H3 methyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihola, Ondřej; Trachtulec, Zdeněk; Vlček, Čestmír; Schimenti, J.C.; Forejt, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 323, č. 5912 (2009), s. 373-375 ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : hybrid sterility * histone H3K4 methyltransferase * Prdm9 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.747, year: 2009

  13. Dynamic histone H3 epigenome marking during the intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcedo-Amaya, Adriana M; van Driel, Marc A; Alako, Blaise T

    2009-01-01

    Epigenome profiling has led to the paradigm that promoters of active genes are decorated with H3K4me3 and H3K9ac marks. To explore the epigenome of Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages, we performed MS analysis of histone modifications and found a general preponderance of H3/H4 acetylation and H3K4......me3. ChIP-on-chip profiling of H3, H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H3K9ac from asynchronous parasites revealed an extensively euchromatic epigenome with heterochromatin restricted to variant surface antigen gene families (VSA) and a number of genes hitherto unlinked to VSA. Remarkably, the vast majority...... of the genome shows an unexpected pattern of enrichment of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac. Analysis of synchronized parasites revealed significant developmental stage specificity of the epigenome. In rings, H3K4me3 and H3K9ac are homogenous across the genes marking active and inactive genes equally, whereas in schizonts...

  14. JMJ27, an Arabidopsis H3K9 histone demethylase, modulates defense against Pseudomonas syringae and flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Aditya; Choudhary, Pratibha; Caruana, Julie; Raina, Ramesh

    2017-09-01

    Histone methylation is known to dynamically regulate diverse developmental and physiological processes. Histone methyl marks are written by methyltransferases and erased by demethylases, and result in modification of chromatin structure to repress or activate transcription. However, little is known about how histone methylation may regulate defense mechanisms and flowering time in plants. Here we report characterization of JmjC DOMAIN-CONTAINING PROTEIN 27 (JMJ27), an Arabidopsis JHDM2 (JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase 2) family protein, which modulates defense against pathogens and flowering time. JMJ27 is a nuclear protein containing a zinc-finger motif and a catalytic JmjC domain with conserved Fe(II) and α-ketoglutarate binding sites, and displays H3K9me1/2 demethylase activity both in vitro and in vivo. JMJ27 is induced in response to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pathogens and is required for resistance against these pathogens. JMJ27 is a negative modulator of WRKY25 (a repressor of defense) and a positive modulator of several pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Additionally, loss of JMJ27 function leads to early flowering. JMJ27 negatively modulates the major flowering regulator CONSTANS (CO) and positively modulates FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Taken together, our results indicate that JMJ27 functions as a histone demethylase to modulate both physiological (defense) and developmental (flowering time) processes in Arabidopsis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation in Eucalyptus grandis developing xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Steven G; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Groover, Andrew; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-05-10

    Histone modifications play an integral role in plant development, but have been poorly studied in woody plants. Investigating chromatin organization in wood-forming tissue and its role in regulating gene expression allows us to understand the mechanisms underlying cellular differentiation during xylogenesis (wood formation) and identify novel functional regions in plant genomes. However, woody tissue poses unique challenges for using high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) techniques for studying genome-wide histone modifications in vivo. We investigated the role of the modified histone H3K4me3 (trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3) in gene expression during the early stages of wood formation using ChIP-seq in Eucalyptus grandis, a woody biomass model. Plant chromatin fixation and isolation protocols were optimized for developing xylem tissue collected from field-grown E. grandis trees. A "nano-ChIP-seq" procedure was employed for ChIP DNA amplification. Over 9 million H3K4me3 ChIP-seq and 18 million control paired-end reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference genome for peak-calling using Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq. The 12,177 significant H3K4me3 peaks identified covered ~1.5% of the genome and overlapped some 9,623 protein-coding genes and 38 noncoding RNAs. H3K4me3 library coverage, peaking ~600 - 700 bp downstream of the transcription start site, was highly correlated with gene expression levels measured with RNA-seq. Overall, H3K4me3-enriched genes tended to be less tissue-specific than unenriched genes and were overrepresented for general cellular metabolism and development gene ontology terms. Relative expression of H3K4me3-enriched genes in developing secondary xylem was higher than unenriched genes, however, and highly expressed secondary cell wall-related genes were enriched for H3K4me3 as validated using ChIP-qPCR. In this first genome-wide analysis of a modified histone in a woody tissue, we optimized a ChIP-seq procedure suitable

  16. Molecular recognition of H3/H4 histone tails by the tudor domains of JMJD2A: a comparative molecular dynamics simulations study.

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    Musa Ozboyaci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone demethylase, JMJD2A, specifically recognizes and binds to methylated lysine residues at histone H3 and H4 tails (especially trimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me3, trimethylated H3K9 (H3K9me3 and di,trimethylated H4K20 (H4K20me2, H4K20me3 via its tandem tudor domains. Crystal structures of JMJD2A-tudor binding to H3K4me3 and H4K20me3 peptides are available whereas the others are not. Complete picture of the recognition of the four histone peptides by the tandem tudor domains yet remains to be clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a detailed molecular dynamics simulation and binding energy analysis of the recognition of JMJD2A-tudor with four different histone tails. 25 ns fully unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for each of the bound and free structures. We investigate the important hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions between the tudor domains and the peptide molecules and identify the critical residues that stabilize the complexes. Our binding free energy calculations show that H4K20me2 and H3K9me3 peptides have the highest and lowest affinity to JMJD2A-tudor, respectively. We also show that H4K20me2 peptide adopts the same binding mode with H4K20me3 peptide, and H3K9me3 peptide adopts the same binding mode with H3K4me3 peptide. Decomposition of the enthalpic and the entropic contributions to the binding free energies indicate that the recognition of the histone peptides is mainly driven by favourable van der Waals interactions. Residue decomposition of the binding free energies with backbone and side chain contributions as well as their energetic constituents identify the hotspots in the binding interface of the structures. CONCLUSION: Energetic investigations of the four complexes suggest that many of the residues involved in the interactions are common. However, we found two receptor residues that were related to selective binding of the H3 and H4 ligands. Modifications or mutations

  17. SIRT1-dependent modulation of methylation and acetylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9 in the zygotic pronuclei improves porcine embryo development

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    Katerina Adamkova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone code is an established epigenetic regulator of early embryonic development in mammals. The lysine residue K9 of histone H3 (H3K9 is a prime target of SIRT1, a member of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase family of enzymes targeting both histone and non-histone substrates. At present, little is known about SIRT1-modulation of H3K9 in zygotic pronuclei and its association with the success of preimplantation embryo development. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SIRT1 activity on H3K9 methylation and acetylation in porcine zygotes and the significance of H3K9 modifications for early embryonic development. Results Our results show that SIRT1 activators resveratrol and BML-278 increased H3K9 methylation and suppressed H3K9 acetylation in both the paternal and maternal pronucleus. Inversely, SIRT1 inhibitors nicotinamide and sirtinol suppressed methylation and increased acetylation of pronuclear H3K9. Evaluation of early embryonic development confirmed positive effect of selective SIRT1 activation on blastocyst formation rate (5.2 ± 2.9% versus 32.9 ± 8.1% in vehicle control and BML-278 group, respectively; P ≤ 0.05. Stimulation of SIRT1 activity coincided with fluorometric signal intensity of ooplasmic ubiquitin ligase MDM2, a known substrate of SIRT1 and known limiting factor of epigenome remodeling. Conclusions We conclude that SIRT1 modulates zygotic histone code, obviously through direct deacetylation and via non-histone targets resulting in increased H3K9me3. These changes in zygotes lead to more successful pre-implantation embryonic development and, indeed, the specific SIRT1 activation due to BML-278 is beneficial for in vitro embryo production and blastocyst achievement.

  18. Structural basis for recognition of centromere histone variant CenH3 by the chaperone Scm3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Feng, Hanqiao; Zhou, Bing-Rui; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Hu, Kaifeng; Zwolak, Adam; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.; Xiao, Hua; Tjandra, Nico; Wu, Carl; Bai, Yawen

    2011-01-01

    The centromere is a unique chromosomal locus that ensures accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division by directing the assembly of a multiprotein complex, the kinetochore1. The centromere is marked by a conserved variant of conventional histone H3 termed CenH3 or CENP-A2. A conserved motif of CenH3, the CATD, defined by loop 1 and helix 2 of the histone fold, is necessary and sufficient for specifying centromere functions of CenH33, 4. The structural basis of this specification is of outstanding interest. Yeast Scm3 and human HJURP are conserved nonhistone proteins that interact physically with the (CenH3-H4)2 heterotetramer and are required for the deposition of CenH3 at centromeres in vivo5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Here we have elucidated the structural basis for recognition of budding yeast CenH3 (Cse4) by Scm3. We solved the structure of the Cse4-binding domain (CBD) of Scm3 complexed with Cse4 and H4 in a single chain model. An α-helix and an irregular loop at the conserved N-terminus and a shorter α-helix at the C-terminus of Scm3-CBD wraps around the Cse4-H4 dimer. Four Cse4-specific residues in the N-terminal region of helix 2 are sufficient for specific recognition by conserved and functionally important residues in the N-terminal helix of Scm3 through formation of a hydrophobic cluster. Scm3-CBD induces major conformational changes and sterically occludes DNA binding sites in the structure of Cse4 and H4. These findings have implications for the assembly and architecture of the centromeric nucleosome. PMID:21412236

  19. The histone H3.3K36M mutation reprograms the epigenome of chondroblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dong; Gan, Haiyun; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Han, Jing; Wang, Zhiquan; Riester, Scott M.; Jin, Long; Chen, Jianji; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Jinglong; Zhang, Honglian; Yang, Na; Bradley, Elizabeth W.; Ho, Thai H.; Rubin, Brian P.; Bridge, Julia A.; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Ordog, Tamas; Chen, Yue; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Oliveira, Andre M.; Xu, Rui-Ming; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Over 90% of chondroblastomas contain a heterozygous mutation replacing lysine 36 with methionine (K36M) in the histone H3 variant H3.3. Here, we show that H3K36 methylation is reduced globally in chondroblastomas and in chondrocytes harboring the same genetic mutation due to inhibition of at least two H3K36 methyltransferases, MMSET and SETD2, by the H3.3K36M mutant proteins. Genes with altered expression as well as H3K36 di- and trimethylation in H3.3K36M cells are enriched in cancer pathways. In addition, H3.3K36M chondrocytes exhibit several hallmarks of cancer cells including increased ability to form colonies, resistance to apoptosis and defects in differentiation. Thus, H3.3K36M proteins reprogram H3K36 methylation landscape and contribute to tumorigenesis in part through altering the expression of cancer-associated genes. PMID:27229140

  20. Pre-mRNA splicing is a determinant of histone H3K36 methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soojin; Kim, Hyunmin; Fong, Nova; Erickson, Benjamin; Bentley, David L

    2011-08-16

    A chromatin code appears to mark introns and exons with distinct patterns of nucleosome enrichment and histone methylation. We investigated whether a causal relationship exists between splicing and chromatin modification by asking whether splice-site mutations affect the methylation of histone H3K36. Deletions of the 3' splice site in intron 2 or in both introns 1 and 2 of an integrated β-globin reporter gene caused a shift in relative distribution of H3K36 trimethylation away from 5' ends and toward 3' ends. The effects of splice-site mutations correlated with enhanced retention of a U5 snRNP subunit on transcription complexes downstream of the gene. In contrast, a poly(A) site mutation did not affect H3K36 methylation. Similarly, global inhibition of splicing by spliceostatin A caused a rapid repositioning of H3K36me3 away from 5' ends in favor of 3' ends. These results suggest that the cotranscriptional splicing apparatus influences establishment of normal patterns of histone modification.

  1. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase

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    Ly-Thuy-Tram Le

    2013-02-01

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  2. Erasure of CpG methylation in Arabidopsis alters patterns of histone H3 methylation in heterochromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, M.; Saze, H.; Probst, A.

    2003-01-01

    In mammals and plants, formation of heterochromatin is associated with hypermethylation of DNA at CpG sites and histone H3 methylation at lysine 9. Previous studies have revealed that maintenance of DNA methylation in Neurospora and Arabidopsis requires histone H3 methylation. A feedback loop from...

  3. Precision mapping of coexisting modifications in histone H3 tails from embryonic stem cells by ETD-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Sidoli, Simone; Haldbo, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play a major role in regulating chromatin dynamics and influence processes such as transcription and DNA replication. Here, we report 114 distinct combinations of coexisting PTMs of histone H3 obtained from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Histone......, and K36, suggesting interdependence between histone methylation marks. We hypothesize that the most abundant coexisting PTMs may provide a signature for the permissive state of mouse ES cells....

  4. Structural and histone binding ability characterizations of human PWWP domains.

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    Hong Wu

    Full Text Available The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently.The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3.PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical β-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third β-strands and a C-terminal α-helix bundle. Both the canonical β-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the

  5. Differential dynamics of histone H3 methylation at positions K4 and K9 in the mouse zygote

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    Walter Jörn

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse zygote the paternal genome undergoes dramatic structural and epigenetic changes. Chromosomes are decondensed, protamines replaced by histones and DNA is rapidly and actively demethylated. The epigenetic asymmetry between parental genomes remains at least until the 2-cell stage suggesting functional differences between paternal and maternal genomes during early cleavage stages. Results Here we analyzed the timing of histone deposition on the paternal pronucleus and the dynamics of histone H3 methylation (H3/K4mono-, H3/K4tri- and H3/K9di-methylation immediately after fertilization. Whereas maternal chromatin maintains all types of histone H3 methylation throughout the zygotic development, paternal chromosomes acquire new and unmodified histones shortly after fertilization. In the following hours we observe a gradual increase in H3/K4mono-methylation whereas H3/K4tri-methylation is not present before latest pronuclear stages. Histone H3/K9di-methylation is completely absent from the paternal pronucleus, including metaphase chromosomes of the first mitotic stage. Conclusion Parallel to the epigenetic asymmetry in DNA methylation, chromatin modifications are also different between both parental genomes in the very first hours post fertilization. Whereas methylation at H3/K4 gradually becomes similar between both genomes, H3/K9 methylation remains asymmetric.

  6. Structural Insights into the Association of Hif1 with Histones H2A-H2B Dimer and H3-H4 Tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengying; Liu, Hejun; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zijun; Zheng, Peiyi; Xue, Lu; Li, Jixi; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2016-10-04

    Histone chaperones are critical for guiding specific post-transcriptional modifications of histones, safeguarding the histone deposition (or disassociation) of nucleosome (dis)assembly, and regulating chromatin structures to change gene activities. HAT1-interacting factor 1 (Hif1) has been reported to be an H3-H4 chaperone and to be involved in telomeric silencing and nucleosome (dis)assembly. However, the structural basis for the interaction of Hif1 with histones remains unknown. Here, we report the complex structure of Hif1 binding to H2A-H2B for uncovering the chaperone specificities of Hif1 on binding to both the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer. Our findings reveal that Hif1 interacts with the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer via distinct mechanisms, suggesting that Hif1 is a pivotal scaffold on alternate binding of H2A-H2B and H3-H4. These specificities are conserved features of the Sim3-Hif1-NASP interrupted tetratricopeptide repeat proteins, which provide clues for investigating their potential roles in nucleosome (dis)assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Autoregulatory Mechanism Imposes Allosteric Control on the V(DJ Recombinase by Histone H3 Methylation

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    Chao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination is initiated by a specialized transposase consisting of the subunits RAG-1 and RAG-2. The susceptibility of gene segments to DNA cleavage by the V(DJ recombinase is correlated with epigenetic modifications characteristic of active chromatin, including trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3. Engagement of H3K4me3 by a plant homeodomain (PHD in RAG-2 promotes recombination in vivo and stimulates DNA cleavage by RAG in vitro. We now show that H3K4me3 acts allosterically at the PHD finger to relieve autoinhibition imposed by a separate domain within RAG-2. Disruption of this autoinhibitory domain was associated with constitutive increases in recombination frequency, DNA cleavage activity, substrate binding affinity, and catalytic rate, thus mimicking the stimulatory effects of H3K4me3. Our observations support a model in which allosteric control of RAG is enforced by an autoinhibitory domain whose action is relieved by engagement of active chromatin.

  8. Dot1-dependent histone H3K79 methylation promotes the formation of meiotic double-strand breaks in the absence of histone H3K4 methylation in budding yeast.

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    Mohammad Bani Ismail

    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks such as histone modifications play roles in various chromosome dynamics in mitosis and meiosis. Methylation of histones H3 at positions K4 and K79 is involved in the initiation of recombination and the recombination checkpoint, respectively, during meiosis in the budding yeast. Set1 promotes H3K4 methylation while Dot1 promotes H3K79 methylation. In this study, we carried out detailed analyses of meiosis in mutants of the SET1 and DOT1 genes as well as methylation-defective mutants of histone H3. We confirmed the role of Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation in the formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs in meiosis for the initiation of meiotic recombination, and we showed the involvement of Dot1 (H3K79 methylation in DSB formation in the absence of Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation. In addition, we showed that the histone H3K4 methylation-defective mutants are defective in SC elongation, although they seem to have moderate reduction of DSBs. This suggests that high levels of DSBs mediated by histone H3K4 methylation promote SC elongation.

  9. Quantitating the specificity and selectivity of Gcn5-mediated acetylation of histone H3.

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    Yin-Ming Kuo

    Full Text Available Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs play a unique role in regulating gene transcription as well as maintaining the epigenetic state of the cell. KATs such as Gcn5 and p300/CBP can modify multiple residues on a single histone; however, order and specificity of acetylation can be altered by factors such as histone chaperones, subunit proteins or external stimulus. While the importance of acetylation is well documented, it has been difficult to quantitatively measure the specificity and selectivity of acetylation at different residues within a histone. In this paper, we demonstrate a label-free quantitative high throughput mass spectrometry-based assay capable of quantitatively monitoring all known acetylation sites of H3 simultaneously. Using this assay, we are able to analyze the steady-state enzyme kinetics of Gcn5, an evolutionarily conserved KAT. In doing so, we measured Gcn5-mediated acetylation at six residues (K14>K9 ≈ K23> K18> K27 ≈ K36 and the catalytic efficiency (k(cat/K(m for K9, K14, K18, and K23 as well as the nonenzymatic acetylation rate. We observed selectivity differences of up to -4 kcal/mol between K14 and K18, the highest and lowest measurable k(cat/K(m. These data provide a first look at quantitating the specificity and selectivity of multiple lysines on a single substrate (H3 by Gcn5.

  10. Coordination of cell cycle progression and mitotic spindle assembly involves histone H3 lysine 4 methylation by set1/COMPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, Traude H.; Harrison, Paul F.; Miles, Douglas Maya; See, Michael Ming; Le, Uyen Minh Merry; Kalanon, Ming; Curtis, Melissa Jane; Hasan, Qambar; Saksouk, Julie; Margaritis, Thanasis; Holstege, Frank; Geli, Vincent; Dichtl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) by Set1 complex/COMPASS is a hallmark of eukaryotic chromatin, but it remains poorly understood how this post-translational modification contributes to the regulation of biological processes like the cell cycle. Here, we report a H3K4 methylation-dependent

  11. Evidence for gene-specific rather than transcription rate-dependent histone H3 exchange in yeast coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Viks, Irit; Vingron, Martin

    2009-02-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histones are dynamically exchanged independently of DNA replication. Recent reports show that different coding regions differ in their amount of replication-independent histone H3 exchange. The current paradigm is that this histone exchange variability among coding regions is a consequence of transcription rate. Here we put forward the idea that this variability might be also modulated in a gene-specific manner independently of transcription rate. To that end, we study transcription rate-independent replication-independent coding region histone H3 exchange. We term such events relative exchange. Our genome-wide analysis shows conclusively that in yeast, relative exchange is a novel consistent feature of coding regions. Outside of replication, each coding region has a characteristic pattern of histone H3 exchange that is either higher or lower than what was expected by its RNAPII transcription rate alone. Histone H3 exchange in coding regions might be a way to add or remove certain histone modifications that are important for transcription elongation. Therefore, our results that gene-specific coding region histone H3 exchange is decoupled from transcription rate might hint at a new epigenetic mechanism of transcription regulation.

  12. Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 Reveals Novel and Conserved Post-Translational Modifications in Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Izabel; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Liu, Shichong; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Garcia, Benjamin A; Casas-Mollano, J Armando

    2015-01-01

    Histones are the main structural components of the nucleosome, hence targets of many regulatory proteins that mediate processes involving changes in chromatin. The functional outcome of many pathways is "written" in the histones in the form of post-translational modifications that determine the final gene expression readout. As a result, modifications, alone or in combination, are important determinants of chromatin states. Histone modifications are accomplished by the addition of different chemical groups such as methyl, acetyl and phosphate. Thus, identifying and characterizing these modifications and the proteins related to them is the initial step to understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation and in the future may even provide tools for breeding programs. Several studies over the past years have contributed to increase our knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation in model organisms like Arabidopsis, yet this field remains relatively unexplored in crops. In this study we identified and initially characterized histones H3 and H4 in the monocot crop sugarcane. We discovered a number of histone genes by searching the sugarcane ESTs database. The proteins encoded correspond to canonical histones, and their variants. We also purified bulk histones and used them to map post-translational modifications in the histones H3 and H4 using mass spectrometry. Several modifications conserved in other plants, and also novel modified residues, were identified. In particular, we report O-acetylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, a recently identified modification conserved in several eukaryotes. Additionally, the sub-nuclear localization of some well-studied modifications (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K9ac, H3T3ph) is described and compared to other plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of histones H3 and H4 as well as their post-translational modifications in sugarcane, and will provide a starting point for the study of chromatin regulation in

  13. DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 modifications contribute to MUC17 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Sho; Yamada, Norishige; Yokoyama, Seiya; Houjou, Izumi; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Masamichi; Batra, Surinder K; Yonezawa, Suguru

    2011-02-01

    MUC17 glycoprotein is a membrane-associated mucin that is mainly expressed in the digestive tract. It has been suggested that MUC17 expression is correlated with the malignancy potential of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). In the present study, we provided the first report of the MUC17 gene expression through epigenetic regulation such as promoter methylation, histone modification and microRNA (miRNA) expression. Near the transcriptional start site, the DNA methylation level of MUC17-negative cancer cell lines (e.g. PANC1) was high, whereas that of MUC17-positive cells (e.g. AsPC-1) was low. Histone H3-K9 (H3-K9) modification status was also closely related to MUC17 expression. Our results indicate that DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 modification in the 5' flanking region play a critical role in MUC17 expression. Furthermore, the hypomethylation status was observed in patients with PDAC. This indicates that the hypomethylation status in the MUC17 promoter could be a novel epigenetic marker for the diagnosis of PDAC. In addition, the result of miRNA microarray analysis showed that five potential miRNA candidates existed. It is also possible that the MUC17 might be post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNA targeting to the 3'-untranslated region of its mRNA. These understandings of the epigenetic changes of MUC17 may be of importance for the diagnosis of carcinogenic risk and the prediction of outcomes for cancer patients.

  14. A Unique pH-Dependent Recognition of Methylated Histone H3K4 by PPS and DIDO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencer, Adam H; Gatchalian, Jovylyn; Klein, Brianna J; Khan, Abid; Zhang, Yi; Strahl, Brian D; van Wely, Karel H M; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2017-10-03

    The protein partner of Sans-fille (PPS) and its human homolog DIDO mediate diverse chromatin activities, including the regulation of stemness genes in embryonic stem cells and splicing in Drosophila. Here, we show that the PHD fingers of PPS and DIDO recognize the histone mark H3K4me3 in a pH-dependent manner: the binding is enhanced at high pH values but is decreased at low pH. Structural analysis reveals that the pH dependency is due to the presence of a histidine residue in the K4me3-binding aromatic cage of PPS. The pH-dependent mechanism is conserved in DIDO but is lost in yeast Bye1. Acidification of cells leads to the accelerated efflux of endogenous DIDO, indicating the pH-dependent sensing of H3K4me3 in vivo. This novel mode for the recognition of H3K4me3 establishes the PHD fingers of PPS and DIDO as unique epigenetic readers and high pH sensors and suggests a role for the histidine switch during mitosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PITX2 associates with PTIP-containing histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Huang, Yue; Fan, Jun; Zhu, Guo-Zhang

    2014-02-21

    Pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2), a Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor and a downstream effector of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, plays substantial roles in embryonic development and human disorders. The mechanism of its functions, however, is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that PITX2 associated with histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase (HKMT) mixed-lineage leukemia 4 (MLL4/KMT2D), Pax transactivation domain-interacting protein (PTIP), and other H3K4·HKMT core subunits. This association of PITX2 with H3K4·HKMT complex was dependent on PITX2's homeodomain. Consistently, the PITX2 protein complex was shown to possess H3K4·HKMT activity. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation result revealed co-occupancy of PITX2 and PTIP on the promoter of the PITX2's transcriptional target. Taken together, our data provide new mechanistic perspectives on PITX2's functions and its related biological processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Histone H3 Thr 45 phosphorylation is a replication-associated post-translational modification in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen P; Phillips, Jennifer; Anderson, Scott; Qiu, Qifeng; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Smith, M Mitchell; Yates, John R; Hunt, Donald F; Grant, Patrick A

    2010-03-01

    Post-translational histone modifications are crucial for the regulation of numerous DNA-templated processes, and are thought to mediate both alteration of chromatin dynamics and recruitment of effector proteins to specific regions of the genome. In particular, histone Ser/Thr phosphorylation regulates multiple nuclear functions in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including transcription, DNA damage repair, mitosis, apoptosis and sporulation. Although modifications to chromatin during replication remain poorly understood, a number of recent studies have described acetylation of the histone H3 N-terminal alpha-helix (alphaN helix) at Lys 56 as a modification that is important for maintenance of genomic integrity during DNA replication and repair. Here, we report phosphorylation of H3 Thr 45 (H3-T45), a histone modification also located within the H3 alphaN helix in S. cerevisiae. Thr 45 phosphorylation peaks during DNA replication, and is mediated by the S phase kinase Cdc7-Dbf4 as part of a multiprotein complex identified in this study. Furthermore, loss of phosphorylated H3-T45 causes phenotypes consistent with replicative defects, and prolonged replication stress results in H3-T45 phosphorylation accumulation over time. Notably, the phenotypes described here are independent of Lys 56 acetylation status, and combinatorial mutations to both Thr 45 and Lys 56 of H3 cause synthetic growth defects. Together, these data identify and characterize H3-T45 phosphorylation as a replication-associated histone modification in budding yeast.

  17. Transition state for the NSD2-catalyzed methylation of histone H3 lysine 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Myles B; Schneck, Jessica L; Matico, Rosalie E; McDevitt, Patrick J; Huddleston, Michael J; Hou, Wangfang; Johnson, Neil W; Thrall, Sara H; Meek, Thomas D; Schramm, Vern L

    2016-02-02

    Nuclear receptor SET domain containing protein 2 (NSD2) catalyzes the methylation of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36). It is a determinant in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and is overexpressed in human multiple myeloma. Despite the relevance of NSD2 to cancer, there are no potent, selective inhibitors of this enzyme reported. Here, a combination of kinetic isotope effect measurements and quantum chemical modeling was used to provide subangstrom details of the transition state structure for NSD2 enzymatic activity. Kinetic isotope effects were measured for the methylation of isolated HeLa cell nucleosomes by NSD2. NSD2 preferentially catalyzes the dimethylation of H3K36 along with a reduced preference for H3K36 monomethylation. Primary Me-(14)C and (36)S and secondary Me-(3)H3, Me-(2)H3, 5'-(14)C, and 5'-(3)H2 kinetic isotope effects were measured for the methylation of H3K36 using specifically labeled S-adenosyl-l-methionine. The intrinsic kinetic isotope effects were used as boundary constraints for quantum mechanical calculations for the NSD2 transition state. The experimental and calculated kinetic isotope effects are consistent with an SN2 chemical mechanism with methyl transfer as the first irreversible chemical step in the reaction mechanism. The transition state is a late, asymmetric nucleophilic displacement with bond separation from the leaving group at (2.53 Å) and bond making to the attacking nucleophile (2.10 Å) advanced at the transition state. The transition state structure can be represented in a molecular electrostatic potential map to guide the design of inhibitors that mimic the transition state geometry and charge.

  18. The Histone H3K27 Demethylase UTX Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Cognitive Behaviors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Bin Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Histone demethylase UTX mediates removal of repressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 to establish a mechanistic switch to activate large sets of genes. Mutation of Utx has recently been shown to be associated with Kabuki syndrome, a rare congenital anomaly syndrome with dementia. However, its biological function in the brain is largely unknown. Here, we observe that deletion of Utx results in increased anxiety-like behaviors and impaired spatial learning and memory in mice. Loss of Utx in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation. Transcriptional profiling reveals that Utx regulates a subset of genes that are involved in the regulation of dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and cognition. Specifically, Utx deletion disrupts expression of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5B (Htr5b. Restoration of Htr5b expression in newborn hippocampal neurons rescues the defects of neuronal morphology by Utx ablation. Therefore, we provide evidence that Utx plays a critical role in modulating synaptic transmission and cognitive behaviors. Utx cKO mouse models like ours provide a valuable means to study the underlying mechanisms of the etiology of Kabuki syndrome.

  19. Monoallele deletion of CBP leads to pericentromeric heterochromatin condensation through ESET expression and histone H3 (K9) methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Hagerty, Sean; Cormier, Kerry A; Kim, Jinho; Kung, Andrew L; Ferrante, Robert J; Ryu, Hoon

    2008-06-15

    Chromatin remodeling is tightly controlled under physiological conditions. Alterations in chromatin structure are involved in the pathogenesis of neuronal systems. We found that the monoallelic deletion of CREB binding protein (CBP) results in the induction of ERG-associated protein with SET domain (ESET) and increases trimethylation of histone H3 (K9) and condensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin structure in neurons. Nested deletion and mutational analysis of the ESET promoter further demonstrated that the Ets-2 transcription factor regulates transcriptional activity of the ESET gene. In CBP+/- mice, Ets-2 occupancy in the ESET promoter DNA was markedly elevated. Our results suggest that CBP is a transcriptional repressor of ESET gene expression by limiting Ets-2 transcriptional activity, while CBP siRNA enhances basal and Ets-2-dependent ESET transcriptional activity. Altered expression of the ESET gene and hypertrimethylation of H3 (K9) correlate with striatal neuron atrophy and dysfunction in CBP+/- mice. These results establish an alternative pathway that loss of CBP leads to the pericentric heterochromatin condensation through ESET expression and trimethylation of H3 (K9).

  20. [Correlation between histone H3-K9 methylation, DNA methylation and expression of gene MGMT in Hep-2 cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; He, Liria; Ji, Wenyue; Jin, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xudong

    2012-11-01

    To explore the correlation between histone H3-K9 methylation, DNA methylation and expression of carcinoma suppressor gene MGMT in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cell line. 5-Aza-dC was used to deal with Hep-2 cell cultured in vitro. ChIP, MSP and Realtime-PCR were used to detect H3-K9 methylation, DNA methylation, of MGMT gene promoter region and MGMT gene expression before and after treatment with drugs. (1) In Hep-2 cell line, gene MGMT was characterized by DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 hypermethylation. (2) 5-Aza-dC was able to reduce H3-K9 methylation of MGMT gene histone in Hep-2 cell line, 5-Aza-dC was able to reverse DNA methylation of MGMT gene histone in Hep-2 cell line, 5-Aza-dC was able to upregulate the down-regulated gene expression of tumor suppressor genes MGMT. Promoter methylation of cancer suppressor gene MGMT may induce the gene inactivity. DNA methylation may increase H3-K9 methylation. 5-Aza-dC can reduce H3-K9 methylation of tumor suppressor gene MGMT histone by reversing DNA methylation of tumor suppressor gene MGMT, and then the expression of tumor suppressor genes is increased and tumor development is inhibited.

  1. Global Decrease of Histone H3K27 Acetylation in ZEB1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Joëlle; Nasarre, Patrick; Gemmill, Robert; Baldys, Aleksander; Pontis, Julien; Korch, Christopher; Guilhot, Joëlle; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Drabkin, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial cells with a migratory mesenchymal phenotype. It is activated in cancer cells and is involved in invasion, metastasis and stem-like properties. ZEB1, an E-box binding transcription factor, is a major suppressor of epithelial genes in lung cancer. In the present study, we show that in H358 non-small cell lung cancer cells, ZEB1 downregulates EpCAM (coding for an epithelial cell adhesion molecule), ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein), ST14 (a membrane associated serine protease involved in HGF processing) and RAB25 (a small G-protein) by direct binding to these genes. Following ZEB1 induction, acetylation of histone H4 and histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) and 27 (H3K27) was decreased on ZEB1 binding sites on these genes as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Of note, decreased H3K27 acetylation could be also detected by western blot and immunocytochemistry in ZEB1 induced cells. In lung cancers, H3K27 acetylation level was higher in the tumor compartment than in the corresponding stroma where ZEB1 was more often expressed. Since HDAC and DNA methylation inhibitors increased expression of ZEB1 target genes, targeting these epigenetic modifications would be expected to reduce metastasis

  2. Global Decrease of Histone H3K27 Acetylation in ZEB1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Joëlle, E-mail: joelle.roche@univ-poitiers.fr [Department of Medicine, Hematology Oncology Division, MUSC, 96 Jonathan Lucas St., Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); CNRS FRE 3511, University of Poitiers, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, F-86022 Poitiers Cédex (France); Nasarre, Patrick; Gemmill, Robert [Department of Medicine, Hematology Oncology Division, MUSC, 96 Jonathan Lucas St., Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Baldys, Aleksander [Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, MUSC, Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Pontis, Julien [Epigénétique & Destin Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 7216, University of Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75013 Paris (France); Korch, Christopher [CU DNA Sequencing and Analysis Core, University of Colorado, School of Medicine, Anschutz Medical Campus, 12801 E. 17th Ave., Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Guilhot, Joëlle [INSERM, CIC 0802, CHU de Poitiers, F-86021 (France); Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane [Epigénétique & Destin Cellulaire, CNRS UMR 7216, University of Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75013 Paris (France); Drabkin, Harry [Department of Medicine, Hematology Oncology Division, MUSC, 96 Jonathan Lucas St., Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2013-04-03

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial cells with a migratory mesenchymal phenotype. It is activated in cancer cells and is involved in invasion, metastasis and stem-like properties. ZEB1, an E-box binding transcription factor, is a major suppressor of epithelial genes in lung cancer. In the present study, we show that in H358 non-small cell lung cancer cells, ZEB1 downregulates EpCAM (coding for an epithelial cell adhesion molecule), ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein), ST14 (a membrane associated serine protease involved in HGF processing) and RAB25 (a small G-protein) by direct binding to these genes. Following ZEB1 induction, acetylation of histone H4 and histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) and 27 (H3K27) was decreased on ZEB1 binding sites on these genes as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Of note, decreased H3K27 acetylation could be also detected by western blot and immunocytochemistry in ZEB1 induced cells. In lung cancers, H3K27 acetylation level was higher in the tumor compartment than in the corresponding stroma where ZEB1 was more often expressed. Since HDAC and DNA methylation inhibitors increased expression of ZEB1 target genes, targeting these epigenetic modifications would be expected to reduce metastasis.

  3. The tumor suppressor, parafibromin, mediates histone H3 K9 methylation for cyclin D1 repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Jin; Han, Jeung-Whan; Youn, Hong-Duk; Cho, Eun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Parafibromin, a component of the RNA polymerase II-associated PAF1 complex, is a tumor suppressor linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. Parafibromin induces cell cycle arrest by repressing cyclin D1 via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that parafibromin interacts with the histone methyltransferase, SUV39H1, and functions as a transcriptional repressor. The central region (128-227 amino acids) of parafibromin is important for both the interaction with SUV39H1 and transcriptional repression. Parafibromin associated with the promoter and coding regions of cyclin D1 and was required for the recruitment of SUV39H1 and the induction of H3 K9 methylation but not H3 K4 methylation. RNA interference analysis showed that SUV39H1 was critical for cyclin D1 repression. These data suggest that parafibromin plays an unexpected role as a repressor in addition to its widely known activity associated with transcriptional activation. Parafibromin as a part of the PAF1 complex might downregulate cyclin D1 expression by integrating repressive H3 K9 methylation during transcription.

  4. Histone H3 Lysine 79 Methyltransferase Dot1 Is Required for Immortalization by MLL Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Jin; Wu, Hongyu; Achille, Nicholas J.; Reisenauer, Mary Rose; Chou, Chau-Wen; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J.; Hemenway, Charles S.; Zhang, Wenzheng

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric oncoproteins resulting from fusion of MLL to a wide variety of partnering proteins cause biologically distinctive and clinically aggressive acute leukemias. However, the mechanism of MLL-mediated leukemic transformation is not fully understood. Dot1, the only known histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase, has been shown to interact with multiple MLL fusion partners including AF9, ENL, AF10, and AF17. In this study, we utilize a conditional Dot1l deletion model to investigate the role of Dot1 in hematopoietic progenitor cell immortalization by MLL fusion proteins. Western blot and mass spectrometry show that Dot1-deficient cells are depleted of the global H3K79 methylation mark. We find that loss of Dot1 activity attenuates cell viability and colony formation potential of cells immortalized by MLL oncoproteins but not by the leukemic oncoprotein E2a-Pbx1. Although this effect is most pronounced for MLL-AF9, we find that Dot1 contributes to the viability of cells immortalized by other MLL oncoproteins that are not known to directly recruit Dot1. Cells immortalized by MLL fusions also show increased apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of Dot1 in survival pathways. In summary, our data point to a pivotal requirement for Dot1 in MLL fusion protein–mediated leukemogenesis and implicate Dot1 as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21159644

  5. Systems Level Analysis of Histone H3 Post-translational Modifications (PTMs) Reveals Features of PTM Crosstalk in Chromatin Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Sidoli, Simone; Ruminowicz, Chrystian

    2016-01-01

    . We characterized combinatorial PTM features across the four mESC lines and then applied statistical data analysis to predict crosstalk between histone H3 PTMs. We detected an overrepresentation of positive crosstalk (codependent marks) between adjacent mono-methylated and acetylated marks......, and negative crosstalk (mutually exclusive marks) among most of the seven characterized di- and tri-methylated lysine residues in the H3 tails. We report novel features of PTM interplay involving hitherto poorly characterized arginine methylation and lysine methylation sites, including H3R2me, H3R8me and H3K37...

  6. Characterization of centromeric histone H3 (CENH3 variants in cultivated and wild carrots (Daucus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunemann

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, centromeres are the assembly sites for the kinetochore, a multi-protein complex to which spindle microtubules are attached at mitosis and meiosis, thereby ensuring segregation of chromosomes during cell division. They are specified by incorporation of CENH3, a centromere specific histone H3 variant which replaces canonical histone H3 in the nucleosomes of functional centromeres. To lay a first foundation of a putative alternative haploidization strategy based on centromere-mediated genome elimination in cultivated carrots, in the presented research we aimed at the identification and cloning of functional CENH3 genes in Daucus carota and three distantly related wild species of genus Daucus varying in basic chromosome numbers. Based on mining the carrot transcriptome followed by a subsequent PCR-based cloning, homologous coding sequences for CENH3s of the four Daucus species were identified. The ORFs of the CENH3 variants were very similar, and an amino acid sequence length of 146 aa was found in three out of the four species. Comparison of Daucus CENH3 amino acid sequences with those of other plant CENH3s as well as their phylogenetic arrangement among other dicot CENH3s suggest that the identified genes are authentic CENH3 homologs. To verify the location of the CENH3 protein in the kinetochore regions of the Daucus chromosomes, a polyclonal antibody based on a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of DcCENH3 was developed and used for anti-CENH3 immunostaining of mitotic root cells. The chromosomal location of CENH3 proteins in the centromere regions of the chromosomes could be confirmed. For genetic localization of the CENH3 gene in the carrot genome, a previously constructed linkage map for carrot was used for mapping a CENH3-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR marker, and the CENH3 locus was mapped on the carrot chromosome 9.

  7. Additional sex combs interacts with enhancer of zeste and trithorax and modulates levels of trimethylation on histone H3K4 and H3K27 during transcription of hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taosui; Hodgson, Jacob W; Petruk, Svetlana; Mazo, Alexander; Brock, Hugh W

    2017-09-19

    Maintenance of cell fate determination requires the Polycomb group for repression; the trithorax group for gene activation; and the enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb (ETP) group for both repression and activation. Additional sex combs (Asx) is a genetically identified ETP for the Hox loci, but the molecular basis of its dual function is unclear. We show that in vitro, Asx binds directly to the SET domains of the histone methyltransferases (HMT) enhancer of zeste [E(z)] (H3K27me3) and Trx (H3K4me3) through a bipartite interaction site separated by 846 amino acid residues. In Drosophila S2 cell nuclei, Asx interacts with E(z) and Trx in vivo. Drosophila Asx is required for repression of heat-shock gene hsp70 and is recruited downstream of the hsp70 promoter. Changes in the levels of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 downstream of the hsp70 promoter in Asx mutants relative to wild type show that Asx regulates H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation. We propose that during transcription Asx modulates the ratio of H3K4me3 to H3K27me3 by selectively recruiting the antagonistic HMTs, E(z) and Trx or other nucleosome-modifying enzymes to hsp70.

  8. PfSETvs methylation of histone H3K36 represses virulence genes in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lubin; Mu, Jianbing; Zhang, Qingfeng; Ni, Ting; Srinivasan, Prakash; Rayavara, Kempaiah; Yang, Wenjing; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas; Theander, Thor G; Peng, Weiqun; Wei, Guiying; Jing, Qingqing; Wakabayashi, Yoshiyuki; Bansal, Abhisheka; Luo, Yan; Ribeiro, José M C; Scherf, Artur; Aravind, L; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Keji; Miller, Louis H

    2013-07-11

    The variant antigen Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which is expressed on the surface of P. falciparum-infected red blood cells, is a critical virulence factor for malaria. Each parasite has 60 antigenically distinct var genes that each code for a different PfEMP1 protein. During infection the clonal parasite population expresses only one gene at a time before switching to the expression of a new variant antigen as an immune-evasion mechanism to avoid the host antibody response. The mechanism by which 59 of the 60 var genes are silenced remains largely unknown. Here we show that knocking out the P. falciparum variant-silencing SET gene (here termed PfSETvs), which encodes an orthologue of Drosophila melanogaster ASH1 and controls histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) on var genes, results in the transcription of virtually all var genes in the single parasite nuclei and their expression as proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. PfSETvs-dependent H3K36me3 is present along the entire gene body, including the transcription start site, to silence var genes. With low occupancy of PfSETvs at both the transcription start site of var genes and the intronic promoter, expression of var genes coincides with transcription of their corresponding antisense long noncoding RNA. These results uncover a previously unknown role of PfSETvs-dependent H3K36me3 in silencing var genes in P. falciparum that might provide a general mechanism by which orthologues of PfSETvs repress gene expression in other eukaryotes. PfSETvs knockout parasites expressing all PfEMP1 proteins may also be applied to the development of a malaria vaccine.

  9. UTX and JMJD3 are histone H3K27 demethylases involved in HOX gene regulation and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Karl; Cloos, Paul A C; Christensen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    -methylation of Lys 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me2/me3). Owing to the essential role of the PRC2 complex in repressing a large number of genes involved in somatic processes, the H3K27me3 mark is associated with the unique epigenetic state of stem cells. The rapid decrease of the H3K27me3 mark during specific stages......The trithorax and the polycomb group proteins are chromatin modifiers, which play a key role in the epigenetic regulation of development, differentiation and maintenance of cell fates. The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates transcriptional repression by catalysing the di- and tri...... associates with the H3K4me3 histone methyltransferase MLL2 (ref. 8) supports a model in which the coordinated removal of repressive marks, polycomb group displacement, and deposition of activating marks are important for the stringent regulation of transcription during cellular differentiation....

  10. Prokaryotic BirA ligase biotinylates K4, K9, K18 and K23 in histone H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Keyna; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-04-30

    BirA ligase is a prokaryotic ortholog of holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) that can biotinylate proteins. This study tested the hypothesis that BirA ligase catalyzes the biotinylation of eukaryotic histones. If so, this would mean that recombinant BirA ligase is a useful surrogate for HCS in studies of histone biotinylation. The biological activity of recombinant BirA ligase was confirmed by enzymatic biotinylation of p67. In particular, it was found that BirA ligase biotinylated both calf thymus histone H1 and human bulk histone extracts. Incubation of recombinant BirA ligase with H3-based synthetic peptides showed that lysines 4, 9, 18, and 23 in histone H3 are the targets for the biotinylation by BirA ligase. Modification of the peptides (e.g., serine phosphorylation) affected the subsequent biotinylation by BirA ligase, suggesting crosstalk between modifications. In conclusion, this study suggests that prokaryotic BirA ligase is a promiscuous enzyme and biotinylates eukaryotic histones. Moreover the biotinylation of histones by BirA ligase is consistent with the proposed role of human HCS in chromatin.

  11. Dynamic changes of histone H3 marks during Caenorhabditis elegans lifecycle revealed by middle-down proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, Simone; Vandamme, Julien; Salcini, Anna Elisabetta; Jensen, Ole N

    2016-02-01

    We applied a middle-down proteomics strategy for large-scale protein analysis during in vivo development of Caenorhabditis elegans. We characterized PTMs on histone H3 N-terminal tails at eight time points during the C. elegans lifecycle, including embryo, larval stages (L1-L4), dauer, and L1/L4 postdauer. Histones were analyzed by our optimized middle-down protein sequencing platform using high mass accuracy MS/MS. This allows quantification of intact histone tails and detailed characterization of distinct histone tails carrying cooccurring PTMs. We measured temporally distinct combinatorial PTM profiles during C. elegans development. We show that the doubly modified form H3K23me3K27me3, which is rare or nonexistent in mammals, is the most abundant PTM in all stages of C. elegans lifecycle. The abundance of H3K23me3 increased during development and it was mutually exclusive of the active marks H3K18ac, R26me1, and R40me1, suggesting a role for H3K23me3 in silent chromatin. We observed distinct PTM profiles for normal L1 larvae and for L1-postdauer larvae, or L4 and L4 postdauer, suggesting that histone PTMs mediate an epigenetic memory that is transmitted during dauer formation. Collectively, our data describe the dynamics of histone H3 combinatorial code during C. elegans lifecycle and demonstrate the feasibility of using middle-down proteomics to study in vivo development of multicellular organisms. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002525 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002525). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Histone Demethylase UTX Promotes Brown Adipocyte Thermogenic Program Via Coordinated Regulation of H3K27 Demethylation and Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Lin; Li, Fenfen; Wu, Rui; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent; Yu, Liqing; Liang, Houjie; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang

    2015-10-09

    Brown adipocytes function to dissipate energy as heat through adaptive thermogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the brown fat thermogenic program may provide insights for the development of therapeutic approaches in the treatment of obesity. Most studies investigating the mechanisms underlying brown fat development focus on genetic mechanisms; little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms in this process. We have discovered that ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX), a histone demethylase for di- or tri-methylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3), plays a potential role in regulating brown adipocyte thermogenic program. We found that UTX is up-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and by cold exposure in both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice, suggesting a potential role in thermogenesis. Inactivation of UTX down-regulates brown fat specific gene expression, while overexpression of UTX does the opposite. Notably, activation of β adrenergic signaling recruits UTX to the UCP1 and PGC1α promoters, leading to decreased H3K27me3, a histone transcriptional repressive mark. UTX demethylates H3K27me3 and subsequently interacts with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) protein CBP, resulting in increased H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), a histone transcriptional active mark. UTX positively regulate brown adipocyte thermogenic program through coordinated control of demethylating H3K27me3 and acetylating H3K27, switching the transcriptional repressive state to the transcriptional active state at the promoters of UCP1 and PGC1α. We conclude that UTX may play a potential role in regulation of brown adipocyte gene expression and may mediate β adrenergic activation of brown fat function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Arsenic silences hepatic PDK4 expression through activation of histone H3K9 methylatransferase G9a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xi; Wu, Jianguo; Choiniere, Jonathan; Yang, Zhihong; Huang, Yi; Bennett, Jason; Wang, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that increased liver cancer incidence is strongly associated with epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes; the latter is contributed by the environmental exposure to arsenic. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is a mitochondrial protein that regulates the TCA cycle. However, the epigenetic mechanisms mediated by arsenic to control PDK4 expression remain elusive. In the present study, we showed that histone methyltransferase G9a- and Suv39H-mediated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylations contributed to PDK4 silencing in hepatic cells. The PDK4 expression was induced by G9a inhibitor BRD4770 (BRD) and Suv39H inhibitor Chaetocin (CHA). In contrast, arsenic exposure decreased PDK4 expression by inducing G9a and increasing H3K9 di- and tri-methylations levels (H3K9me2/3). In addition, arsenic exposure antagonizes the effect of BRD by enhancing the enrichment of H3K9me2/3 in the PKD4 promoter. Moreover, knockdown of G9a using siRNA induced PDK4 expression in HCC cells. Furthermore, arsenic decreased hepatic PDK4 expression as well as diminished the induction of PDK4 by BRD in mouse liver and hepatocytes. Overall, the results suggest that arsenic causes aberrant repressive histone modification to silence PDK4 in both HCC cells and in mouse liver. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing arsenic-mediated epigenetic pathway that inhibits PDK4 expression. (A) BRD induces PDK4 expression by decreasing G9a protein and histone H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 levels as well as diminishing their recruitment to the PDK4 promoter. (B) Arsenic counteracts the effect of BRD by increasing histone H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 levels as well as enhancing their enrichment to the PDK4 promoter. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Histone methyltrasferase G9a inhibitor BRD induces PDK4 expression. • Arsenic decreases PDK4 expression and increases H3K9me2 and me3 levels. • Arsenic enhances H3K9me2/me3 enrichment in the PDK4 promoter. • Arsenic antagonizes the activation of

  14. Distinct chromatin environment associated with phosphorylated H3S10 histone during pollen mitosis I in orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Santosh Kumar; Yamamoto, Maki; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Pollen developmental pathway in plants involving synchronized transferal of cellular divisions from meiosis (microsporogenesis) to mitosis (pollen mitosis I/II) eventually offers a unique "meiosis-mitosis shift" at pollen mitosis I. Since the cell type (haploid microspore) and fate of pollen mitosis I differ from typical mitosis (in meristem cells), it is immensely important to analyze the chromosomal distribution of phosphorylated H3S10 histone during atypical pollen mitosis I to comprehend the role of histone phosphorylation in pollen development. We investigated the chromosomal phosphorylation of H3S10 histone during pollen mitosis I in orchids using immunostaining technique. The chromosomal distribution of H3S10ph during pollen mitosis I revealed differential pattern than that of typical mitosis in plants, however, eventually following the similar trends of mitosis in animals where H3S10 phosphorylation begins in the pericentromeric regions first, later extending to the whole chromosomes, and finally declining at anaphase/early cytokinesis (differentiation of vegetative and generative cells). The study suggests that the chromosomal distribution of H3S10ph during cell division is not universal and can be altered between different cell types encoded for diverse cellular processes. During pollen development, phosphorylation of histone might play a critical role in chromosome condensation events throughout pollen mitosis I in plants.

  15. The fungus Neurospora crassa displays telomeric silencing mediated by multiple sirtuins and by methylation of histone H3 lysine 9

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    Smith Kristina M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silencing of genes inserted near telomeres provides a model to investigate the function of heterochromatin. We initiated a study of telomeric silencing in Neurospora crassa, a fungus that sports DNA methylation, unlike most other organisms in which telomeric silencing has been characterized. Results The selectable marker, hph, was inserted at the subtelomere of Linkage Group VR in an nst-1 (neurospora sir two-1 mutant and was silenced when nst-1 function was restored. We show that NST-1 is an H4-specific histone deacetylase. A second marker, bar, tested at two other subtelomeres, was similarly sensitive to nst-1 function. Mutation of three additional SIR2 homologues, nst-2, nst-3 and nst-5, partially relieved silencing. Two genes showed stronger effects: dim-5, which encodes a histone H3 K9 methyltransferase and hpo, which encodes heterochromatin protein-1. Subtelomeres showed variable, but generally low, levels of DNA methylation. Elimination of DNA methylation caused partial derepression of one telomeric marker. Characterization of histone modifications at subtelomeric regions revealed H3 trimethyl-K9, H3 trimethyl-K27, and H4 trimethyl-K20 enrichment. These modifications were slightly reduced when telomeric silencing was compromised. In contrast, acetylation of histones H3 and H4 increased. Conclusion We demonstrate the presence of telomeric silencing in Neurospora and show a dependence on histone deacetylases and methylation of histone H3 lysine 9. Our studies also reveal silencing functions for DIM-5 and HP1 that appear independent of their role in de novo DNA methylation.

  16. Dynamic changes of histone H3 marks during Caenorhabditis elegans lifecycle revealed by middle-down proteomics

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    Sidoli, Simone; Vandamme, Julien; Elisabetta Salcini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We applied a middle-down proteomics strategy for large scale protein analysis during in vivo development of Caenorhabditis elegans. We characterized post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone H3 N-terminal tails at eight time points during the C. elegans lifecycle, including embryo, larval......-occurring PTMs. We measured temporally distinct combinatorial PTM profiles during C. elegans development. We show that the doubly modified form H3K23me3K27me3, which is rare or non-existent in mammals, is the most abundant PTM in all stages of C. elegans lifecycle. The abundance of H3K23me3 increased during...... that is transmitted during dauer formation. Collectively, our data describe the dynamics of histone H3 combinatorial code during C. elegans lifecycle and demonstrate the feasibility of using middle-down proteomics to study in vivo development of multicellular organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All...

  17. RNA polymerase II phosphorylation at serine 2 and histone H3 tri-methylation at lysine 36 are key steps for thyroid hormone receptor β gene activation by thyroid hormone in Rana catesbeiana tadpole liver.

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    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Ishihara, Akinori; Goda, Toshinao; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-20

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for amphibian metamorphosis, during which the expression of many genes is controlled directly or indirectly through TH receptors (TRs). Thyroid hormone binding to TRs induces coregulator switching on regulatory regions of TH-inducible genes: corepressors complexed with unliganded TRs are replaced by coactivators complexed with liganded TR resulting in transcriptionally active states. The coregulator switching is linked to histone acetylation. In our study, we have investigated the acetylation and methylation states of histones H3 and H4 using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays on the 5' coding region of the TRβ gene, a primary TH-response gene, in the liver from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles either treated with or not treated with 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). 3,3',5-Triiodothyronine treatment for 3 days increased the amount of TRβ transcript by 19-fold. This increase was associated with increases in the acetylation of histone H4 and lysine 9 in histone H3 (H3-K9), and tri-methylation of lysine 36 in histone H3 (H3-K36). In addition, the amounts of RNA polymerase II (PolII) and serine 2 phosphorylation in PolII (PolII-S2) increased. These results suggest that T3 treatment enhances the elongation activity of PolII on the TRβ gene in the liver by increasing histone H3-K36 tri-methylation through PolII-S2 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Both H4K20 mono-methylation and H3K56 acetylation mark transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hanna; Kwon, Chang Seob; Choi, Yoonjung; Lee, Daeyoup

    2016-01-01

    Nucleosome dynamics facilitated by histone turnover is required for transcription as well as DNA replication and repair. Histone turnover is often associated with various histone modifications such as H3K56 acetylation (H3K56Ac), H3K36 methylation (H3K36me), and H4K20 methylation (H4K20me). In order to correlate histone modifications and transcription-dependent histone turnover, we performed genome wide analyses for euchromatic regions in G2/M-arrested fission yeast. The results show that transcription-dependent histone turnover at 5′ promoter and 3′ termination regions is directly correlated with the occurrence of H3K56Ac and H4K20 mono-methylation (H4K20me1) in actively transcribed genes. Furthermore, the increase of H3K56Ac and H4K20me1 and antisense RNA production was observed in the absence of the histone H3K36 methyltransferase Set2 and histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) that are involved in the suppression of histone turnover within the coding regions. These results together indicate that H4K20me1 as well as H3K56Ac are bona fide marks for transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast.

  19. Both H4K20 mono-methylation and H3K56 acetylation mark transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hanna [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Chang Seob [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan, 614-822 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoonjung, E-mail: jjungii@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Daeyoup, E-mail: daeyoup@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    Nucleosome dynamics facilitated by histone turnover is required for transcription as well as DNA replication and repair. Histone turnover is often associated with various histone modifications such as H3K56 acetylation (H3K56Ac), H3K36 methylation (H3K36me), and H4K20 methylation (H4K20me). In order to correlate histone modifications and transcription-dependent histone turnover, we performed genome wide analyses for euchromatic regions in G2/M-arrested fission yeast. The results show that transcription-dependent histone turnover at 5′ promoter and 3′ termination regions is directly correlated with the occurrence of H3K56Ac and H4K20 mono-methylation (H4K20me1) in actively transcribed genes. Furthermore, the increase of H3K56Ac and H4K20me1 and antisense RNA production was observed in the absence of the histone H3K36 methyltransferase Set2 and histone deacetylase complex (HDAC) that are involved in the suppression of histone turnover within the coding regions. These results together indicate that H4K20me1 as well as H3K56Ac are bona fide marks for transcription-dependent histone turnover in fission yeast.

  20. Transcription recovery after DNA damage requires chromatin priming by the H3.3 histone chaperone HIRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salomé; Polo, Sophie E; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-09-26

    Understanding how to recover fully functional and transcriptionally active chromatin when its integrity has been challenged by genotoxic stress is a critical issue. Here, by investigating how chromatin dynamics regulate transcriptional activity in response to DNA damage in human cells, we identify a pathway involving the histone chaperone histone regulator A (HIRA) to promote transcription restart after UVC damage. Our mechanistic studies reveal that HIRA accumulates at sites of UVC irradiation upon detection of DNA damage prior to repair and deposits newly synthesized H3.3 histones. This local action of HIRA depends on ubiquitylation events associated with damage recognition. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the early and transient function of HIRA in response to DNA damage primes chromatin for later reactivation of transcription. We propose that HIRA-dependent histone deposition serves as a chromatin bookmarking system to facilitate transcription recovery after genotoxic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dengue virus capsid protein binds core histones and inhibits nucleosome formation in human liver cells.

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    Tonya M Colpitts

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (reemerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection.

  2. Dengue virus capsid protein binds core histones and inhibits nucleosome formation in human liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M; Barthel, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (re)emerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C) is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection.

  3. Dengue Virus Capsid Protein Binds Core Histones and Inhibits Nucleosome Formation in Human Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Barthel, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (re)emerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C) is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection. PMID:21909430

  4. The Cac2 subunit is essential for productive histone binding and nucleosome assembly in CAF-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattiroli, Francesca; Gu, Yajie; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Luger, Karolin

    2017-04-18

    Nucleosome assembly following DNA replication controls epigenome maintenance and genome integrity. Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is the histone chaperone responsible for histone (H3-H4)2 deposition following DNA synthesis. Structural and functional details for this chaperone complex and its interaction with histones are slowly emerging. Using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, combined with in vitro and in vivo mutagenesis studies, we identified the regions involved in the direct interaction between the yeast CAF-1 subunits, and mapped the CAF-1 domains responsible for H3-H4 binding. The large subunit, Cac1 organizes the assembly of CAF-1. Strikingly, H3-H4 binding is mediated by a composite interface, shaped by Cac1-bound Cac2 and the Cac1 acidic region. Cac2 is indispensable for productive histone binding, while deletion of Cac3 has only moderate effects on H3-H4 binding and nucleosome assembly. These results define direct structural roles for yeast CAF-1 subunits and uncover a previously unknown critical function of the middle subunit in CAF-1.

  5. Mass spectrometry analysis of the variants of histone H3 and H4 of soybean and their post-translational modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Hon-Ming

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modifications and histone variants are of importance in many biological processes. To understand the biological functions of the global dynamics of histone modifications and histone variants in higher plants, we elucidated the variants and post-translational modifications of histones in soybean, a legume plant with a much bigger genome than that of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In soybean leaves, mono-, di- and tri-methylation at Lysine 4, Lysine 27 and Lysine 36, and acetylation at Lysine 14, 18 and 23 were detected in HISTONE H3. Lysine 27 was prone to being mono-methylated, while tri-methylation was predominant at Lysine 36. We also observed that Lysine 27 methylation and Lysine 36 methylation usually excluded each other in HISTONE H3. Although methylation at HISTONE H3 Lysine 79 was not reported in A. thaliana, mono- and di-methylated HISTONE H3 Lysine 79 were detected in soybean. Besides, acetylation at Lysine 8 and 12 of HISTONE H4 in soybean were identified. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and nano-liquid chromatography, two variants of HISTONE H3 were detected and their modifications were determined. They were different at positions of A31F41S87S90 (HISTONE variant H3.1 and T31Y41H87L90 (HISTONE variant H3.2, respectively. The methylation patterns in these two HISTONE H3 variants also exhibited differences. Lysine 4 and Lysine 36 methylation were only detected in HISTONE H3.2, suggesting that HISTONE variant H3.2 might be associated with actively transcribing genes. In addition, two variants of histone H4 (H4.1 and H4.2 were also detected, which were missing in other organisms. In the histone variant H4.1 and H4.2, the amino acid 60 was isoleucine and valine, respectively. Conclusion This work revealed several distinct variants of soybean histone and their modifications that were different from A. thaliana, thus providing important biological information toward further understanding of the histone

  6. Insulin induced alteration in post-translational modifications of histone H3 under a hyperglycemic condition in L6 skeletal muscle myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Dhiraj G; Gupta, Jeena; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2009-06-01

    Chromatin remodelling events, especially histone modifications are proposed to form the mainstay for most of the biological processes. However, the role of these histone modifications in the progression of diabetes is still unknown. Hyperglycemia plays a major role in diabetes and its complications. The present study was undertaken to check the effect of insulin on alterations in post-translational modifications of histone H3 in L6 myoblasts under a hyperglycemic condition. We provide first evidence that insulin under hyperglycemic condition alters multiple histone modifications by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Insulin induces dose dependent changes in Lysine 4 and 9 methylation, Ser 10 phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3. Interestingly, insulin induced generation of reactive oxygen species induces dephosphorylation and deacetylation of histone H3. Preincubation with catalase and DPI prevents these changes in post-translational modifications of histone H3. Furthermore, changes in histone H3 phosphorylation was found to be independent of ERK, p38, RSK2 and MSK1. Moreover, serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid attenuates insulin induced dephosphorylation and deacetylation of histone H3, suggesting a role of serine/threonine phosphatases in altering modifications of histone H3. These changes in epigenetic modifications can provide new insights into pathogenesis of diabetes.

  7. 3-Deoxyglucosone: a potential glycating agent accountable for structural alteration in H3 histone protein through generation of different AGEs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaluddin M Ashraf

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs are heterogeneous group of compounds, known to be implicated in diabetic complications. One of the consequences of the Maillard reaction is attributed to the production of reactive intermediate products such as α-oxoaldehydes. 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG, an α-oxoaldehyde has been found to be involved in accelerating vascular damage during diabetes. In the present study, calf thymus histone H3 was treated with 3-deoxyglucosone to investigate the generation of AGEs (Nε-carboxymethyllysine, pentosidine, by examining the degree of side chain modifications and formation of different intermediates and employing various physicochemical techniques. The results clearly indicate the formation of AGEs and structural changes upon glycation of H3 by 3-deoxyglucosone, which may hamper the normal functioning of H3 histone, that may compromise the veracity of chromatin structures and function in secondary complications of diabetes.

  8. SET DOMAIN GROUP 708, a histone H3 lysine 36-specific methyltransferase, controls flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Wei, Gang; Shi, Jinlei; Jin, Jing; Shen, Ting; Ni, Ting; Shen, Wen-Hui; Yu, Yu; Dong, Aiwu

    2016-04-01

    As a key epigenetic modification, the methylation of histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) modulates chromatin structure and is involved in diverse biological processes. To better understand the language of H3K36 methylation in rice (Oryza sativa), we chose potential histone methylation enzymes for functional exploration. In particular, we characterized rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 708 (SDG708) as an H3K36-specific methyltransferase possessing the ability to deposit up to three methyl groups on H3K36. Compared with the wild-type, SDG708-knockdown rice mutants displayed a late-flowering phenotype under both long-day and short-day conditions because of the down-regulation of the key flowering regulatory genes Heading date 3a (Hd3a), RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1), and Early heading date 1 (Ehd1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that H3K36me1, H3K36me2, and H3K36me3 levels were reduced at these loci in SDG708-deficient plants. More importantly, SDG708 was able to directly target and effect H3K36 methylation on specific flowering genes. In fact, knockdown of SDG708 led to misexpression of a set of functional genes and a genome-wide decrease in H3K36me1/2/3 levels during the early growth stages of rice. SDG708 is a methyltransferase that catalyses genome-wide deposition of all three methyl groups on H3K36 and is involved in many biological processes in addition to flowering promotion. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Chromosome dynamics visualized with an anti-centromeric histone H3 antibody in Allium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaki, Kiyotaka; Yamamoto, Maki; Yamaji, Naoki; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Murata, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Due to the ease with which chromosomes can be observed, the Allium species, and onion in particular, have been familiar materials employed in cytogenetic experiments in biology. In this study, centromeric histone H3 (CENH3)-coding cDNAs were identified in four Allium species (onion, welsh onion, garlic and garlic chives) and cloned. Anti-CENH3 antibody was then raised against a deduced amino acid sequence of CENH3 of welsh onion. The antibody recognized all CENH3 orthologs of the Allium species tested. Immunostaining with the antibody enabled clear visualization of chromosome behavior during mitosis in the species. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) observation of mitotic cell division was achieved by subjecting root sections to immunohistochemical techniques. The 3D dynamics of the cells and position of cell-cycle marker proteins (CENH3 and α-tubulin) were clearly revealed by immunohistochemical staining with the antibodies. The immunohistochemical analysis made it possible to establish an overview of the location of dividing cells in the root tissues. This breakthrough in technique, in addition to the two centromeric DNA sequences isolated from welsh onion by chromatin immuno-precipitation using the antibody, should lead to a better understanding of plant cell division. A phylogenetic analysis of Allium CENH3s together with the previously reported plant CENH3s showed two separate clades for monocot species tested. One clade was made from CENH3s of the Allium species with those of Poaceae species, and the other from CENH3s of a holocentric species (Luzula nivea). These data may imply functional differences of CENH3s between holocentric and monocentric species. Centromeric localization of DNA sequences isolated from welsh onion by chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) using the antibody was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and ChIP-quantitative PCR.

  10. Leg regeneration is epigenetically regulated by histone H3K27 methylation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshimasa; Bando, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Taro; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Tomioka, Kenji; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2015-09-01

    Hemimetabolous insects such as the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus regenerate lost tissue parts using blastemal cells, a population of dedifferentiated proliferating cells. The expression of several factors that control epigenetic modification is upregulated in the blastema compared with differentiated tissue, suggesting that epigenetic changes in gene expression might control the differentiation status of blastema cells during regeneration. To clarify the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation during regeneration, we focused on the function of the Gryllus Enhancer of zeste [Gb'E(z)] and Ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene on the X chromosome (Gb'Utx) homologues, which regulate methylation and demethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), respectively. Methylated histone H3K27 in the regenerating leg was diminished by Gb'E(z)(RNAi) and was increased by Gb'Utx(RNAi). Regenerated Gb'E(z)(RNAi) cricket legs exhibited extra leg segment formation between the tibia and tarsus, and regenerated Gb'Utx(RNAi) cricket legs showed leg joint formation defects in the tarsus. In the Gb'E(z)(RNAi) regenerating leg, the Gb'dac expression domain expanded in the tarsus. By contrast, in the Gb'Utx(RNAi) regenerating leg, Gb'Egfr expression in the middle of the tarsus was diminished. These results suggest that regulation of the histone H3K27 methylation state is involved in the repatterning process during leg regeneration among cricket species via the epigenetic regulation of leg patterning gene expression. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Changes in histone H3 and H4 multi-acetylation during natural and forced dormancy break in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Law, R.; Suttle, Jeffrey C.

    2004-04-01

    The effects of post-harvest storage and dormancy progression on histone acetylation patterns were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) tubers. Storage of field-grown tubers at 3 degrees C in the dark resulted in the progressive loss of tuber meristem dormancy, defined as measurable growth after transfer to 20 degrees C for 7 days. Dormancy emergence was concomitant with sustained increases in histone H3.1 and H3.2 multi-acetylation, and with transient increases in H4 multi-acetylation that peaked 4-5 months post-harvest. Treatment of dormant tubers with bromoethane (BE) resulted in rapid loss of dormancy over 9 days. Similar to cold-stored field-grown tubers, dormancy break in BE-treated tubers occurred at the same time as transient rises in H4 and H3.1/3.2 multi-acetylation, peaking at days 1 and 4, respectively. BE treatment also resulted in small increases in RNA synthesis at day 6, and a three-fold, sustained activation of DNA synthesis thereafter. A defined sequence of epigenetic events, beginning with previously characterized transient cytosine demethylation, followed by increased H3 and H4 histone acetylation and ultimately, tuber meristem re-activation, may thus exist in potatoes during dormancy exit and resumption of rapid growth.

  12. Structure of the Dnmt1 Reader Module Complexed with a Unique Two-Mono-Ubiquitin Mark on Histone H3 Reveals the Basis for DNA Methylation Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Saeki, Yasushi; Moritsugu, Kei; Morimoto, Daichi; Yamaguchi, Luna; Arai, Naoko; Matsumura, Rumie; Kawakami, Toru; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Shimamura, Shintaro; Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Tajima, Shoji; Tanaka, Keiji; Ariyoshi, Mariko; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Kidera, Akinori; Suetake, Isao; Arita, Kyohei; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2017-10-19

    The proper location and timing of Dnmt1 activation are essential for DNA methylation maintenance. We demonstrate here that Dnmt1 utilizes two-mono-ubiquitylated histone H3 as a unique ubiquitin mark for its recruitment to and activation at DNA methylation sites. The crystal structure of the replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) of Dnmt1 in complex with H3-K18Ub/23Ub reveals striking differences to the known ubiquitin-recognition structures. The two ubiquitins are simultaneously bound to the RFTS with a combination of canonical hydrophobic and atypical hydrophilic interactions. The C-lobe of RFTS, together with the K23Ub surface, also recognizes the N-terminal tail of H3. The binding of H3-K18Ub/23Ub results in spatial rearrangement of two lobes in the RFTS, suggesting the opening of its active site. Actually, incubation of Dnmt1 with H3-K18Ub/23Ub increases its catalytic activity in vitro. Our results therefore shed light on the essential role of a unique ubiquitin-binding module in DNA methylation maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction of HP1 and Brg1/Brm with the globular domain of histone H3 is required for HP1-mediated repression.

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    Marc Lavigne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterochromatin-enriched HP1 proteins play a critical role in regulation of transcription. These proteins contain two related domains known as the chromo- and the chromoshadow-domain. The chromo-domain binds histone H3 tails methylated on lysine 9. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that the affinity of HP1 proteins to native methylated chromatin is relatively poor and that the opening of chromatin occurring during DNA replication facilitates their binding to nucleosomes. These observations prompted us to investigate whether HP1 proteins have additional histone binding activities, envisioning also affinity for regions potentially occluded by the nucleosome structure. We find that the chromoshadow-domain interacts with histone H3 in a region located partially inside the nucleosomal barrel at the entry/exit point of the nucleosome. Interestingly, this region is also contacted by the catalytic subunits of the human SWI/SNF complex. In vitro, efficient SWI/SNF remodeling requires this contact and is inhibited in the presence of HP1 proteins. The antagonism between SWI/SNF and HP1 proteins is also observed in vivo on a series of interferon-regulated genes. Finally, we show that SWI/SNF activity favors loading of HP1 proteins to chromatin both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our data suggest that HP1 chromoshadow-domains can benefit from the opening of nucleosomal structures to bind chromatin and that HP1 proteins use this property to detect and arrest unwanted chromatin remodeling.

  14. Broad histone H3K4me3 domains in mouse oocytes modulate maternal-to-zygotic transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, John Arne; Jung, Inkyung; Aanes, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    Maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is essential for the formation of a new individual, but is still poorly understood despite recent progress in analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation in early embryogenesis. Dynamic histone modifications may have important roles in MZT, but direct...... embryos. Notably, we show that ~22% of the oocyte genome is associated with broad H3K4me3 domains that are anti-correlated with DNA methylation. The H3K4me3 signal becomes confined to transcriptional-start-site regions in 2-cell embryos, concomitant with the onset of major zygotic genome activation....... Active removal of broad H3K4me3 domains by the lysine demethylases KDM5A and KDM5B is required for normal zygotic genome activation and is essential for early embryo development. Our results provide insight into the onset of the developmental program in mouse embryos and demonstrate a role for broad H3K4...

  15. Dynamic acetylation of all lysine 4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus: analysis at c-fos and c-jun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Hazzalin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of current research into gene induction relates to chromatin and nucleosomal regulation, especially the significance of multiple histone modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation during this process. We have discovered a novel physiological characteristic of all lysine 4 (K4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus, distinguishing it from lysine 9-methylated H3. K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to continuous dynamic turnover of acetylation, whereas lysine 9-methylated H3 is not. We have previously reported dynamic histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation as a key characteristic of the inducible proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. We show here that dynamically acetylated histone H3 at these genes is also K4-methylated. Although all three modifications are proven to co-exist on the same nucleosome at these genes, phosphorylation and acetylation appear transiently during gene induction, whereas K4 methylation remains detectable throughout this process. Finally, we address the functional significance of the turnover of histone acetylation on the process of gene induction. We find that inhibition of turnover, despite causing enhanced histone acetylation at these genes, produces immediate inhibition of gene induction. These data show that all K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to the continuous action of HATs and HDACs, and indicates that at c-fos and c-jun, contrary to the predominant model, turnover and not stably enhanced acetylation is relevant for efficient gene induction.

  16. Differential regulation of the phosphorylation of Trimethyl-lysine27 histone H3 at serine 28 in distinct populations of striatal projection neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Södersten, Erik; Spigolon, Giada

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H3 (H3) on serine 28 (S28) at genomic regions marked by trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3K27me3) often correlates with increased expression of genes normally repressed by Polycomb group proteins (PcG). We show that amphetamine, an addictive psychostimulant, and haloperidol...... of histone H3, decreases the effect of amphetamine, but not that of haloperidol. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that amphetamine and haloperidol increase the phosphorylation of H3K27me3S28 at the promoter regions of Atf3, Npas4 and Lipg, three genes repressed by PcG. These results identify H3K...

  17. Increased histone H3 phosphorylation in neurons in specific brain structures after induction of status epilepticus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Mori

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE induces pathological and morphological changes in the brain. Recently, it has become clear that excessive neuronal excitation, stress and drug abuse induce chromatin remodeling in neurons, thereby altering gene expression. Chromatin remodeling is a key mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation. Histone H3 phosphorylation is frequently used as a marker of chromatin remodeling and is closely related to the upregulation of mRNA transcription. In the present study, we analyzed H3 phosphorylation levels in vivo using immunohistochemistry in the brains of mice with pilocarpine-induced SE. A substantial increase in H3 phosphorylation was detected in neurons in specific brain structures. Increased H3 phosphorylation was dependent on neuronal excitation. In particular, a robust upregulation of H3 phosphorylation was detected in the caudate putamen, and there was a gradient of phosphorylated H3(+ (PH3(+ neurons along the medio-lateral axis. After unilateral ablation of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, the distribution of PH3(+ neurons changed in the caudate putamen. Moreover, our histological analysis suggested that, in addition to the well-known MSK1 (mitogen and stress-activated kinase/H3 phosphorylation/c-fos pathway, other signaling pathways were also activated. Together, our findings suggest that a number of genes involved in the pathology of epileptogenesis are upregulated in PH3(+ brain regions, and that H3 phosphorylation is a suitable indicator of strong neuronal excitation.

  18. Characterization of protein/ligand interactions by 1H/3H exchange: application to the hAsf1/ histone H3 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, G.

    2007-05-01

    In the first chapter will be exposed the main current methods of identification to high debit of the interactions protein-protein. Then the methods allowing to characterize the surfaces of interaction or to determine the structures of the complexes will be listed by discussing the main advantages and the inconveniences. Our approach of characterization of the zones of interaction protein-protein is a method of 'foot-printing' 1, based on the identification and radicals' quantification formed on the residues of proteins accessible to the water. The second chapter will so discuss the development of this method of radical identification using the atom of tritium as radioactive label. Our approach will finally be validated in the third chapter by applying it to the characterization of amino acids involved in the interaction enter the human protein anti silencing factor 1 (hAsf11-156) and a fragment of the histone H 3 . (N.C.)

  19. Total chemical synthesis of methylated analogues of histone 3 revealed KDM4D as a potential regulator of H3K79me3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbara, Muhammad; Guttmann-Raviv, Noga; Maity, Suman Kumar; Ayoub, Nabieh; Brik, Ashraf

    2017-09-15

    Histone H3 methylation plays an important role in regulating gene expression. In histones in general, this mark is dynamically regulated via various demethylases, which found to control cell fate decisions as well as linked to several diseases, including neurological and cancer. Despite major progress in studying methylation mark at various positions in H3 histone proteins, less is known about the regulation of methylated H3 at Lys79. Methylation at this site is known to have direct cross-talk with monoubiquitination of histone H2B at positions Lys120 and 34, as well as with acetylated H3 at Lys9. Herein we applied convergent total chemical protein synthesis to prepare trimethylated H3 at Lys79 to perform initial studies related to the regulation of this mark. Our study enabled us to identify KDM4D lysine demethylase as a potential regulator for trimethylated H3 at Lys79. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulations of DNA Contacts by Linker Histones and Post-translational Modifications Determine the Mobility and Modifiability of Nucleosomal H3 Tails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stützer, Alexandra; Liokatis, Stamatios; Kiesel, Anja; Schwarzer, Dirk; Sprangers, Remco; Söding, Johannes; Selenko, Philipp; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-21

    Post-translational histone modifications and linker histone incorporation regulate chromatin structure and genome activity. How these systems interface on a molecular level is unclear. Using biochemistry and NMR spectroscopy, we deduced mechanistic insights into the modification behavior of N-terminal histone H3 tails in different nucleosomal contexts. We find that linker histones generally inhibit modifications of different H3 sites and reduce H3 tail dynamics in nucleosomes. These effects are caused by modulations of electrostatic interactions of H3 tails with linker DNA and largely depend on the C-terminal domains of linker histones. In agreement, linker histone occupancy and H3 tail modifications segregate on a genome-wide level. Charge-modulating modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation weaken transient H3 tail-linker DNA interactions, increase H3 tail dynamics, and, concomitantly, enhance general modifiability. We propose that alterations of H3 tail-linker DNA interactions by linker histones and charge-modulating modifications execute basal control mechanisms of chromatin function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The ATRX-ADD domain binds to H3 tail peptides and reads the combined methylation state of K4 and K9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Tamas, Raluca; Bock, Ina; Tattermusch, Anna; Dimitrova, Emilia; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-06-01

    Mutations in the ATRX protein are associated with the alpha-thalassemia and mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X). Almost half of the disease-causing mutations occur in its ATRX-Dnmt3-Dnmt3L (ADD) domain. By employing peptide arrays, chromatin pull-down and peptide binding assays, we show specific binding of the ADD domain to H3 histone tail peptides containing H3K9me3. Peptide binding was disrupted by the presence of the H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 modification marks indicating that the ATRX-ADD domain has a combined readout of these two important marks (absence of H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 and presence of H3K9me3). Disease-causing mutations reduced ATRX-ADD binding to H3 tail peptides. ATRX variants, which fail in the H3K9me3 interaction, show a loss of heterochromatic localization in cells, which indicates the chromatin targeting function of the ADD domain of ATRX. Disruption of H3K9me3 binding may be a general pathogenicity pathway of ATRX mutations in the ADD domain which may explain the clustering of disease mutations in this part of the ATRX protein.

  2. Prenatal MAM administration affects histone H3 methylation in postnatal life in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkowiak, Marzena; Bator, Ewelina; Latusz, Joachim; Mordalska, Patrycja; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2014-02-01

    Several findings have indicated that schizophrenia may be connected with the impaired epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. The present study investigated the epigenetic modifications connected with histone H3 methylation at lysine (K)4 and K9 in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia based on prenatal administration of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) at embryonic day 17, which impairs the sensorimotor gating process in adult but not adolescent animals. The effect of MAM was determined at different postnatal ages, pre-puberty (P15, P30 and P45) and post-puberty (P60 and P70), using western blot analyses. MAM treatment altered the levels of H3K9me2 before puberty. H3K9me2 was decreased at P15 and P45 but was increased at P30. In contrast, H3K4me3 was noticeably decreased in adult rats. Immunofluorescence experiments revealed that H3K9me2 protein levels were increased in neuronal cells at P30 and that H3K4me3 levels were decreased in astrocytes at P60 after MAM administration. Decreases in the methyltransferase ASH2L protein levels at P45, P60 and P70 were also observed, while the protein levels of the methyltransferase G9a did not change. In addition, levels of the demethylases LSD1 and JARID1c were analysed after MAM administration. LSD1 protein levels were increased at P15 but decreased at P30. JARID1c protein levels were increased in the MAM-treated animals at P60. Decreased Gad1 mRNA levels were found in adult MAM-treated animals, similar to alternation observed in schizophrenia. The present study indicates that prenatal MAM administration evokes changes in the methylation patterns of histone H3 during postnatal life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring PHD fingers and H3K4me0 interactions with molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations: AIRE-PHD1, a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Spiliotopoulos

    Full Text Available PHD fingers represent one of the largest families of epigenetic readers capable of decoding post-translationally modified or unmodified histone H3 tails. Because of their direct involvement in human pathologies they are increasingly considered as a potential therapeutic target. Several PHD/histone-peptide structures have been determined, however relatively little information is available on their dynamics. Studies aiming to characterize the dynamic and energetic determinants driving histone peptide recognition by epigenetic readers would strongly benefit from computational studies. Herein we focus on the dynamic and energetic characterization of the PHD finger subclass specialized in the recognition of histone H3 peptides unmodified in position K4 (H3K4me0. As a case study we focused on the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator protein (AIRE-PHD1 in complex with H3K4me0. PCA analysis of the covariance matrix of free AIRE-PHD1 highlights the presence of a "flapping" movement, which is blocked in an open conformation upon binding to H3K4me0. Moreover, binding free energy calculations obtained through Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA methodology are in good qualitative agreement with experiments and allow dissection of the energetic terms associated with native and alanine mutants of AIRE-PHD1/H3K4me0 complexes. MM/PBSA calculations have also been applied to the energetic analysis of other PHD fingers recognizing H3K4me0. In this case we observe excellent correlation between computed and experimental binding free energies. Overall calculations show that H3K4me0 recognition by PHD fingers relies on compensation of the electrostatic and polar solvation energy terms and is stabilized by non-polar interactions.

  4. Substitutions in the amino-terminal tail of neurospora histone H3 have varied effects on DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyur K Adhvaryu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are partitioned into active and inactive domains called euchromatin and heterochromatin, respectively. In Neurospora crassa, heterochromatin formation requires methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9 by the SET domain protein DIM-5. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 reads this mark and directly recruits the DNA methyltransferase, DIM-2. An ectopic H3 gene carrying a substitution at K9 (hH3(K9L or hH3(K9R causes global loss of DNA methylation in the presence of wild-type hH3 (hH3(WT. We investigated whether other residues in the N-terminal tail of H3 are important for methylation of DNA and of H3K9. Mutations in the N-terminal tail of H3 were generated and tested for effects in vitro and in vivo, in the presence or absence of the wild-type allele. Substitutions at K4, K9, T11, G12, G13, K14, K27, S28, and K36 were lethal in the absence of a wild-type allele. In contrast, mutants bearing substitutions of R2, A7, R8, S10, A15, P16, R17, K18, and K23 were viable. The effect of substitutions on DNA methylation were variable; some were recessive and others caused a semi-dominant loss of DNA methylation. Substitutions of R2, A7, R8, S10, T11, G12, G13, K14, and P16 caused partial or complete loss of DNA methylation in vivo. Only residues R8-G12 were required for DIM-5 activity in vitro. DIM-5 activity was inhibited by dimethylation of H3K4 and by phosphorylation of H3S10, but not by acetylation of H3K14. We conclude that the H3 tail acts as an integrating platform for signals that influence DNA methylation, in part through methylation of H3K9.

  5. Influence of Histones on the Antibody Response in Guinea Pigs to Vaccination with A/Aichi/2/68 (H3 N2) Influenza Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Joachim; Gillissen, Günther

    1973-01-01

    The influence of total, F1, and F3 histones on the primary antibody response in guinea pigs to vaccination with influenza virus A/2/Aichi/2/68 (H3 N2) was investigated. It was found that histones can greatly reduce the immunoglobulin (Ig) M and, to a smaller degree, the IgG antibody response. The immunosuppressive effect of histones was found to depend critically on the dose of virus used for vaccination, on the type and dose of histones, and on the schedule of histone application. PMID:4742973

  6. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation in Eucalyptus grandis developing xylem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G Hussey; Eshchar Mizrachi; Andrew Groover; Dave K Berger; Alexander A Myburg

    2015-01-01

    Background: Histone modifications play an integral role in plant development, but have been poorly studied inwoody plants. Investigating chromatin organization in wood-forming tissue and its role in regulating gene expression allows us to understand the mechanisms underlying cellular differentiation during xylogenesis (wood...

  7. Over-expression of histone H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15 enhances salt tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eShen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in stress-responsive gene expression and gene priming in plants. However, the role of H3K4me3 resetting in the processes is not clear. In this work we studied the expression and function of Arabidopsis H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15. We show that the expression of JMJ15 was relatively low and was limited to a number of tissues during vegetative growth but was higher in young floral organs. Over-expression of the gene in gain-of-function mutants reduced the plant height with accumulation of lignin in stems, while the loss-of-function mutation did not produce any visible phenotype. The gain-of-function mutants showed enhanced salt tolerance, whereas the loss-of-function mutant was more sensitive to salt compared to the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that over-expression of JMJ15 down-regulated many genes which are preferentially marked by H3K4me3 and H3K4me2. Many of the down-regulated genes encode transcription regulators involved in stress responses. The data suggest that increased JMJ15 levels may regulate the gene expression program that enhances stress tolerance.

  8. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Chandan [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ito, Takashi [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Kawahara, Ko-ichi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto [Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Maruyama, Ikuro, E-mail: rinken@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis.

  9. Saturated fatty acid palmitate induces extracellular release of histone H3: A possible mechanistic basis for high-fat diet-induced inflammation and thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Chandan; Ito, Takashi; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Shrestha, Binita; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •High-fat diet feeding and palmitate induces the release of nuclear protein histone H3. •ROS production and JNK signaling mediates the release of histone H3. •Extracellular histones induces proinflammatory and procoagulant response. -- Abstract: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a key contributor to high-fat diet (HFD)-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and atherosclerosis. The inflammation is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms by which a HFD induces low-grade inflammation are poorly understood. Here, we show that histone H3, a major protein component of chromatin, is released into the extracellular space when mice are fed a HFD or macrophages are stimulated with the saturated fatty acid palmitate. In a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, palmitate activated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK signaling. Inhibitors of these pathways dampened palmitate-induced histone H3 release, suggesting that the extracellular release of histone H3 was mediated, in part, through ROS and JNK signaling. Extracellular histone activated endothelial cells toexpress the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the procoagulant molecule tissue factor, which are known to contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and thrombosis. These results suggest the possible contribution of extracellular histone to the pathogenesis of HFD-induced inflammation and thrombosis

  10. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 in Nuclear Shaping during Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Li Wu

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis in most animals, the basic proteins associated with DNA are continuously changing and somatic-typed histones are partly replaced by sperm-specific histones, which are then successively replaced by transition proteins and protamines. With the replacement of sperm nuclear basic proteins, nuclei progressively undergo chromatin condensation. The Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis is also known as the hairy crab or river crab (phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, order Decapoda, and family Grapsidae. The spermatozoa of this species are aflagellate, and each has a spherical acrosome surrounded by a cup-shaped nucleus, peculiar to brachyurans. An interesting characteristic of the E. sinensis sperm nucleus is its lack of electron-dense chromatin. However, its formation is not clear. In this study, sequences encoding histones H3 and H4 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Western blotting indicated that H3 and H4 existed in the sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry demonstrated that histones H3 and H4 were both present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature spermatozoa. The nuclear labeling density of histone H4 decreased in sperm nuclei, while histone H3 labeling was not changed significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of histones H3 and H4 were higher at mitotic and meiotic stages than in later spermiogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the mature sperm nuclei of E. sinensis contain histones H3 and H4. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histones H3 and H4. This finding extends the study of sperm histones of E. sinensis and provides some basic data for exploring how decapod crustaceans form uncondensed sperm chromatin.

  11. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 in Nuclear Shaping during Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Li; Kang, Xian-Jiang; Guo, Ming-Shen; Mu, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    During spermatogenesis in most animals, the basic proteins associated with DNA are continuously changing and somatic-typed histones are partly replaced by sperm-specific histones, which are then successively replaced by transition proteins and protamines. With the replacement of sperm nuclear basic proteins, nuclei progressively undergo chromatin condensation. The Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is also known as the hairy crab or river crab (phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, order Decapoda, and family Grapsidae). The spermatozoa of this species are aflagellate, and each has a spherical acrosome surrounded by a cup-shaped nucleus, peculiar to brachyurans. An interesting characteristic of the E. sinensis sperm nucleus is its lack of electron-dense chromatin. However, its formation is not clear. In this study, sequences encoding histones H3 and H4 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Western blotting indicated that H3 and H4 existed in the sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry demonstrated that histones H3 and H4 were both present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature spermatozoa. The nuclear labeling density of histone H4 decreased in sperm nuclei, while histone H3 labeling was not changed significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of histones H3 and H4 were higher at mitotic and meiotic stages than in later spermiogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the mature sperm nuclei of E. sinensis contain histones H3 and H4. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histones H3 and H4. This finding extends the study of sperm histones of E. sinensis and provides some basic data for exploring how decapod crustaceans form uncondensed sperm chromatin.

  12. Dynamic intramolecular regulation of the histone chaperone nucleoplasmin controls histone binding and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher; Matsui, Tsutomu; Karp, Jerome M; Onikubo, Takashi; Cahill, Sean; Brenowitz, Michael; Cowburn, David; Girvin, Mark; Shechter, David

    2017-12-20

    Nucleoplasmin (Npm) is a highly conserved histone chaperone responsible for the maternal storage and zygotic release of histones H2A/H2B. Npm contains a pentameric N-terminal core domain and an intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail domain. Though intrinsically disordered regions are common among histone chaperones, their roles in histone binding and chaperoning remain unclear. Using an NMR-based approach, here we demonstrate that the Xenopus laevis Npm tail domain controls the binding of histones at its largest acidic stretch (A2) via direct competition with both the C-terminal basic stretch and basic nuclear localization signal. NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) structural analyses allowed us to construct models of both the tail domain and the pentameric complex. Functional analyses demonstrate that these competitive intramolecular interactions negatively regulate Npm histone chaperone activity in vitro. Together these data establish a potentially generalizable mechanism of histone chaperone regulation via dynamic and specific intramolecular shielding of histone interaction sites.

  13. Repeated forced swim stress affects the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the rostral ventromedial medulla and locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, Hiroki; Kimura, Akihisa

    2016-10-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and locus coeruleus (LC) play crucial roles in descending pain modulation system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the RVM and LC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in descending pain modulatory system in a rat model of stress-induced hyperalgesia. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced a significant increase in the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the RVM, whereas the FS induced a significant increase only in the acetylation of histone H3 in the LC. CFA injection into the hindpaw did not induce a significant change in those expression and acetylation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated that the numbers of pCREB-, acetylated histone H3- and ΔFosB-IR cells in the RVM were significantly higher in the FS group than those in the naive group. The CFA injection after the FS did not affect the FS-induced increases in the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the RVM even though nullified the increase in the acetylation of histone H3 in the LC. These findings suggest different neuroplasticities between the RVM and LC after the FS, which may be involved in activity change of descending pain modulatory system after the CFA injection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of histone methyltransferase GLP in HIV-1 latency through catalysis of H3K9 dimethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Donglin; Qu, Xiying; Li, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Sijie; Lin, Shiguan; Wang, Pengfei; Liu, Shaohui; Kong, Chuijin; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Huanzhang, E-mail: hzzhu@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-06-05

    Understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 latency is crucial to eradication of the viral reservoir in HIV-1-infected individuals. However, the role of histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a-like protein (GLP) in HIV-1 latency is still unclear. In the present work, we established four clonal cell lines containing HIV-1 vector. We found that the integration sites of most clonal cell lines favored active gene regions. However, we also observed hypomethylation of CpG of HIV 5′LTR in all four clonal cell lines. Additionally, 5′-deoxy-5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA), a broad-spectrum histone methyltransferase inhibitor, was used to examine the role of histone methylation in HIV-1 latency. MTA was found to decrease the level of H3K9 dimethylation, causing reactivation of latent HIV-1 in C11 cells. GLP knockdown by small interfering RNA clearly induced HIV-1 LTR expression. Results suggest that GLP may play a significant role in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency by catalyzing dimethylation of H3K9. - Highlights: ► We have established an in vitro model of HIV-1 latency. ► The integration sites of most clonal cell lines favor in active gene regions. ► Hypomethylation occurs in CpG islands of HIV 5′LTR in all four clonal cell lines. ► MTA can reactivate latent HIV-1 by decreasing the level of H3K9 me2 in C11 cells. ► HMT GLP may play a significant role in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency.

  15. Deposition of newly synthesized histones: new histones H2A and H2B do not deposit in the same nucleosome with new Histones H3 and H4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have developed procedures to study histone-histone interactions during the deposition of histones in replicating cells. Cells are labeled for 60 min with dense amino acids, and subsequently, the histones within the nucleosomes are cross-linked into an octameric complex with formaldehyde. These complexes are sedimented to equilibrium in density gradients and octamer and dioctamer complexes separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. With reversal of the cross-link, the distribution of the individual density-labeled histones in the octamer is determined. Newly synthesized H3 and H4 deposits as a tetramer and are associated with old H2A and H2B. Newly synthesized H2A and H2B deposit as a dimer associated with old H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. The significance of these results with respect to the dynamics of histone interactions in the nucleus is discussed. Control experiments are presented to test for artifactual formation of these complexes during preparative procedures. In addition, reconstitution experiments were performed to demonstrate that the composition of these octameric complexes can be determined from their distribution of density gradients

  16. H3K9me-independent gene silencing in fission yeast heterochromatin by Clr5 and histone deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs R; Hazan, Idit; Shanker, Sreenath

    2011-01-01

    . The genomic targets of Clr5 also include Ste11, a master regulator of sexual differentiation. Hence Clr5, like the multi-functional Atf1 transcription factor which also modulates chromatin structure in the mating-type region, controls sexual differentiation and genome integrity at several levels. Globally......, our results point to histone deacetylases as prominent repressors of gene expression in fission yeast heterochromatin. These deacetylases can act in concert with, or independently of, the widely studied H3K9me mark to influence gene silencing at heterochromatic loci....

  17. Arsenic Induces Polyadenylation of Canonical Histone mRNA by Down-regulating Stem-Loop-binding Protein Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Jason; Fang, Lei; Chervona, Yana; Chen, Danqi; Kiok, Kathrin; Sun, Hong; Tseng, Hsiang-Chi; Xu, Dazhong; Shamy, Magdy; Jin, Chunyuan; Costa, Max

    2014-01-01

    The replication-dependent histone genes are the only metazoan genes whose messenger RNA (mRNA) does not terminate with a poly(A) tail at the 3′-end. Instead, the histone mRNAs display a stem-loop structure at their 3′-end. Stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP) binds the stem-loop and regulates canonical histone mRNA metabolism. Here we report that exposure to arsenic, a carcinogenic metal, decreased cellular levels of SLBP by inducing its proteasomal degradation and inhibiting SLBP transcription via epigenetic mechanisms. Notably, arsenic exposure dramatically increased polyadenylation of canonical histone H3.1 mRNA possibly through down-regulation of SLBP expression. The polyadenylated H3.1 mRNA induced by arsenic was not susceptible to normal degradation that occurs at the end of S phase, resulting in continued presence into mitosis, increased total H3.1 mRNA, and increased H3 protein levels. Excess expression of canonical histones have been shown to increase sensitivity to DNA damage as well as increase the frequency of missing chromosomes and induce genomic instability. Thus, polyadenylation of canonical histone mRNA following arsenic exposure may contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25266719

  18. DNA binding by PHF1 prolongs PRC2 residence time on chromatin and thereby promotes H3K27 methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongyoon; Bachmann, Andreas Linus; Tauscher, Katharina; Benda, Christian; Fierz, Beat; Müller, Jürg

    2017-12-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27 to mark genes for repression. We measured the dynamics of PRC2 binding on recombinant chromatin and free DNA at the single-molecule level using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. PRC2 preferentially binds free DNA with multisecond residence time and midnanomolar affinity. PHF1, a PRC2 accessory protein of the Polycomblike family, extends PRC2 residence time on DNA and chromatin. Crystallographic and functional studies reveal that Polycomblike proteins contain a winged-helix domain that binds DNA in a sequence-nonspecific fashion. DNA binding by this winged-helix domain accounts for the prolonged residence time of PHF1-PRC2 on chromatin and makes it a more efficient H3K27 methyltranferase than PRC2 alone. Together, these studies establish that interactions with DNA provide the predominant binding affinity of PRC2 for chromatin. Moreover, they reveal the molecular basis for how Polycomblike proteins stabilize PRC2 on chromatin and stimulate its activity.

  19. An E3 ubiquitin ligase prevents ectopic localization of the centromeric histone H3 variant via the centromere targeting domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Prerana; Press, Maximilian O; Yi, Xianhua; Baker, Richard; MacCoss, Michael J; Biggins, Sue

    2010-11-12

    Proper centromere function is critical to maintain genomic stability and to prevent aneuploidy, a hallmark of tumors and birth defects. A conserved feature of all eukaryotic centromeres is an essential histone H3 variant called CENP-A that requires a centromere targeting domain (CATD) for its localization. Although proteolysis prevents CENP-A from mislocalizing to euchromatin, regulatory factors have not been identified. Here, we identify an E3 ubiquitin ligase called Psh1 that leads to the degradation of Cse4, the budding yeast CENP-A homolog. Cse4 overexpression is toxic to psh1Δ cells and results in euchromatic localization. Strikingly, the Cse4 CATD is a key regulator of its stability and helps Psh1 discriminate Cse4 from histone H3. Taken together, we propose that the CATD has a previously unknown role in maintaining the exclusive localization of Cse4 by preventing its mislocalization to euchromatin via Psh1-mediated degradation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PfSETvs methylation of histone H3K36 represses virulence genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Lubin; Mu, Jianbing; Zhang, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    parasite nuclei and their expression as proteins on the surface of individual infected red blood cells. PfSETvs-dependent H3K36me3 is present along the entire gene body, including the transcription start site, to silence var genes. With low occupancy of PfSETvs at both the transcription start site of var...

  1. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of citrullinated histone H3 as a marker for neutrophil extracellular traps in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thålin, Charlotte; Daleskog, Maud; Göransson, Sophie Paues; Schatzberg, Daphne; Lasselin, Julie; Laska, Ann-Charlotte; Kallner, Anders; Helleday, Thomas; Wallén, Håkan; Demers, Mélanie

    2017-06-01

    There is an emerging interest in the diverse functions of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in a variety of disease settings. However, data on circulating NETs rely largely upon surrogate NET markers such as cell-free DNA, nucleosomes, and NET-associated enzymes. Citrullination of histone H3 by peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is central for NET formation, and citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit) is considered a NET-specific biomarker. We therefore aimed to optimize and validate a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the levels of H3Cit in human plasma. A standard curve made of in vitro PAD4-citrullinated histones H3 allows for the quantification of H3Cit in plasma using an anti-histone antibody as capture antibody and an anti-histone H3 citrulline antibody for detection. The assay was evaluated for linearity, stability, specificity, and precision on plasma samples obtained from a human model of inflammation before and after lipopolysaccharide injection. The results revealed linearity and high specificity demonstrated by the inability of detecting non-citrullinated histone H3. Coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-assay variability ranged from 2.1 to 5.1% and from 5.8 to 13.5%, respectively, allowing for a high precision. Furthermore, our results support an inflammatory induction of a systemic NET burden by showing, for the first time, clear intra-individual elevations of plasma H3Cit in a human model of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Taken together, our work demonstrates the development of a new method for the quantification of H3Cit by ELISA that can reliably be used for the detection of NETs in human plasma.

  2. Coordination of Cell Cycle Progression and Mitotic Spindle Assembly Involves Histone H3 Lysine 4 Methylation by Set1/COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Traude H.; Harrison, Paul F.; Miles, Douglas Maya; See, Michael Ming; Le, Uyen Minh Merry; Kalanon, Ming; Curtis, Melissa Jane; Hasan, Qambar; Saksouk, Julie; Margaritis, Thanasis; Holstege, Frank; Geli, Vincent; Dichtl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) by Set1 complex/COMPASS is a hallmark of eukaryotic chromatin, but it remains poorly understood how this post-translational modification contributes to the regulation of biological processes like the cell cycle. Here, we report a H3K4 methylation-dependent pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that governs toxicity toward benomyl, a microtubule destabilizing drug. Benomyl-sensitive growth of wild-type cells required mono- and dimethylation of H3K4 and Pho23, a PHD-containing subunit of the Rpd3L complex. Δset1 and Δpho23 deletions suppressed defects associated with ipl1-2 aurora kinase mutant, an integral component of the spindle assembly checkpoint during mitosis. Benomyl resistance of Δset1 strains was accompanied by deregulation of all four tubulin genes and the phenotype was suppressed by tub2-423 and Δtub3 mutations, establishing a genetic link between H3K4 methylation and microtubule function. Most interestingly, sine wave fitting and clustering of transcript abundance time series in synchronized cells revealed a requirement for Set1 for proper cell-cycle-dependent gene expression and Δset1 cells displayed delayed entry into S phase. Disruption of G1/S regulation in Δmbp1 and Δswi4 transcription factor mutants duplicated both benomyl resistance and suppression of ipl1-2 as was observed with Δset1. Taken together our results support a role for H3K4 methylation in the coordination of cell-cycle progression and proper assembly of the mitotic spindle during mitosis. PMID:28049706

  3. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamy C Peng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin contains many repetitive DNA elements and few protein-encoding genes, yet it is essential for chromosome organization and inheritance. Here, we show that Drosophila that lack the Su(var3-9 H3K9 methyltransferase display significantly elevated frequencies of spontaneous DNA damage in heterochromatin, in both somatic and germ-line cells. Accumulated DNA damage in these mutants correlates with chromosomal defects, such as translocations and loss of heterozygosity. DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints are also activated in mutant animals and are required for their viability. Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability.

  4. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jamy C; Karpen, Gary H

    2009-03-01

    Heterochromatin contains many repetitive DNA elements and few protein-encoding genes, yet it is essential for chromosome organization and inheritance. Here, we show that Drosophila that lack the Su(var)3-9 H3K9 methyltransferase display significantly elevated frequencies of spontaneous DNA damage in heterochromatin, in both somatic and germ-line cells. Accumulated DNA damage in these mutants correlates with chromosomal defects, such as translocations and loss of heterozygosity. DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints are also activated in mutant animals and are required for their viability. Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability.

  5. Profiling of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation levels predicts transcription factor activity and survival in acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Hascher, Antje

    2010-01-01

    . The altered genomic regions showed an overrepresentation of cis-binding sites for ets and c-AMP response elements (CREs) for transcription factors of the CREB/CREM/ATF1 family. The decrease in H3K9me3 levels at CREs was associated with increased CRE-driven promoter activity in AML blasts in vivo. AML...

  6. Genome-wide analysis of histone H3 acetylation patterns in AML identifies PRDX2 as an epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal-Singh, Shuchi; Isken, Fabienne; Agelopoulos, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    With the use of ChIP on microarray assays in primary leukemia samples, we report that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts exhibit significant alterations in histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac) levels at > 1000 genomic loci compared with CD34+ progenitor cells. Importantly, core promoter regions tended ...

  7. Quantitative mass spectrometry of histones H3.2 and H3.3 in Suz12-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells reveals distinct, dynamic post-translational modifications at Lys-27 and Lys-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Pasini, Diego; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    distinct coexisting modifications. In certain cases, high mass accuracy LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS allowed precise localization of near isobaric coexisting PTMs such as trimethylation and acetylation within individual peptides. ETD MS/MS facilitated sequencing and annotation of phosphorylated histone peptides....... The combined use of ETD and CID MS/MS increased the total number of identified modified peptides. Comparative quantitative analysis of histones from wild type and Suz12-deficient ESCs using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and LC-MS/MS revealed a dramatic reduction of H3K27me2 and H3K27......me3 and an increase of H3K27ac, thereby uncovering an antagonistic methyl/acetyl switch at H3K27. The reduction in H3K27 methylation and increase in H3K27 acetylation was accompanied by H3K36 acetylation and methylation. Estimation of the global isoform percentage of unmodified and modified histone...

  8. Mitotic accumulation of dimethylated lysine 79 of histone H3 is important for maintaining genome integrity during mitosis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Brent J; McManus, Kirk J

    2015-02-01

    The loss of genome stability is an early event that drives the development and progression of virtually all tumor types. Recent studies have revealed that certain histone post-translational modifications exhibit dynamic and global increases in abundance that coincide with mitosis and exhibit essential roles in maintaining genomic stability. Histone H2B ubiquitination at lysine 120 (H2Bub1) is regulated by RNF20, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is altered in many tumor types. Through an evolutionarily conserved trans-histone pathway, H2Bub1 is an essential prerequisite for subsequent downstream dimethylation events at lysines 4 (H3K4me2) and 79 (H3K79me2) of histone H3. Although the role that RNF20 plays in tumorigenesis has garnered much attention, the downstream components of the trans-histone pathway, H3K4me2 and H3K79me2, and their potential contributions to genome stability remain largely overlooked. In this study, we employ single-cell imaging and biochemical approaches to investigate the spatial and temporal patterning of RNF20, H2Bub1, H3K4me2, and H3K79me2 throughout the cell cycle, with a particular focus on mitosis. We show that H2Bub1, H3K4me2, and H3K79me2 exhibit distinct temporal progression patterns throughout the cell cycle. Most notably, we demonstrate that H3K79me2 is a highly dynamic histone post-translational modification that reaches maximal abundance during mitosis in an H2Bub1-independent manner. Using RNAi and chemical genetic approaches, we identify DOT1L as a histone methyltransferase required for the mitotic-associated increases in H3K79me2. We also demonstrate that the loss of mitotic H3K79me2 levels correlates with increases in chromosome numbers and increases in mitotic defects. Collectively, these data suggest that H3K79me2 dynamics during mitosis are normally required to maintain genome stability and further implicate the loss of H3K79me2 during mitosis as a pathogenic event that contributes to the development and progression of tumors

  9. GATA-1 Inhibits PU.1 Gene via DNA and Histone H3K9 Methylation of Its Distal Enhancer in Erythroleukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Burda

    Full Text Available GATA-1 and PU.1 are two important hematopoietic transcription factors that mutually inhibit each other in progenitor cells to guide entrance into the erythroid or myeloid lineage, respectively. PU.1 controls its own expression during myelopoiesis by binding to the distal URE enhancer, whose deletion leads to acute myeloid leukemia (AML. We herein present evidence that GATA-1 binds to the PU.1 gene and inhibits its expression in human AML-erythroleukemias (EL. Furthermore, GATA-1 together with DNA methyl Transferase I (DNMT1 mediate repression of the PU.1 gene through the URE. Repression of the PU.1 gene involves both DNA methylation at the URE and its histone H3 lysine-K9 methylation and deacetylation as well as the H3K27 methylation at additional DNA elements and the promoter. The GATA-1-mediated inhibition of PU.1 gene transcription in human AML-EL mediated through the URE represents important mechanism that contributes to PU.1 downregulation and leukemogenesis that is sensitive to DNA demethylation therapy.

  10. The ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 histone H3 methyltransferase is required for ovule and anther development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Grini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to

  11. Involvement of the 5'-leader sequence in coupling the stability of a human H3 histone mRNA with DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.; Marashi, F.; Weber, L.; Hickey, E.; Greenspan, D.; Bonner, J.; Stein, J.; Stein, G.

    1986-01-01

    Two lines of evidence derived from fusion gene constructs indicate that sequences residing in the 5'-nontranslated region of a cell cycle-dependent human H3 histone mRNA are involved in the selective destabilization that occurs when DNA synthesis is terminated. The experimental approach was to construct chimeric genes in which fragments of the mRNA coding regions of the H3 histone gene were fused with fragments of genes not expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner. After transfection in HeLa S3 cells with the recombinant plasmids, levels of fusion mRNAs were determined by S1 nuclease analysis prior to and following DNA synthesis inhibition. When the first 20 nucleotides of an H3 histone mRNA leader were replaced with 89 nucleotides of the leader from a Drosophila heat-shock (hsp70) mRNA, the fusion transcript remained stable during inhibition of DNA synthesis, in contrast to the rapid destabilization of the endogenous histone mRNA in these cells. In a reciprocal experiment, a histone-globin fusion gene was constructed that produced a transcript with the initial 20 nucleotides of the H3 histone mRNA substituted for the human β-globin mRNA leader. In HeLa cells treated with inhibitors of DNA synthesis and/or protein synthesis, cellular levels of this histone-globin fusion mRNA appeared to be regulated in a manner similar to endogenous histone mRNA levels. These results suggest that the first 20 nucleotides of the leader are sufficient to couple histone mRNA stability with DNA replication

  12. H3K79 methylation: a new conserved mark that accompanies H4 hyperacetylation prior to histone-to-protamine transition in Drosophila and rat

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    Christine Dottermusch-Heidel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During spermiogenesis, haploid spermatids undergo extensive chromatin remodeling events in which histones are successively replaced by more basic protamines to generate highly compacted chromatin. Here we show for the first time that H3K79 methylation is a conserved feature preceding the histone-to-protamine transition in Drosophila melanogaster and rat. During Drosophila spermatogenesis, the Dot1-like methyltransferase Grappa (Gpp is primarily expressed in canoe stage nuclei. The corresponding H3K79 methylation is a histone modification that precedes the histone-to-protamine transition and correlates with histone H4 hyperacetylation. When acetylation was inhibited in cultured Drosophila testes, nuclei were smaller and chromatin was compact, Gpp was little synthesized, H3K79 methylation was strongly reduced, and protamines were not synthesized. The Gpp isoform Gpp-D has a unique C-terminus, and Gpp is essential for full fertility. In rat, H3K79 methylation also correlates with H4 hyperacetylation but not with active RNA polymerase II, which might point towards a conserved function in chromatin remodeling during the histone-to-protamine transition in both Drosophila and rat.

  13. Nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric analysis of the acetylation state of histones H3 and H4 in stationary phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Patterton Hugh G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The involvement of histone acetylation in facilitating gene expression is well-established, particularly in the case of histones H3 and H4. It was previously shown in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that gene expression was significantly down-regulated and chromatin more condensed in stationary phase compared to exponential phase. We were therefore interested in establishing the acetylation state of histone H3 and H4 in stationary and in exponential phase, since the regulation of this modification could contribute to transcriptional shut-down and chromatin compaction during semi-quiescence. Results We made use of nano-spray tandem mass spectrometry to perform a precursor ion scan to detect an m/z 126 immonium ion, diagnostic of an Nε-acetylated lysine residue that allowed unambiguous identification of acetylated as opposed to tri-methylated lysine. The fragmentation spectra of peptides thus identified were searched with Mascot against the Swiss-Prot database, and the y-ion and b-ion fragmentation series subsequently analyzed for mass shifts compatible with acetylated lysine residues. We found that K9, K14 and K36 of histone H3 and K12 and K16 of histone H4 were acetylated in exponential phase (bulk histones, but could not detect these modifications in histones isolated from stationary phase cells at the sensitivity level of the mass spectrometer. The corresponding un-acetylated peptides were, however, observed. A significantly higher level of acetylation of these residues in exponential phase was confirmed by immuno-blotting. Conclusion H4K16 acetylation was previously shown to disrupt formation of condensed chromatin in vitro. We propose that de-acetylation of H4K16 allowed formation of condensed chromatin in stationary phase, and that acetylation of H3K9, H3K14, H3K36, and H4K12 reflected the active transcriptional state of the yeast genome in exponential phase.

  14. An H3K9/S10 methyl-phospho switch modulates Polycomb and Pol II binding at repressed genes during differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbattini, Pierangela; Sjoberg, Marcela; Nikic, Svetlana; Frangini, Alberto; Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Kunowska, Natalia; Carroll, Tom; Brookes, Emily; Arthur, Simon J; Pombo, Ana; Dillon, Niall

    2014-03-01

    Methylated histones H3K9 and H3K27 are canonical epigenetic silencing modifications in metazoan organisms, but the relationship between the two modifications has not been well characterized. H3K9me3 coexists with H3K27me3 in pluripotent and differentiated cells. However, we find that the functioning of H3K9me3 is altered by H3S10 phosphorylation in differentiated postmitotic osteoblasts and cycling B cells. Deposition of H3K9me3/S10ph at silent genes is partially mediated by the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1/2) and the Aurora B kinase. Acquisition of H3K9me3/S10ph during differentiation correlates with loss of paused S5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, which is present on Polycomb-regulated genes in embryonic stem cells. Reduction of the levels of H3K9me3/S10ph by kinase inhibition results in increased binding of RNAPIIS5ph and the H3K27 methyltransferase Ezh1 at silent promoters. Our results provide evidence of a novel developmentally regulated methyl-phospho switch that modulates Polycomb regulation in differentiated cells and stabilizes repressed states.

  15. Methylation patterns of histone H3 Lys 4, Lys 9 and Lys 27 in transcriptionally active and inactive Arabidopsis genes and in atx1 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Venegas, Raul; Avramova, Zoya

    2005-01-01

    Covalent modifications of histone-tail amino acid residues communicate information via a specific 'histone code'. Here, we report histone H3-tail lysine methylation profiles of several Arabidopsis genes in correlation with their transcriptional activity and the input of the epigenetic factor ARABIDOPSIS HOMOLOG OF TRITHORAX (ATX1) at ATX1-regulated loci. By chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we compared modification patterns of a constitutively expressed housekeeping gene, of a tissue-specific gene, and among genes that differed in degrees of transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that the di-methylated isoform of histone H3-lysine4 (m2K4/H3) provide a general mark for gene-related sequences distinguishing them from non-transcribed regions. Lys-4 (K4/H3), lys-9 (K9/H3) and lys-27 (K27/H3) nucleosome methylation patterns of plant genes may be gene-, tissue- or development-regulated. Absence of nucleosomes from the LTP-promotor was not sufficient to provoke robust transcription in mutant atx1-leaf chromatin, suggesting that the mechanism repositioning nucleosomes at transition to flowering functioned independently of ATX1.

  16. Hyperacetylation and differential deacetylation of histones H4 and H3 define two distinct classes of acetylated SV40 chromosomes early in infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milavetz, Barry

    2004-01-01

    SV40 chromosomes undergoing encapsidation late in infection and SV40 chromatin in virions are hyperacetylated on histones H4 and H3. However, the fate of the SV40 chromosomes containing hyperacetylated histones in a subsequent round of infection has not been determined. In order to determine if SV40 chromosomes undergo changes in the extent of histone acetylation during early infection, we have analyzed SV40 chromosomes isolated 30 min and 3 h postinfection by quantitative ChIP assays, depletion ChIP assays, competitive ChIP assays, and ChIP assays combined with restriction endonuclease sensitivity using antibodies to hyperacetylated histones H4 and H3. We have shown that at 30 min postinfection, the hyperacetylated histones are associated with two distinct classes of SV40 chromosomes. One form is hyperacetylated specifically on histone H4 while a second form is hyperacetylated on both H4 and H3. Both forms of chromosomes appear to contain a nucleosome-free promoter region. Over the course of the next few hours of infection, the class of SV40 chromosomes hyperacetylated on only H4 is reduced or completely eliminated through deacetylation

  17. A phosphorylation switch on RbBP5 regulates histone H3 Lys4 methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pamela; Chaturvedi, Chandra-Prakash; Tremblay, Veronique; Cramet, Myriam; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Skiniotis, Georgios; Brand, Marjorie; Shilatifard, Ali; Couture, Jean-François

    2015-01-15

    The methyltransferase activity of the trithorax group (TrxG) protein MLL1 found within its COMPASS (complex associated with SET1)-like complex is allosterically regulated by a four-subunit complex composed of WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY30 (also referred to as WRAD). We report structural evidence showing that in WRAD, a concave surface of the Ash2L SPIa and ryanodine receptor (SPRY) domain binds to a cluster of acidic residues, referred to as the D/E box, in RbBP5. Mutational analysis shows that residues forming the Ash2L/RbBP5 interface are important for heterodimer formation, stimulation of MLL1 catalytic activity, and erythroid cell terminal differentiation. We also demonstrate that a phosphorylation switch on RbBP5 stimulates WRAD complex formation and significantly increases KMT2 (lysine [K] methyltransferase 2) enzyme methylation rates. Overall, our findings provide structural insights into the assembly of the WRAD complex and point to a novel regulatory mechanism controlling the activity of the KMT2/COMPASS family of lysine methyltransferases. © 2015 Zhang et al; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. The NF-kappaB factor RelB and histone H3 lysine methyltransferase G9a directly interact to generate epigenetic silencing in endotoxin tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoping; El Gazzar, Mohamed; Yoza, Barbara K; McCall, Charles E

    2009-10-09

    The interplay of transcription factors, histone modifiers, and DNA modification can alter chromatin structure that epigenetically controls gene transcription. During severe systemic inflammatory (SSI), the generation of facultative heterochromatin from euchromatin reversibly silences transcription of a set of acute proinflammatory genes. This gene-specific silencing is a salient feature of the endotoxin tolerant phenotype that is found in blood leukocytes of SSI patients and in a human THP-1 cell model of SSI. We previously reported that de novo induction of the NF-kappaB transcription factor RelB by endotoxin activation is necessary and sufficient for silencing transcription of acute proinflammatory genes in the endotoxin tolerant SSI phenotype. Here, we examined how RelB silences gene expression and found that RelB induces facultative heterochromatin formation by directly interacting with the histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase G9a. We found that heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) and G9a formed a complex at the interleukin-1beta promoter that is dependent on the Rel homology domain (RHD) of RelB. RelB knockdown disassociated the complex and reversed transcription silencing. We also observed that whereas RelB chromatin binding was independent of G9a, RelB transcriptional silencing required G9a accumulation at the silenced promoter. Binding between RelB and G9a was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pulldown in vitro and coimmunoprecipitation in vivo. These data provide novel insight into how RelB is required to initiate silencing in the phenotype associated with severe systemic inflammation in humans, a disease with major morbidity and mortality.

  19. Nicotinamide N-Methyltransferase Suppression Participates in Nickel-Induced Histone H3 Lysine9 Dimethylation in BEAS-2B Cells

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    Qian Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nickel compounds are well-established human carcinogens with weak mutagenic activity. Histone methylation has been proposed to play an important role in nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT decreases histone methylation in several cancer cells by altering the cellular ratio of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH. However, the role of NNMT in nickel-induced histone methylation remains unclear. Methods: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to different concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2 for 72 h or 200 μM NiCl2 for different time periods. Histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9 mono-, di-, and trimethylation and NNMT protein levels were measured by western blot analysis. Expressions of NNMT mRNA and the H3k9me2-associated genes, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAP2K3 and dickkopf1 (DKK1, were determined by qPCR analysis. The cellular ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to reduced NAD (NADH and SAM/SAH ratio were determined. Results: Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to nickel increased H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2, suppressed the expressions of H3K9me2-associated genes (MAP2K3 and DKK1, and induced NNMT repression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, over-expression of NNMT inhibited nickel-induced H3K9me2 and altered the cellular SAM/SAH ratio. Additionally, the NADH oxidant phenazine methosulfate (PMS not only reversed the nickel-induced reduction in NAD+/NADH but also inhibited the increase in H3K9me2. Conclusions: These findings indicate that the repression of NNMT may underlie nickel-induced H3K9 dimethylation by altering the cellular SAM/SAH ratio.

  20. Muscle-Specific Histone H3K36 Dimethyltransferase SET-18 Shortens Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans by Repressing daf-16a Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liangping; Li, Hongyuan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Yongjun; Ba, Xueqing; Li, Zhongwei; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Baiqu; Lu, Jun; Zhao, Yanmei; Li, Xiaoxue

    2018-03-06

    Mounting evidence shows that histone methylation, a typical epigenetic mark, is crucial for gene expression regulation during aging. Decreased trimethylation of Lys 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3) in worms and yeast is reported to shorten lifespan. The function of H3K36me2 in aging remains unclear. In this study, we identified Caenorhabditis elegans SET-18 as a histone H3K36 dimethyltransferase. SET-18 deletion extended lifespan and increased oxidative stress resistance, dependent on daf-16 activity in the insulin/IGF pathway. In set-18 mutants, transcription of daf-16 isoform a (daf-16a) was specifically upregulated. Accordingly, a decrease in H3K36me2 on daf-16a promoter was observed. Muscle-specific expression of SET-18 increased in aged worms (day 7 and day 11), attributable to elevation of global H3K36me2 and inhibition of daf-16a expression. Consequently, longevity was shortened. These findings suggested that chromatic repression mediated by tissue-specific H3K36 dimethyltransferase might be detrimental to lifespan and may have implications in human age-related diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic variation of histone H3 trimethyl Lys4 (H3K4me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) with employment length in nickel smelting workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Cheng, Ning; Dai, Min; Pu, Hongquan; Zheng, Tongzhang; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie; Bai, Yana

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the dynamic variation in H3K4me3 and HP1 with employment length in nickel smelting workers. Blood samples were collected from 140 nickel smelting workers and 140 age-matched office workers to test for H3K4me3, and HP1 levels. H3K4me3 was statistically significantly different (p exposure to nickel can induce oxidative damage, and increase H3K4me3 expression and inhibit HP1 expression.

  2. A novel role of the N terminus of budding yeast histone H3 variant Cse4 in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wei Chun; Dawson, Anthony R; Rawson, David W; Taylor, Sara B; Baker, Richard E; Basrai, Munira A

    2013-06-01

    Regulating levels of centromeric histone H3 (CenH3) variant is crucial for genome stability. Interaction of Psh1, an E3 ligase, with the C terminus of Cse4 has been shown to contribute to its proteolysis. Here, we demonstrate a role for ubiquitination of the N terminus of Cse4 in regulating Cse4 proteolysis for faithful chromosome segregation and a role for Doa1 in ubiquitination of Cse4.

  3. Arsenic activates the expression of 3β-HSD in mouse Leydig cells through repression of histone H3K9 methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Xi, Guochen; Huang, Qingyu

    2017-01-01

    lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation in steroidogenesis disturbance in mouse Leydig cells (MLTC-1) due to arsenic exposure. Our results indicated that mRNA and protein expression levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) were both significantly up-regulated while the rest of key genes involved...... in steroidogenesis were down-regulated. Moreover, arsenic exposure significantly decreased the histone H3K9 di- and tri-methylation (H3K9me2/3) levels in MLTC-1 cells. Since H3K9 demethylation leads to gene activation, we further investigated whether the induction of 3β-HSD expression was ascribed to reduced H3K9...... methylation. The results showed that H3K9me2/3 demethylase (JMJD2A) inhibitor, quercetin (Que) significantly attenuated the decrease of H3K9me2/3 and increase of 3β-HSD expression induced by arsenic. To further elucidate the mechanism for the activation of 3β-HSD, we determined the histone H3K9 methylation...

  4. KdmB, a Jumonji Histone H3 Demethylase, Regulates Genome-Wide H3K4 Trimethylation and Is Required for Normal Induction of Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans.

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    Agnieszka Gacek-Matthews

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Histone posttranslational modifications (HPTMs are involved in chromatin-based regulation of fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis (SMB in which the corresponding genes-usually physically linked in co-regulated clusters-are silenced under optimal physiological conditions (nutrient-rich but are activated when nutrients are limiting. The exact molecular mechanisms by which HPTMs influence silencing and activation, however, are still to be better understood. Here we show by a combined approach of quantitative mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq and transcriptional network analysis (RNA-seq that the core regions of silent A. nidulans SM clusters generally carry low levels of all tested chromatin modifications and that heterochromatic marks flank most of these SM clusters. During secondary metabolism, histone marks typically associated with transcriptional activity such as H3 trimethylated at lysine-4 (H3K4me3 are established in some, but not all gene clusters even upon full activation. KdmB, a Jarid1-family histone H3 lysine demethylase predicted to comprise a BRIGHT domain, a zinc-finger and two PHD domains in addition to the catalytic Jumonji domain, targets and demethylates H3K4me3 in vivo and mediates transcriptional downregulation. Deletion of kdmB leads to increased transcription of about ~1750 genes across nutrient-rich (primary metabolism and nutrient-limiting (secondary metabolism conditions. Unexpectedly, an equally high number of genes exhibited reduced expression in the kdmB deletion strain and notably, this group was significantly enriched for genes with known or predicted functions in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Taken together, this study extends our general knowledge about multi-domain KDM5 histone demethylases and provides new details on the chromatin-level regulation of fungal secondary metabolite production.

  5. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Bardees M.; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5′-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. PMID:26149683

  6. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Bardees M; Singh, Upinder

    2015-08-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5'-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Trivalent dimethylarsenic compound induces histone H3 phosphorylation and abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshihide; Miyazaki, Koichi; Kita, Kayoko; Ochi, Takafumi

    2009-01-01

    Trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] has been shown to induce mitotic abnormalities, such as centrosome abnormality, multipolar spindles, multipolar division, and aneuploidy, in several cell lines. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these mitotic abnormalities, we investigated DMA(III)-mediated changes in histone H3 phosphorylation and localization of Aurora B kinase, which is a key molecule in cell mitosis. DMA(III) caused the phosphorylation of histone H3 (ser10) and was distributed predominantly in mitotic cells, especially in prometaphase cells. By contrast, most of the phospho-histone H3 was found to be localized in interphase cells after treatment with inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)], suggesting the involvement of a different pathway in phosphorylation. DMA(III) activated Aurora B kinase and slightly activated ERK MAP kinase. Phosphorylation of histone H3 by DMA(III) was effectively reduced by ZM447439 (Aurora kinase inhibitor) and slightly reduced by U0126 (MEK inhibitor). By contrast, iAs(III)-dependent histone H3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced by U0126. Aurora B kinase is generally localized in the midbody during telophase and plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, in some cells treated with DMA(III), Aurora B was not localized in the midbody of telophase cells. These findings suggested that DMA(III) induced a spindle abnormality, thereby activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) through the Aurora B kinase pathway. In addition, cytokinesis was not completed because of the abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase by DMA(III), thereby resulting in the generation of multinucleated cells. These results provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic tumorigenesis.

  8. Probing lysine mono-methylation in histone H3 tail peptides with an abiotic receptor coupled to a non-plasmonic resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, N; Biavardi, E; Bordiga, D; Candiani, G; Alessandri, I; Bergese, P; Dalcanale, E

    2017-06-29

    Binder and effector molecules that allow studying and manipulating epigenetic processes are of biological relevance and pose severe technical challenges. We report the first example of a synthetic receptor able to recognize mono-methylated lysines in a histone H3 tail peptide, which has relevant functions in epigenetic regulation. Recognition is robust and specific regardless of the position and the number of mono-methylated lysines along the polypeptide chain. The peptide is first captured in solution by a tetraphosphonate cavitand (Tiiii) that selectively binds its Lys-NMe + moieties. Separation from solution and detection of the peptide-Tiiii complexes is then enabled in one single step by an all dielectric SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell resonator (T-rex), which captures the complex and operates fully reproducible signal transduction by non-plasmonic surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) without degrading the complex. The realized abiotic probe is able to distinguish multiple mono-methylated peptides from the single mono-methylated ones.

  9. An Alternative Approach to ChIP-Seq Normalization Enables Detection of Genome-Wide Changes in Histone H3 Lysine 27 Trimethylation upon EZH2 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brian; Yuan, Chih-Chi; Craske, Madeleine Lisa; Labhart, Paul; Guler, Gulfem D; Arnott, David; Maile, Tobias M; Busby, Jennifer; Henry, Chisato; Kelly, Theresa K; Tindell, Charles A; Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; Zhao, Feng; Hatton, Charlie; Bryant, Barbara M; Classon, Marie; Trojer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has been instrumental in inferring the roles of histone post-translational modifications in the regulation of transcription, chromatin compaction and other cellular processes that require modulation of chromatin structure. However, analysis of ChIP-seq data is challenging when the manipulation of a chromatin-modifying enzyme significantly affects global levels of histone post-translational modifications. For example, small molecule inhibition of the methyltransferase EZH2 reduces global levels of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). However, standard ChIP-seq normalization and analysis methods fail to detect a decrease upon EZH2 inhibitor treatment. We overcome this challenge by employing an alternative normalization approach that is based on the addition of Drosophila melanogaster chromatin and a D. melanogaster-specific antibody into standard ChIP reactions. Specifically, the use of an antibody that exclusively recognizes the D. melanogaster histone variant H2Av enables precipitation of D. melanogaster chromatin as a minor fraction of the total ChIP DNA. The D. melanogaster ChIP-seq tags are used to normalize the human ChIP-seq data from DMSO and EZH2 inhibitor-treated samples. Employing this strategy, a substantial reduction in H3K27me3 signal is now observed in ChIP-seq data from EZH2 inhibitor treated samples.

  10. The histone H3K36 methyltransferase MES-4 acts epigenetically to transmit the memory of germline gene expression to progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rechtsteiner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylation of histone H3K36 in higher eukaryotes is mediated by multiple methyltransferases. Set2-related H3K36 methyltransferases are targeted to genes by association with RNA Polymerase II and are involved in preventing aberrant transcription initiation within the body of genes. The targeting and roles of the NSD family of mammalian H3K36 methyltransferases, known to be involved in human developmental disorders and oncogenesis, are not known. We used genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP to investigate the targeting and roles of the Caenorhabditis elegans NSD homolog MES-4, which is maternally provided to progeny and is required for the survival of nascent germ cells. ChIP analysis in early C. elegans embryos revealed that, consistent with immunostaining results, MES-4 binding sites are concentrated on the autosomes and the leftmost approximately 2% (300 kb of the X chromosome. MES-4 overlies the coding regions of approximately 5,000 genes, with a modest elevation in the 5' regions of gene bodies. Although MES-4 is generally found over Pol II-bound genes, analysis of gene sets with different temporal-spatial patterns of expression revealed that Pol II association with genes is neither necessary nor sufficient to recruit MES-4. In early embryos, MES-4 associates with genes that were previously expressed in the maternal germ line, an interaction that does not require continued association of Pol II with those loci. Conversely, Pol II association with genes newly expressed in embryos does not lead to recruitment of MES-4 to those genes. These and other findings suggest that MES-4, and perhaps the related mammalian NSD proteins, provide an epigenetic function for H3K36 methylation that is novel and likely to be unrelated to ongoing transcription. We propose that MES-4 transmits the memory of gene expression in the parental germ line to offspring and that this memory role is critical for the PGCs to execute a proper germline program.

  11. Differential regulation of the phosphorylation of Trimethyl-lysine27 histone H3 at serine 28 in distinct populations of striatal projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito-Oliva, Alessandra; Södersten, Erik; Spigolon, Giada; Hu, Xiaochen; Hellysaz, Arash; Falconi, Anastasia; Gomes, Ana-Luisa; Broberger, Christian; Hansen, Klaus; Fisone, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H3 (H3) on serine 28 (S28) at genomic regions marked by trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3K27me3) often correlates with increased expression of genes normally repressed by Polycomb group proteins (PcG). We show that amphetamine, an addictive psychostimulant, and haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic drug, increase the phosphorylation of H3 at S28 and that this effect occurs in the context of H3K27me3. The increases in H3K27me3S28p occur in distinct populations of projection neurons located in the striatum, the major component of the basal ganglia. Genetic inactivation of the protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), reduces the phosphorylation of H3K27me3S28 produced by amphetamine and haloperidol. In contrast, knockout of the mitogen- and stress activated kinase 1 (MSK1), which is implicated in the phosphorylation of histone H3, decreases the effect of amphetamine, but not that of haloperidol. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that amphetamine and haloperidol increase the phosphorylation of H3K27me3S28 at the promoter regions of Atf3, Npas4 and Lipg, three genes repressed by PcG. These results identify H3K27me3S28p as a potential mediator of the effects exerted by amphetamine and haloperidol, and suggest that these drugs may act by re-activating PcG repressed target genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High levels of histone H3 acetylation at the CMV promoter are predictive of stable expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Benjamin; Woltering, Laura; Becker, Peter B; Göpfert, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) are widely used in the production of glycosylated therapeutic proteins such as antibodies. During expansion and maintenance, CHO cell lines are prone to production instability, which may be caused by promoter silencing, loss of transgene copies, or post-transcriptional effects. Silencing of recombinant genes may be accompanied by DNA methylation and histone modification. Previously, we demonstrated that cytosine methylation of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter/enhancer (hCMV-MIE) can be used to predict instability of antibody-producing CHO cell lines. However, the high rate of false prediction motivates the search for further markers of stable promoter activity. To this end, we correlated a variety of histone modifications in the vicinity of hCMV-MIE with production stability over time. Our results suggest that acetylation of histone H3 (H3ac) is a more effective indicator of production stability than DNA methylation. Selecting cell lines with highest CMV promoter H3ac levels enriches stable expressors and improves the average stability of production cell lines. For histone H3 acetylation measurement we employed a method based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In its current form, the method is suitable to evaluate 10-20 cell lines within a few days. We propose to determine H3 acetylation once the number of candidate cell lines has been narrowed based on productivity and product quality. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:776-786, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. The transcriptional cofactor MIER1-beta negatively regulates histone acetyltransferase activity of the CREB-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie Laura L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mier1 encodes a novel transcriptional regulator and was originally isolated as a fibroblast growth factor early response gene. Two major protein isoforms have been identified, MIER1α and β, which differ in their C-terminal sequence. Previously, we demonstrated that both isoforms recruit histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 to repress transcription. To further explore the role of MIER1 in chromatin remodeling, we investigated the functional interaction of MIER1 with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT, Creb-binding protein (CBP. Findings Using GST pull-down assays, we demonstrate that MIER1 interacts with CBP and that this interaction involves the N-terminal half (amino acids 1–283 of MIER1, which includes the acidic activation and ELM2 domains and the C-terminal half (amino acids 1094–2441 of CBP, which includes the bromo-, HAT, C/H3 and glutamine-rich domains. Functional analysis, using HEK293 cells, shows that the CBP bound to MIER1 in vivo has no detectable HAT activity. Histone 4 peptide binding assays demonstrate that this inhibition of HAT activity is not the result of interference with histone binding. Conclusion Our data indicate that an additional mechanism by which MIER1 could repress transcription involves the inhibition of histone acetyltransferase activity.

  14. Defects in Histone H3.3 Phosphorylation and ATRX Recruitment to Misaligned Chromosomes during Mitosis Contribute to the Development of Pediatric Glioblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    examined non- transformed cells induced to missegregate chromosomes by transiently depolymerizing spindle microtubules with cold. After re-warming...or DNA damage. Furthermore, these results reveal that the hyper-phosphorylation of histone H3.3 at position Ser31 along the arms of mispositioned...antibodies. -thalassaemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of helicase and ATPases , and has recently been shown

  15. Histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation pattern suggests that X and B chromosomes are silenced during entire male meiosis in a grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J; Teruel, M; Carmona, F D; Jiménez, R; Camacho, J P M

    2007-01-01

    The facultative heterochromatic X chromosome in leptotene spermatocytes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans showed marked hypoacetylation for lysine 9 in the H3 histone (H3-K9) with no sign of histone H2AX phosphorylation. Since H3-K9 hypoacetylation precedes the meiotic appearance of phosphorylated H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which marks the beginning of recombinational DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), it seems that meiotic sex-chromosome inactivation (MSCI) in this grasshopper occurs prior to the beginning of recombination and hence synapsis (which in this species begins later than recombination). In addition, all constitutively heterochromatic chromosome regions harbouring a 180-bp tandem-repeat DNA and rDNA (B chromosomes and pericentromeric regions of A chromosomes) were H3-K9 hypoacetylated at early leptotene even though they will synapse at subsequent stages. This also suggests that meiotic silencing in this grasshopper might be independent of synapsis. The H3-K9 hypoacetylated state of facultative and constitutive heterochromatin persisted during subsequent meiotic stages and was even apparent in round spermatids. Finally, the fact that B chromosomes are differentially hypoacetylated in testis and embryo interphase cells suggests that they might be silenced early in development and remain this way for most (or all) life-cycle stages. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. G-quadruplex RNA binding and recognition by the lysine-specific histone demethylase-1 enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Alexander; Martin, William J; Luka, Zigmund; Loukachevitch, Lioudmila V; Reiter, Nicholas J

    2016-08-01

    Lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) is an essential epigenetic regulator in metazoans and requires the co-repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (CoREST) to efficiently catalyze the removal of mono- and dimethyl functional groups from histone 3 at lysine positions 4 and 9 (H3K4/9). LSD1 interacts with over 60 regulatory proteins and also associates with lncRNAs (TERRA, HOTAIR), suggesting a regulatory role for RNA in LSD1 function. We report that a stacked, intramolecular G-quadruplex (GQ) forming TERRA RNA (GG[UUAGGG]8UUA) binds tightly to the functional LSD1-CoREST complex (Kd ≈ 96 nM), in contrast to a single GQ RNA unit ([UUAGGG]4U), a GQ DNA ([TTAGGG]4T), or an unstructured single-stranded RNA. Stabilization of a parallel-stranded GQ RNA structure by monovalent potassium ions (K(+)) is required for high affinity binding to the LSD1-CoREST complex. These data indicate that LSD1 can distinguish between RNA and DNA as well as structured versus unstructured nucleotide motifs. Further, cross-linking mass spectrometry identified the primary location of GQ RNA binding within the SWIRM/amine oxidase domain (AOD) of LSD1. An ssRNA binding region adjacent to this GQ binding site was also identified via X-ray crystallography. This RNA binding interface is consistent with kinetic assays, demonstrating that a GQ-forming RNA can serve as a noncompetitive inhibitor of LSD1-catalyzed demethylation. The identification of a GQ RNA binding site coupled with kinetic data suggests that structured RNAs can function as regulatory molecules in LSD1-mediated mechanisms. © 2016 Hirschi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Inhibition of histone H3K9 acetylation by anacardic acid can correct the over-expression of Gata4 in the hearts of fetal mice exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular malformations can be caused by abnormalities in Gata4 expression during fetal development. In a previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure could lead to histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression in fetal mouse hearts. However, the potential mechanisms of histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant mice were gavaged with ethanol or saline. Fetal mouse hearts were collected for analysis. The results of ethanol fed groups showed that global HAT activity was unusually high in the hearts of fetal mice while global HDAC activity remained unchanged. Binding of P300, CBP, PCAF, SRC1, but not GCN5, were increased on the Gata4 promoter relative to the saline treated group. Increased acetylation of H3K9 and increased mRNA expression of Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT were observed in these hearts. Treatment with the pan-histone acetylase inhibitor, anacardic acid, reduced the binding of P300, PCAF to the Gata4 promoter and reversed H3K9 hyperacetylation in the presence of ethanol. Interestingly, anacardic acid attenuated over-expression of Gata4, α-MHC and cTnT in fetal mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that P300 and PCAF may be critical regulatory factors that mediate Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol exposure. Alternatively, P300, PCAF and Gata4 may coordinate over-expression of cardiac downstream genes in mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. Anacardic acid may thus protect against ethanol-induced Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT over-expression by inhibiting the binding of P300 and PCAF to the promoter region of these genes.

  18. Pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA or histone modification H3K9Me3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Herzog, Marielle; Rømer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA (5mC) or histone modification H3K9Me3 (H3K9Me3). Materials and methods: Six studies were designed to assess the possible influence of pre-analytical variables. Study 1: influence of stas...... significantly lower levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3 compared to levels in healthy individuals. Conclusion: Levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3 appear stable in most pre-analytical settings if blood samples are stored at room temperature until centrifugation.......3K9Me3 measurements were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: Stasis, white-cell and platelet contamination, within-day variations, varying storage time before centrifugation, colonoscopy, and surgical trauma had no significant influence on levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3. Day......-to-day variations of 12.7% and 11.5% (intra-individual) and 98.1% and 60.8% (inter-individual) were shown for 5mC and H3K9Me3, respectively. Levels of 5mC or H3K9Me3 were significantly higher in samples stored at room temperature until centrifugation compared to samples stored on ice. Patients with cancer had...

  19. Neutron scattering studies of the H2a-H2b and (H3-H4)2 histone complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have shown that both the (H3-H4)2 and H2a-H2b histone complexes are quite asymmetric in solution. The (H3-H4)2 tetramer is an oblate or flattened structure, with a radius of gyration almost as large as that of the core octamer. If the tetramer is primarily globular, it must have an axial ratio of about 1:5. It is more likely, however, that this asymmetry results in part from N-terminal arms that extend outward approximately within the major plane of the particle. If this is the case, less asymmetric models for the globular part of the tetramer, including a dislocated disk of the type proposed by Klug et al. (23), can be made consistent with the scattering data. The H2a-H2b dimer, on the other hand, is an elongated structure. The low resolution data are in good agreement with those calculated for a cylindrical model 64 X 27 A, but other elongated models fit those data almost as well, including one that approximates free N-terminal arms at each end. Free arms are not necessary, but they must extend from the ends if they exist. A contrast matching experiment done with 50% deuterated H2b and undeuterated H2a in the reconstituted dimer showed that these two histones must each be rather elongated within the complex and are not just confined to one end. The amount of scattering contrast between the undeuterated and 50% deuterated histones was sufficient to suggest further experiments using complexes reconstituted from mixtures of undeuterated and partially deuterated histones which will help elucidate their arrangement within the histone complexes and within the octamer core of the nucleosome core particle

  20. Identification and characterization of the Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 histone H3K9 trimethyltransferase and its effect in AcMNPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Li, Sisi; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Histone H3-lysine(9) (H3K9) trimethyltransferase gene Su(var) 3-9 was cloned and identified in three Spodoptera insects, Spodopterafrugiperda (S. frugiperda), S. exigua and S. litura. Sequence analysis showed that Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 is highly conserved evolutionarily. Su(var) 3-9 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus in Sf9 cells, and interact with histone H3, and the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) and HP1b. A dose-dependent enzymatic activity was found at both 27 °C and 37 °C in vitro, with higher activity at 27 °C. Addition of specific inhibitor chaetocin resulted in decreased histone methylation level and host chromatin relaxation. In contrast, overexpression of Su(var) 3-9 caused increased histone methylation level and cellular genome compaction. In AcMNV-infected Sf9 cells, the transcription of Su(var) 3-9 increased at late time of infection, although the mRNA levels of most cellular genes decreased. Pre-treatment of Sf9 cells with chaetocin speeded up viral DNA replication, and increased the transcription level of a variety of virus genes, whereas in Sf9 cells pre-transformed with Su(var) 3-9 expression vector, viral DNA replication slow down slightly. These findings suggest that Su(var) 3-9 might participate in the viral genes expression an genome replication repression during AcMNPV infection. It provided a new insight for the understanding virus-host interaction mechanism.

  1. Signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 for proper tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jayhun; Kang, Sangjo; Lilja, Karin C; Colletier, Keegan J; Scheitz, Cornelia Johanna Franziska; Zhang, Ying V; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2016-04-15

    Mechanisms of plasticity to acquire different cell fates are critical for adult stem cell (SC) potential, yet are poorly understood. Reduced global histone methylation is an epigenetic state known to mediate plasticity in cultured embryonic SCs and T-cell progenitors. Here we find histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels actively reduced in adult mouse skin and hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) during G0 quiescence. The level of marks over specific gene promoters did not correlate to mRNA level changes in quiescent HFSCs. Skin hypomethylation during quiescence was necessary for subsequent progression of hair homeostasis (cycle). Inhibiting BMP signal, a known HFSC anti-proliferative factor, elevated HFSC methylation in vivo during quiescence prior to proliferation onset. Furthermore, removal of proliferation factors and addition of BMP4 reduced histone methylases and increased demethylases mRNAs in cultured skin epithelial cells. We conclude that signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels for proper tissue homeostasis.

  2. Histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP form heteromeric complexes and are both crucial for methylation of euchromatin at H3-K9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Makoto; Ueda, Jun; Fukuda, Mikiko; Takeda, Naoki; Ohta, Tsutomu; Iwanari, Hiroko; Sakihama, Toshiko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Hamakubo, Takao; Shinkai, Yoichi

    2005-04-01

    Histone H3 Lys 9 (H3-K9) methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark for transcriptional silencing. G9a is the major mammalian H3-K9 methyltransferase that targets euchromatic regions and is essential for murine embryogenesis. There is a single G9a-related methyltransferase in mammals, called GLP/Eu-HMTase1. Here we show that GLP is also important for H3-K9 methylation of mouse euchromatin. GLP-deficiency led to embryonic lethality, a severe reduction of H3-K9 mono- and dimethylation, the induction of Mage-a gene expression, and HP1 relocalization in embryonic stem cells, all of which were phenotypes of G9a-deficiency. Furthermore, we show that G9a and GLP formed a stoichiometric heteromeric complex in a wide variety of cell types. Biochemical analyses revealed that formation of the G9a/GLP complex was dependent on their enzymatic SET domains. Taken together, our new findings revealed that G9a and GLP cooperatively exert H3-K9 methyltransferase function in vivo, likely through the formation of higher-order heteromeric complexes.

  3. In silico probing and biological evaluation of SETDB1/ESET-targeted novel compounds that reduce tri-methylated histone H3K9 (H3K9me3) level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Insun; Hwang, Yu Jin; Kim, TaeHun; Viswanath, Ambily Nath Indu; Londhe, Ashwini M.; Jung, Seo Yun; Sim, Kyoung Mi; Min, Sun-Joon; Lee, Ji Eun; Seong, Jihye; Kim, Yun Kyung; No, Kyoung Tai; Ryu, Hoon; Pae, Ae Nim

    2017-10-01

    ERG-associated protein with the SET domain (ESET/SET domain bifurcated 1/SETDB1/KMT1E) is a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT) and it preferentially tri-methylates lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me3). SETDB1/ESET leads to heterochromatin condensation and epigenetic gene silencing. These functional changes are reported to correlate with Huntington's disease (HD) progression and mood-related disorders which make SETDB1/ESET a viable drug target. In this context, the present investigation was performed to identify novel peptide-competitive small molecule inhibitors of the SETDB1/ESET by a combined in silico-in vitro approach. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was built and employed for the virtual screening of ChemDiv and Asinex database. Also, a human SETDB1/ESET homology model was constructed to supplement the data further. Biological evaluation of the selected 21 candidates singled out 5 compounds exhibiting a notable reduction of the H3K9me3 level via inhibitory potential of SETDB1/ESET activity in SETDB1/ESET-inducible cell line and HD striatal cells. Later on, we identified two compounds as final hits that appear to have neuronal effects without cytotoxicity based on the result from MTT assay. These compounds hold the calibre to become the future lead compounds and can provide structural insights into more SETDB1/ESET-focused drug discovery research. Moreover, these SETDB1/ESET inhibitors may be applicable for the preclinical study to ameliorate neurodegenerative disorders via epigenetic regulation.

  4. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, Maria A.; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P.; Oliveira, Clara Slade; Loos, Remco; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Mowen, Kerri A.; Bertone, Paul; Silva, José C. R.; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena; Nielsen, Michael L.; Gurdon, John B.; Kouzarides, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Citrullination is the post-translational conversion of an arginine residue within a protein to the non-coded amino acid citrulline. This modification leads to the loss of a positive charge and reduction in hydrogen-bonding ability. It is carried out by a small family of tissue-specific vertebrate enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) and is associated with the development of diverse pathological states such as autoimmunity, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, prion diseases and thrombosis. Nevertheless, the physiological functions of citrullination remain ill-defined, although citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune response to infection. Here we show that the expression and enzymatic activity of Padi4 are also induced under conditions of ground-state pluripotency and during reprogramming in mouse. Padi4 is part of the pluripotency transcriptional network, binding to regulatory elements of key stem-cell genes and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel PADI4 substrates. Citrullination of a single arginine residue within the DNA-binding site of H1 results in its displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation. Together, these results uncover a role for citrullination in the regulation of pluripotency and provide new mechanistic insights into how citrullination regulates chromatin compaction.

  6. The histone H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways regulate normalnucleolar and repeated DNA organization by inhibiting formation ofextrachromosomal DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jamy C.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2006-06-15

    In order to identify regulators of nuclear organization, Drosophila mutants in the Su(var)3-9 histone H3K9 methyltransferase, RNAi pathway components, and other regulators of heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing were examined for altered nucleoli and positioning of repeated DNAs. Animals lacking components of the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways contained disorganized nucleoli, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and satellite DNAs. The levels of H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in chromatin associated with repeated DNAs decreased dramatically in Su(var)3-9 and dcr-2 (dicer-2) mutant tissues compared to wild type. We also observed a substantial increase in extrachromosomal repeated DNAs in mutant tissues. The disorganized nucleolus phenotype depends on the presence of Ligase 4 (Lig4), and ecc DNA formation is not induced by removal of cohesin. We conclude that H3K9 methylation of rDNA and satellites, maintained by Su(var)3-9, HP1, and the RNAi pathway, is necessary for the structural stability of repeated DNAs, which is mediated through suppression of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). These results suggest a mechanism for how local chromatin structure can regulate genome stability, and the organization of chromosomal elements and nuclear organelles.

  7. Plasticity of histamine H3 receptor expression and binding in the vestibular nuclei after labyrinthectomy in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstedt Kaj

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rat, deafferentation of one labyrinth (unilateral labyrinthectomy results in a characteristic syndrome of ocular and motor postural disorders (e.g., barrel rotation, circling behavior, and spontaneous nystagmus. Behavioral recovery (e.g., diminished symptoms, encompassing 1 week after unilateral labyrinthectomy, has been termed vestibular compensation. Evidence suggesting that the histamine H3 receptor plays a key role in vestibular compensation comes from studies indicating that betahistine, a histamine-like drug that acts as both a partial histamine H1 receptor agonist and an H3 receptor antagonist, can accelerate the process of vestibular compensation. Results Expression levels for histamine H3 receptor (total as well as three isoforms which display variable lengths of the third intracellular loop of the receptor were analyzed using in situ hybridization on brain sections containing the rat medial vestibular nucleus after unilateral labyrinthectomy. We compared these expression levels to H3 receptor binding densities. Total H3 receptor mRNA levels (detected by oligo probe H3X as well as mRNA levels of the three receptor isoforms studied (detected by oligo probes H3A, H3B, and H3C showed a pattern of increase, which was bilaterally significant at 24 h post-lesion for both H3X and H3C, followed by significant bilateral decreases in medial vestibular nuclei occurring 48 h (H3X and H3B and 1 week post-lesion (H3A, H3B, and H3C. Expression levels of H3B was an exception to the forementioned pattern with significant decreases already detected at 24 h post-lesion. Coinciding with the decreasing trends in H3 receptor mRNA levels was an observed increase in H3 receptor binding densities occurring in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nuclei 48 h post-lesion. Conclusion Progressive recovery of the resting discharge of the deafferentated medial vestibular nuclei neurons results in functional restoration of the static postural and

  8. ChIP-seq analysis of histone H3K9 trimethylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of membranous nephropathy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, W.G. [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Nephrology Department, 181st Hospital, Guilin, Guangxi (China); He, H.Y. [The Life Science College, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi (China); Yan, Q.; Chen, J.J. [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Metabolic Diseases Research, Nephrology Department, 181st Hospital, Guilin, Guangxi (China); Zhang, R.H. [The Life Science College, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, Guangxi (China); Dai, Y. [Clinical Medical Research Center, The Second Clinical Medical College, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2013-12-12

    Membranous nephropathy (MN), characterized by the presence of diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and subepithelial in situ immune complex disposition, is the most common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in adults, with an incidence of 5-10 per million per year. A number of studies have confirmed the relevance of several experimental insights to the pathogenesis of human MN, but the specific biomarkers of MN have not been fully elucidated. As a result, our knowledge of the alterations in histone methylation in MN is unclear. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) to analyze the variations in a methylated histone (H3K9me3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 MN patients and 10 healthy subjects. There were 108 genes with significantly different expression in the MN patients compared with the normal controls. In MN patients, significantly increased activity was seen in 75 H3K9me3 genes, and decreased activity was seen in 33, compared with healthy subjects. Five positive genes, DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 6 (DGCR6), sorting nexin 16 (SNX16), contactin 4 (CNTN4), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 3 (BIRC3), and baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2), were selected and quantified. There were alterations of H3K9me3 in MN patients. These may be candidates to help explain pathogenesis in MN patients. Such novel findings show that H3K9me3 may be a potential biomarker or promising target for epigenetic-based MN therapies.

  9. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata Reveal Possible Ancestry of the B Chromosome and H3 Histone Spreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bueno

    Full Text Available Supernumerary chromosomes (B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryote species. Although these chromosomes have been extensively studied, knowledge concerning their specific molecular composition is lacking in most cases. The accumulation of repetitive DNAs is one remarkable characteristic of B chromosomes, and the occurrence of distinct types of multigene families, satellite DNAs and some transposable elements have been reported. Here, we describe the organization of repetitive DNAs in the A complement and B chromosome system in the grasshopper species Abracris flavolineata using classical cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis using probes for five multigene families, telomeric repeats and repetitive C0t-1 DNA fractions. The 18S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families are highly variable and well distributed in A. flavolineata chromosomes, which contrasts with the conservation of U snRNA genes and less variable distribution of 5S rDNA sequences. The H3 histone gene was an extensively distributed with clusters occurring in all chromosomes. Repetitive DNAs were concentrated in C-positive regions, including the pericentromeric region and small chromosomal arms, with some occurrence in C-negative regions, but abundance was low in the B chromosome. Finally, the first demonstration of the U2 snRNA gene in B chromosomes in A. flavolineata may shed light on its possible origin. These results provide new information regarding chromosomal variability for repetitive DNAs in grasshoppers and the specific molecular composition of B chromosomes.

  10. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata Reveal Possible Ancestry of the B Chromosome and H3 Histone Spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Danilo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio Manuel; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    Supernumerary chromosomes (B chromosomes) occur in approximately 15% of eukaryote species. Although these chromosomes have been extensively studied, knowledge concerning their specific molecular composition is lacking in most cases. The accumulation of repetitive DNAs is one remarkable characteristic of B chromosomes, and the occurrence of distinct types of multigene families, satellite DNAs and some transposable elements have been reported. Here, we describe the organization of repetitive DNAs in the A complement and B chromosome system in the grasshopper species Abracris flavolineata using classical cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis using probes for five multigene families, telomeric repeats and repetitive C0t-1 DNA fractions. The 18S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families are highly variable and well distributed in A. flavolineata chromosomes, which contrasts with the conservation of U snRNA genes and less variable distribution of 5S rDNA sequences. The H3 histone gene was an extensively distributed with clusters occurring in all chromosomes. Repetitive DNAs were concentrated in C-positive regions, including the pericentromeric region and small chromosomal arms, with some occurrence in C-negative regions, but abundance was low in the B chromosome. Finally, the first demonstration of the U2 snRNA gene in B chromosomes in A. flavolineata may shed light on its possible origin. These results provide new information regarding chromosomal variability for repetitive DNAs in grasshoppers and the specific molecular composition of B chromosomes.

  11. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata Reveal Possible Ancestry of the B Chromosome and H3 Histone Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Danilo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio Manuel; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    Supernumerary chromosomes (B chromosomes) occur in approximately 15% of eukaryote species. Although these chromosomes have been extensively studied, knowledge concerning their specific molecular composition is lacking in most cases. The accumulation of repetitive DNAs is one remarkable characteristic of B chromosomes, and the occurrence of distinct types of multigene families, satellite DNAs and some transposable elements have been reported. Here, we describe the organization of repetitive DNAs in the A complement and B chromosome system in the grasshopper species Abracris flavolineata using classical cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis using probes for five multigene families, telomeric repeats and repetitive C0t-1 DNA fractions. The 18S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families are highly variable and well distributed in A. flavolineata chromosomes, which contrasts with the conservation of U snRNA genes and less variable distribution of 5S rDNA sequences. The H3 histone gene was an extensively distributed with clusters occurring in all chromosomes. Repetitive DNAs were concentrated in C-positive regions, including the pericentromeric region and small chromosomal arms, with some occurrence in C-negative regions, but abundance was low in the B chromosome. Finally, the first demonstration of the U2 snRNA gene in B chromosomes in A. flavolineata may shed light on its possible origin. These results provide new information regarding chromosomal variability for repetitive DNAs in grasshoppers and the specific molecular composition of B chromosomes. PMID:23826099

  12. Specificity of interaction between carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nuclear proteins: widespread occurrence of a restricted pattern of histone-binding in intact cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, M.C.; Pelling, J.C.; Slaga, T.J.; Nikbakht-Noghrei, P.A.; Mansfield, B.K.; Selkirk, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) produces a number of potentially reactive metabolites. The endproducts of one metabolic pathway, 7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-B(a)P (BPDE) are responsible for essentially all DNA adduct formation in animal cells treated with B(a)P, and a particular stereoisomer, designated (+)-anti-BPDE is thought to be the ultimate carcinogenic derivative of B(a)P. In hamster embryo cell nuclei treated with (+)-anti-BPDE, two of the histones of the nucleosomal core, H3 and H2A, are covalently modified, while the remaining core histones, H4 and H2B, are essentially unmodified. All four purified core histones, however, serve as targets. 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 3-methylcholanthrene show the same pattern of histone binding in hamster embryo cells. Treatment of mouse embryo cells with (/sup 3/H)-BPDE results in covalent binding of the hydrocarbon to histones H3 and H2A among the many cellular targets, while histones H2B and H4 are not bound. Similar binding patterns are seen in mouse embryo cells, a permanent murine, fibroblastic cell line, and a human mammary epithelial cell line, T47D, treated with (/sup 3/H)B(a)P. Again, the histones are unevenly labeled, displaying the H3 and H2A pattern. Histone-binding in the human cells may also be mediated by BPDE. Similar BPDE binding patterns were observed in other murine and human cell lines and in primary cultures of murine epidermal epithelial cells. The restriction of histone H2B and H4 binding appears to be general when intact cultured cells are studied. This specificity was not observed in a mixed reconstituted system in which rat liver microsomes were used to activate B(a)P. This finding reinforces reservations concerning the use of microsomal systems to probe the interactions of carcinogens with macromolecules and the relationships of adduct formation with the processes of carcinogenesis. (ERB)

  13. Specificity of interaction between carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and nuclear proteins: widespread occurrence of a restricted pattern of histone-binding in intact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, M.C.; Pelling, J.C.; Slaga, T.J.; Nikbakht-Noghrei, P.A.; Mansfield, B.K.; Selkirk, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] produces a number of potentially reactive metabolites. The endproducts of one metabolic pathway, 7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-B(a)P (BPDE) are responsible for essentially all DNA adduct formation in animal cells treated with B(a)P, and a particular stereoisomer, designated (+)-anti-BPDE is thought to be the ultimate carcinogenic derivative of B(a)P. In hamster embryo cell nuclei treated with (+)-anti-BPDE, two of the histones of the nucleosomal core, H3 and H2A, are covalently modified, while the remaining core histones, H4 and H2B, are essentially unmodified. All four purified core histones, however, serve as targets. 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 3-methylcholanthrene show the same pattern of histone binding in hamster embryo cells. Treatment of mouse embryo cells with [ 3 H]-BPDE results in covalent binding of the hydrocarbon to histones H3 and H2A among the many cellular targets, while histones H2B and H4 are not bound. Similar binding patterns are seen in mouse embryo cells, a permanent murine, fibroblastic cell line, and a human mammary epithelial cell line, T47D, treated with [ 3 H]B(a)P. Again, the histones are unevenly labeled, displaying the H3 and H2A pattern. Histone-binding in the human cells may also be mediated by BPDE. Similar BPDE binding patterns were observed in other murine and human cell lines and in primary cultures of murine epidermal epithelial cells. The restriction of histone H2B and H4 binding appears to be general when intact cultured cells are studied. This specificity was not observed in a mixed reconstituted system in which rat liver microsomes were used to activate B(a)P. This finding reinforces reservations concerning the use of microsomal systems to probe the interactions of carcinogens with macromolecules and the relationships of adduct formation with the processes of carcinogenesis

  14. Histone H3 Methyltransferase Suv39h1 Prevents Myogenic Terminal Differentiation by Repressing MEF2 Activity in Muscle Cells

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    Wei Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 transcription factors have been extensively studied as key transcription factors that regulate myogenic gene expression. However, few reports on the molecular mechanism that modulates chromatin remodeling during skeletal muscle differentiation are available. We reported here that the expression of the H3-K9 methyltransferase Suv39h1 was decreased during myoblast differentiation. Ectopic expression of Suv39h1 could inhibit myoblast differentiation, increasing H3-K9 methylation levels, whereas knockdown of Suv39h1 stimulated myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, Suv39h1 interacted with MEF2C directly and inhibited MEF2 transcription activity in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our studies revealed a molecular mechanism wherein Suv39h1 modulated myogenic gene expression and activation during skeletal muscle differentiation.

  15. The Set1/COMPASS histone H3 methyltransferase helps regulate mitosis with the CDK1 and NIMA mitotic kinases in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Meera; Anglin, Sarah Lea; Osmani, Aysha H; Osmani, Stephen A

    2014-08-01

    Mitosis is promoted and regulated by reversible protein phosphorylation catalyzed by the essential NIMA and CDK1 kinases in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Protein methylation mediated by the Set1/COMPASS methyltransferase complex has also been shown to regulate mitosis in budding yeast with the Aurora mitotic kinase. We uncover a genetic interaction between An-swd1, which encodes a subunit of the Set1 protein methyltransferase complex, with NIMA as partial inactivation of nimA is poorly tolerated in the absence of swd1. This genetic interaction is additionally seen without the Set1 methyltransferase catalytic subunit. Importantly partial inactivation of NIMT, a mitotic activator of the CDK1 kinase, also causes lethality in the absence of Set1 function, revealing a functional relationship between the Set1 complex and two pivotal mitotic kinases. The main target for Set1-mediated methylation is histone H3K4. Mutational analysis of histone H3 revealed that modifying the H3K4 target residue of Set1 methyltransferase activity phenocopied the lethality seen when either NIMA or CDK1 are partially functional. We probed the mechanistic basis of these genetic interactions and find that the Set1 complex performs functions with CDK1 for initiating mitosis and with NIMA during progression through mitosis. The studies uncover a joint requirement for the Set1 methyltransferase complex with the CDK1 and NIMA kinases for successful mitosis. The findings extend the roles of the Set1 complex to include the initiation of mitosis with CDK1 and mitotic progression with NIMA in addition to its previously identified interactions with Aurora and type 1 phosphatase in budding yeast. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Biochemical profiling of histone binding selectivity of the yeast bromodomain family.

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    Qiang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that molecular interactions between site-specific chemical modifications such as acetylation and methylation on DNA-packing histones and conserved structural modules present in transcriptional proteins are closely associated with chromatin structural changes and gene activation. Unlike methyl-lysine that can interact with different protein modules including chromodomains, Tudor and MBT domains, as well as PHD fingers, acetyl-lysine (Kac is known thus far to be recognized only by bromodomains. While histone lysine acetylation plays a crucial role in regulation of chromatin-mediated gene transcription, a high degree of sequence variation of the acetyl-lysine binding site in the bromodomains has limited our understanding of histone binding selectivity of the bromodomain family. Here, we report a systematic family-wide analysis of 14 yeast bromodomains binding to 32 lysine-acetylated peptides derived from known major acetylation sites in four core histones that are conserved in eukaryotes.The histone binding selectivity of purified recombinant yeast bromodomains was assessed by using the native core histones in an overlay assay, as well as N-terminally biotinylated lysine-acetylated histone peptides spotted on streptavidin-coated nitrocellulose membrane in a dot blot assay. NMR binding analysis further validated the interactions between histones and selected bromodomain. Structural models of all yeast bromodomains were built using comparative modeling to provide insights into the molecular basis of their histone binding selectivity.Our study reveals that while not all members of the bromodomain family are privileged to interact with acetylated-lysine, identifiable sequence features from those that bind histone emerge. These include an asparagine residue at the C-terminus of the third helix in the 4-helix bundle, negatively charged residues around the ZA loop, and preponderance of aromatic amino acid residues in the binding pocket

  17. Study of methyl transferase (G9aMT) and methylated histone (H3-K9) expressions in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) and normal early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nishat; Ahmed, S H; Salhan, Sudha; Rehman, S M F; Kaur, Jatinder; Owais, M; Chauhan, Shyam S

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the expression of methyl transferase G9a and methylated histone H3-K9 in fresh human decidual/endometrial tissue of 12 normal early pregnancies and 15 unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA). The samples were obtained through dilatation and curettage and collected as per strict inclusion-exclusion criteria. The tissue was subjected to immunohistochemical analysis (IHC), western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR analysis. The results demonstrated methyl transferase G9a to have a lower expression in abortions when compared with that in normal pregnancy (P K9 was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in URSA tissues than in controls. This study suggests that methylation may cause URSA and indicates the need for further work to explore the role of methylation in URSA and its possible prevention through locally acting methylating/demethylating agents.

  18. Repeated forced swim stress prior to complete Freund's adjuvant injection enhances mechanical hyperalgesia and attenuates the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the insular cortex of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A

    2015-08-20

    Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. CFA injection into the hindpaw or FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced a significant increase in the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC. Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of ΔFosB-immunoreactivity (IR) cells in the bilateral anterior and posterior IC (AIC and PIC) were significantly higher in the CFA group (AIC R, 548.0±98.6; AIC L, 433.5±89.4; PIC R, 546.1±72.8; PIC L, 415.5±53.5) than those in the naive group (AIC R, 86.6±14.8; AIC L, 85.5±24.7; PIC R, 124.5±29.9; PIC L, 107.0±19.8, p<0.01). However the FS prior to the CFA injection enhanced the mechanical hyperalgesia and attenuated the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC. There was no significant difference in the numbers of ΔFosB-IR cells in the bilateral PIC between the FS+CFA and naive groups. These findings suggest neuroplasticity in the IC after the FS, which may be involved in the enhancement of CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodium phenylbutyrate abrogates African swine fever virus replication by disrupting the virus-induced hypoacetylation status of histone H3K9/K14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-10-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a highly lethal disease in swine for which neither a vaccine nor treatment are available. Recently, a new class of drugs that inhibit histone deacetylases enzymes (HDACs) has received an increasing interest as antiviral agents. Considering studies by others showing that valproic acid, an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), blocks the replication of enveloped viruses and that ASFV regulates the epigenetic status of the host cell by promoting heterochromatinization and recruitment of class I HDACs to viral cytoplasmic factories, the antiviral activity of four HDACi against ASFV was evaluated in this study. Results showed that the sodium phenylbutyrate fully abrogates the ASFV replication, whereas the valproic acid leads to a significant reduction of viral progeny at 48h post-infection (-73.9%, p=0.046), as the two pan-HDAC inhibitors tested (Trichostatin A: -82.2%, p=0.043; Vorinostat: 73.9%, p=0.043). Further evaluation showed that protective effects of NaPB are dose-dependent, interfering with the expression of late viral genes and reversing the ASFV-induced histone H3 lysine 9 and 14 (H3K9K14) hypoacetylation status, compatible to an open chromatin state and possibly enabling the expression of host genes non-beneficial to infection progression. Additionally, a synergic antiviral effect was detected when NaPB is combined with an ASFV-topoisomerase II poison (Enrofloxacin). Altogether, our results strongly suggest that cellular HDACs are involved in the establishment of ASFV infection and emphasize that further in vivo studies are needed to better understand the antiviral activity of HDAC inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered binding of human histone gene transcription factors during the shutdown of proliferation and onset of differentiation in HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, G.; Lian, J.; Stein, J.; Shalhoub, V.; Wright, K.; Pauli, U.; Van Wijnen, A.; Briggs, R.

    1989-01-01

    Two sites of protein-DNA interaction have been identified in vivo and in vitro in the proximal promoter regions of an H4 and an H3 human histone gene. In proliferating cells, these genes are transcribed throughout the cell cycle, and both the more distal site I and the proximal site II are occupied by promoter-binding factors. In this report the authors demonstrate that during the shutdown of proliferation and onset of differentiation of the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 into cells that exhibit phenotypic properties of monocytes, histone gene expression is down-regulated at the level of transcription. In vivo occupancy of site I by promoter factors persists in the differentiated HL-60 cells, but protein-DNA interactions at site II are selectively lost. Furthermore, in vitro binding activity of the site II promoter factor HiNF-D is lost in differentiated cells, and nuclear extracts from differentiated cells do not support in vitro transcription of these histone genes. The results suggest that the interaction of HiNF-D with proximal promoter site II sequences plays a primary role in rendering cell growth-regulated histone genes transcribable in proliferating cells. It appears that while cell-cycle control of histone gene expression is mediated by both transcription and mRNA stability, with the shutdown of proliferation and onset of differentiation, histone gene expression is regulated at the transcriptional level

  1. Receptor mimicry by antibody F045–092 facilitates universal binding to the H3 subtype of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter S.; Ohshima, Nobuko; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Yu, Wenli; Iba, Yoshitaka; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu; Wilson, Ian A.

    2014-04-10

    Influenza viruses present a significant health challenge each year, as in the H3N2 epidemic of 2012–2013. Here we describe an antibody, F045–092, that possesses broadly neutralizing activity against the entire H3 subtype and accommodates the natural variation and additional glycosylation in all strains tested from 1963 to 2011. Crystal structures of F045–092 in complex with HAs from 1975 and 2011 H3N2 viruses reveal the structural basis for its neutralization breadth through insertion of its 23-residue HCDR3 into the receptor-binding site that involves striking receptor mimicry. F045–092 extends its recognition to divergent subtypes, including H1, H2 and H13, using the enhanced avidity of its IgG to overcome lower-affinity Fab binding, as observed with other antibodies that target the receptor-binding site. This unprecedented level of antibody cross-reactivity against the H3 subtype can potentially inform on development of a pan-H3 vaccine or small-molecule therapeutics.

  2. Mechanisms of immunity to Leishmania major infection in mice: the contribution of DNA vaccines coding for two novel sets of histones (H2A-H2B or H3-H4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Javier

    2011-09-01

    The immune phenotype conferred by two different sets of histone genes (H2A-H2B or H3-H4) was assessed. BALB/c mice vaccinated with pcDNA3H2AH2B succumbed to progressive cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL), whereas vaccination with pcDNA3H3H4 resulted in partial resistance to Leishmania major challenge associated with the development of mixed T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2-type response and a reduction in parasite-specific Treg cells number at the site of infection. Therefore, the presence of histones H3 and H4 may be considered essential in the development of vaccine strategies against CL based on the Leishmania histones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Histone acetylation and CREB binding protein are required for neuronal resistance against ischemic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferah Yildirim

    Full Text Available Epigenetic transcriptional regulation by histone acetylation depends on the balance between histone acetyltransferase (HAT and deacetylase activities (HDAC. Inhibition of HDAC activity provides neuroprotection, indicating that the outcome of cerebral ischemia depends crucially on the acetylation status of histones. In the present study, we characterized the changes in histone acetylation levels in ischemia models of focal cerebral ischemia and identified cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB-binding protein (CBP as a crucial factor in the susceptibility of neurons to ischemic stress. Both neuron-specific RNA interference and neurons derived from CBP heterozygous knockout mice showed increased damage after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning by a short (5 min subthreshold occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA, followed 24 h afterwards by a 30 min occlusion of the MCA, increased histone acetylation levels in vivo. Ischemic preconditioning enhanced CBP recruitment and histone acetylation at the promoter of the neuroprotective gene gelsolin leading to increased gelsolin expression in neurons. Inhibition of CBP's HAT activity attenuated neuronal ischemic preconditioning. Taken together, our findings suggest that the levels of CBP and histone acetylation determine stroke outcome and are crucially associated with the induction of an ischemia-resistant state in neurons.

  4. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophorou, Maria A; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune...... and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel...

  5. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3K9me2 in acute myeloid leukemia reveals large chromosomal domains associated with massive gene silencing and sites of genome instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Salzberg

    Full Text Available A facultative heterochromatin mark, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2, which is mediated by histone methyltransferases G9a/GLP (EHMT2/1, undergoes dramatic rearrangements during myeloid cell differentiation as observed by chromatin imaging. To determine whether these structural transitions also involve genomic repositioning of H3K9me2, we used ChIP-sequencing to map genome-wide topography of H3K9me2 in normal human granulocytes, normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, primary myeloblasts from acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients, and a model leukemia cell line K562. We observe that H3K9me2 naturally repositions from the previously designated "repressed" chromatin state in hematopoietic progenitors to predominant association with heterochromatin regions in granulocytes. In contrast, AML cells accumulate H3K9me2 on previously undefined large (> 100 Kb genomic blocks that are enriched with AML-specific single nucleotide variants, sites of chromosomal translocations, and genes downregulated in AML. Specifically, the AML-specific H3K9me2 blocks are enriched with genes regulated by the proto-oncogene ERG that promotes stem cell characteristics. The AML-enriched H3K9me2 blocks (in contrast to the heterochromatin-associated H3K9me2 blocks enriched in granulocytes are reduced by pharmacological inhibition of the histone methyltransferase G9a/GLP in K562 cells concomitantly with transcriptional activation of ERG and ETS1 oncogenes. Our data suggest that G9a/GLP mediate formation of transient H3K9me2 blocks that are preserved in AML myeloblasts and may lead to an increased rate of AML-specific mutagenesis and chromosomal translocations.

  6. Genome-wide mapping of histone H3K9me2 in acute myeloid leukemia reveals large chromosomal domains associated with massive gene silencing and sites of genome instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberg, Anna C; Harris-Becker, Abigail; Popova, Evgenya Y; Keasey, Nikki; Loughran, Thomas P; Claxton, David F; Grigoryev, Sergei A

    2017-01-01

    A facultative heterochromatin mark, histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is mediated by histone methyltransferases G9a/GLP (EHMT2/1), undergoes dramatic rearrangements during myeloid cell differentiation as observed by chromatin imaging. To determine whether these structural transitions also involve genomic repositioning of H3K9me2, we used ChIP-sequencing to map genome-wide topography of H3K9me2 in normal human granulocytes, normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, primary myeloblasts from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, and a model leukemia cell line K562. We observe that H3K9me2 naturally repositions from the previously designated "repressed" chromatin state in hematopoietic progenitors to predominant association with heterochromatin regions in granulocytes. In contrast, AML cells accumulate H3K9me2 on previously undefined large (> 100 Kb) genomic blocks that are enriched with AML-specific single nucleotide variants, sites of chromosomal translocations, and genes downregulated in AML. Specifically, the AML-specific H3K9me2 blocks are enriched with genes regulated by the proto-oncogene ERG that promotes stem cell characteristics. The AML-enriched H3K9me2 blocks (in contrast to the heterochromatin-associated H3K9me2 blocks enriched in granulocytes) are reduced by pharmacological inhibition of the histone methyltransferase G9a/GLP in K562 cells concomitantly with transcriptional activation of ERG and ETS1 oncogenes. Our data suggest that G9a/GLP mediate formation of transient H3K9me2 blocks that are preserved in AML myeloblasts and may lead to an increased rate of AML-specific mutagenesis and chromosomal translocations.

  7. Involvement of histone H3 phosphorylation via the activation of p38 MAPK pathway and intracellular redox status in cytotoxicity of HL-60 cells induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Yuhara, Eisuke; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Takagi, Norio; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex angus-castus (Vitex), might be a promising anticancer candidate. In order to further provide a molecular rationale for clinical development in anticancer therapy, a detailed mechanism underlying the efficacy of Vitex against HL-60 cells was investigated. Vitex induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability associated with induction of apoptosis and G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, both of which were suppressed by the addition of SB203580, an inhibitor for p38 MAPK. Furthermore, SB203580 significantly suppressed Vitex-induced phosphorylation of histone H3, a downstream molecule of p38 MAPK known to be involved in apoptosis induction in tumor cells. Notably, Vitex induced upregulation of intracellular ATP, known to bind its binding pocket inside activated p38 MAPK and to be required for the activation of p38 MAPK pathway. These results, thus, suggest that upregulation of intracellular ATP and phosphorylation of histone H3 are closely associated with the activation of p38 MAPK pathway, consequently contributing to Vitex-mediated cytotoxicity. Intriguingly, a significant decrease of intracellular ROS levels and downregulation of expression level of gp91(phox), an important component of NADPH oxidase, were observed in Vitex-treated cells. A greater decline in ROS levels along with enhanced apoptosis was observed after treatment with Vitex in combination with SnPP, an inhibitor specific for HO-1. Since NADPH oxidase and HO-1 are closely correlated to redox status associated with intracellular ROS levels, the two enzymes are suggested to be implicated in Vitex-mediated cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells by regulating ROS generation. We also suggest that activation of the p38 MAPK pathway may be dependent on the alterations of intracellular ATP levels, rather than that of intracellular ROS levels. These results may have important implications for appropriate clinical uses of Vitex and provide novel insights

  8. Plasticity and epigenetic inheritance of centromere-specific histone H3 (CENP-A)-containing nucleosome positioning in the fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianhui; Liu, Xingkun; Sakuno, Takeshi; Li, Wenzhu; Xi, Yuanxin; Aravamudhan, Pavithra; Joglekar, Ajit; Li, Wei; Watanabe, Yoshinori; He, Xiangwei

    2013-06-28

    Nucleosomes containing the specific histone H3 variant CENP-A mark the centromere locus on each chromatin and initiate kinetochore assembly. For the common type of regional centromeres, little is known in molecular detail of centromeric chromatin organization, its propagation through cell division, and how distinct organization patterns may facilitate kinetochore assembly. Here, we show that in the fission yeast S. pombe, a relatively small number of CENP-A/Cnp1 nucleosomes are found within the centromeric core and that their positioning relative to underlying DNA varies among genetically homogenous cells. Consistent with the flexible positioning of Cnp1 nucleosomes, a large portion of the endogenous centromere is dispensable for its essential activity in mediating chromosome segregation. We present biochemical evidence that Cnp1 occupancy directly correlates with silencing of the underlying reporter genes. Furthermore, using a newly developed pedigree analysis assay, we demonstrated the epigenetic inheritance of Cnp1 positioning and quantified the rate of occasional repositioning of Cnp1 nucleosomes throughout cell generations. Together, our results reveal the plasticity and the epigenetically inheritable nature of centromeric chromatin organization.

  9. Recent relaxation of purifying selection on the tandem-repetitive early-stage histone H3 gene in brooding sea stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, David W; Mah, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Patterns of nucleotide substitution differ between marine species that have a pelagic feeding (planktotrophic) larval stage and related species that lack such a stage, for both adaptive and non-adaptive reasons. Here, patterns of nucleotide and inferred amino acid substitution are analyzed for the tandem-repetitive early-stage histone H3 gene in 36 sea star species of the order Forcipulatida with documented larval habitat. The relative rate of nonsynonymous substitution (expressed as ω=d(N)/d(S)) was significantly higher in lineages with a brooded non-feeding (lecithotrophic) larval form than in lineages with a planktotrophic larval form. There was also a significant excess of conservative over radical substitutions. The increase in ω for brooders as compared to non-brooders was much greater than for previously analyzed mitochondrial sequences in echinoderms. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that purifying selection on this gene has been relaxed in brooding lineages compared to non-brooding lineages. The hypotheses of adaptive or neutral evolution are less plausible, although recent pseudogenization following a period of relaxed purifying selection could also explain the results.

  10. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  11. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun; Zheng, Min; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  12. Smad4 mediated BMP2 signal is essential for the regulation of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 by affecting the histone H3 acetylation in H9c2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Lina; Shi, Jin; Gao, Wenqun [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Zheng, Min [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Liu, Lingjuan; Zhu, Jing [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China); Tian, Jie, E-mail: jietian@cqmu.edu.cn [Heart Centre, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 136 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Yu Zhong District, Chongqing 400014 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • BMP2 can upregulated cardiac related gene GATA4, Nkx2.5, MEF2c and Tbx5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased BMP2-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. • Inhibition of Smad4 diminished BMP2-induced overexpression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Inhibition of Smad4 decreased hyperacetylated H3 in the promoter of GATA4 and Nkx2.5. • Smad4 is essential for BMP2 induced hyperacetylated histone H3. - Abstract: BMP2 signaling pathway plays critical roles during heart development, Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a pivotal nuclear mediator. Our previous studies showed that BMP2 enhanced the expression of cardiac transcription factors in part by increasing histone H3 acetylation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Smad4 mediated BMP2 signaling pathway is essential for the expression of cardiac core transcription factors by affecting the histone H3 acetylation. We successfully constructed a lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA interference vector targeting Smad4 (Lv-Smad4) in rat H9c2 embryonic cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) and demonstrated that it suppressed the expression of the Smad4 gene. Cultured H9c2 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human BMP2 (AdBMP2) with or without Lv-Smad4. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 substantially inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal expression levels of cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not MEF2c and Tbx5. Similarly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that knocking down of Smad4 inhibited both AdBMP2-induced and basal histone H3 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of GATA4 and Nkx2.5, but not of Tbx5 and MEF2c. In addition, Lv-Smad4 selectively suppressed AdBMP2-induced expression of HAT p300, but not of HAT GCN5 in H9c2 cells. The data indicated that inhibition of Smad4 diminished both AdBMP2 induced and basal histone acetylation levels in the promoter regions of

  13. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene and (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha, 10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene to histones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sculley, T.B.; Zytkovicz, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    AKR-2B mouse embryo cells were incubated for 24 hr with [3H]benzo(a)pyrene, and the histones were isolated and analyzed using one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The results revealed that (a) histones H1, H2A, and H3 incorporated significant amounts of label whereas little or no label was associated with histones H2B and H4 and (b) electrophoresis of the histones in the Triton: acid: urea gel system caused labeled histones to have a slower migration than did the corresponding unlabeled histones. Additional studies such as incubation of (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-[3H]dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene with nuclei resulted in radioactive labeling of histones H1, H2A, H2B, and H3 and of high-mobility-group proteins HMG1 and HMG2. The low levels of label associated with histone H4 in the whole-cell and nuclear studies were further investigated by incubating isolated histones with (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-[3H]dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene. Under these conditions, negligible amounts of radioactivity were associated with H4, while significant labeling of H1, H2A, H2B, and H3 and other nuclear proteins was observed. The results suggest that factors other than the presence of suitable nucleophilic acceptor sites on the histones may be necessary for carcinogen binding

  14. Regulation of Cellular Dynamics and Chromosomal Binding Site Preference of Linker Histones H1.0 and H1.X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Abe, Mayumi; Hisaoka, Miharu; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2016-11-01

    Linker histones play important roles in the genomic organization of mammalian cells. Of the linker histone variants, H1.X shows the most dynamic behavior in the nucleus. Recent research has suggested that the linker histone variants H1.X and H1.0 have different chromosomal binding site preferences. However, it remains unclear how the dynamics and binding site preferences of linker histones are determined. Here, we biochemically demonstrated that the DNA/nucleosome and histone chaperone binding activities of H1.X are significantly lower than those of other linker histones. This explains why H1.X moves more rapidly than other linker histones in vivo Domain swapping between H1.0 and H1.X suggests that the globular domain (GD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) of H1.X independently contribute to the dynamic behavior of H1.X. Our results also suggest that the N-terminal domain (NTD), GD, and CTD cooperatively determine the preferential binding sites, and the contribution of each domain for this determination is different depending on the target genes. We also found that linker histones accumulate in the nucleoli when the nucleosome binding activities of the GDs are weak. Our results contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms of dynamic behaviors, binding site selection, and localization of linker histones. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Kinetic and structural insights into the binding of histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1, 2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Florence F; Weïwer, Michel; Steinbacher, Stefan; Schomburg, Adrian; Reinemer, Peter; Gale, Jennifer P; Campbell, Arthur J; Fisher, Stewart L; Zhao, Wen-Ning; Reis, Surya A; Hennig, Krista M; Thomas, Méryl; Müller, Peter; Jefson, Martin R; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Holson, Edward B

    2016-09-15

    The structure-activity and structure-kinetic relationships of a series of novel and selective ortho-aminoanilide inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 2 are described. Different kinetic and thermodynamic selectivity profiles were obtained by varying the moiety occupying an 11Å channel leading to the Zn(2+) catalytic pocket of HDACs 1 and 2, two paralogs with a high degree of structural similarity. The design of these novel inhibitors was informed by two ligand-bound crystal structures of truncated hHDAC2. BRD4884 and BRD7232 possess kinetic selectivity for HDAC1 versus HDAC2. We demonstrate that the binding kinetics of HDAC inhibitors can be tuned for individual isoforms in order to modulate target residence time while retaining functional activity and increased histone H4K12 and H3K9 acetylation in primary mouse neuronal cell culture assays. These chromatin modifiers, with tuned binding kinetic profiles, can be used to define the relation between target engagement requirements and the pharmacodynamic response of HDACs in different disease applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simplified Method for Rapid Purification of Soluble Histones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ivić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional and structural studies of histone-chaperone complexes, nucleosome modifications, their interactions with remodelers and regulatory proteins rely on obtaining recombinant histones from bacteria. In the present study, we show that co-expression of Xenopus laevis histone pairs leads to production of soluble H2AH2B heterodimer and (H3H42 heterotetramer. The soluble histone complexes are purified by simple chromatographic techniques. Obtained H2AH2B dimer and H3H4 tetramer are proficient in histone chaperone binding and histone octamer and nucleosome formation. Our optimized protocol enables rapid purification of multiple soluble histone variants with a remarkable high yield and simplifies histone octamer preparation. We expect that this simple approach will contribute to the histone chaperone and chromatin research. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  17. Development of homogeneous luminescence assays for histone demethylase catalysis and binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Akane; Tumber, Anthony; Rose, Nathan R; King, Oliver N F; Daniel, Michelle; Oppermann, Udo; Heightman, Tom D; Schofield, Christopher

    2010-09-01

    Covalent modifications to histones play important roles in chromatin dynamics and the regulation of gene expression. The JumonjiC (JmjC)-containing histone demethylases (HDMs) catalyze the demethylation of methylated lysine residues on histone tails. Here we report the development of homogeneous luminescence-based assay methods for measuring the catalytic activity and the binding affinities of peptides to HDMs. The assays use amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (ALPHA) technology, are sensitive and robust, and can be used for small molecule inhibitor screening of HDMs. We have profiled known inhibitors of JMJD2E and demonstrate a correlation between the inhibitor potencies determined by the ALPHA and other types of assays. Although this study focuses on the JMJD2E isoform, the catalytic turnover and binding assays described here can be used in studies on other HDMs. The assays should be useful for the development of small molecule inhibitors selective for HDM isoforms. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(DJ Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S. Matheson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa (Igκ light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh, as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(DJ recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(DJ-mediated chromosomal translocations.

  19. Chromatin Regulation of Estrogen-Mediated Transcription in Breast Cancer: Rules for Binding Sites in Nucleosomes and Modified Histones that Enhance ER Binding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chrivia, John C

    2005-01-01

    .... Using gel shift assays, we tested whether ER can bind these nucleosomes. We have also found that the non-histone chromatin protein HMOB2 enhances binding of ER to an ERE located at the center of the nucleosome...

  20. Synaptic activity induces dramatic changes in the geometry of the cell nucleus: interplay between nuclear structure, histone H3 phosphorylation, and nuclear calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Malte; Queisser, Gillian; Eder, Anja; Wiegert, J Simon; Bengtson, C Peter; Hellwig, Andrea; Wittum, Gabriel; Bading, Hilmar

    2009-11-25

    Synaptic activity initiates many adaptive responses in neurons. Here we report a novel form of structural plasticity in dissociated hippocampal cultures and slice preparations. Using a recently developed algorithm for three-dimensional image reconstruction and quantitative measurements of cell organelles, we found that many nuclei from hippocampal neurons are highly infolded and form unequally sized nuclear compartments. Nuclear infoldings are dynamic structures, which can radically transform the geometry of the nucleus in response to neuronal activity. Action potential bursting causing synaptic NMDA receptor activation dramatically increases the number of infolded nuclei via a process that requires the ERK-MAP kinase pathway and new protein synthesis. In contrast, death-signaling pathways triggered by extrasynaptic NMDA receptors cause a rapid loss of nuclear infoldings. Compared with near-spherical nuclei, infolded nuclei have a larger surface and increased nuclear pore complex immunoreactivity. Nuclear calcium signals evoked by cytosolic calcium transients are larger in small nuclear compartments than in the large compartments of the same nucleus; moreover, small compartments are more efficient in temporally resolving calcium signals induced by trains of action potentials in the theta frequency range (5 Hz). Synaptic activity-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine 10 was more robust in neurons with infolded nuclei compared with neurons with near-spherical nuclei, suggesting a functional link between nuclear geometry and transcriptional regulation. The translation of synaptic activity-induced signaling events into changes in nuclear geometry facilitates the relay of calcium signals to the nucleus, may lead to the formation of nuclear signaling microdomains, and could enhance signal-regulated transcription.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of 5S rDNA location in acridid grasshoppers and its relationship with H3 histone gene and 45S rDNA location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Cabrero, Josefa; López-León, María Dolores; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2011-07-01

    We analyze the chromosomal location of 5S rDNA clusters in 29 species of grasshoppers belonging to the family Acrididae. There was extensive variation among species for the number and location of 5S rDNA sites. Out of 148 sites detected, 75% were proximally located, 21.6% were interstitial, and only 3.4% were distal. The number of 5S rDNA sites per species varied from a single chromosome pair (in six species) to all chromosome pairs (in five species), with a range of intermediate situations. Thirteen chromosomes from eight species carried two 5S rDNA clusters. At intraspecific level, differences among populations were detected in Eyprepocnemis plorans, and some heteromorphisms have also been observed in some species. Double FISH for 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene DNA, performed on 17 of these 29 species, revealed that both markers are sometimes placed in a same chromosome but at different location, whereas they appeared to co-localize in five species (Calliptamus barbarus, Heteracris adpersa, Aiolopus strepens, Oedipoda charpentieri and O. coerulescens). Double fiber-FISH in A. strepens and O. coerulescens showed that the two DNAs are closely interspersed with variable relative amounts of both classes of DNA. Finally, no correlation was observed between the number of 5S and 45S rDNA clusters in 23 species where this information was available. These results are discussed in the light of possible mechanisms of spread that led to the extensive variation in the number of clusters observed for both rDNA types in acridid grasshoppers.

  2. Binding of histone H1 to DNA is differentially modulated by redox state of HMGB1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Polanská

    Full Text Available HMGB1 is an architectural protein in chromatin, acting also as a signaling molecule outside the cell. Recent reports from several laboratories provided evidence that a number of both the intracellular and extracellular functions of HMGB1 may depend on redox-sensitive cysteine residues of the protein. In this study we demonstrate that redox state of HMGB1 can significantly modulate the ability of the protein to bind and bend DNA, as well as to promote DNA end-joining. We also report a high affinity binding of histone H1 to hemicatenated DNA loops and DNA minicircles. Finally, we show that reduced HMGB1 can readily displace histone H1 from DNA, while oxidized HMGB1 has limited capacity for H1 displacement. Our results suggested a novel mechanism for the HMGB1-mediated modulation of histone H1 binding to DNA. Possible biological consequences of linker histones H1 replacement by HMGB1 for the functioning of chromatin are discussed.

  3. Computational characteristics of valproic acid binding to histone deacetylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Laila A.; El-Mowafy, Abdalla M.; Eikel, D.; Nau, H.; El-Mazar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the anticpileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) has also demonstrated efficacy in the management of cancer and bipolar disorders. These actions are largely mediated by inhibition of the HDAC enzyme/induction of certain genes. Relative to other HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin-A (TSA), VPA offers higher selectivity on cancer cells with virtually no detrimental effects on normal cells. The molecular underpinnings of these biological profiles for VPA remain undefined. We currently propose for an attempt to identify differences in the binding of VPA and TSA to HDAC. In this paper, conformational changes and energy calculations have derived. VPA had to accomplish conformational changes in its structure for best accommodation at the HDAC binding site. Energy computations showed that VPA has a lower binding affinitythan TSA (-53.80 vs. -66.30 Kcal/mol). These findings demonstrate that VPA binding to HDAC confers catalytic, conformational and computational characteristics that are distinct from those of TSA. These findings of VPA are consistent with a moderate inhibition of HDAC, a low toxicity on normal cells, and a higher selectivity on cancer cells than TSA. Accordingly, these newly identified binding properties of VPA can state a framework strategy for the rational design of VPA-related anticancer drugs with superior cytodifferentiating-and/or safety-profiles. (author)

  4. Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    (+)3H-3-PPP [(+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine] binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated with the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047

  5. Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by Methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Imke; Wischnewski, Frank; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies. Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3) at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR. This study is one of the first to reveal the histone code and MBD profile

  6. Promoter- and cell-specific epigenetic regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN by Methyl-CpG binding proteins and histone modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzenbach Heidi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to analyze the involvement of methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs and histone modifications on the regulation of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN in different cellular contexts such as the prostate cancer cells DU145 and LNCaP, and the breast cancer cells MCF-7. Since global chromatin changes have been shown to occur in tumours and regions of tumour-associated genes are affected by epigenetic modifications, these may constitute important regulatory mechanisms for the pathogenesis of malignant transformation. Methods In DU145, LNCaP and MCF-7 cells mRNA expression levels of CD44, Cyclin D2, GLIPR1 and PTEN were determined by quantitative RT-PCR at the basal status as well as after treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A. Furthermore, genomic DNA was bisulfite-converted and sequenced. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed with the stimulated and unstimulated cells using antibodies for MBD1, MBD2 and MeCP2 as well as 17 different histone antibodies. Results Comparison of the different promoters showed that MeCP2 and MBD2a repressed promoter-specifically Cyclin D2 in all cell lines, whereas in MCF-7 cells MeCP2 repressed cell-specifically all methylated promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that all methylated promoters associated with at least one MBD. Treatment of the cells by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR caused dissociation of the MBDs from the promoters. Only MBD1v1 bound and repressed methylation-independently all promoters. Real-time amplification of DNA immunoprecipitated by 17 different antibodies showed a preferential enrichment for methylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me1, H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 at the particular promoters. Notably, the silent promoters were associated with unmodified histones which were acetylated following treatment by 5-aza-CdR. Conclusions This study is one

  7. Amino Acids in Hemagglutinin Antigenic Site B Determine Antigenic and Receptor Binding Differences between A(H3N2)v and Ancestral Seasonal H3N2 Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoquan; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Lugovtsev, Vladimir Y; Bovin, Nicolai V; Couzens, Laura K; Gao, Jin; Donnelly, Raymond P; Eichelberger, Maryna C; Wan, Hongquan

    2017-01-15

    Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses, which have caused human infections in the United States in recent years, originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into North American swine in the mid-1990s, but they are antigenically distinct from both the ancestral and current circulating H3N2 strains. A reference A(H3N2)v virus, A/Minnesota/11/2010 (MN/10), and a seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Beijing/32/1992 (BJ/92), were chosen to determine the molecular basis for the antigenic difference between A(H3N2)v and the ancestral viruses. Viruses containing wild-type and mutant MN/10 or BJ/92 hemagglutinins (HAs) were constructed and probed for reactivity with ferret antisera against MN/10 and BJ/92 in hemagglutination inhibition assays. Among the amino acids that differ between the MN/10 and BJ/92 HAs, those in antigenic site A had little impact on the antigenic phenotype. Within antigenic site B, mutations at residues 156, 158, 189, and 193 of MN/10 HA to those in BJ/92 switched the MN/10 antigenic phenotype to that of BJ/92. Mutations at residues 156, 157, 158, 189, and 193 of BJ/92 HA to amino acids present in MN/10 were necessary for BJ/92 to become antigenically similar to MN/10. The HA amino acid substitutions responsible for switching the antigenic phenotype also impacted HA binding to sialyl receptors that are usually present in the human respiratory tract. Our study demonstrates that antigenic site B residues play a critical role in determining both the unique antigenic phenotype and receptor specificity of A(H3N2)v viruses, a finding that may facilitate future surveillance and risk assessment of novel influenza viruses. Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses have caused hundreds of human infections in multiple states in the United States since 2009. Most cases have been children who had contact with swine in agricultural fairs. These viruses originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into the U.S. swine population in

  8. Epigenetics and sex differences in the brain: A genome-wide comparison of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Erica Y; Ahern, Todd H; Cheung, Iris; Straubhaar, Juerg; Dincer, Aslihan; Houston, Isaac; de Vries, Geert J; Akbarian, Schahram; Forger, Nancy G

    2015-06-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders exhibit gender disparities, and sex differences in the brain likely explain some of these effects. Recent work in rodents points to a role for epigenetics in the development or maintenance of neural sex differences, although genome-wide studies have so far been lacking. Here we review the existing literature on epigenetics and brain sexual differentiation and present preliminary analyses on the genome-wide distribution of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation in a sexually dimorphic brain region in male and female mice. H3K4me3 is a histone mark primarily organized as 'peaks' surrounding the transcription start site of active genes. We microdissected the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area (BNST/POA) in adult male and female mice and used ChIP-Seq to compare the distribution of H3K4me3 throughout the genome. We found 248 genes and loci with a significant sex difference in H3K4me3. Of these, the majority (71%) had larger H3K4me3 peaks in females. Comparisons with existing databases indicate that genes and loci with increased H3K4me3 in females are associated with synaptic function and with expression atlases from related brain areas. Based on RT-PCR, only a minority of genes with a sex difference in H3K4me3 has detectable sex differences in expression at baseline conditions. Together with previous findings, our data suggest that there may be sex biases in the use of epigenetic marks. Such biases could underlie sex differences in vulnerabilities to drugs or diseases that disrupt specific epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The H3K4me3/2 histone demethylase RBR-2 controls axon guidance by repressing the actin-remodeling gene wsp-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Luca; Lussi, Yvonne C.; Vandamme, Julien

    2016-01-01

    . Here, we show that RBR-2, the sole homolog of the KDM5 family of H3K4me3/2 demethylases in Caenorhabditis elegans, ensures correct axon guidance by controlling the expression of the actin regulator wsp-1. Loss of rbr-2 results in increased levels of H3K4me3 at the transcriptional start site of wsp-1...

  10. The Histone Demethylase Jarid1b Ensures Faithful Mouse Development by Protecting Developmental Genes from Aberrant H3K4me3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Mareike; Schmitz, Sandra U; Kooistra, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic development is tightly regulated by transcription factors and chromatin-associated proteins. H3K4me3 is associated with active transcription and H3K27me3 with gene repression, while the combination of both keeps genes required for development in a plastic state. Here we show that deleti...

  11. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) mediates repression of TNF-α by decreasing levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at its promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, Ryan; Monroy, M. Alexandra; Daly, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Prostaglandin metabolite 15-Deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is known to inhibit a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as being a ligand for nuclear receptor PPARγ. We investigated the ability of 15d-PGJ2 to inhibit TNF-α gene expression through mechanisms that involve histone modification. Pretreatment with 15d-PGJ2 (10 μM) inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-α mRNA in THP-1 monocytes or PMA-differentiated cells to nearly basal levels. A specific PPARγ ligand, GW1929, failed to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA expression nor did a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, alter the repression of TNF-α mRNA in LPS-stimulated cells pretreated with 15d-PGJ2 suggesting a PPARγ-independent inhibition of TNF-α mRNA in THP-1 cells. Transfection studies with a reporter construct and subsequent treatment with 15d-PGJ2 demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of the TNF-α promoter. Additional studies demonstrated that inhibition of histone deacetylases with trichostatin A (TSA) or overexpression of histone acetyltransferase CBP could overcome 15d-PGJ2-mediated repression of the TNF-α promoter, suggesting that an important mechanism whereby 15d-PGJ2 suppresses a cytokine is through factors that regulate histone modifications. To examine the endogenous TNF-α promoter, chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) were performed. ChIP assays demonstrated that LPS stimulation induced an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation at the TNF-α promoter, which was reduced in cells pretreated with 15d-PGJ2. These results highlight the ability of acetylation and deacetylation factors to affect the TNF-α promoter and demonstrate that an additional important mechanism whereby 15d-PGJ2 mediates TNF-α transcriptional repression by altering levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at its promoter

  12. EZH2 and histone deacetylase inhibitors induce apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer cells by differentially increasing H3 Lys27 acetylation in the BIM gene promoter and enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julia P; Ling, Kun

    2017-11-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2, is a histone methyl-transferase and is considered to work cooperatively with histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the same protein complex to mediate gene transcription repression by increasing histone H3 Lys 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), in particular in the nucleosome (s). EZH2 is overexpressed in numerous types of cancer, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of breast cancer, which there are no effective treatment options for. Thus, inhibition of EZH2 may be harnessed for targeted therapy of this disease. The present study demonstrated that co-treatment with an EZH2 inhibitor and a HDAC inhibitor additively induced apoptosis in two TNBC cell lines, namely MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-436. The increased rate of cell death was associated with an elevation of B cell lymphoma-2 like 11 (BIM) expression level, a pro-apoptotic protein at the protein and mRNA expression levels in these two cell lines. The expression of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), a known upstream transcriptional activator of BIM , was upregulated in both cell lines by the HDAC inhibitor, and the effect was more pronounced in MDA-MB-436 cells with higher phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B, a negative regulator of FOXO1, compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, FOXO1 expression was inhibited following treatment with the EZH2 inhibitor, suggesting that EZH2 and HDAC inhibitors induced BIM expression via a FOXO1-independent mechanism. The present study further revealed that the EZH2 inhibitor, but not the HDAC inhibitor, induced high levels of H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) in the BIM promoter. By contrast, compared with the effect of the EZH2 inhibitor, HDAC inhibitor treatment resulted in an increase in H3K27ac at two BIM enhancers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicated that EZH2 and HDACs act differentially on H3K27ac levels in the nucleosome at the promoter and enhancer regions of the BIM

  13. Binding of DNA-bending non-histone proteins destabilizes regular 30-nm chromatin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Gaurav; Jain, Ishutesh; Inamdar, Mandar M.; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2017-01-01

    Why most of the in vivo experiments do not find the 30-nm chromatin fiber, well studied in vitro, is a puzzle. Two basic physical inputs that are crucial for understanding the structure of the 30-nm fiber are the stiffness of the linker DNA and the relative orientations of the DNA entering/exiting nucleosomes. Based on these inputs we simulate chromatin structure and show that the presence of non-histone proteins, which bind and locally bend linker DNA, destroys any regular higher order structures (e.g., zig-zag). Accounting for the bending geometry of proteins like nhp6 and HMG-B, our theory predicts phase-diagram for the chromatin structure as a function of DNA-bending non-histone protein density and mean linker DNA length. For a wide range of linker lengths, we show that as we vary one parameter, that is, the fraction of bent linker region due to non-histone proteins, the steady-state structure will show a transition from zig-zag to an irregular structure—a structure that is reminiscent of what is observed in experiments recently. Our theory can explain the recent in vivo observation of irregular chromatin having co-existence of finite fraction of the next-neighbor (i + 2) and neighbor (i + 1) nucleosome interactions. PMID:28135276

  14. Histone acetylation characterizes chromatin presetting by NF1 and Oct1 and enhances glucocorticoid receptor binding to the MMTV promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrand, Carolina; Belikov, Sergey; Wrange, Orjan

    2009-01-01

    Transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This switch was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. Previously, we showed that Nuclear Factor 1 (NF1) and Octamer Transcription Factor 1 (Oct1) bind constitutively to the MMTV promoter and thereby induce translational nucleosome positioning representing an intermediary, i.e. preset, state of nucleosome organization. Here we further characterize this NF1 and Oct1 induced preset chromatin in relation to the inactive and the hormone-activated state. The preset chromatin exhibits increased histone acetylation but does not cause dissociation of histone H1 as oppose to the hormone-activated state. Furthermore, upon hormone induction the preset MMTV chromatin displays an enhanced and prolonged GR binding capacity and transcription during an intrinsic and time-dependent silencing of the injected template. The silencing process correlates with a reduced histone acetylation. However, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), does not counteract silencing in spite of its distinct stimulation of GR-DNA binding. The latter indicates the importance of histone acetylation to maintain DNA access for inducible factor binding. We discuss how constitutively bound factors such as NF1 and Oct1 may participate in the maintenance of tissue specificity of hormone responsive genes.

  15. Histone acetylation characterizes chromatin presetting by NF1 and Oct1 and enhances glucocorticoid receptor binding to the MMTV promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrand, Carolina, E-mail: ca340@cam.ac.uk [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Belikov, Sergey, E-mail: Sergey.Belikov@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Wrange, Orjan, E-mail: Orjan.Wrange@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-10

    Transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This switch was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. Previously, we showed that Nuclear Factor 1 (NF1) and Octamer Transcription Factor 1 (Oct1) bind constitutively to the MMTV promoter and thereby induce translational nucleosome positioning representing an intermediary, i.e. preset, state of nucleosome organization. Here we further characterize this NF1 and Oct1 induced preset chromatin in relation to the inactive and the hormone-activated state. The preset chromatin exhibits increased histone acetylation but does not cause dissociation of histone H1 as oppose to the hormone-activated state. Furthermore, upon hormone induction the preset MMTV chromatin displays an enhanced and prolonged GR binding capacity and transcription during an intrinsic and time-dependent silencing of the injected template. The silencing process correlates with a reduced histone acetylation. However, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), does not counteract silencing in spite of its distinct stimulation of GR-DNA binding. The latter indicates the importance of histone acetylation to maintain DNA access for inducible factor binding. We discuss how constitutively bound factors such as NF1 and Oct1 may participate in the maintenance of tissue specificity of hormone responsive genes.

  16. Chromatin enrichment of histone marks H4Ac and H3K9me3 in TP53 gene domain in breast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos G. C. Jr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In non-cancerous breast cell lines HB2 and MCF10A the TP53 gene is localized inside a relatively small ~ 50 kb loop domain delimited by two S/MARs. Aim. To analyze the chromatin markers H4Ac and H3K9me3 of these two S/MARs and of the TP53 gene P1 promoter in different breast cells lines. Methods. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP to characterize the chromatin status of these S/MARs elements in breast non-cancerous cell lines HB2 and MCF10A and cancerous MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, BT-474 and T47D cell lines, by chromatin enrichment of H4Ac and H3K9me3 epigenetic markers, hallmarks of open and closed chromatin, respectively. Results. We found that these chromatin epigenetic markers are differentially distributed in S/MARs for all analyzed breast cell lines. Conclusions. We found no correlation between S/MARs and chromatin epige- netic status, suggesting that nuclear matrix fixation and chromatin status can be independent. High enrichment of H3K9me3 in the TP53 gene P1 promoter region in MCF-7, could explain lower levels of the TP53 expression, described earlier by our group.

  17. Chromatin enrichment of histone marks H4Ac and H3K9me3 in TP53 gene domain in breast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Santos G. C. Jr; Goes A. C. S.; de Moura Gallo C. V.

    2014-01-01

    In non-cancerous breast cell lines HB2 and MCF10A the TP53 gene is localized inside a relatively small ~ 50 kb loop domain delimited by two S/MARs. Aim. To analyze the chromatin markers H4Ac and H3K9me3 of these two S/MARs and of the TP53 gene P1 promoter in different breast cells lines. Methods. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to characterize the chromatin status of these S/MARs elements in breast non-cancerous cell lines HB2 and MCF10A and cancerous MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, BT-474 an...

  18. Nuclear mobility and mitotic chromosome binding: similarities between pioneer transcription factor FoxA and linker histone H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaret, K S; Caravaca, J M; Tulin, A; Sekiya, T

    2010-01-01

    There exists a hierarchy by which transcription factors can engage their target sites in chromatin, in that a subset of factors can bind transcriptionally silent, nucleosomal DNA, whereas most factors cannot, and this hierarchy is reflected, at least in part, in the developmental function of the factors. For example, transcription factors possessing the Forkhead box (Fox) DNA-binding domain contain an overall fold resembling that of linker histone and thus are structured to bind DNA, site specifically, in a nucleosomal context. Where tested, Fox factors bind early in the developmental or physiological activation of target genes, thereby enabling the binding of other factors that cannot engage chromatin on their own. To investigate the basis for early chromatin binding, we have used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyze the mobility, in the live cell nucleus, of FoxA factors in comparison to linker histone and other transcription factors. We have further analyzed the factors for their ability to bind to chromatin in mitosis and thereby serve as epigenetic marks. The results indicate that the "pioneer" features of FoxA factors involve various chromatin-binding parameters seen in linker histones and that distinguish the factors with respect to their regulatory and mechanistic functions.

  19. Replication-uncoupled histone deposition during adenovirus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-06-01

    In infected cells, the chromatin structure of the adenovirus genome DNA plays critical roles in its genome functions. Previously, we reported that in early phases of infection, incoming viral DNA is associated with both viral core protein VII and cellular histones. Here we show that in late phases of infection, newly synthesized viral DNA is also associated with histones. We also found that the knockdown of CAF-1, a histone chaperone that functions in the replication-coupled deposition of histones, does not affect the level of histone H3 bound on viral chromatin, although CAF-1 is accumulated at viral DNA replication foci together with PCNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using epitope-tagged histone H3 demonstrated that histone variant H3.3, which is deposited onto the cellular genome in a replication-independent manner, is selectively associated with both incoming and newly synthesized viral DNAs. Microscopic analyses indicated that histones but not USF1, a transcription factor that regulates viral late gene expression, are excluded from viral DNA replication foci and that this is achieved by the oligomerization of the DNA binding protein (DBP). Taken together, these results suggest that histone deposition onto newly synthesized viral DNA is most likely uncoupled with viral DNA replication, and a possible role of DBP oligomerization in this replication-uncoupled histone deposition is discussed.

  20. Arsenic Trioxide Reduces Global Histone H4 Acetylation at Lysine 16 through Direct Binding to Histone Acetyltransferase hMOF in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Wu, Donglu; Zhao, Linhong; Yang, Yang; Ding, Jian; Dong, Liguo; Hu, Lianghai; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Xiaoming; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2015-01-01

    Histone post-translational modification heritably regulates gene expression involved in most cellular biological processes. Experimental studies suggest that alteration of histone modifications affects gene expression by changing chromatin structure, causing various cellular responses to environmental influences. Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring element and environmental pollutant, is an established human carcinogen. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that As-mediated epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in its toxicity and carcinogenicity, but how this occurs is still unclear. Here we present evidence that suggests As-induced global histone H4K16 acetylation (H4K16ac) partly due to the direct physical interaction between As and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) hMOF (human male absent on first) protein, leading to the loss of hMOF HAT activity. Our data show that decreased global H4K16ac and increased deacetyltransferase HDAC4 expression occurred in arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-exposed HeLa or HEK293T cells. However, depletion of HDAC4 did not affect global H4K16ac, and it could not raise H4K16ac in cells exposed to As2O3, suggesting that HDAC4 might not directly be involved in histone H4K16 de-acetylation. Using As-immobilized agarose, we confirmed that As binds directly to hMOF, and that this interaction was competitively inhibited by free As2O3. Also, the direct interaction of As and C2CH zinc finger peptide was verified by MAIDI-TOF mass and UV absorption. In an in vitro HAT assay, As2O3 directly inhibited hMOF activity. hMOF over-expression not only increased resistance to As and caused less toxicity, but also effectively reversed reduced H4K16ac caused by As exposure. These data suggest a theoretical basis for elucidating the mechanism of As toxicity. PMID:26473953

  1. A PHD in histone language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histones are important for various DNA-templated processes such as transcription and repair. We recently reported that the ALFIN LIKE 6 (AL6) gene, identified in a forward genetic screen, is critical for phosphate deficiency-induced root hair formation and several other processes associated with the regulation of cellular phosphate homeostasis. AL6 contains a Plant Homeo Domain (PHD) finger that can bind to trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3). Homozygous mutants defective in AL6 expression form very short root hairs under phosphate-deficient conditions, presumably caused by altered expression of putative primary and secondary down-stream targets of AL6. In this Addendum, we speculate about possible roles of AL6, H3K4 trimethylation and other chromatin modifications in the adaptation of plants to low phosphate availability. PMID:23531693

  2. Conformational response to solvent interaction and temperature of a protein (Histone h3.1 by a multi-grained monte carlo simulation.

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    Ras B Pandey

    Full Text Available Interaction with the solvent plays a critical role in modulating the structure and dynamics of a protein. Because of the heterogeneity of the interaction strength, it is difficult to identify multi-scale structural response. Using a coarse-grained Monte Carlo approach, we study the structure and dynamics of a protein (H3.1 in effective solvent media. The structural response is examined as a function of the solvent-residue interaction strength (based on hydropathy index in a range of temperatures (spanning low to high involving a knowledge-based (Miyazawa-Jernigan(MJ residue-residue interaction. The protein relaxes rapidly from an initial random configuration into a quasi-static structure at low temperatures while it continues to diffuse at high temperatures with fluctuating conformation. The radius of gyration (Rg of the protein responds non-monotonically to solvent interaction, i.e., on increasing the residue-solvent interaction strength (fs , the increase in Rg (fs ≤fsc is followed by decay (fs ≥fsc with a maximum at a characteristic value (fsc of the interaction. Raising the temperature leads to wider spread of the distribution of the radius of gyration with higher magnitude of fsc . The effect of solvent on the multi-scale (λ: residue to Rg structures of the protein is examined by analyzing the structure factor (S( q ,|q| = 2π/λ is the wave vector of wavelength, λ in detail. Random-coil to globular transition with temperature of unsolvated protein (H3.1 is dramatically altered by the solvent at low temperature while a systematic change in structure and scale is observed on increasing the temperature. The interaction energy profile of the residues is not sufficient to predict its mobility in the solvent. Fine-grain representation of protein with two-node and three-node residue enhances the structural resolution; results of the fine-grained simulations are consistent with the finding described above of the coarse

  3. Functional roles of the DNA-binding HMGB domain in the histone chaperone FACT in nucleosome reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laura L; Connell, Zaily; Xin, Hua; Studitsky, Vasily M; Feofanov, Alexey V; Valieva, Maria E; Formosa, Tim

    2018-03-07

    The essential histone chaperone FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription (FACT) promotes both nucleosome assembly and disassembly. FACT is a heterodimer of Spt16 with either SSRP1 or Pob3, differing primarily by the presence of a high-mobility group B (HMGB) DNA-binding domain furnished only by SSRP1. Yeast FACT lacks the intrinsic HMGB domain found in SSRP1-based homologs such as human FACT, but yeast FACT activity is supported by Nhp6, which is a freestanding, single HMGB domain protein. The importance of histone binding by FACT domains has been established, but the roles of DNA binding activity remain poorly understood. Here, we examined these roles by fusing single or multiple HMGB modules to Pob3 to mimic SSRP1 or to test the effects of extended DNA-binding capacity. Human FACT and a yeast mimic both required Nhp6 to support nucleosome reorganization in vitro, indicating that a single intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB module is insufficient for full FACT activity. Three fused HMGB modules supported activity without Nhp6 assistance, but this FACT variant did not efficiently release from nucleosomes and was toxic in vivo. Notably, intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB modules reduced the DNA accessibility and histone H2A-H2B dimer loss normally associated with nucleosome reorganization. We propose that DNA bending by HMGB domains promotes nucleosome destabilization and reorganization by exposing FACT's histone binding sites, but DNA bending also produces DNA curvature needed to accommodate nucleosome assembly. Intrinsic DNA bending activity therefore favors nucleosome assembly by FACT over nucleosome reorganization, but excessive activity impairs FACT release, suggesting a quality control checkpoint during nucleosome assembly. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The flexible loop L1 of the H3K4 demethylase JARID1B ARID domain has a crucial role in DNA-binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Wenming; Peng, Yu; Lin, Donghai

    2010-01-01

    JARID1B, a member of the JmjC demethylase family, has a crucial role in H3K4me3 demethylation. The ARID domain is a potential DNA-binding domain of JARID1B. Previous studies indicate that a GC-rich DNA motif is the specific target of the ARID domain. However, the details of the interaction between the ARID domain and duplex DNA require further study. Here, we utilized NMR spectroscopy to assign the backbone amino acids and mapped the DNA-binding sites of the human JARID1B ARID domain. Perturbations to 1 H- 15 N correlation spectra revealed that the flexible loop L1 of ARID was the main DNA-binding interface. EMSA and intrinsic fluorescence experiments demonstrated that mutations on loop L1 strongly reduced the DNA-binding activity of JARID1B ARID. Furthermore, transfection of mutant forms resulted in a distinct loss of intrinsic H3K4 demethylase activity, implying that the flexible loop L1 made a major contribution to sustaining the DNA-binding ability of JARID1B ARID domain.

  5. Biotinylation is a natural, albeit rare, modification of human histones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Pestinger, Valerie; Wijeratne, Subhashinee S. K.; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that histones H3 and H4 are posttranslationally modified by binding of the vitamin biotin, catalyzed by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS). Albeit a rare epigenetic mark, biotinylated histones were repeatedly shown to be enriched in repeat regions and repressed loci, participating in the maintenance of genome stability and gene regulation. Recently, a team of investigators failed to detect biotinylated histones and proposed that biotinylation is not a natural modification of histones, but rather an assay artifact. Here, we describe the results of experiments, including the comparison of various analytical protocols, antibodies, cell lines, classes of histones, and radiotracers. These studies provide unambiguous evidence that biotinylation is a natural, albeit rare, histone modification. Less than 0.001% of human histones H3 and H4 are biotinylated, raising concerns that the abundance might too low to elicit biological effects in vivo. We integrated information from this study, previous studies, and ongoing research efforts to present a new working model in which biological effects are caused by a role of HCS in multiprotein complexes in chromatin. In this model, docking of HCS in chromatin causes the occasional binding of biotin to histones as a tracer for HCS binding sites. PMID:21930408

  6. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Louise S.; Bolland, Daniel J.; Chovanec, Peter; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Koohy, Hashem; Corcoran, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa (Igκ) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh, as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations. PMID:29204143

  7. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Louise S; Bolland, Daniel J; Chovanec, Peter; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Koohy, Hashem; Corcoran, Anne E

    2017-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa ( Igκ ) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain ( Igh ) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh , as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations.

  8. Destabilization of the Outer and Inner Mitochondrial Membranes by Core and Linker Histones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascone, Annunziata; Bruelle, Celine; Lindholm, Dan; Bernardi, Paolo; Eriksson, Ove

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive DNA damage leads to apoptosis. Histones play a central role in DNA damage sensing and may mediate signals of genotoxic damage to cytosolic effectors including mitochondria. Methodology/Principal Findings We have investigated the effects of histones on mitochondrial function and membrane integrity. We demonstrate that both linker histone H1 and core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 bind strongly to isolated mitochondria. All histones caused a rapid and massive release of the pro-apoptotic intermembrane space proteins cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo, indicating that they permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane. In addition, linker histone H1, but not core histones, permeabilized the inner membrane with a collapse of the membrane potential, release of pyridine nucleotides, and mitochondrial fragmentation. Conclusions We conclude that histones destabilize the mitochondrial membranes, a mechanism that may convey genotoxic signals to mitochondria and promote apoptosis following DNA damage. PMID:22523586

  9. Biological significance of lysine mono-, di- and trimethylation on histone and non-histone proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Burgos, L.

    2006-01-01

    Histones are the proteins that compact DNA into the repeating unit of chromatin known as the nucleosome. The N-termini of histones are subject to a series of post-translational modifications, one of which is methylation. This modification is termed 'epigenetic' because it extends the information encoded in the genome. Lysines can be mono-, di- or tri-methylated at different positions on histones H1, H3 and H4. In order to study the biological role of histone lysine methylation, antibodies were generated against mono-, di- and trimethylated H3-K9 and H3-27. Indeed, different chromatin domains in the mouse nucleus are enriched in distinct forms of histone lysine methylation, such as pericentric heterochromatin and the inactive X chromosome. Interestingly, heterochromatin in Arabidopsis thaliana is enriched in the mono- and di-, but not the trimethylated form of H3-K9. Furthermore, there exists a hierarchy of epigenetic modifications in which H3-K9 trimethylation is found to be upstream of DNA methylation on mouse major satellites. Histone lysine methylation is also involved in gene regulation upon development. One example is the chicken 61538;-globin locus, a region of facultative chromatin that undergoes a loss of di- and trimethylated H3-K27 in mature red blood cells, concomitant with expression of the 61538;-globin genes. SET-domain proteins are enzymes that methylate histones, but some of them are also able to methylate non-histone substrates. In particular, p53 is methylated by Set9 on lysine 372, G9a and Glp-1 on lysine 373 and by Smyd2 on lysine 370. Smyd2 transcript levels are greatly increased upon irradiation and dimethylated p53-370 specifically binds to 53BP1, a protein involved in recognizing DNA double-stranded breaks upon ionizing radiation. These results argue for a novel role of p53-K370 methylation in the biology of DNA damage. In summary, lysine methylation is a post-translational modification that can occur both on histone and non-histone proteins

  10. Arginine-rich histones have strong antiviral activity for influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Marloes; Tripathi, Shweta; White, Mitchell; Qi, Li; Taubenberger, Jeffery; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2015-10-01

    While histones are best known for DNA binding and transcription-regulating properties, they also have antimicrobial activity against a broad range of potentially pathogenic organisms. Histones are abundant in neutrophil extracellular traps, where they play an important role in NET-mediated antimicrobial killing. Here, we show anti-influenza activity of histones against both seasonal H3N2 and H1N1, but not pandemic H1N1. The arginine rich histones, H3 and H4, had greater neutralizing and viral aggregating activity than the lysine rich histones, H2A and H2B. Of all core histones, histone H4 is most potent in neutralizing IAV, and incubation with IAV with histone H4 results in a decrease in uptake and viral replication by epithelial cells when measured by qRT-PCR. The antiviral activity of histone H4 is mediated principally by direct effects on viral particles. Histone H4 binds to IAV as assessed by ELISA and co-sedimentation of H4 with IAV. H4 also induces aggregation, as assessed by confocal microscopy and light transmission assays. Despite strong antiviral activity against the seasonal IAV strains, H4 was inactive against pandemic H1N1. These findings indicate a possible role for histones in the innate immune response against IAV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Cancer associated epigenetic transitions identified by genome-wide histone methylation binding profiles in human colorectal cancer samples and paired normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enroth, Stefan; Rada-Iglesisas, Alvaro; Andersson, Robin; Wallerman, Ola; Wanders, Alkwin; Påhlman, Lars; Komorowski, Jan; Wadelius, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Despite their well-established functional roles, histone modifications have received less attention than DNA methylation in the cancer field. In order to evaluate their importance in colorectal cancer (CRC), we generated the first genome-wide histone modification profiles in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) was used to identify promoters enriched for histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples from two CRC patients and for the CRC cell line HT29. By comparing histone modification patterns in normal mucosa and tumors, we found that alterations predicted to have major functional consequences were quite rare. Furthermore, when normal or tumor tissue samples were compared to HT29, high similarities were observed for H3K4me3. However, the differences found for H3K27me3, which is important in determining cellular identity, indicates that cell lines do not represent optimal tissue models. Finally, using public expression data, we uncovered previously unknown changes in CRC expression patterns. Genes positive for H3K4me3 in normal and/or tumor samples, which are typically already active in normal mucosa, became hyperactivated in tumors, while genes with H3K27me3 in normal and/or tumor samples and which are expressed at low levels in normal mucosa, became hypersilenced in tumors. Genome wide histone modification profiles can be used to find epigenetic aberrations in genes associated with cancer. This strategy gives further insights into the epigenetic contribution to the oncogenic process and may identify new biomarkers

  12. Genome-wide analysis of H3.3 dissociation reveals high nucleosome turnover at distal regulatory regions of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Kraushaar, Daniel C; Zhao, Keji

    2014-01-01

    The histone variant H3.3 plays a critical role in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by regulating gene expression programs important for lineage specification. H3.3 is deposited by various chaperones at regulatory sites, gene bodies, and certain heterochromatic sites such as telomeres and centromeres. Using Tet-inhibited expression of epitope-tagged H3.3 combined with ChIP-Seq we undertook genome-wide measurements of H3.3 dissociation rates across the ESC genome and examined the relationship between H3.3-nucleosome turnover and ESC-specific transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, and epigenetic marks. Our comprehensive analysis of H3.3 dissociation rates revealed distinct H3.3 dissociation dynamics at various functional chromatin domains. At transcription start sites, H3.3 dissociates rapidly with the highest rate at nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) just upstream of Pol II binding, followed by low H3.3 dissociation rates across gene bodies. H3.3 turnover at transcription start sites, gene bodies, and transcription end sites was positively correlated with transcriptional activity. H3.3 is found decorated with various histone modifications that regulate transcription and maintain chromatin integrity. We find greatly varying H3.3 dissociation rates across various histone modification domains: high dissociation rates at active histone marks and low dissociation rates at heterochromatic marks. Well- defined zones of high H3.3-nucleosome turnover were detected at binding sites of ESC-specific pluripotency factors and chromatin remodelers, suggesting an important role for H3.3 in facilitating protein binding. Among transcription factor binding sites we detected higher H3.3 turnover at distal cis-acting sites compared to proximal genic transcription factor binding sites. Our results imply that fast H3.3 dissociation is a hallmark of interactions between DNA and transcriptional regulators. Our study demonstrates that H3.3 turnover and

  13. Effect of cannabinoids on the binding of /sup 3/H-(3-MeHis/sup 2/)TRH to rat brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matwyshyn, G.A.; Das, S.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1986-03-05

    Cannabinoids, particularly ..delta../sup 9/-THC is known to affect thyroid function. The effect of naturally occurring and synthetic cannabinoids on brain TRH receptors labeled with /sup 3/H-(3-MeHis/sup 2/)TRH(MeTRH) was determined. /sup 3/H-MeTRH bound to brain membranes at a single high affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 48 +/- 2 fmol/mg protein and K/sub d/ of 4.2 +/- 0.4 nM. At 2 nM concentration the amount of /sup 3/H-MeTRH bound specifically was 10.9 +/- 0.6 fmol/mg protein. ..delta.. /sup 9/-THC (10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -3/ M) stimulated the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH with maximal stimulation of 60% at 10/sup -4/M concentration. Cannabinol (10/sup -6/-/sup -4/M) also enhanced the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH with maximal (58%) stimulation occurring at 10/sup -5/M concentration. Cannabidiol, on the other hand, had no effect on the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH up to 10/sup -5/M concentration. However, at 10/sup -4/M concentration of cannabidiol, the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH was decreased by 65%. The water soluble synthetic cannabinoids, naboctate, menabitan and SP 111 A inhibited the binding of /sup 3/H-MeTRH only at 10/sup -4/ or 10/sup -3/M concentration. These results suggest differential interaction of cannabinoids with brain TRH receptors.

  14. Toxic effects of extracellular histones and their neutralization by vitreous in retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroki; Ito, Takashi; Yamada, Shingo; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakamura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2014-05-01

    Histones are DNA-binding proteins and are involved in chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression. Histones can be released after tissue injuries, and the extracellular histones cause cellular damage and organ dysfunction. Regardless of their clinical significance, the role and relevance of histones in ocular diseases are unknown. We studied the role of histones in eyes with retinal detachment (RD). Vitreous samples were collected during vitrectomy, and the concentration of histone H3 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The location of the histones and related molecules was examined in a rat RD model. The release of histones and their effects on rat retinal progenitor cells R28 and ARPE-19 were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the protective role of the vitreous body against histones was tested. The intravitreal concentration of histones was higher in eyes with RD (mean, 30.9 ± 9.8 ng/ml) than in control eyes (below the limit of detection, Phistone H3 was observed on the outer side of the detached retina and was associated with photoreceptor death. Histone H3 was released from cultured R28 by oxidative stress. Histones at a concentration 10 μg/ml induced the production of interleukin-8 in ARPE-19 cells (2.5-fold increase, PHistones were toxic to cells at concentrations of ≥ 20 μg/ml. Vitreous body or hyaluronan decreased toxicity of histones by inhibiting diffusion of histones. These results indicate that histones are released from retinas with RD and may modulate the subretinal microenvironment by functioning as damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, thereby inducing proinflammatory cytokines or cell toxicity. In addition, the important role of the vitreous body and hyaluronan in protecting the retina from these toxic effects is suggested.

  15. Single-molecule kinetic analysis of HP1-chromatin binding reveals a dynamic network of histone modification and DNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Louise C; Weilandt, Daniel R; Bachmann, Andreas L; Kilic, Sinan; Lechner, Carolin C; Odermatt, Pascal D; Fantner, Georg E; Georgeon, Sandrine; Hantschel, Oliver; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Fierz, Beat

    2017-10-13

    Chromatin recruitment of effector proteins involved in gene regulation depends on multivalent interaction with histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and structural features of the chromatin fiber. Due to the complex interactions involved, it is currently not understood how effectors dynamically sample the chromatin landscape. Here, we dissect the dynamic chromatin interactions of a family of multivalent effectors, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging and computational modeling. We show that the three human HP1 isoforms are recruited and retained on chromatin by a dynamic exchange between histone PTM and DNA bound states. These interactions depend on local chromatin structure, the HP1 isoforms as well as on PTMs on HP1 itself. Of the HP1 isoforms, HP1α exhibits the longest residence times and fastest binding rates due to DNA interactions in addition to PTM binding. HP1α phosphorylation further increases chromatin retention through strengthening of multivalency while reducing DNA binding. As DNA binding in combination with specific PTM recognition is found in many chromatin effectors, we propose a general dynamic capture mechanism for effector recruitment. Multiple weak protein and DNA interactions result in a multivalent interaction network that targets effectors to a specific chromatin modification state, where their activity is required. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Protein-bound Vaccinium fruit polyphenols decrease IgE binding to peanut allergens and RBL-2H3 mast cell degranulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; Bansode, Rishipal R; Foegeding, E Allen; Williams, Leonard L; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-04-19

    Peanut allergy is a worldwide health concern. In this study, the natural binding properties of plant-derived polyphenols to proteins was leveraged to produce stable protein-polyphenol complexes comprised of peanut proteins and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) or lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) pomace polyphenols. Protein-bound and free polyphenols were characterized and quantified by multistep extraction of polyphenols from protein-polyphenol complexes. Immunoblotting was performed with peanut-allergic plasma to determine peanut protein-specific IgE binding to unmodified peanut protein, or to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes. In an allergen model system, RBL-2H3 mast cells were exposed to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on ionomycin-induced degranulation (β-hexosaminidase and histamine). Among the evaluated polyphenolic compounds from protein-polyphenol complex eluates, quercetin, - in aglycone or glycosidic form - was the main phytochemical identified to be covalently bound to peanut proteins. Peanut protein-bound cranberry and blueberry polyphenols significantly decreased IgE binding to peanut proteins at p polyphenol complexes showed a significant (p polyphenols led to the formation of peanut protein-polyphenol complexes with significantly reduced allergenic potential. Future trials are warranted to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of these protein-polyphenol complexes and the role of quercetin in their hypoallergenic potential.

  17. The Effect of Various Zinc Binding Groups on Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases 1–11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Kristensen, Helle M. E.; Lanz, Gyrithe

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have the ability to cleave the acetyl groups of ε‐N‐acetylated lysine residues in a variety of proteins. Given that human cells contain thousands of different acetylated lysine residues, HDACS may regulate a wide variety of processes including some implicated in condi......Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have the ability to cleave the acetyl groups of ε‐N‐acetylated lysine residues in a variety of proteins. Given that human cells contain thousands of different acetylated lysine residues, HDACS may regulate a wide variety of processes including some implicated...

  18. The Histone Database: an integrated resource for histones and histone fold-containing proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Levine, Kevin M.; Morales, Mario; Zhang, Suiyuan; Moreland, R. Travis; Baxevanis, Andreas D.; Landsman, David

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of DNA and protein components—core histones—that act to compactly pack the DNA into nucleosomes, the fundamental building blocks of chromatin. These nucleosomes are connected to adjacent nucleosomes by linker histones. Nucleosomes are highly dynamic and, through various core histone post-translational modifications and incorporation of diverse histone variants, can serve as epigenetic marks to control processes such as gene expression and recombination. The Histone Sequence Database is a curated collection of sequences and structures of histones and non-histone proteins containing histone folds, assembled from major public databases. Here, we report a substantial increase in the number of sequences and taxonomic coverage for histone and histone fold-containing proteins available in the database. Additionally, the database now contains an expanded dataset that includes archaeal histone sequences. The database also provides comprehensive multiple sequence alignments for each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4), the linker histones (H1/H5) and the archaeal histones. The database also includes current information on solved histone fold-containing structures. The Histone Sequence Database is an inclusive resource for the analysis of chromatin structure and function focused on histones and histone fold-containing proteins. Database URL: The Histone Sequence Database is freely available and can be accessed at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/histones/. PMID:22025671

  19. A model for transmission of the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus H; Bracken, Adrian P; Pasini, Diego

    2008-01-01

    and with sites of ongoing DNA replication. Efficient binding requires an intact trimeric PRC2 complex containing EZH2, EED and SUZ12, but is independent of the catalytic SET domain of EZH2. Using a heterologous reporter system, we show that transient recruitment of the PRC2 complex to chromatin, upstream...... of the transcriptional start site, is sufficient to maintain repression through endogenous PRC2 during subsequent cell divisions. Thus, we suggest that once the H3K27me3 is established, it recruits the PRC2 complex to maintain the mark at sites of DNA replication, leading to methylation of H3K27 on the daughter strands...... during incorporation of newly synthesized histones. This mechanism ensures maintenance of the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark in proliferating cells, not only during DNA replication when histones synthesized de novo are incorporated, but also outside S phase, thereby preserving chromatin structure...

  20. Binding of Histone H1 to DNA Is Differentially Modulated by Redox State of HMGB1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muselíková Polanská, Eva; Pospíšilová, Š.; Štros, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/2475; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : CHROMOSOMAL-PROTEIN HMG1 * MOBILITY GROUP-1 PROTEIN * LINKER HISTONES Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  1. NMR elucidation of monomer-dimer transition and conformational heterogeneity in histone-like DNA binding protein of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Nancy; Raikwal, Nisha; Pandey, Himanshu; Agarwal, Nipanshu; Arora, Ashish; Poluri, Krishna Mohan; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-12-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes under harsh acidic/oxidative stress conditions of human gastrointestinal tract and can survive there for infinitely longer durations of host life. The bacterium expresses several harbinger proteins to facilitate its persistent colonization under such conditions. One such protein in H. pylori is histone-like DNA binding protein (Hup), which in its homo-dimeric form binds to DNA to perform various DNA dependent cellular activities. Further, it also plays an important role in protecting the genomic DNA from oxidative stress and acidic denaturation. Legitimately, if the binding of Hup to DNA is suppressed, it will directly impact on the survival of the bacterium, thus making Hup a potential therapeutic target for developing new anti-H. pylori agents. However, to inhibit the binding of Hup to DNA, it is necessary to gain detailed insights into the molecular and structural basis of Hup-dimerization and its binding mechanism to DNA. As a first step in this direction, we report here the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments and structural features of Hup at pH 6.0. The study revealed the occurrence of dynamic equilibrium between its monomer and dimer conformations. The dynamic equilibrium was found to shifting towards dimer both at low temperature and low pH; whereas DNA binding studies evidenced that the protein binds to DNA in its dimeric form. These preliminary investigations correlate very well with the diverse functionality of protein and will form the basis for future studies aiming to develop novel anti-H. pylori agents employing structure-based-rational drug discovery approach. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Molecular mechanisms for the regulation of histone mRNA stem-loop-binding protein by phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Tan, Dazhi; DeRose, Eugene F.; Perera, Lalith; Dominski, Zbigniew; Marzluff, William F.; Tong, Liang; Tanaka Hall, Traci M. [NIH; (UNC); (Columbia)

    2014-08-06

    Replication-dependent histone mRNAs end with a conserved stem loop that is recognized by stem-loop–binding protein (SLBP). The minimal RNA-processing domain of SLBP is phosphorylated at an internal threonine, and Drosophila SLBP (dSLBP) also is phosphorylated at four serines in its 18-aa C-terminal tail. We show that phosphorylation of dSLBP increases RNA-binding affinity dramatically, and we use structural and biophysical analyses of dSLBP and a crystal structure of human SLBP phosphorylated on the internal threonine to understand the striking improvement in RNA binding. Together these results suggest that, although the C-terminal tail of dSLBP does not contact the RNA, phosphorylation of the tail promotes SLBP conformations competent for RNA binding and thereby appears to reduce the entropic penalty for the association. Increased negative charge in this C-terminal tail balances positively charged residues, allowing a more compact ensemble of structures in the absence of RNA.

  3. Cyclic AMP-binding capacities and histone kinase activation in subcellular components of neocortical tissue. Differential responses to three neurohumoural agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra; Newman, Michael; McIlwain, Henry

    1981-01-01

    1. Noradrenaline and histamine, when added to superfused guinea-pig cerebral-cortical tissues, increased both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent histone kinase activities of some, but not of all, subsequently isolated subcellular fractions, and decreased their cyclic [3H]AMP-binding capacity, which was concluded to be due to an increase in endogenously bound cyclic AMP. 2. Adenosine and 2-chloroadenosine also diminished the cyclic [3H]AMP-binding capacities, but did not affect the histone kinase activities. 3. DEAE-cellulose chromatography and stability to KCl additions showed that the greater part of the histone kinase of the present preparations corresponded to the type II enzyme [of Corbin, Keely & Park (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 218–225], with a lesser amount of type I activity. Different sites of cyclic AMP accumulation in relation to these or other kinases are considered in interpreting the differential tissue responses to the neurohumoural agents examined. PMID:6118136

  4. Anticancer drug mithramycin interacts with core histones: An additional mode of action of the DNA groove binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mithramycin (MTR is a clinically approved DNA-binding antitumor antibiotic currently in Phase 2 clinical trials at National Institutes of Health for treatment of osteosarcoma. In view of the resurgence in the studies of this generic antibiotic as a human medicine, we have examined the binding properties of MTR with the integral component of chromatin – histone proteins – as a part of our broad objective to classify DNA-binding molecules in terms of their ability to bind chromosomal DNA alone (single binding mode or both histones and chromosomal DNA (dual binding mode. The present report shows that besides DNA, MTR also binds to core histones present in chromatin and thus possesses the property of dual binding in the chromatin context. In contrast to the MTR–DNA interaction, association of MTR with histones does not require obligatory presence of bivalent metal ion like Mg2+. As a consequence of its ability to interact with core histones, MTR inhibits histone H3 acetylation at lysine 18, an important signature of active chromatin, in vitro and ex vivo. Reanalysis of microarray data of Ewing sarcoma cell lines shows that upon MTR treatment there is a significant down regulation of genes, possibly implicating a repression of H3K18Ac-enriched genes apart from DNA-binding transcription factors. Association of MTR with core histones and its ability to alter post-translational modification of histone H3 clearly indicates an additional mode of action of this anticancer drug that could be implicated in novel therapeutic strategies.

  5. Analysis of Myc-induced histone modifications on target chromatin.

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    Francesca Martinato

    Full Text Available The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced by mitogens and is a central regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The c-myc product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds a multitude of genomic sites, estimated to be over 10-15% of all promoter regions. Target promoters generally pre-exist in an active or poised chromatin state that is further modified by Myc, contributing to fine transcriptional regulation (activation or repression of the afferent gene. Among other mechanisms, Myc recruits histone acetyl-transferases to target chromatin and locally promotes hyper-acetylation of multiple lysines on histones H3 and H4, although the identity and combination of the modified lysines is unknown. Whether Myc dynamically regulates other histone modifications (or marks at its binding sites also remains to be addressed. Here, we used quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP to profile a total of 24 lysine-acetylation and -methylation marks modulated by Myc at target promoters in a human B-cell line with a regulatable c-myc transgene. Myc binding promoted acetylation of multiple lysines, primarily of H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5 and H4K12, but significantly also of H4K8, H4K91 and H2AK5. Dimethylation of H3K79 was also selectively induced at target promoters. A majority of target promoters showed co-induction of multiple marks - in various combinations - correlating with recruitment of the two HATs tested (Tip60 and HBO1, incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z and transcriptional activation. Based on this and previous findings, we surmise that Myc recruits the Tip60/p400 complex to achieve a coordinated histone acetylation/exchange reaction at activated promoters. Our data are also consistent with the additive and redundant role of multiple acetylation events in transcriptional activation.

  6. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscape alteration in bovine cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing next-generation sequencing technology, combined with ChIP (Chromatin Immunoprecipitation) technology, we analyzed histone modification (acetylation) induced by butyrate and the large-scale mapping of the epigenomic landscape of normal histone H3 and acetylated histone H3K9 and H3K27. To d...

  7. Tandem affinity purification of histones, coupled to mass spectrometry, identifies associated proteins and new sites of post-translational modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Luz; Sendra, Ramon; Pamblanco, Mercè

    2016-03-16

    Histones and their post-translational modifications contribute to regulating fundamental biological processes in all eukaryotic cells. We have applied a conventional tandem affinity purification strategy to histones H3 and H4 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometry analysis of the co-purified proteins revealed multiple associated proteins, including core histones, which indicates that tagged histones may be incorporated to the nucleosome particle. Among the many other co-isolated proteins there are histone chaperones, elements of chromatin remodeling, of nucleosome assembly/disassembly, and of histone modification complexes. The histone chaperone Rtt106p, two members of chromatin assembly FACT complex and Psh1p, an ubiquitin ligase, were the most abundant proteins obtained with both H3-TAP and H4-TAP, regardless of the cell extraction medium stringency. Our mass spectrometry analyses have also revealed numerous novel post-translational modifications, including 30 new chemical modifications in histones, mainly by ubiquitination. We have discovered not only new sites of ubiquitination but that, besides lysine, also serine and threonine residues are targets of ubiquitination on yeast histones. Our results show the standard tandem affinity purification procedure is suitable for application to yeast histones, in order to isolate and characterize histone-binding proteins and post-translational modifications, avoiding the bias caused by histone purification from a chromatin-enriched fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential mode of antimicrobial actions of arginine-rich and lysine-rich histones against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shuu; Tagai, Chihiro; Shiraishi, Takayuki; Miyaji, Kazuyuki; Iwamuro, Shawichi

    2013-10-01

    We previously reported the activities and modes of action of arginine (Arg)-rich histones H3 and H4 against Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the properties of the Arg-rich histones against Gram-positive bacteria in comparison with those of lysine (Lys)-rich histone H2B. In a standard microdilution assay, calf thymus histones H2B, H3, and H4 showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum effective concentration values of 4.0, 4.0, and 5.6 μM, respectively. Laser confocal microscopic analyses revealed that both the Arg-rich and Lys-rich histones associated with the surface of S. aureus. However, while the morphology of S. aureus treated with histone H2B appeared intact, those treated with the histones H3 and H4 closely resembled each other, and the cells were blurred. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay results revealed these histones have binding affinity to lipoteichoic acid (LTA), one of major cell surface components of Gram-positive bacteria. Scanning electron microscopic analyses demonstrated that while histone H2B elicited no obvious changes in cell morphology, histones H3 and H4 disrupted the cell membrane structure with bleb formation in a manner similar to general antimicrobial peptides. Consequently, our results suggest that bacterial cell surface LTA initially attracts both the Arg- and Lys-rich histones, but the modes of antimicrobial action of these histones are different; the former involves cell membrane disruption and the latter involves the cell integrity disruption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Non-Isotopic In Vitro Assay for Histone Acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuninger, David; Lundblad, James; Semirale, Anthony; Rotwein, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We describe a simple, robust, and relatively inexpensive non-radioactive in vitro assay for measuring histone acetyl-transferase activity. The assay takes advantage of easy to purify recombinant E. coli-derived fusion proteins containing the NH2-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 linked to epitope-tagged maltose binding protein (MBP), and immunoblotting with antibodies specific to acetylated H3 and H4. Here we show the specificity and dynamic range of this assay for the histone acetyl-transferases, p300 and PCAF. This assay may be adapted readily for other substrates by simply generating new fusion proteins and for other acetyl-transferases by modifying reaction conditions. PMID:17698235

  10. Mouse MORC3 is a GHKL ATPase that localizes to H3K4me3 marked chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sisi; Yen, Linda; Pastor, William A; Johnston, Jonathan B; Du, Jiamu; Shew, Colin J; Liu, Wanlu; Ho, Jamie; Stender, Bryan; Clark, Amander T; Burlingame, Alma L; Daxinger, Lucia; Patel, Dinshaw J; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2016-08-30

    Microrchidia (MORC) proteins are GHKL (gyrase, heat-shock protein 90, histidine kinase, MutL) ATPases that function in gene regulation in multiple organisms. Animal MORCs also contain CW-type zinc finger domains, which are known to bind to modified histones. We solved the crystal structure of the murine MORC3 ATPase-CW domain bound to the nucleotide analog AMPPNP (phosphoaminophosphonic acid-adenylate ester) and in complex with a trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) peptide (H3K4me3). We observed that the MORC3 N-terminal ATPase domain forms a dimer when bound to AMPPNP. We used native mass spectrometry to show that dimerization is ATP-dependent, and that dimer formation is enhanced in the presence of nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs. The CW domain uses an aromatic cage to bind trimethylated Lys4 and forms extensive hydrogen bonds with the H3 tail. We found that MORC3 localizes to promoters marked by H3K4me3 throughout the genome, consistent with its binding to H3K4me3 in vitro. Our work sheds light on aspects of the molecular dynamics and function of MORC3.

  11. Histone dosage regulates DNA damage sensitivity in a checkpoint-independent manner by the homologous recombination pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dun; Burkhart, Sarah Lyn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Kabbaj, Marie-Helene Miquel; Gunjan, Akash

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, multiple genes encode histone proteins that package genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and regulate its accessibility. Because of their positive charge, ‘free’ (non-chromatin associated) histones can bind non-specifically to the negatively charged DNA and affect its metabolism, including DNA repair. We have investigated the effect of altering histone dosage on DNA repair in budding yeast. An increase in histone gene dosage resulted in enhanced DNA damage sensitivity, whereas deletion of a H3–H4 gene pair resulted in reduced levels of free H3 and H4 concomitant with resistance to DNA damaging agents, even in mutants defective in the DNA damage checkpoint. Studies involving the repair of a HO endonuclease-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus show enhanced repair efficiency by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway on a reduction in histone dosage. Cells with reduced histone dosage experience greater histone loss around a DSB, whereas the recruitment of HR factors is concomitantly enhanced. Further, free histones compete with the HR machinery for binding to DNA and associate with certain HR factors, potentially interfering with HR-mediated repair. Our findings may have important implications for DNA repair, genomic stability, carcinogenesis and aging in human cells that have dozens of histone genes. PMID:22850743

  12. Role of H3K4 demethylases in complex neurodevelopmental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynder, Christopher; Stalker, Leanne; Doughty, Martin L

    2010-06-01

    Significant neurological disorders can result from subtle perturbations of gene regulation that are often linked to epigenetic regulation. Proteins that regulate the methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4) and play a central role in epigenetic regulation, and mutations in genes encoding these enzymes have been identified in both autism and Rett syndrome. The H3K4 demethylases remove methyl groups from lysine 4 leading to loss of RNA polymerase binding and transcriptional repression. When these proteins are mutated, brain development is altered. Currently, little is known regarding how these gene regulators function at the genomic level. In this article, we will discuss findings that link H3K4 demethylases to neurodevelopment and neurological disease.

  13. HP1 recruits activity-dependent neuroprotective protein to H3K9me3 marked pericentromeric heterochromatin for silencing of major satellite repeats.

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    Kerstin Mosch

    Full Text Available H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 is a histone posttranslational modification (PTM that has emerged as hallmark of pericentromeric heterochromatin. This constitutive chromatin domain is composed of repetitive DNA elements, whose transcription is differentially regulated. Mammalian cells contain three HP1 proteins, HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ These have been shown to bind to H3K9me3 and are thought to mediate the effects of this histone PTM. However, the mechanisms of HP1 chromatin regulation and the exact functional role at pericentromeric heterochromatin are still unclear. Here, we identify activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP as an H3K9me3 associated factor. We show that ADNP does not bind H3K9me3 directly, but that interaction is mediated by all three HP1 isoforms in vitro. However, in cells ADNP localization to areas of pericentromeric heterochromatin is only dependent on HP1α and HP1β. Besides a PGVLL sequence patch we uncovered an ARKS motif within the ADNP homeodomain involved in HP1 dependent H3K9me3 association and localization to pericentromeric heterochromatin. While knockdown of ADNP had no effect on HP1 distribution and heterochromatic histone and DNA modifications, we found ADNP silencing major satellite repeats. Our results identify a novel factor in the translation of H3K9me3 at pericentromeric heterochromatin that regulates transcription.

  14. Effect of extraction of histones and their reconstitution on [3H] actinomycin D binding to isolated nuclei of the roots of Pinus silvestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michniewicz, H.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study presented was to investigate the effect of the extraction of histones on the template activity of DNA, measured by the autoradiographically evaluated intensity of [ 3 H] actinomycin D([ 3 H]AMD) binding. The study was carried out on nuclei isolated from the root meristem of Pinus silvestris. Histones were removed selectively from them and reconstituted in the nuclei deprived of these proteins. The greatest rise in radioactivity was found after the extraction of the arginine fraction and that of lysine-rich and moderately lysine-rich fractions removed together, whereas the extraction of the lysine-rich fraction does not cause such a considerable increase in radioactivity. The reconstitution of particular histone fractions induced a fall in radioactivity to the level of controls in all the cases examined. No [ 3 H]AMD binding to the nucleolus was found. The extraction of lysine histones results in the decondensation of chromatin and their reconstitution in the formation of complexes of compact chromatin. (author)

  15. Binding and removal of sulfate, phosphate, arsenate, tetrachloromercurate, and chromate in aqueous solution by means of an activated carbon functionalized with a pyrimidine-based anion receptor (HL). Crystal structures of [H3L(HgCl4)]·H2O and [H3L(HgBr4)]·H2O showing anion-π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Paloma; Bianchi, Antonio; Cuesta, Rafael; Giorgi, Claudia; Godino, M Luz; Gutiérrez, M D; López, Rafael; Santiago, Antonio

    2010-10-18

    Binding of anions of great environmental concern such as SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), AsO(4)(3-), HgCl(4)(2-), and CrO(4)(2-) by the protonated forms of a tren-like (tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) ligand (HL) functionalized with a pyrimidine residue was studied by means of potentiometric measurements and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) affording log K, ΔH°, and TΔS° values for the formation of the relevant complexes. The complexes show high to very high stability due to the particular topology and electronic properties of the ligand which is able to use two separated coordination environments to host the anions, the protonated tren site where electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions are operating, and the pyrimidine ring which may act via anion-π interaction. A contribution of -8.9 ± 0.4 kJ/mol for pyrimidine-anion interaction in water was derived for SO(4)(2-) binding. The crystal structures of [H(3)L(HgCl(4))]·H(2)O (1), [H(3)L(HgBr(4))]·H(2)O (2), and that previously reported for [H(3)L(CdI(4))], clearly show these binding features in the solid state. A hybrid AC-HL material obtained by adsorption of HL on commercial activated carbon (AC) was used to study the removal of these anions from water. AC-HL shows enhanced adsorption capacity toward all the anions studied with respect to AC. This behavior is ascribed to the stronger interaction of anions with the HL function of AC-HL than with the Cπ-H(3)O(+) sites of the unfunctionalized AC.

  16. A PHD in histone language: on the role of histone methylation in plant responses to phosphate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Post-translational modifications of core histones are important for various DNA-templated processes such as transcription and repair. We recently reported that the ALFIN LIKE 6 (AL6) gene, identified in a forward genetic screen, is critical for phosphate deficiency-induced root hair formation and several other processes associated with the regulation of cellular phosphate homeostasis. AL6 contains a Plant Homeo Domain (PHD) finger that can bind to trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3). Homozygous mutants defective in AL6 expression form very short root hairs under phosphate-deficient conditions, presumably caused by altered expression of putative primary and secondary down-stream targets of AL6. In this Addendum, we speculate about possible roles of AL6, H3K4 trimethylation and other chromatin modifications in the adaptation of plants to low phosphate availability.

  17. Histone demethylase retinoblastoma binding protein 2 regulates the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in cirrhotic livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q. [Department of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, L.X. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zeng, J.P. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Liu, X.J.; Liang, X.M.; Zhou, Y.B. [Department of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-09-06

    Liver cirrhosis is one of the most common diseases of Chinese patients. Herein, we report the high expression of a newly identified histone 3 lysine 4 demethylase, retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2), and its role in liver cirrhosis in humans. The siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) reduced levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin and decreased the proliferation of HSCs; and overexpression of RBP2 increased α-SMA and vimentin levels. Treatment with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) upregulated the expression of RBP2, α-SMA, and vimentin, and the siRNA knockdown of RBP2 expression attenuated TGF-β-mediated upregulation of α-SMA and vimentin expression and HSC proliferation. Furthermore, RBP2 was highly expressed in cirrhotic rat livers. Therefore, RBP2 may participate in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis by regulating the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. RBP2 may be a useful marker for the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis.

  18. Application of dual reading domains as novel reagents in chromatin biology reveals a new H3K9me3 and H3K36me2/3 bivalent chromatin state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Rebekka; Kungulovski, Goran; Keup, Corinna; Reinhardt, Richard; Jeltsch, Albert

    2017-09-25

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) play central roles in chromatin-templated processes. Combinations of two or more histone PTMs form unique interfaces for readout and recruitment of chromatin interacting complexes, but the genome-wide mapping of coexisting histone PTMs remains an experimentally difficult task. We introduce here a novel type of affinity reagents consisting of two fused recombinant histone modification interacting domains (HiMIDs) for direct detection of doubly modified chromatin. To develop the method, we fused the MPP8 chromodomain and DNMT3A PWWP domain which have a binding specificity for H3K9me3 and H3K36me2/3, respectively. We validate the novel reagent biochemically and in ChIP applications and show its specific interaction with H3K9me3-H3K36me2/3 doubly modified chromatin. Modification specificity was confirmed using mutant double-HiMIDs with inactivated methyllysine binding pockets. Using this novel tool, we mapped coexisting H3K9me3-H3K36me2/3 marks in human cells by chromatin interacting domain precipitation (CIDOP). CIDOP-seq data were validated by qPCR, sequential CIDOP/ChIP and by comparison with CIDOP- and ChIP-seq data obtained with single modification readers and antibodies. The genome-wide distribution of H3K9me3-H3K36me2/3 indicates that it represents a novel bivalent chromatin state, which is enriched in weakly transcribed chromatin segments and at ZNF274 and SetDB1 binding sites. The application of double-HiMIDs allows the single-step study of co-occurrence and distribution of combinatorial chromatin marks. Our discovery of a novel H3K9me3-H3K36me2/3 bivalent chromatin state illustrates the power of this approach, and it will stimulate numerous follow-up studies on its biological functions.

  19. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nakahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that histones, the chief protein component of chromatin, are released into the extracellular space during sepsis, trauma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and act as major mediators of the death of an organism. This study was designed to elucidate the cellular and molecular basis of histone-induced lethality and to assess the protective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM. rTM has been approved for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in Japan, and is currently undergoing a phase III clinical trial in the United States. METHODS: Histone H3 levels in plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with sepsis and DIC were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with purified histones, and pathological examinations were performed. The protective effects of rTM against histone toxicity were analyzed both in vitro and in mice. RESULTS: Histone H3 was not detectable in plasma of healthy volunteers, but significant levels were observed in patients with sepsis and DIC. These levels were higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Extracellular histones triggered platelet aggregation, leading to thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries and subsequent right-sided heart failure in mice. These mice displayed symptoms of DIC, including thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, decreased fibrinogen, fibrin deposition in capillaries, and bleeding. Platelet depletion protected mice from histone-induced death in the first 30 minutes, suggesting that vessel occlusion by platelet-rich thrombi might be responsible for death during the early phase. Furthermore, rTM bound to extracellular histones, suppressed histone-induced platelet aggregation, thrombotic occlusion of pulmonary capillaries, and dilatation of the right ventricle, and rescued mice from lethal thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular histones cause massive

  20. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcianò, G.; Huang, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    The Spt16–SSRP1 heterodimer is a histone chaperone that plays an important role in regulating chromatin assembly. Here, a crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Spt16 is presented and it is shown that this domain may contribute to histone binding. The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding

  1. Structure of the human histone chaperone FACT Spt16 N-terminal domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcianò, G.; Huang, D. T., E-mail: d.huang@beatson.gla.ac.uk [Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-22

    The Spt16–SSRP1 heterodimer is a histone chaperone that plays an important role in regulating chromatin assembly. Here, a crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of human Spt16 is presented and it is shown that this domain may contribute to histone binding. The histone chaperone FACT plays an important role in facilitating nucleosome assembly and disassembly during transcription. FACT is a heterodimeric complex consisting of Spt16 and SSRP1. The N-terminal domain of Spt16 resembles an inactive aminopeptidase. How this domain contributes to the histone chaperone activity of FACT remains elusive. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of human Spt16 is reported at a resolution of 1.84 Å. The structure adopts an aminopeptidase-like fold similar to those of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Spt16 NTDs. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses show that human Spt16 NTD binds histones H3/H4 with low-micromolar affinity, suggesting that Spt16 NTD may contribute to histone binding in the FACT complex. Surface-residue conservation and electrostatic analysis reveal a conserved acidic patch that may be involved in histone binding.

  2. ATRX ADD Domain Links an Atypical Histone Methylation Recognition Mechanism to Human Mental-Retardation Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Iwase; B Xiang; S Ghosh; T Ren; P Lewis; J Cochrane; C Allis; D Picketts; D Patel; et al.

    2011-12-31

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  3. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Shigeki; Xiang, Bin; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Ren, Ting; Lewis, Peter W.; Cochrane, Jesse C.; Allis, C. David; Picketts, David J.; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Li, Haitao; Shi, Yang (Harvard-Med); (Ottawa Hosp.); (MSKCC); (Rockefeller); (CH-Boston); (Tsinghua); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.)

    2011-07-19

    ATR-X (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked) syndrome is a human congenital disorder that causes severe intellectual disabilities. Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome. Approximately 50% of the missense mutations in affected persons are clustered in a cysteine-rich domain termed ADD (ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L, ADD{sub ATRX}), whose function has remained elusive. Here we identify ADD{sub ATRX} as a previously unknown histone H3-binding module, whose binding is promoted by lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) but inhibited by lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3). The cocrystal structure of ADD{sub ATRX} bound to H3{sub 1-15}K9me3 peptide reveals an atypical composite H3K9me3-binding pocket, which is distinct from the conventional trimethyllysine-binding aromatic cage. Notably, H3K9me3-pocket mutants and ATR-X syndrome mutants are defective in both H3K9me3 binding and localization at pericentromeric heterochromatin; thus, we have discovered a unique histone-recognition mechanism underlying the ATR-X etiology.

  4. Core Histones H2B and H4 Are Mobilized during Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kristen L.; Hendzel, Michael J.; Schang, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    The infecting genomes of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) are assembled into unstable nucleosomes soon after nuclear entry. The source of the histones that bind to these genomes has yet to be addressed. However, infection inhibits histone synthesis. The histones that bind to HSV-1 genomes are therefore most likely those previously bound in cellular chromatin. In order for preexisting cellular histones to associate with HSV-1 genomes, however, they must first disassociate from cellular chromatin. Consistently, we have shown that linker histones are mobilized during HSV-1 infection. Chromatinization of HSV-1 genomes would also require the association of core histones. We therefore evaluated the mobility of the core histones H2B and H4 as measures of the mobilization of H2A-H2B dimers and the more stable H3-H4 core tetramer. H2B and H4 were mobilized during infection. Their mobilization increased the levels of H2B and H4 in the free pools and decreased the rate of H2B fast chromatin exchange. The histones in the free pools would then be available to bind to HSV-1 genomes. The mobilization of H2B occurred independently from HSV-1 protein expression or DNA replication although expression of HSV-1 immediate-early (IE) or early (E) proteins enhanced it. The mobilization of core histones H2B and H4 supports a model in which the histones that associate with HSV-1 genomes are those that were previously bound in cellular chromatin. Moreover, this mobilization is consistent with the assembly of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 dimers into unstable nucleosomes with HSV-1 genomes. PMID:21994445

  5. H3K23me2 is a new heterochromatic mark in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, Julien; Sidoli, Simone; Mariani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    described in this organism. We used mass spectrometry based middle-down proteomics to analyze histone H3 N-terminal tails from C. elegans embryos for the presence, the relative abundance and the potential cross-talk of co-existing PTMs. This analysis highlighted that the lysine 23 of histone H3 (H3K23......Genome-wide analyses in Caenorhabditis elegans show that post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones are evolutionary conserved and distributed along functionally distinct genomic domains. However, a global profile of PTMs and their co-occurrence on the same histone tail has not been...

  6. Linking PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR to Histone Modification in Plant Shade Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Maolin; Li, Zepeng; Zhou, Nana; Ma, Mengmeng; Jiang, Yupei; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui; Li, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) allows a plant grown in a densely populated environment to maximize opportunities to access to sunlight. Although it is well established that SAS is accompanied by gene expression changes, the underlying molecular mechanism needs to be elucidated. Here, we identify the H3K4me3/H3K36me3-binding proteins, Morf Related Gene (MRG) group proteins MRG1 and MRG2, as positive regulators of shade-induced hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). MRG2 binds PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR7 (PIF7) and regulates the expression of several common downstream target genes, including YUCCA8 and IAA19 involved in the auxin biosynthesis or response pathway and PRE1 involved in brassinosteroid regulation of cell elongation. In response to shade, PIF7 and MRG2 are enriched at the promoter and gene-body regions and are necessary for increase of histone H4 and H3 acetylation to promote target gene expression. Our study uncovers a mechanism in which the shade-responsive factor PIF7 recruits MRG1/MRG2 that binds H3K4me3/H3K36me3 and brings histone-acetylases to induce histone acetylations to promote expression of shade responsive genes, providing thus a molecular mechanistic link coupling the environmental light to epigenetic modification in regulation of hypocotyl elongation in plant SAS. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The thermodynamic signature of ligand binding to histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolases is most sensitive to the flexibility in the L2-loop lining the active site pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyners, Christian; Krämer, Andreas; Yildiz, Özkan; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of the thermodynamic driving forces of ligand-protein binding has been suggested to be a key component for the selection and optimization of active compounds into drug candidates. The binding enthalpy as deduced from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is usually interpreted assuming single-step binding of a ligand to one conformation of the target protein. Although successful in many cases, these assumptions are oversimplified approximations of the reality with flexible proteins and complicated binding mechanism in many if not most cases. The relationship between protein flexibility and thermodynamic signature of ligand binding is largely understudied. Directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, enzyme kinetics and ITC methods were combined to dissect the influence of loop flexibility on the thermodynamics and mechanism of ligand binding to histone deacetylase (HDAC)-like amidohydrolases. The general ligand-protein binding mechanism comprises an energetically demanding gate opening step followed by physical binding. Increased flexibility of the L2-loop in HDAC-like amidohydrolases facilitates access of ligands to the binding pocket resulting in predominantly enthalpy-driven complex formation. The study provides evidence for the great importance of flexibility adjacent to the active site channel for the mechanism and observed thermodynamic driving forces of molecular recognition in HDAC like enzymes. The flexibility or malleability in regions adjacent to binding pockets should be given more attention when designing better drug candidates. The presented case study also suggests that the observed binding enthalpy of protein-ligand systems should be interpreted with caution, since more complicated binding mechanisms may obscure the significance regarding potential drug likeness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Interstellar H3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Protonated molecular hydrogen, H3+, is the simplest polyatomic molecule. It is the most abundantly produced interstellar molecule, next only to H2, although its steady state concentration is low because of its extremely high chemical reactivity. H3+ is a strong acid (proton donor) and initiates chains of ion-molecule reactions in interstellar space thus leading to formation of complex molecules. Here, I summarize the understandings on this fundamental species in interstellar space obtained from our infrared observations since its discovery in 1996 and discuss the recent observations and analyses of H3+ in the Central Molecular Zone near the Galatic center that led to a revelation of a vast amount of warm and diffuse gas existing in the region. PMID:16894171

  9. Structure-Based Design of a New Scaffold for Cell-Penetrating Peptidic Inhibitors of the Histone Demethylase PHF8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorosz, Jerzy; Olsen, Lars; Seger, Signe Teuber

    2017-01-01

    and a PHD reader domain. The latter specifically recognizes tri-methylated Ly4 on histone H3. A fragment of the histone H3 tail with tri-methylated Lys4 was used as a template for the structure-based design of a cyclic, cell-penetrating peptide that exhibits micromolar binding affinity to PHF8......, thus implying that the free N terminus is not part of the KDM5 enzyme substrate recognition machinery. The cyclic peptide's ability to penetrate cells is achieved by incorporation of a sequence derived from HIV Tat. The derived cyclic peptide can be used as a starting compound in the search for potent...

  10. Multifaceted genome control by Set1 Dependent and Independent of H3K4 methylation and the Set1C/COMPASS complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Mikheyeva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Histone modifiers are critical regulators of chromatin-based processes in eukaryotes. The histone methyltransferase Set1, a component of the Set1C/COMPASS complex, catalyzes the methylation at lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me, a hallmark of euchromatin. Here, we show that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Set1 utilizes distinct domain modules to regulate disparate classes of repetitive elements associated with euchromatin and heterochromatin via H3K4me-dependent and -independent pathways. Set1 employs its RNA-binding RRM2 and catalytic SET domains to repress Tf2 retrotransposons and pericentromeric repeats while relying on its H3K4me function to maintain transcriptional repression at the silent mating type (mat locus and subtelomeric regions. These repressive functions of Set1 correlate with the requirement of Set1C components to maintain repression at the mat locus and subtelomeres while dispensing Set1C in repressing Tf2s and pericentromeric repeats. We show that the contributions of several Set1C subunits to the states of H3K4me diverge considerably from those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologs. Moreover, unlike S. cerevisiae, the regulation of Set1 protein level is not coupled to the status of H3K4me or histone H2B ubiquitination by the HULC complex. Intriguingly, we uncover a genome organization role for Set1C and H3K4me in mediating the clustering of Tf2s into Tf bodies by antagonizing the acetyltransferase Mst1-mediated H3K4 acetylation. Our study provides unexpected insights into the regulatory intricacies of a highly conserved chromatin-modifying complex with diverse roles in genome control.

  11. An NF-Y-dependent switch of positive and negative histone methyl marks on CCAAT promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Donati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone tails have a plethora of different post-translational modifications, which are located differently in "open" and "closed" parts of genomes. H3K4me3/H3K79me2 and H4K20me3 are among the histone marks associated with the early establishment of active and inactive chromatin, respectively. One of the most widespread promoter elements is the CCAAT box, bound by the NF-Y trimer. Two of NF-Y subunits have an H2A-H2B-like structure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established the causal relationship between NF-Y binding and positioning of methyl marks, by ChIP analysis of mouse and human cells infected with a dominant negative NF-YA: a parallel decrease in NF-Y binding, H3K4me3, H3K79me2 and transcription was observed in promoters that are dependent upon NF-Y. On the contrary, changes in the levels of H3K9-14ac were more subtle. Components of the H3K4 methylating MLL complex are not recruited in the absence of NF-Y. As for repressed promoters, NF-Y removal leads to a decrease in the H4K20me3 mark and deposition of H3K4me3. CONCLUSIONS: Two relevant findings are reported: (i NF-Y gains access to its genomic locations independently from the presence of methyl histone marks, either positive or negative; (ii NF-Y binding has profound positive or negative consequences on the deposition of histone methyl marks. Therefore NF-Y is a fundamental switch at the heart of decision between gene activation and repression in CCAAT regulated genes.

  12. Recruitment of Histone Deacetylase 3 to the Interferon-A Gene Promoters Attenuates Interferon Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génin, Pierre; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John; Civas, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Background Induction of Type I Interferon (IFN) genes constitutes an essential step leading to innate immune responses during virus infection. Sendai virus (SeV) infection of B lymphoid Namalwa cells transiently induces the transcriptional expression of multiple IFN-A genes. Although transcriptional activation of IFN-A genes has been extensively studied, the mechanism responsible for the attenuation of their expression remains to be determined. Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate that virus infection of Namalwa cells induces transient recruitment of HDAC3 (histone deacetylase 3) to IFN-A promoters. Analysis of chromatin-protein association by Chip-QPCR demonstrated that recruitment of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3 and IRF7, as well as TBP correlated with enhanced histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation, whereas recruitment of HDAC3 correlated with inhibition of histone H3K9/K14 acetylation, removal of IRF7 and TATA-binding protein (TBP) from IFN-A promoters and inhibition of virus-induced IFN-A gene transcription. Additionally, HDAC3 overexpression reduced, and HDAC3 depletion by siRNA enhanced IFN-A gene expression. Furthermore, activation of IRF7 enhanced histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and IFN-A gene expression, whereas activation of both IRF7 and IRF3 led to recruitment of HDAC3 to the IFN-A gene promoters, resulting in impaired histone H3K9 acetylation and attenuation of IFN-A gene transcription. Conclusion Altogether these data indicate that reversal of histone H3K9/K14 acetylation by HDAC3 is required for attenuation of IFN-A gene transcription during viral infection. PMID:22685561

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tho X; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-21

    We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  14. Transcriptional regulation by histone modifications: towards a theory of chromatin re-organization during stem cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, Hans; Steiner, Lydia; Przybilla, Jens; Rohlf, Thimo; Prohaska, Sonja; Galle, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin-related mechanisms, as e.g. histone modifications, are known to be involved in regulatory switches within the transcriptome. Only recently, mathematical models of these mechanisms have been established. So far they have not been applied to genome-wide data. We here introduce a mathematical model of transcriptional regulation by histone modifications and apply it to data of trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and 27 (H3K27me3) in mouse pluripotent and lineage-committed cells. The model describes binding of protein complexes to chromatin which are capable of reading and writing histone marks. Molecular interactions of the complexes with DNA and modified histones create a regulatory switch of transcriptional activity. The regulatory states of the switch depend on the activity of histone (de-) methylases, the strength of complex-DNA-binding and the number of nucleosomes capable of cooperatively contributing to complex-binding. Our model explains experimentally measured length distributions of modified chromatin regions. It suggests (i) that high CpG-density facilitates recruitment of the modifying complexes in embryonic stem cells and (ii) that re-organization of extended chromatin regions during lineage specification into neuronal progenitor cells requires targeted de-modification. Our approach represents a basic step towards multi-scale models of transcriptional control during development and lineage specification. (paper)

  15. Histone Methylation and Epigenetic Silencing in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey A; Lange, Carol A

    2008-01-01

    .... EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase which modifies lysine-27 of histone H3 an epigenetic mark which is generally linked to gene silencing and is implicated in tumor suppressor silencing during breast cancer progression...

  16. Genome-wide integration on transcription factors, histone acetylation and gene expression reveals genes co-regulated by histone modification patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani

    Full Text Available N-terminal tails of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 histone families are subjected to posttranslational modifications that take part in transcriptional regulation mechanisms, such as transcription factor binding and gene expression. Regulation mechanisms under control of histone modification are important but remain largely unclear, despite of emerging datasets for comprehensive analysis of histone modification. In this paper, we focus on what we call genetic harmonious units (GHUs, which are co-occurring patterns among transcription factor binding, gene expression and histone modification. We present the first genome-wide approach that captures GHUs by combining ChIP-chip with microarray datasets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our approach employs noise-robust soft clustering to select patterns which share the same preferences in transcription factor-binding, histone modification and gene expression, which are all currently implied to be closely correlated. The detected patterns are a well-studied acetylation of lysine 16 of H4 in glucose depletion as well as co-acetylation of five lysine residues of H3 with H4 Lys12 and H2A Lys7 responsible for ribosome biogenesis. Furthermore, our method further suggested the recognition of acetylated H4 Lys16 being crucial to histone acetyltransferase ESA1, whose essential role is still under controversy, from a microarray dataset on ESA1 and its bypass suppressor mutants. These results demonstrate that our approach allows us to provide clearer principles behind gene regulation mechanisms under histone modifications and detect GHUs further by applying to other microarray and ChIP-chip datasets. The source code of our method, which was implemented in MATLAB (http://www.mathworks.com/, is available from the supporting page for this paper: http://www.bic.kyoto-u.ac.jp/pathway/natsume/hm_detector.htm.

  17. Live imaging of H3K9 acetylation in plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kurita, Kazuki; Sakamoto, Takuya; Yagi, Noriyoshi; Sakamoto, Yuki; Ito, Akihiro; Nishino, Norikazu; Sako, Kaori; Yoshida, Minoru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Seki, Motoaki; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2017-01-01

    Proper regulation of histone acetylation is important in development and cellular responses to environmental stimuli. However, the dynamics of histone acetylation at the single-cell level remains poorly understood. Here we established a transgenic plant cell line to track histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) with a modification-specific intracellular antibody (mintbody). The H3K9ac-specific mintbody fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (H3K9ac-mintbody-GFP) was introduced into ...

  18. The expression of spinal methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases is modulated in persistent pain states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tochiki Keri K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA CpG methylation is carried out by DNA methyltransferases and induces chromatin remodeling and gene silencing through a transcription repressor complex comprising the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2 and a subset of histone deacetylases. Recently, we have found that MeCP2 activity had a crucial role in the pattern of gene expression seen in the superficial dorsal horn rapidly after injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA in the rat ankle joint. The aim of the present study was to analyse the changes in expression of MeCP2, DNA methyltransferases and a subset of histone deacetylases in the superficial dorsal horn during the maintenance phase of persistent pain states. In this process, the cell specific expression of MeCP2 was also investigated. Results Using immunohistochemistry, we found that neurones, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes expressed MeCP2. Microglia, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and Schwann cells never showed any positive stain for MeCP2. Quantitative analyses showed that MeCP2 expression was increased in the superficial dorsal horn 7 days following CFA injection in the ankle joint but decreased 7 days following spared nerve injury. Overall, the expression of DNA methyltransferases and a subset of histone deacetylases followed the same pattern of expression. However, there were no significant changes in the expression of the MeCP2 targets that we had previously shown are regulated in the early time points following CFA injection in the ankle joint. Finally, the expression of MeCP2 was also down regulated in damaged dorsal root ganglion neurones following spared nerve injury. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that changes in chromatin compaction, regulated by the binding of MeCP2 complexes to methylated DNA, are involved in the modulation of gene expression in the superficial dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia during the maintenance of persistent pain states.

  19. Extracellular vesicles shed by melanoma cells contain a modified form of H1.0 linker histone and H1.0 mRNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Puleo, Veronica; Colletta, Oriana; Fricano, Anna; Cancemi, Patrizia; Di Cara, Gianluca; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are now recognized as a fundamental way for cell-to-cell horizontal transfer of properties, in both physiological and pathological conditions. Most of EV-mediated cross-talk among cells depend on the exchange of proteins, and nucleic acids, among which mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs such as different species of miRNAs. Cancer cells, in particular, use EVs to discard molecules which could be dangerous to them (for example differentiation-inducing proteins such as histone H1.0, or antitumor drugs), to transfer molecules which, after entering the surrounding cells, are able to transform their phenotype, and even to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance. Herein we report that melanoma cells not only secrete EVs which contain a modified form of H1.0 histone, but also transport the corresponding mRNA. Given the already known role in tumorigenesis of some RNA binding proteins (RBPs), we also searched for proteins of this class in EVs. This study revealed the presence in A375 melanoma cells of at least three RBPs, with apparent MW of about 65, 45 and 38 kDa, which are able to bind H1.0 mRNA. Moreover, we purified one of these proteins, which by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was identified as the already known transcription factor MYEF2.

  20. The conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3 and the DNA binding regulator Ume6 repress BOI1's meiotic transcript isoform during vegetative growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchen; Stuparevic, Igor; Xie, Bingning; Becker, Emmanuelle; Law, Michael J; Primig, Michael

    2015-05-01

    BOI1 and BOI2 are paralogs important for the actin cytoskeleton and polar growth. BOI1 encodes a meiotic transcript isoform with an extended 5'-untranslated region predicted to impair protein translation. It is, however, unknown how the isoform is repressed during mitosis, and if Boi1 is present during sporulation. By interpreting microarray data from MATa cells, MATa/α cells, a starving MATα/α control, and a meiosis-impaired rrp6 mutant, we classified BOI1's extended isoform as early meiosis-specific. These results were confirmed by RNA-Sequencing, and extended by a 5'-RACE assay and Northern blotting, showing that meiotic cells induce the long isoform while the mitotic isoform remains detectable during meiosis. We provide evidence via motif predictions, an in vivo binding assay and genetic experiments that the Rpd3/Sin3/Ume6 histone deacetylase complex, which represses meiotic genes during mitosis, also prevents the induction of BOI1's 5'-extended isoform in mitosis by direct binding of Ume6 to its URS1 target. Finally, we find that Boi1 protein levels decline when cells switch from fermentation to respiration and sporulation. The histone deacetylase Rpd3 is conserved, and eukaryotic genes frequently encode transcripts with variable 5'-UTRs. Our findings are therefore relevant for regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of transcript isoforms in multi-cellular organisms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chromatin Affinity Purification and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Defining the Interactome of Histone Modification Patterns*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Miroslav; Stützer, Alexandra; Mosch, Kerstin; Krasauskas, Andrius; Soeroes, Szabolcs; Stark, Holger; Urlaub, Henning; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    DNA and histone modifications direct the functional state of chromatin and thereby the readout of the genome. Candidate approaches and histone peptide affinity purification experiments have identified several proteins that bind to chromatin marks. However, the complement of factors that is recruited by individual and combinations of DNA and histone modifications has not yet been defined. Here, we present a strategy based on recombinant, uniformly modified chromatin templates used in affinity purification experiments in conjunction with SILAC-based quantitative mass spectrometry for this purpose. On the prototypic H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 histone modification marks we compare our method with a histone N-terminal peptide affinity purification approach. Our analysis shows that only some factors associate with both, chromatin and peptide matrices but that a surprisingly large number of proteins differ in their association with these templates. Global analysis of the proteins identified implies specific domains mediating recruitment to the chromatin marks. Our proof-of-principle studies show that chromatin templates with defined modification patterns can be used to decipher how the histone code is read and translated. PMID:21836164

  2. Arabidopsis ATRX Modulates H3.3 Occupancy and Fine-Tunes Gene Expression

    KAUST Repository

    Duc, Céline

    2017-07-07

    Histones are essential components of the nucleosome, the major chromatin subunit that structures linear DNA molecules and regulates access of other proteins to DNA. Specific histone chaperone complexes control the correct deposition of canonical histones and their variants to modulate nucleosome structure and stability. In this study, we characterize the Arabidopsis Alpha Thalassemia-mental Retardation X-linked (ATRX) ortholog and show that ATRX is involved in histone H3 deposition. Arabidopsis ATRX mutant alleles are viable, but show developmental defects and reduced fertility. Their combination with mutants of the histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA (Histone Regulator A) results in impaired plant survival, suggesting that HIRA and ATRX function in complementary histone deposition pathways. Indeed, ATRX loss of function alters cellular histone H3.3 pools and in consequence modulates the H3.1/H3.3 balance in the cell. H3.3 levels are affected especially at genes characterized by elevated H3.3 occupancy, including the 45S ribosomal DNA (45S rDNA) loci, where loss of ATRX results in altered expression of specific 45S rDNA sequence variants. At the genome-wide scale, our data indicate that ATRX modifies gene expression concomitantly to H3.3 deposition at a set of genes characterized both by elevated H3.3 occupancy and high expression. Altogether, our results show that ATRX is involved in H3.3 deposition and emphasize the role of histone chaperones in adjusting genome expression.

  3. The gene signature in CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha dysfunctional acute myeloid leukemia predicts responsiveness to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liss, A.; Ooi, C.; Zjablovskaja, Polina; Benoukraf, T.; Radomska, H.S.; Ju, C.; Wu, M.C.; Balaštík, Martin; Delwel, R.; Brdička, Tomáš; Tan, P.; Tenen, D.G.; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2014), s. 697-705 ISSN 0390-6078 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21307; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11213 Grant - others:NIH(US) CA66996; NIH(US) CA118316 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : C/EBPa * histone deacetylase inhibitor * acute myeloid leukemia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.814, year: 2014

  4. Exercise increases hyper-acetylation of histones on the Cis-element of NRF-1 binding to the Mef2a promoter: Implications on type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jitcy S; Ayeleso, Ademola O; Mukwevho, Emmanuel

    2017-04-22

    Exercise brings changes on the chromatin ensuing the upregulation of many genes that confer protection from type 2 diabetes. In type-2 diabetes, critical genes are down-regulated such as those involved in glucose transport (GLUT4, MEF2A) and also oxidative phosphorylation (NRF-1 and its target genes). Recent reports have shown that NRF-1 not only regulate mitochondrial oxidative genes but also controls MEF2A, the main transcription factor for glucose transporter, GLUT4. Such dual control of the two pathways by NRF-1 place it as critical gene in the design of therapeutic modalities much needed to cure or better manage type 2 diabetes. Although it is known that NRF-1 controls these dual pathways (glucose transport and oxidative phosphorylation), the actual molecular mechanisms involved surrounding this regulation remains elusive. NRF-1 itself is regulated through posttranslational modifications (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation) resulting in enhanced binding to its target genes. This study is therefore aimed at assessing whether CaMKII, a kinase activated by exercise brings about hyper-acetylation of histones in the vicinity of NRF-1 target gene, Mef2a. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to investigate the extent through which NRF-1 is bound to the Mef2a gene and if this was associated with hyper-acetylation of histones in the region of NRF-1 binding site of the Mef2a gene. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the gene expression of MEF2A and NRF-1. Results from this study indicated that exercise-induced CaMKII activation increased hyper-acetylation of histones in the region of NRF-1 binding site on vicinity of Mef2a gene and this was associated with the increased binding of NRF-1 to Mef2a gene. Exercise also increased the expression of NRF-1 and MEF2A genes. Administration of CaMKII inhibitor (KN93) prior to exercise attenuated the observed exercise

  5. Distribution pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetics and Plant Breeding, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Campus Universitário, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP: 372000-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Campus Universitário, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP: 372000-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária ...

  6. Distribution pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-06

    Aug 6, 2013 ... 3Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa), Embrapa Gado de Leite (CNPGL), Rua Eugênio do. Nascimento, 610, Bairro Dom Bosco, CEP: 36038-330 Juiz de Fora-MG, Brazil. 4Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Campus Universitário, Caixa Postal 3037,.

  7. Regulation of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 during early porcine embryonic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Hyttel, Poul; Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2010-01-01

    The epigenetic marks H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 are important repressive and permissive histone modifications, respectively, which are involved in gene regulation such as Hox gene expression during embryonic development. In this study, we investigated the global levels of these two histone modifications......, HOXA3, HOXA7, HOXA10, HOXB4, HOXB7, HOXC8, HOXD8, and HOXD10 was investigated. We found that global levels of H3K27me3 decreased from the 1- to the 4-cell stage, corresponding to the time of major embryonic genome activation. Subsequently, the levels increased in hatched blastocysts, particularly...... porcine embryonic genome activation, whereas, H3K27me3 may be involved in initial cell lineage segregation in the blastocyst....

  8. Histone arginine methylation in cocaine action in the nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, HaoSheng; Scobie, Kimberly N.; Shao, Ningyi; Rabkin, Jaclyn; Dias, Caroline; Calipari, Erin S.; Maze, Ian; Pena, Catherine J.; Walker, Deena M.; Cahill, Michael E.; Chandra, Ramesh; Gancarz, Amy; Landry, Joseph A.; Cates, Hannah; Lobo, Mary-Kay; Dietz, David; Allis, C. David; Guccione, Ernesto; Turecki, Gustavo; Defilippi, Paola; Neve, Rachael L.; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated cocaine exposure regulates transcriptional regulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and epigenetic mechanisms—such as histone acetylation and methylation on Lys residues—have been linked to these lasting actions of cocaine. In contrast to Lys methylation, the role of histone Arg (R) methylation remains underexplored in addiction models. Here we show that protein-R-methyltransferase-6 (PRMT6) and its associated histone mark, asymmetric dimethylation of R2 on histone H3 (H3R2me2a), are decreased in the NAc of mice and rats after repeated cocaine exposure, including self-administration, and in the NAc of cocaine-addicted humans. Such PRMT6 down-regulation occurs selectively in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2-MSNs), with opposite regulation occurring in D1-MSNs, and serves to protect against cocaine-induced addictive-like behavioral abnormalities. Using ChIP-seq, we identified Src kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (Srcin1; also referred to as p140Cap) as a key gene target for reduced H3R2me2a binding, and found that consequent Srcin1 induction in the NAc decreases Src signaling, cocaine reward, and the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Taken together, these findings suggest that suppression of Src signaling in NAc D2-MSNs, via PRMT6 and H3R2me2a down-regulation, functions as a homeostatic brake to restrain cocaine action, and provide novel candidates for the development of treatments for cocaine addiction. PMID:27506785

  9. Histone arginine methylation in cocaine action in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez-Werno, Diane M; Sun, HaoSheng; Scobie, Kimberly N; Shao, Ningyi; Rabkin, Jaclyn; Dias, Caroline; Calipari, Erin S; Maze, Ian; Pena, Catherine J; Walker, Deena M; Cahill, Michael E; Chandra, Ramesh; Gancarz, Amy; Mouzon, Ezekiell; Landry, Joseph A; Cates, Hannah; Lobo, Mary-Kay; Dietz, David; Allis, C David; Guccione, Ernesto; Turecki, Gustavo; Defilippi, Paola; Neve, Rachael L; Hurd, Yasmin L; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-08-23

    Repeated cocaine exposure regulates transcriptional regulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and epigenetic mechanisms-such as histone acetylation and methylation on Lys residues-have been linked to these lasting actions of cocaine. In contrast to Lys methylation, the role of histone Arg (R) methylation remains underexplored in addiction models. Here we show that protein-R-methyltransferase-6 (PRMT6) and its associated histone mark, asymmetric dimethylation of R2 on histone H3 (H3R2me2a), are decreased in the NAc of mice and rats after repeated cocaine exposure, including self-administration, and in the NAc of cocaine-addicted humans. Such PRMT6 down-regulation occurs selectively in NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) expressing dopamine D2 receptors (D2-MSNs), with opposite regulation occurring in D1-MSNs, and serves to protect against cocaine-induced addictive-like behavioral abnormalities. Using ChIP-seq, we identified Src kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (Srcin1; also referred to as p140Cap) as a key gene target for reduced H3R2me2a binding, and found that consequent Srcin1 induction in the NAc decreases Src signaling, cocaine reward, and the motivation to self-administer cocaine. Taken together, these findings suggest that suppression of Src signaling in NAc D2-MSNs, via PRMT6 and H3R2me2a down-regulation, functions as a homeostatic brake to restrain cocaine action, and provide novel candidates for the development of treatments for cocaine addiction.

  10. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Christopher M., E-mail: c.m.wood@livjm.ac.uk [School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Nicholson, James M. [College of Biology and Medicine, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lambert, Stanley J. [School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Chantalat, Laurent [Structural Biology, Galderma R& D, 635 Routes des Lucioles, BP 87F-06902 Sophia Antipolis CEDEX (France); Reynolds, Colin D. [School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Baldwin, John P. [College of Biology and Medicine, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R{sub work} value of 18.7% and an R{sub free} of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6{sub 5}, the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle.

  11. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R work value of 18.7% and an R free of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6 5 , the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle

  12. Neuraminidase Receptor Binding Variants of Human Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses Resulting from Substitution of Aspartic Acid 151 in the Catalytic Site: a Role in Virus Attachment?▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Pu; Gregory, Victoria; Collins, Patrick; Kloess, Johannes; Wharton, Stephen; Cattle, Nicholas; Lackenby, Angie; Daniels, Rodney; Hay, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the receptor binding characteristics of human H3N2 viruses have been evident from changes in the agglutination of different red blood cells (RBCs) and the reduced growth capacity of recently isolated viruses, particularly in embryonated eggs. An additional peculiarity of viruses circulating in 2005 to 2009 has been the poor inhibition of hemagglutination by postinfection ferret antisera for many viruses isolated in MDCK cells, including homologous reference viruses. This was shown not to be due to an antigenic change in hemagglutinin (HA) but was shown to be the result of a mutation in aspartic acid 151 of neuraminidase (NA) to glycine, asparagine, or alanine, which caused an oseltamivir-sensitive agglutination of RBCs. The D151G substitution was shown to cause a change in the specificity of NA such that it acquired the capacity to bind receptors, which were refractory to enzymatic cleavage, without altering its ability to remove receptors for HA. Thus, the inhibition of NA-dependent agglutination by the inclusion of oseltamivir carboxylate in the assay was effective in restoring the anti-HA specificity of the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for monitoring antigenic changes in HA. Since the NA-dependent binding activity did not affect virus neutralization, and virus populations in clinical specimens possessed, at most, low levels of the “151 mutant,” the biological significance of this feature of NA in, for example, immune evasion is unclear. It is apparent, however, that an important role of aspartic acid 151 in the activity of NA may be to restrict the specificity of the NA interaction and its receptor-destroying activity to complement that of HA receptor binding. PMID:20410266

  13. Evidence against the nuclear in situ binding of arsenicals-oxidative stress theory of arsenic carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchin, Kirk T.; Wallace, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    A large amount of evidence suggests that arsenicals act via oxidative stress in causing cancer in humans and experimental animals. It is possible that arsenicals could bind in situ close to nuclear DNA followed by Haber-Weiss type oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis by using radioactive 73 As labeled arsenite and vacuum filtration methodology to determine the binding affinity and capacity of 73 As arsenite to calf thymus DNA and Type 2A unfractionated histones, histone H3, H4 and horse spleen ferritin. Arsenicals are known to release redox active Fe from ferritin. At concentrations up to about 1 mM, neither DNA nor any of the three proteins studied, Type II-A histones, histone H3, H4 or ferritin, bound radioactive arsenite in a specific manner. Therefore, it appears highly unlikely that initial in situ binding of trivalent arsenicals, followed by in situ oxidative DNA damage, can account for arsenic's carcinogenicity. This experimental evidence (lack of arsenite binding to DNA, histone Type II-A and histone H3, H4) does not rule out other possible oxidative stress modes of action for arsenic such as (a) diffusion of longer lived oxidative stress molecules, such as H 2 O 2 into the nucleus and ensuing oxidative damage, (b) redox chemistry by unbound arsenicals in the nucleus, or (c) arsenical-induced perturbations in Fe, Cu or other metals which are already known to oxidize DNA in vitro and in vivo

  14. Real-Time Tracking of Parental Histones Reveals Their Contribution to Chromatin Integrity Following DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salomé; Dabin, Juliette; Chevallier, Odile; Leroy, Olivier; Baldeyron, Céline; Corpet, Armelle; Lomonte, Patrick; Renaud, Olivier; Almouzni, Geneviève; Polo, Sophie E

    2016-10-06

    Chromatin integrity is critical for cell function and identity but is challenged by DNA damage. To understand how chromatin architecture and the information that it conveys are preserved or altered following genotoxic stress, we established a system for real-time tracking of parental histones, which characterize the pre-damage chromatin state. Focusing on histone H3 dynamics after local UVC irradiation in human cells, we demonstrate that parental histones rapidly redistribute around damaged regions by a dual mechanism combining chromatin opening and histone mobilization on chromatin. Importantly, parental histones almost entirely recover and mix with new histones in repairing chromatin. Our data further define a close coordination of parental histone dynamics with DNA repair progression through the damage sensor DDB2 (DNA damage-binding protein 2). We speculate that this mechanism may contribute to maintaining a memory of the original chromatin landscape and may help preserve epigenome stability in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dangerous R loops form in the absence of H3K9 methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) is a hallmark of transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin that is deregulated in pathological conditions. A new study shows that complete loss of H3K9 methylation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to derepression of repetitive elements and formation...

  16. Structural Basis for Recognition of H3T3ph and Smac/DIABLO N-terminal Peptides by Human Survivin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jiamu; Kelly, Alexander E.; Funabiki, Hironori; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Rockefeller)

    2012-03-02

    Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis family protein implicated in apoptosis and mitosis. In apoptosis, it has been shown to recognize the Smac/DIABLO protein. It is also a component of the chromosomal passenger complex, a key player during mitosis. Recently, Survivin was identified in vitro and in vivo as the direct binding partner for phosphorylated Thr3 on histone H3 (H3T3ph). We have undertaken structural and binding studies to investigate the molecular basis underlying recognition of H3T3ph and Smac/DIABLO N-terminal peptides by Survivin. Our crystallographic studies establish recognition of N-terminal Ala in both complexes and identify intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions in the Survivin phosphate-binding pocket that contribute to H3T3ph mark recognition. In addition, our calorimetric data establish that Survivin binds tighter to the H3T3ph-containing peptide relative to the N-terminal Smac/DIABLO peptide, and this preference can be reversed through structure-guided mutations that increase the hydrophobicity of the phosphate-binding pocket.

  17. Deregulation of histone lysine methyltransferases contributes to oncogenic transformation of human bronchoepithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoda Satoshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in the processing of the genetic information in carcinogenesis result from stable genetic mutations or epigenetic modifications. It is becoming clear that nucleosomal histones are central to proper gene expression and that aberrant DNA methylation of genes and histone methylation plays important roles in tumor progression. To date, several histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs have been identified and histone lysine methylation is now considered to be a critical regulator of transcription. However, still relatively little is known about the role of HKMTs in tumorigenesis. Results We observed differential HKMT expression in a lung cancer model in which normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE cells expressing telomerase, SV40 large T antigen, and Ras were immortal, formed colonies in soft agar, and expressed specific HKMTs for H3 lysine 9 and 27 residues but not for H3 lysine 4 residue. Modifications in the H3 tails affect the binding of proteins to the histone tails and regulate protein function and the position of lysine methylation marks a gene to be either activated or repressed. In the present study, suppression by siRNA of HKMTs (EZH2, G9A, SETDB1 and SUV39H1 that are over-expressed in immortalized and transformed cells lead to reduced cell proliferation and much less anchorage-independent colony growth. We also found that the suppression of H3-K9, G9A and SUV39H1 induced apoptosis and the suppression of H3-K27, EZH2 caused G1 arrest. Conclusion Our results indicate the potential of these HKMTs in addition to the other targets for epigenetics such as DNMTs and HDACs to be interesting therapeutic targets.

  18. DNA-Binding Properties of African Swine Fever Virus pA104R, a Histone-Like Protein Involved in Viral Replication and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouco, Gonçalo; Freitas, Ferdinando B; Coelho, João; Leitão, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2017-06-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) codes for a putative histone-like protein (pA104R) with extensive sequence homology to bacterial proteins that are implicated in genome replication and packaging. Functional characterization of purified recombinant pA104R revealed that it binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) over a wide range of temperatures, pH values, and salt concentrations and in an ATP-independent manner, with an estimated binding site size of about 14 to 16 nucleotides. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the arginine located in pA104R's DNA-binding domain, at position 69, was found to be relevant for efficient DNA-binding activity. Together, pA104R and ASFV topoisomerase II (pP1192R) display DNA-supercoiling activity, although none of the proteins by themselves do, indicating that the two cooperate in this process. In ASFV-infected cells, A104R transcripts were detected from 2 h postinfection (hpi) onward, reaching a maximum concentration around 16 hpi. pA104R was detected from 12 hpi onward, localizing with viral DNA replication sites and being found exclusively in the Triton-insoluble fraction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown experiments revealed that pA104R plays a critical role in viral DNA replication and gene expression, with transfected cells showing lower viral progeny numbers (up to a reduction of 82.0%), lower copy numbers of viral genomes (-78.3%), and reduced transcription of a late viral gene (-47.6%). Taken together, our results strongly suggest that pA104R participates in the modulation of viral DNA topology, probably being involved in viral DNA replication, transcription, and packaging, emphasizing that ASFV mutants lacking the A104R gene could be used as a strategy to develop a vaccine against ASFV. IMPORTANCE Recently reintroduced in Europe, African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal disease in domestic pigs, causing high economic losses in affected countries, as no vaccine or treatment is currently

  19. HJURP Involvement in De Novo CenH3CENP-A and CENP-C Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Tachiwana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although our understanding of centromere maintenance, marked by the histone H3 variant CenH3CENP-A in most eukaryotes, has progressed, the mechanism underlying the de novo formation of centromeres remains unclear. We used a synthetic system to dissect how CenH3CENP-A contributes to the accumulation of CENP-C and CENP-T, two key components that are necessary for the formation of functional kinetochores. We find that de novo CENP-T accumulation depends on CENP-C and that recruitment of these factors requires two domains in CenH3CENP-A: the HJURP-binding region (CATD and the CENP-C-binding region (CAC. Notably, HJURP interacts directly with CENP-C and is critical for de novo accumulation of CENP-C at synthetic centromeres. On the basis of our findings, we propose that HJURP serves a dual chaperone function in coordinating CenH3CENP-A and CENP-C recruitment.

  20. Oncogenic N-Ras Stimulates SRF-Mediated Transactivation via H3 Acetylation at Lysine 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ju Yi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transduction pathways regulate the gene expression by altering chromatin dynamics in response to mitogens. Ras proteins are key regulators linking extracellular stimuli to a diverse range of biological responses associated with gene regulation. In mammals, the three ras genes encode four Ras protein isoforms: H-Ras, K-Ras4A, K-Ras4B, and N-Ras. Although emerging evidence suggests that Ras isoforms differentially regulate gene expressions and are functionally nonredundant, the mechanisms underlying Ras specificity and Ras signaling effects on gene expression remain unclear. Here, we show that oncogenic N-Ras acts as the most potent regulator of SRF-, NF-κB-, and AP-1-dependent transcription. N-Ras-RGL2 axis is a distinct signaling pathway for SRF target gene expression such as Egr1 and JunB, as RGL2 Ras binding domain (RBD significantly impaired oncogenic N-Ras-induced SRE activation. By monitoring the effect of Ras isoforms upon the change of global histone modifications in oncogenic Ras-overexpressed cells, we discovered that oncogenic N-Ras elevates H3K9ac/H3K23ac levels globally in the chromatin context. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed that H3K9ac is significantly enriched at the promoter and coding regions of Egr1 and JunB. Collectively, our findings define an undocumented role of N-Ras in modulating of H3 acetylation and in gene regulation.

  1. Long non-coding RNA ROR decoys gene-specific histone methylation to promote tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiayan; Xing, Yue; Wen, Xuyang; Jia, Renbin; Ni, Hongyan; He, Jie; Ding, Xia; Pan, Hui; Qian, Guanxiang; Ge, Shengfang; Hoffman, Andrew R; Zhang, He; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-07-14

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are not translated into proteins and were initially considered to be part of the 'dark matter' of the genome. Recently, it has been shown that lncRNAs play a role in the recruitment of chromatin modifying complexes and can influence gene expression. However, it is unknown if lncRNAs function in a similar way in cancer. Here, we show that the lncRNA ROR occupies and activates the TESC promoter by repelling the histone G9A methyltransferase and promoting the release of histone H3K9 methylation. Suppression of ROR in tumors results in silencing of TESC expression, and G9A-mediated histone H3K9 methylation in the TESC promoter is restored, which significantly reduces tumor growth and metastasis. Without ROR silencing, TESC knockdown presents consistent and significant reductions in tumor progression. Our results reveal a novel mechanism by which ROR may serve as a decoy oncoRNA that blocks binding surfaces, preventing the recruitment of histone modifying enzymes, thereby specifying a new pattern of histone modifications that promote tumorigenesis.

  2. Histone acetyltransferase p300 mediates histone acetylation of PS1 and BACE1 in a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lu

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications, particularly histone acetylation, have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD. While previous studies have suggested that histone hypoacetylation may regulate the expression of genes associated with memory and learning in AD, little is known about histone regulation of AD-related genes such as Presenilin 1(PS1 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1(BACE1. By utilizing neuroblastoma N2a cells transfected with Swedish mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP (N2a/APPswe and wild-type APP (N2a/APPwt as cellular models of AD, we examined the alterations of histone acetylation at the promoter regions of PS1 and BACE1 in these cells. Our results revealed that histone H3 acetylation in PS1 and BACE1 promoters is markedly increased in N2a/APPswe cells when compared to N2a/APPwt cells and control cells (vector-transfected, respectively, causing the elevated expression of PS1 and BACE1. In addition, expression of histone acetyltransferase (HAT adenoviral E1A-associated 300-kDa protein (p300 is dramatically enhanced in N2a/APPswe cells compared to N2a/APPwt and control cells. We have further demonstrated the direct binding of p300 protein to the PS1 and BACE1 promoters in N2a/APPswe cells. The expression levels of H3 acetylation of the PS1 and BACE1 promoters and p300 protein, however, were found to be not significantly different in N2a/APPwt cells when compared to controls in our studies. Furthermore, curcumin, a natural selective inhibitor of p300 in HATs, significantly suppressed the expression of PS1 and BACE1 through inhibition of H3 acetylation in their promoter regions in N2a/APPswe cells. These findings indicated that histone acetyltransferase p300 plays a critical role in controlling the expression of AD-related genes through regulating the acetylation of their promoter regions, suggesting that p300 may represent a novel potential therapeutic target for AD.

  3. Quantifying histone and RNA polymerase II post-translational modification dynamics in mother and daughter cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasevich, Timothy J; Sato, Yuko; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Post-translational histone modifications are highly correlated with transcriptional activity, but the relative timing of these marks and their dynamic interplay during gene regulation remains controversial. To shed light on this problem and clarify the connections between histone modifications and transcription, we demonstrate how FabLEM (Fab-based Live Endogenous Modification labeling) can be used to simultaneously track histone H3 Lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) together with RNA polymerase II Serine 2 and Serine 5 phosphorylation (RNAP2 Ser2ph/Ser5ph) in single living cells and their progeny. We provide a detailed description of the FabLEM methodology, including helpful tips for preparing and loading fluorescently conjugated antigen binding fragments (Fab) into cells for optimal results. We also introduce simple procedures for analyzing and visualizing FabLEM data, including color-coded scatterplots to track correlations between modifications through the cell cycle and temporal cross-correlation analysis to dissect modification dynamics. Using these methods, we find significant correlations that span cell generations, with a relatively strong correlation between H3K9ac and Ser5ph that appears to peak a few hours before mitosis and may reflect the bookmarking of genes for efficient re-initiation following mitosis. The techniques we have developed are broadly applicable and should help clarify how histone modifications dynamically contribute to gene regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2015-02-01

    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural studies, we show that the PHD1 preferentially recognizes unmethylated H3K4 histone tail, product of KDM5A-mediated demethylation of tri-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me3). Binding of unmodified H3 peptide to the PHD1 stimulates catalytic domain-mediated removal of methyl marks from H3K4me3 peptide and nucleosome substrates. This positive-feedback mechanism—enabled by the functional coupling between a reader and a catalytic domain in KDM5A—suggests a model for the spread of demethylation on chromatin.

  5. Regulation of replication fork progression through histone supply and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Corpet, Armelle; Cook, Adam J L

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication in eukaryotes requires nucleosome disruption ahead of the replication fork and reassembly behind. An unresolved issue concerns how histone dynamics are coordinated with fork progression to maintain chromosomal stability. Here, we characterize a complex in which the human histone c...... progression and histone supply and demand.......1 chaperone function, histone supply, and replicative unwinding of DNA in chromatin. We propose that Asf1, as a histone acceptor and donor, handles parental and new histones at the replication fork via an Asf1-(H3-H4)-MCM2-7 intermediate and thus provides a means to fine-tune replication fork...

  6. The histones of the endosymbiont alga of Peridinium balticum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, P J; Morris, R L; Zweidler, A

    1988-01-01

    The histones of the endosymbiont nucleus of the binucleate dinoflagellate Peridinium balticum were characterized by amino acid analysis and peptide mapping, and compared to calf thymus histones. Using these and various other criteria we have identified two H1-like histones as well as the highly conserved histones H3 and H4. A 13,000 dalton component in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gels can be separated into two components in Triton-containing gels. We suggest that these histones (HPb1 and HPb2) correspond to the vertebrate histones H2A and H2B, respectively.

  7. DNA and factor VII–activating protease protect against the cytotoxicity of histones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Gerben; von Richthofen, Helen; Bulder, Ingrid; Lupu, Florea; Hazelzet, Jan; Luken, Brenda M.

    2017-01-01

    Circulating histones have been implicated as major mediators of inflammatory disease because of their strong cytotoxic effects. Histones form the protein core of nucleosomes; however, it is unclear whether histones and nucleosomes are equally cytotoxic. Several plasma proteins that neutralize histones are present in plasma. Importantly, factor VII–activating protease (FSAP) is activated upon contact with histones and subsequently proteolyzes histones. We aimed to determine the effect of FSAP on the cytotoxicity of both histones and nucleosomes. Indeed, FSAP protected against histone-induced cytotoxicity of cultured cells in vitro. Upon incubation of serum with histones, endogenous FSAP was activated and degraded histones, which also prevented cytotoxicity. Notably, histones as part of nucleosome complexes were not cytotoxic, whereas DNA digestion restored cytotoxicity. Histones in nucleosomes were inefficiently cleaved by FSAP, which resulted in limited cleavage of histone H3 and removal of the N-terminal tail. The specific isolation of either circulating nucleosomes or free histones from sera of Escherichia coli challenged baboons or patients with meningococcal sepsis revealed that histone H3 was present in the form of nucleosomes, whereas free histone H3 was not detected. All samples showed signs of FSAP activation. Markedly, we observed that all histone H3 in nucleosomes from the patients with sepsis, and most histone H3 from the baboons, was N-terminally truncated, giving rise to a similarly sized protein fragment as through cleavage by FSAP. Taken together, our results suggest that DNA and FSAP jointly limit histone cytotoxicity and that free histone H3 does not circulate in appreciable concentrations in sepsis. PMID:29296900

  8. Nuc-ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Jennifer K; Skiles, Amanda A; Yap, Eng-Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J; Fiser, Andras; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Nuc-ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc-ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc-ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin-ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de-repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc-ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination-associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol-II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc-ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc-ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination. © 2016 The Authors. Glia Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Histone Chaperone Jun Dimerization Protein 2 (JDP2: Role in Cellular Senescence and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Huang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2 binds directly to histones and DNA, and inhibits p300-mediated acetylation of core histones and reconstituted nucleosomes that contain JDP2-recognition DNA sequences. The region of JDP2 that encompasses its histone-binding domain and DNA-binding region is essential to inhibit histone acetylation by histone acetyltransferases. Moreover, assays of nucleosome assembly in vitro demonstrate that JDP2 also has histone-chaperone activity. The mutation of the region responsible for inhibition of histone acetyltransferase activity within JDP2 eliminates repression of transcription from the c-jun promoter by JDP2, as well as JDP2-mediated inhibition of retinoic-acid-induced differentiation. Thus JDP2 plays a key role as a repressor of cell differentiation by regulating the expression of genes with an activator protein 1 (AP-1 site via inhibition of histone acetylation and/or assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes. Senescent cells show a series of alterations, including flatten and enlarged morphology, increase in nonspecific acidic β-galactosidase activity, chromatin condensation, and changes in gene expression patterns. The onset and maintenance of senescence are regulated by two tumor suppressors, p53 and retinoblastoma proteins. The expression of p53 and retinoblastoma proteins is regulated by two distinct proteins, p16Ink4a and Arf, respectively, which are encoded by cdkn2a. JDP2 inhibits recruitment of the polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC-1 and PRC-2 to the promoter of the gene that encodes p16Ink4a and inhibits the methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27. The PRCs associate with the p16Ink4a/Arf locus in young proliferating cells and dissociate from it in senescent cells. Therefore, it seems that chromatin-remodeling factors that regulate association and dissociation of PRCs, and are controlled by JDP2, might play an important role in the senescence program. The molecular

  10. Staphylococcus aureus protease: a probe of exposed, non-basic histone sequences in nucleosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rill, R.L.; Oosterhof, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The digestion of histones in chicken erythrocyte nucleosome cores and chromatin by Staphylococcus aureus protease was examined. This protease cleaves specifically at acidic residues and prefers glu-X bonds under the conditions used. Only 1 of 24 glutamic and 2 of 13 aspartic acids among all four core histones are located in basic, amino-terminal tails, hence staph. protease is a highly specific probe of exposed non-basic sequences. Staph. protease readily degraded H1, H5, and H3; moderately degraded H2b, and only slightly degraded H2a and H4 in nucleosomes and nucleosome cores. Electrophoresis of core histone fragments from limited digests showed that most glutamic acids were inaccessible, but at least five sites in non-basic sequences were readily cleaved. Tentative assignments of these fragments based on comparisons with products from limited digests of pure histones suggested that most accessible sites in nucleosome cores occur in H3. The most probable sites of H3 cutting are glutamic acids at positions 51, 60, 73, 94, and 97. At least one site in H2b, probably the equivalent of glu-105 in the calf H2b sequence, was accessible. No sites in H2a and H4 appeared highly accessible. H5 was readily cleaved at a site near the amino-terminus. These data substantiate the other evidence that non-basic core histone sequences are located primarily in the nucleosome interior, but that H3 binds to the ends of core DNA and thereby is partly exposed as the upper and lower surfaces of the disk-shaped core.

  11. Systematic comparison of monoclonal versus polyclonal antibodies for mapping histone modifications by ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Michele; Xue, Catherine; Li, Catherine; Farjoun, Yossi; Gienger, Elizabeth; Yofe, Ido; Gladden, Adrianne; Epstein, Charles B; Cornett, Evan M; Rothbart, Scott B; Nusbaum, Chad; Goren, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of ChIP-seq datasets is highly dependent upon the antibodies used. Currently, polyclonal antibodies are the standard despite several limitations: They are non-renewable, vary in performance between lots and need to be validated with each new lot. In contrast, monoclonal antibody lots are renewable and provide consistent performance. To increase ChIP-seq standardization, we investigated whether monoclonal antibodies could replace polyclonal antibodies. We compared monoclonal antibodies that target five key histone modifications (H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K9me3, H3K27ac and H3K27me3) to their polyclonal counterparts in both human and mouse cells. Overall performance was highly similar for four monoclonal/polyclonal pairs, including when we used two distinct lots of the same monoclonal antibody. In contrast, the binding patterns for H3K27ac differed substantially between polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. However, this was most likely due to the distinct immunogen used rather than the clonality of the antibody. Altogether, we found that monoclonal antibodies as a class perform equivalently to polyclonal antibodies for the detection of histone post-translational modifications in both human and mouse. Accordingly, we recommend the use of monoclonal antibodies in ChIP-seq experiments.

  12. Chemical Editing of Macrocyclic Natural Products and Kinetic Profiling Reveal Slow, Tight-Binding Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Picomolar Affinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitir, Betül; Maolanon, Alex R.; Ohm, Ragnhild G.

    2017-01-01

    medicines. Therefore, detailed mechanistic information and precise characterization of the chemical probes used to investigate the effects of HDAC enzymes are vital. We interrogated Nature's arsenal of macrocyclic nonribosomal peptide HDAC inhibitors by chemical synthesis and evaluation of more than 30...... natural products and analogues. This furnished surprising trends in binding affinities for the various macrocycles, which were then exploited for the design of highly potent class I and IIb HDAC inhibitors. Furthermore, thorough kinetic investigation revealed unexpected inhibitory mechanisms of important...

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  14. Cancer associated epigenetic transitions identified by genome-wide histone methylation binding profiles in human colorectal cancer samples and paired normal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enroth, Stefan; Rada-Iglesisas, Alvaro; Andersson, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Despite their well-established functional roles, histone modifications have received less attention than DNA methylation in the cancer field. In order to evaluate their importance in colorectal cancer (CRC), we generated the first genome-wide histone modification profiles in paired normal colon...

  15. Histones of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Synthesis, acetylation, and methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterborg, J.H.; Robertson, A.J.; Tatar, D.L.; Borza, C.M.; Davie, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Histones of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were prepared by a new method and fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Acid-urea-Triton gel analysis and tritiated acetate labeling demonstrated high levels of steady-state acetylation for the single histone H3 protein, in contrast to low levels on histones H4 and H2B. Twenty percent of histone H3 is subject to dynamic acetylation with, on average, three acetylated lysine residues per protein molecule. Histone synthesis in light-dark-synchronized cultures was biphasic with pattern differences between two histone H1 variants, between two H2A variants, and between H2B and ubiquitinated H2B. Automated protein sequence analysis of histone H3 demonstrated a site-specific pattern of steady-state acetylation between 7 and 17% at five of the six amino-terminal lysines and of monomethylation between 5 and 81% at five of the eight amino-terminal lysines in a pattern that may limit dynamic acetylation. An algal histone H3 sequence was confirmed by protein sequencing with a since threonine as residue 28 instead of the serine(28)-alanine(29) sequence, present in all other known plant and animal H3 histones

  16. Reduced H3K27me3 expression in radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Thomas; Kiss, Katalin

    2018-01-01

    are characterised by amplification and subsequent overexpression of MYC in contrast to benign and atypical vascular lesions. Given the fact that epigenetic changes play an important role in carcinogenesis and loss of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) has been found in a number of malignant neoplasms including...

  17. Top-down and Middle-down Protein Analysis Reveals that Intact and Clipped Human Histones Differ in Post-translational Modification Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvardovskiy, Andrey; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Sidoli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    . Using top-down and middle-down protein analysis by mass spectrometry, we report histone H2B and H3 N-terminal tail clipping in human hepatocytes and demonstrate a relationship between clipping and coexisting PTMs of histone H3. Histones H2B and H3 undergo proteolytic processing in primary human......Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins play a fundamental role in regulation of DNA-templated processes. There is also growing evidence that proteolytic cleavage of histone N-terminal tails, known as histone clipping, influences nucleosome dynamics and functional properties...... and intact H3. Analysis of co-existing PTMs revealed negative crosstalk between H3K36 methylation and H3K23 acetylation in clipped H3. Our data provide the first evidence of histone clipping in human hepatocytes and demonstrate that clipped H3 carry distinct co-existing PTMs different from those in intact H3....

  18. Replication stress interferes with histone recycling and predeposition marking of new histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasencakova, Zuzana; Scharf, Annette N D; Ask, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    To restore chromatin on new DNA during replication, recycling of histones evicted ahead of the fork is combined with new histone deposition. The Asf1 histone chaperone, which buffers excess histones under stress, is a key player in this process. Yet how histones handled by human Asf1 are modified...... remains unclear. Here we identify marks on histones H3-H4 bound to Asf1 and changes induced upon replication stress. In S phase, distinct cytosolic and nuclear Asf1b complexes show ubiquitous H4K5K12diAc and heterogeneous H3 marks, including K9me1, K14ac, K18ac, and K56ac. Upon acute replication arrest......, the predeposition mark H3K9me1 and modifications typical of chromatin accumulate in Asf1 complexes. In parallel, ssDNA is generated at replication sites, consistent with evicted histones being trapped with Asf1. During recovery, histones stored with Asf1 are rapidly used as replication resumes. This shows...

  19. H3 trimethyl K9 and H3 acetyl K9 chromatin modifications are associated with class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Fei Li; Luo, Zhonghui; Scharff, Matthew D

    2009-03-31

    Class switch recombination (CSR) involves a DNA rearrangement in the Ig heavy chain (IgH) gene that allows the same variable (V) region to be expressed with any one of the downstream constant region (C) genes to encode antibodies with many different effector functions. One hypothesis for how CSR is targeted to different C region genes is that histone modifications increase accessibility and/or recruit activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) and its associated processes to particular donor and recipient switch regions. In this work, we identified H3 acetyl K9 and H3 trimethyl K9 as histone modifications that correlate with the recombining pair of donor and recipient switch regions. The appearance of H3 trimethyl K9 is surprising because usually it is thought to mark silent genes and heterochromatin. Nevertheless, the time course of appearance of these histone modifications, the regions in IgH they associate with, and their appearance independent of AID damage suggest that both modifications play a role in targeting CSR.

  20. EZH2 is a potential therapeutic target for H3K27M-mutant pediatric gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammad, Faizaan; Weissmann, Simon; Leblanc, Benjamin Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive brain tumor that is located in the pons and primarily affects children. Nearly 80% of DIPGs harbor mutations in histone H3 genes, wherein lysine 27 is substituted with methionine (H3K27M). H3K27M has been shown to inhibit polycomb repressiv...

  1. Hotspot Mutations in H3F3A and IDH1 Define Distinct Epigenetic and Biological Subgroups of Glioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Dominik; Witt, Hendrik; Hovestadt, Volker; Khuong-Quang, Dong-Anh; Jones, David T. W.; Konermann, Carolin; Pfaff, Elke; Tönjes, Martje; Sill, Martin; Bender, Sebastian; Kool, Marcel; Zapatka, Marc; Becker, Natalia; Zucknick, Manuela; Hielscher, Thomas; Liu, Xiao-Yang; Fontebasso, Adam M.; Ryzhova, Marina; Albrecht, Steffen; Jacob, Karine; Wolter, Marietta; Ebinger, Martin; Schuhmann, Martin U.; van Meter, Timothy; Frühwald, Michael C.; Hauch, Holger; Pekrun, Arnulf; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Niehues, Tim; von Komorowski, Gregor; Dürken, Matthias; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Madden, Jenny; Donson, Andrew; Foreman, Nicholas K.; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Scheurlen, Wolfram; von Deimling, Andreas; Monoranu, Camelia; Roggendorf, Wolfgang; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas; Kramm, Christof M.; Felsberg, Jörg; Hartmann, Christian; Wiestler, Benedikt; Wick, Wolfgang; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Lindroth, Anders M.; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Faury, Damien; Fleming, Adam; Zakrzewska, Magdalena; Liberski, Pawel P.; Zakrzewski, Krzysztof; Hauser, Peter; Garami, Miklos; Klekner, Almos; Bognar, Laszlo; Morrissy, Sorana; Cavalli, Florence; Taylor, Michael D.; van Sluis, Peter; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Mikkelsen, Tom; Aldape, Kenneth; Reifenberger, Guido; Collins, V. Peter; Majewski, Jacek; Korshunov, Andrey; Lichter, Peter; Plass, Christoph; Jabado, Nada; Pfister, Stefan M.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a brain tumor that carries a dismal prognosis and displays considerable heterogeneity. We have recently identified recurrent H3F3A mutations affecting two critical amino acids (K27 and G34) of histone H3.3 in one-third of pediatric GBM. Here, we show that each H3F3A mutation

  2. Interactions of Histone Acetyltransferase p300 with the Nuclear Proteins Histone and HMGB1, As Revealed by Single Molecule Atomic Force Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Rakshit, T; Sett, S; Mukhopadhyay, R

    2015-10-22

    One of the important properties of the transcriptional coactivator p300 is histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity that enables p300 to influence chromatin action via histone modulation. p300 can exert its HAT action upon the other nuclear proteins too--one notable example being the transcription-factor-like protein HMGB1, which functions also as a cytokine, and whose accumulation in the cytoplasm, as a response to tissue damage, is triggered by its acetylation. Hitherto, no information on the structure and stability of the complexes between full-length p300 (p300FL) (300 kDa) and the histone/HMGB1 proteins are available, probably due to the presence of unstructured regions within p300FL that makes it difficult to be crystallized. Herein, we have adopted the high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach, which allows molecularly resolved three-dimensional contour mapping of a protein molecule of any size and structure. From the off-rate and activation barrier values, obtained using single molecule dynamic force spectroscopy, the biochemical proposition of preferential binding of p300FL to histone H3, compared to the octameric histone, can be validated. Importantly, from the energy landscape of the dissociation events, a model for the p300-histone and the p300-HMGB1 dynamic complexes that HAT forms, can be proposed. The lower unbinding forces of the complexes observed in acetylating conditions, compared to those observed in non-acetylating conditions, indicate that upon acetylation, p300 tends to weakly associate, probably as an outcome of charge alterations on the histone/HMGB1 surface and/or acetylation-induced conformational changes. To our knowledge, for the first time, a single molecule level treatment of the interactions of HAT, where the full-length protein is considered, is being reported.

  3. Jun Dimerization Protein 2 Controls Senescence and Differentiation via Regulating Histone Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2, binds directly to histones and DNAs and then inhibits the p300-mediated acetylation both of core histones and of reconstituted nucleosomes that contain JDP2 recognition DNA sequences. JDP2 plays a key role as a repressor of adipocyte differentiation by regulation of the expression of the gene C/EBPδ via inhibition of histone acetylation. Moreover, JDP2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (JDP2−/− MEFs are resistant to replicative senescence. JDP2 inhibits the recruitment of polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2 to the promoter of the gene encoding p16Ink4a, resulting from the inhibition of methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27. Therefore, it seems that chromatin-remodeling factors, including the PRC complex controlled by JDP2, may be important players in the senescence program. The novel mechanisms that underline the action of JDP2 in inducing cellular senescence and suppressing adipocyte differentiation are reviewed.

  4. The Histone Methyltransferase DOT1L Promotes Neuroblastoma by Regulating Gene Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Matthew; Tee, Andrew E L; Milazzo, Giorgio; Bell, Jessica L; Poulos, Rebecca C; Atmadibrata, Bernard; Sun, Yuting; Jing, Duohui; Ho, Nicholas; Ling, Dora; Liu, Pei Yan; Zhang, Xu Dong; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Wong, Jason W H; Wang, Jenny; Polly, Patsie; Perini, Giovanni; Scarlett, Christopher J; Liu, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Myc oncoproteins exert tumorigenic effects by regulating expression of target oncogenes. Histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methylation at Myc-responsive elements of target gene promoters is a strict prerequisite for Myc-induced transcriptional activation, and DOT1L is the only known histone methyltransferase that catalyzes H3K79 methylation. Here, we show that N-Myc upregulates DOT1L mRNA and protein expression by binding to the DOT1L gene promoter. shRNA-mediated depletion of DOT1L reduced mRNA and protein expression of N-Myc target genes ODC1 and E2F2 DOT1L bound to the Myc Box II domain of N-Myc protein, and knockdown of DOT1L reduced histone H3K79 methylation and N-Myc protein binding at the ODC1 and E2F2 gene promoters and reduced neuroblastoma cell proliferation. Treatment with the small-molecule DOT1L inhibitor SGC0946 reduced H3K79 methylation and proliferation of MYCN gene-amplified neuroblastoma cells. In mice xenografts of neuroblastoma cells stably expressing doxycycline-inducible DOT1L shRNA, ablating DOT1L expression with doxycycline significantly reduced ODC1 and E2F2 expression, reduced tumor progression, and improved overall survival. In addition, high levels of DOT1L gene expression in human neuroblastoma tissues correlated with high levels of MYCN, ODC1 , and E2F2 gene expression and independently correlated with poor patient survival. Taken together, our results identify DOT1L as a novel cofactor in N-Myc-mediated transcriptional activation of target genes and neuroblastoma oncogenesis. Furthermore, they characterize DOT1L inhibitors as novel anticancer agents against MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2522-33. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J.S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2015-01-01

    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochem...

  6. Structural Basis of Histone Demethylase KDM6B Histone 3 Lysine 27 Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sarah E; Olsen, Lars; Gajhede, Michael

    2018-01-01

    KDM subfamily 6 enzymes KDM6A and KDM6B specifically catalyze demethylation of di- and trimethylated lysine on histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3/2) and play an important role in repression of developmental genes. Despite identical amino acid sequence in the immediate surroundings of H3K9me3/2 (ARKS...

  7. Post-Translational Modifications of Histones in Human Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Jana; Stixová, Lenka; Pagáčová, Eva; Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sehnalová, Petra; Dabravolski, Siarhei; Hejátko, Jan; Bártová, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined the levels and distribution of post-translationally modified histones and protamines in human sperm. Using western blot immunoassay, immunofluorescence, mass spectrometry (MS), and FLIM-FRET approaches, we analyzed the status of histone modifications and the protamine P2. Among individual samples, we observed variability in the levels of H3K9me1, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1, but the level of acetylated (ac) histones H4 was relatively stable in the sperm head fractions, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. Sperm heads with lower levels of P2 exhibited lower levels of H3K9ac, H3K9me1, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1. A very strong correlation was observed between the levels of P2 and H3K9me2. FLIM-FRET analysis additionally revealed that acetylated histones H4 are not only parts of sperm chromatin but also appear in a non-integrated form. Intriguingly, H4ac and H3K27me3 were detected in sperm tail fractions via western blot analysis. An appearance of specific histone H3 and H4 acetylation and H3 methylation in sperm tail fractions was also confirmed by both LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that particular post-translational modifications of histones are uniquely distributed in human sperm, and this distribution varies among individuals and among the sperm of a single individual. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. ChIp-seq of bovine cells (MDBK) to study butyrate-induced histone modification with 10 datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Next-generation sequencing was combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology to analyze histone modification (acetylation) induced by butyrate and to map the epigenomic landscape of normal histone H3, H4 in rumen cells of the cow. Ten variants of histone H3 and H4 modification were m...

  9. Optimized methods of chromatin immunoprecipitation for profiling histone modifications in industrial microalgae Nannochloropsis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Xu, Jian

    2018-02-14

    Epigenetic factors such as histone modifications play integral roles in plant development and stress response, yet their implications in algae remain poorly understood. In the industrial oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis spp., the lack of an efficient methodology for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), which determines the specific genomic location of various histone modifications, has hindered probing the epigenetic basis of their photosynthetic carbon conversion and storage as oil. Here, a detailed ChIP protocol was developed for Nannochloropsis oceanica, which represents a reliable approach for the analysis of histone modifications, chromatin state, and transcription factor-binding sites at the epigenetic level. Using ChIP-qPCR, genes related to photosynthetic carbon fixation in this microalga were systematically assessed. Furthermore, a ChIP-Seq protocol was established and optimized, which generated a genome-wide profile of histone modification events, using histone mark H3K9Ac as an example. These results are the first step for appreciation of the chromatin landscape in industrial oleaginous microalgae and for epigenetics-based microalgal feedstock development. © 2018 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Histones as mediators of host defense, inflammation and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Marloes; Eijk, Martin van; Haagsman, Henk P; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2016-01-01

    Histones are known for their ability to bind to and regulate expression of DNA. However, histones are also present in cytoplasm and extracellular fluids where they serve host defense functions and promote inflammatory responses. Histones are a major component of neutrophil extracellular traps that

  11. Histone and Ribosomal RNA Repetitive Gene Clusters of the Boll Weevil are Linked in a Tandem Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and ...

  12. Two distinct modes for propagation of histone PTMs across the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Barth, Teresa K; Reverón-Gómez, Nazaret

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic states defined by chromatin can be maintained through mitotic cell division. However, it remains unknown how histone-based information is transmitted. Here we combine nascent chromatin capture (NCC) and triple-SILAC (stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture) labeling...... to track histone modifications and histone variants during DNA replication and across the cell cycle. We show that post-translational modifications (PTMs) are transmitted with parental histones to newly replicated DNA. Di- and trimethylation marks are diluted twofold upon DNA replication, as a consequence...... of new histone deposition. Importantly, within one cell cycle, all PTMs are restored. In general, new histones are modified to mirror the parental histones. However, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and H3K27me3 are propagated by continuous modification of parental and new histones because the establishment...

  13. Identification and characterization of the genes encoding the core histones and histone variants of Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Shan M; Swanson, Johanna; Selker, Eric U

    2002-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the complete complement of genes encoding the core histones of Neurospora crassa. In addition to the previously identified pair of genes that encode histones H3 and H4 (hH3 and hH4-1), we identified a second histone H4 gene (hH4-2), a divergently transcribed pair of genes that encode H2A and H2B (hH2A and hH2B), a homolog of the F/Z family of H2A variants (hH2Az), a homolog of the H3 variant CSE4 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (hH3v), and a highly diverged ...

  14. Histones as mediators of host defense, inflammation and thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeksema, Marloes; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk P; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2016-01-01

    Histones are known for their ability to bind to and regulate expression of DNA. However, histones are also present in cytoplasm and extracellular fluids where they serve host defense functions and promote inflammatory responses. Histones are a major component of neutrophil extracellular traps that contribute to bacterial killing but also to inflammatory injury. Histones can act as antimicrobial peptides and directly kill bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, in vitro and in a variety of ani...

  15. Specific phosphorylation of histone demethylase KDM3A determines target gene expression in response to heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-bin Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine (K residues, which are modified by methyl- and acetyl-transferases, diversely regulate RNA synthesis. Unlike the ubiquitously activating effect of histone K acetylation, the effects of histone K methylation vary with the number of methyl groups added and with the position of these groups in the histone tails. Histone K demethylases (KDMs counteract the activity of methyl-transferases and remove methyl group(s from specific K residues in histones. KDM3A (also known as JHDM2A or JMJD1A is an H3K9me2/1 demethylase. KDM3A performs diverse functions via the regulation of its associated genes, which are involved in spermatogenesis, metabolism, and cell differentiation. However, the mechanism by which the activity of KDM3A is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1 specifically phosphorylates KDM3A at Ser264 (p-KDM3A, which is enriched in the regulatory regions of gene loci in the human genome. p-KDM3A directly interacts with and is recruited by the transcription factor Stat1 to activate p-KDM3A target genes under heat shock conditions. The demethylation of H3K9me2 at the Stat1 binding site specifically depends on the co-expression of p-KDM3A in the heat-shocked cells. In contrast to heat shock, IFN-γ treatment does not phosphorylate KDM3A via MSK1, thereby abrogating its downstream effects. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that a KDM can be modified via phosphorylation to determine its specific binding to target genes in response to thermal stress.

  16. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction and enhances expression of the hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takei, Shiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-05-01

    Histone acetylation, which alters the compact chromatin structure and changes the accessibility of DNA to regulatory proteins, is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for regulating gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance fear extinction. In this study, we examined whether vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction, using a contextual fear conditioning (FC) paradigm, in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that vorinostat facilitated fear extinction. Next, the levels of global acetylated histone H3 and H4 were measured by Western blotting. We also assessed the effect of vorinostat on the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and protein by Western blotting. 2 h after vorinostat administration, the levels acetylated histones and NR2B mRNA, but not NR1 or NR2A mRNA, were elevated in the hippocampus. The NR2B protein level was elevated 4 h after vorinostat administration. Last, we investigated the levels of acetylated histones and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) binding at the promoter of the NR2B gene using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by RT-PCR. The ChIP assay revealed increases in the levels of acetylated histones and they were accompanied by enhanced binding of p-CREB to its binding site at the promoter of the NR2B gene 2 h after vorinostat administration. These findings suggest that vorinostat increases the expression of NR2B in the hippocampus by enhancing histone acetylation, and this process may be implicated in fear extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Repression of Middle Sporulation Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the Sum1-Rfm1-Hst1 Complex Is Maintained by Set1 and H3K4 Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Deepika; Jezek, Meagan; Quijote, Jeremiah; Lum, Joanna; Choi, Grace; Kulkarni, Rushmie; Park, DoHwan; Green, Erin M

    2017-12-04

    The conserved yeast histone methyltransferase Set1 targets H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) for mono, di, and trimethylation and is linked to active transcription due to the euchromatic distribution of these methyl marks and the recruitment of Set1 during transcription. However, loss of Set1 results in increased expression of multiple classes of genes, including genes adjacent to telomeres and middle sporulation genes, which are repressed under normal growth conditions because they function in meiotic progression and spore formation. The mechanisms underlying Set1-mediated gene repression are varied, and still unclear in some cases, although repression has been linked to both direct and indirect action of Set1, associated with noncoding transcription, and is often dependent on the H3K4me2 mark. We show that Set1, and particularly the H3K4me2 mark, are implicated in repression of a subset of middle sporulation genes during vegetative growth. In the absence of Set1, there is loss of the DNA-binding transcriptional regulator Sum1 and the associated histone deacetylase Hst1 from chromatin in a locus-specific manner. This is linked to increased H4K5ac at these loci and aberrant middle gene expression. These data indicate that, in addition to DNA sequence, histone modification status also contributes to proper localization of Sum1 Our results also show that the role for Set1 in middle gene expression control diverges as cells receive signals to undergo meiosis. Overall, this work dissects an unexplored role for Set1 in gene-specific repression, and provides important insights into a new mechanism associated with the control of gene expression linked to meiotic differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Jaiswal et al.

  18. Middle-down hybrid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry workflow for characterization of combinatorial post-translational modifications in histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidoli, Simone; Schwämmle, Veit; Ruminowicz, Chrystian

    2014-01-01

    chromatography (WCX-HILIC) interfaced directly to high mass accuracy ESI MS/MS using electron transfer dissociation (ETD). This enabled automated and efficient separation and sequencing of hypermodified histone N-terminal tails for unambiguous localization of combinatorial PTMs. We present Histone Coder and Iso......Scale software to extract, filter and analyze MS/MS data, including quantification of co-fragmenting isobaric polypeptide species. We characterized histone tails derived from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) knockout in Suppressor of Zeste (Suz12(-/-) ) and quantified 256 combinatorial histone marks...... in histones H3, H4 and H2A. Furthermore, a total of 713 different combinatorial histone marks were identified in purified histone H3. We measured a 7-fold reduction of H3K27me2/me3 in Suz12(-/-) cells and detected significant changes of the relative abundance of 16 other single PTMs of histone H3 and other...

  19. Quantitative analysis of ChIP-seq data uncovers dynamic and sustained H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modulation in cancer cells under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Michiel E; Prickaerts, Peggy; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; van den Beucken, Twan; Dahlmans, Vivian E H; Eijssen, Lars M; Beck, Timothy; Wouters, Bradly G; Voncken, Jan Willem; Evelo, Chris T A

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the epigenetic dynamics in cancer cells is the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer and to improving cancer diagnostics, prognostics and treatment. By combining genome-wide ChIP-seq epigenomics and microarray transcriptomics, we studied the effects of oxygen deprivation and subsequent reoxygenation on histone 3 trimethylation of lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in a breast cancer cell line, serving as a model for abnormal oxygenation in solid tumors. A priori, epigenetic markings and gene expression levels not only are expected to vary greatly between hypoxic and normoxic conditions, but also display a large degree of heterogeneity across the cell population. Where traditionally ChIP-seq data are often treated as dichotomous data, the model and experiment here necessitate a quantitative, data-driven analysis of both datasets. We first identified genomic regions with sustained epigenetic markings, which provided a sample-specific reference enabling quantitative ChIP-seq data analysis. Sustained H3K27me3 marking was located around centromeres and intergenic regions, while sustained H3K4me3 marking is associated with genes involved in RNA binding, translation and protein transport and localization. Dynamic marking with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (hypoxia-induced bivalency) was found in CpG-rich regions at loci encoding factors that control developmental processes, congruent with observations in embryonic stem cells. In silico -identified epigenetically sustained and dynamic genomic regions were confirmed through ChIP-PCR in vitro, and obtained results are corroborated by published data and current insights regarding epigenetic regulation.

  20. Pro Isomerization in MLL1 PHD3-Bromo Cassette Connects H3K4me Readout to CyP33 and HDAC-Mediated Repression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhanxin; Song, Jikui; Milne, Thomas A.; Wang, Gang G.; Li, Haitao; Allis, C. David; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Rockefeller)

    2010-09-13

    The MLL1 gene is a frequent target for recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in transformation of hematopoietic precursors into leukemia stem cells. Here, we report on structure-function studies that elucidate molecular events in MLL1 binding of histone H3K4me3/2 marks and recruitment of the cyclophilin CyP33. CyP33 contains a PPIase and a RRM domain and regulates MLL1 function through HDAC recruitment. We find that the PPIase domain of CyP33 regulates the conformation of MLL1 through proline isomerization within the PHD3-Bromo linker, thereby disrupting the PHD3-Bromo interface and facilitating binding of the MLL1-PHD3 domain to the CyP33-RRM domain. H3K4me3/2 and CyP33-RRM target different surfaces of MLL1-PHD3 and can bind simultaneously to form a ternary complex. Furthermore, the MLL1-CyP33 interaction is required for repression of HOXA9 and HOXC8 genes in vivo. Our results highlight the role of PHD3-Bromo cassette as a regulatory platform, orchestrating MLL1 binding of H3K4me3/2 marks and cyclophilin-mediated repression through HDAC recruitment.

  1. Loss of TET1 facilitates DLD1 colon cancer cell migration via H3K27me3-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Hong-Sheng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhong-Guo; Du, Guang-Yuan; Li, Hu; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Ying-Hui

    2018-02-01

    Epigenetic modifications such as histone modifications and cytosine hydroxymethylation are linked to tumorigenesis. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) by ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) down-regulation facilitates tumor initiation and development. However, the mechanisms by which loss of TET1 knockdown promotes malignancy development remains unclear. Here, we report that TET1 knockdown induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in DLD1 cells. Loss of TET1 increased EZH2 expression and reduced UTX-1 expression, thus increasing histone H3K27 tri-methylation causing repression of the target gene E-cadherin. Ectopic expression of the H3K27 demethylase UTX-1 or EZH2 depletion both impeded EZH2 binding caused a loss of H3K27 methylation at epithelial gene E-cadherin promoter, thereby suppressing EMT and tumor invasion in shTET1 cells. Conversely, UTX-1 depletion and ectopic expression of EZH2 enhanced EMT and tumor metastasis in DLD1 cells. These findings provide insight into the regulation of TET1 and E-cadherin and identify EZH2 as a critical mediator of E-cadherin repression and tumor progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Repeat Composition of CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowar, Teresa; Zakrzewski, Falk; Macas, Jiří; Kobližková, Andrea; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-26

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climate zones, which provides nearly 30 % of the world's annual sugar needs. From the total genome size of 758 Mb, only 567 Mb were incorporated in the recently published genome sequence, due to the fact that regions with high repetitive DNA contents (e.g. satellite DNAs) are only partially included. Therefore, to fill these gaps and to gain information about the repeat composition of centromeres and heterochromatic regions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) using antibodies against the centromere-specific histone H3 variant of sugar beet (CenH3) and the heterochromatic mark of dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed that active centromeres containing CenH3 consist of the satellite pBV and the Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon Beetle7, while heterochromatin marked by H3K9me2 exhibits heterogeneity in repeat composition. H3K9me2 was mainly associated with the satellite family pEV, the Ty1-copia retrotransposon family Cotzilla and the DNA transposon superfamily of the En/Spm type. In members of the section Beta within the genus Beta, immunostaining using the CenH3 antibody was successful, indicating that orthologous CenH3 proteins are present in closely related species within this section. The identification of repetitive genome portions by ChIP-Seq experiments complemented the sugar beet reference sequence by providing insights into the repeat composition of poorly characterized CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-heterochromatin. Therefore, our work provides the basis for future research and application concerning the sugar beet centromere and repeat-rich heterochromatic regions characterized by the presence of H3K9me2.

  3. Haematopoietic malignancies caused by dysregulation of a chromatin-binding PHD finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gang G.; Song, Jikui; Wang, Zhanxin; Dormann, Holger L.; Casadio, Fabio; Li, Haitao; Luo, Jun-Li; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Allis, C. David; (MSKCC); (Scripps); (Rockefeller)

    2009-07-21

    Histone H3 lysine4 methylation (H3K4me) has been proposed as a critical component in regulating gene expression, epigenetic states, and cellular identities. The biological meaning of H3K4me is interpreted by conserved modules including plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers that recognize varied H3K4me states. The dysregulation of PHD fingers has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancers and immune or neurological disorders. Here we report that fusing an H3K4-trimethylation (H3K4me3)-binding PHD finger, such as the carboxy-terminal PHD finger of PHF23 or JARID1A (also known as KDM5A or RBBP2), to a common fusion partner nucleoporin-98 (NUP98) as identified in human leukaemias, generated potent oncoproteins that arrested haematopoietic differentiation and induced acute myeloid leukaemia in murine models. In these processes, a PHD finger that specifically recognizes H3K4me3/2 marks was essential for leukaemogenesis. Mutations in PHD fingers that abrogated H3K4me3 binding also abolished leukaemic transformation. NUP98-PHD fusion prevented the differentiation-associated removal of H3K4me3 at many loci encoding lineage-specific transcription factors (Hox(s), Gata3, Meis1, Eya1 and Pbx1), and enforced their active gene transcription in murine haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, NUP98-PHD fusions act as 'chromatin boundary factors', dominating over polycomb-mediated gene silencing to 'lock' developmentally critical loci into an active chromatin state (H3K4me3 with induced histone acetylation), a state that defined leukaemia stem cells. Collectively, our studies represent, to our knowledge, the first report that deregulation of the PHD finger, an 'effector' of specific histone modification, perturbs the epigenetic dynamics on developmentally critical loci, catastrophizes cellular fate decision-making, and even causes oncogenesis during mammalian development.

  4. Analysis of the histone protein tail and DNA in nucleosome using molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, R.; Komatsu, Y.; Fukuda, M.; Miyakawa, T.; Morikawa, R.; Takasu, M.

    2013-02-01

    We study the effect of the tails of H3 and H4 histones in the nucleosomes, where DNA and histones are packed in the form of chromatin. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the complex of DNA and histones and calculate the mean square displacement and the gyration radius of the complex of DNA and histones for the cases with tails intact and the cases with tails missing. Our results show that the H3 tails are important for the motion of the histones. We also find that the motion of one tail is affected by other tails, although the tails are distanced apart, suggesting the correlated motion in biological systems.

  5. Histones as mediators of host defense, inflammation and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Marloes; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk P; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2016-01-01

    Histones are known for their ability to bind to and regulate expression of DNA. However, histones are also present in cytoplasm and extracellular fluids where they serve host defense functions and promote inflammatory responses. Histones are a major component of neutrophil extracellular traps that contribute to bacterial killing but also to inflammatory injury. Histones can act as antimicrobial peptides and directly kill bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, in vitro and in a variety of animal hosts. In addition, histones can trigger inflammatory responses in some cases acting through Toll-like receptors or inflammasome pathways. Extracellular histones mediate organ injury (lung, liver), sepsis physiology, thrombocytopenia and thrombin generation and some proteins can bind histones and reduce these potentially harmful effects.

  6. Histone redistribution and conformational effect on chromatin induced by formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacow, I; Cabasso, L; Li, H J

    1976-10-19

    Histone redistributions between endogenous DNA in calf thymus chromatin and exogenous DNA from Clostridium perfringens (69% A + T) or from Micrococcus luteus (30% A + T) induced by 0.6 M NaCl or by 2% formaldehyde were studied by thermal denaturation. The observed redistribution occurred on histone Hl when the exogenous DNA was (A + T)-richer than the DNA in chromatin, and when the mixture was exposed to 0.6 M NaCl or formaldehyde. When a (G + C)-richer DNA was added as the acceptor for histones, no substantial transfer of histones from chromatin DNA to exogenous DNA was found. Thus the activation energy of histone dissociation from chromatin DNA seems to be substantially lowered by 0.6 M NaCl or formaldehyde such that histones (mostly histone Hl) can be dissociated and bind the (A + T)-richer DNA and form a more stable complex. It is suggested that the formaldehyde effect on histones may be due to the loss of positive charges on lysine and arginin residues (probably more on lysine than on arginine) in histones after their rapid reaction with formaldehyde. Formaldehyde treatment of chromatin also distorts the DNA conformation, as revealed by circular dichroism (CD) studies. This structural effect occurs mainly on those base pairs bound by histones other than Hl, or within the chromatin subunit. Histone redistribution is treated as a thermodynamic phenomenon of histone binding to DNA. The validity of using formaldehyde to study chromatin structure is discussed.

  7. H3S10 phosphorylation by the JIL-1 kinase regulates H3K9 dimethylation and gene expression at the white locus in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cai, Weili; Li, Yeran; Girton, Jack; Johansen, Jørgen; Johansen, Kristen M

    2012-01-01

    The JIL-1 kinase is a multidomain protein that localizes specifically to euchromatin interband regions of polytene chromosomes and is the kinase responsible for histone H3S10 phosphorylation at interphase. Genetic interaction assays have suggested that the function of the epigenetic histone H3S10ph mark is to antagonize heterochromatization by participating in a dynamic balance between factors promoting repression and activation of gene expression as measured by position-effect variegation (PEV) assays. Interestingly, JIL-1 loss-of-function alleles can act either as an enhancer or indirectly as a suppressor of w(m4) PEV depending on the precise levels of JIL-1 kinase activity. In this study, we have explored the relationship between PEV and the relative levels of the H3S10ph and H3K9me2 marks at the white gene in both wild-type and w(m4) backgrounds by ChIP analysis. Our results indicate that H3K9me2 levels at the white gene directly correlate with its level of expression and that H3K9me2 levels in turn are regulated by H3S10 phosphorylation.

  8. Dynamic and flexible H3K9me3 bridging via HP1β dimerization establishes a plastic state of condensed chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Soeroes, Szabolcs; Nikolov, Miroslav; Wilkins, Bryan; Kreuz, Sarah; Chen, Carol; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A.; Zenn, Hans Michael; Kost, Nils; Pohl, Wiebke; Chernev, Aleksandar; Schwarzer, Dirk; Jenuwein, Thomas; Lorincz, Matthew; Zimmermann, Bastian; Walla, Peter Jomo; Neumann, Heinz; Baubec, Tuncay; Urlaub, Henning; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Histone H3 trimethylation of lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and proteins of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family are hallmarks of heterochromatin, a state of compacted DNA essential for genome stability and long-term transcriptional silencing. The mechanisms by which H3K9me3 and HP1 contribute to chromatin condensation have been speculative and controversial. Here we demonstrate that human HP1β is a prototypic HP1 protein exemplifying most basal chromatin binding and effects. These are caused by dimeric and dynamic interaction with highly enriched H3K9me3 and are modulated by various electrostatic interfaces. HP1β bridges condensed chromatin, which we postulate stabilizes the compacted state. In agreement, HP1β genome-wide localization follows H3K9me3-enrichment and artificial bridging of chromatin fibres is sufficient for maintaining cellular heterochromatic conformation. Overall, our findings define a fundamental mechanism for chromatin higher order structural changes caused by HP1 proteins, which might contribute to the plastic nature of condensed chromatin. PMID:27090491

  9. Preferential Phosphorylation on Old Histones during Early Mitosis in Human Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Han, Yumiao; Marchione, Dylan M.; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    How histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are inherited through the cell cycle remains poorly understood. Canonical histones are made in the S phase of the cell cycle. Combining mass spectrometry-based technologies and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we question the distribution of multiple histone PTMs on old versus new histones in synchronized human cells. We show that histone PTMs can be grouped into three categories according to their distributions. Most lysine mono-methylation and acetylation PTMs are either symmetrically distributed on old and new histones or are enriched on new histones. In contrast, most di- and tri-methylation PTMs are enriched on old histones, suggesting that the inheritance of different PTMs is regulated distinctly. Intriguingly, old and new histones are distinct in their phosphorylation status during early mitosis in the following three human cell types: HeLa, 293T, and human foreskin fibroblast cells. The mitotic hallmark H3S10ph is predominantly associated with old H3 at early mitosis and becomes symmetric with the progression of mitosis. This same distribution was observed with other mitotic phosphorylation marks, including H3T3/T6ph, H3.1/2S28ph, and H1.4S26ph but not S28/S31ph on the H3 variant H3.3. Although H3S10ph often associates with the neighboring Lys-9 di- or tri-methylations, they are not required for the asymmetric distribution of Ser-10 phosphorylation on the same H3 tail. Inhibition of the kinase Aurora B does not change the distribution despite significant reduction of H3S10ph levels. However, K9me2 abundance on the new H3 is significantly reduced after Aurora B inhibition, suggesting a cross-talk between H3S10ph and H3K9me2. PMID:27226594

  10. Drosophila KDM2 is a H3K4me3 demethylase regulating nucleolar organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birchler James A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CG11033 (dKDM2 is the Drosophila homolog of the gene KDM2B. dKDM2 has been known to possess histone lysine demethylase activity towards H3K36me2 in cell lines and it regulates H2A ubiquitination. The human homolog of the gene has dual activity towards H3K36me2 as well as H3K4me3, and plays an important role in cellular senescence. Findings We have used transgenic flies bearing an RNAi construct for the dKDM2 gene. The knockdown of dKDM2 gene was performed by crossing UAS-RNAi-dKDM2 flies with actin-Gal4 flies. Western blots of acid extracted histones and immunofluoresence analysis of polytene chromosome showed the activity of the enzyme dKDM2 to be specific for H3K4me3 in adult flies. Immunofluoresence analysis of polytene chromosome also revealed the presence of multiple nucleoli in RNAi knockdown mutants of dKDM2 and decreased H3-acetylation marks associated with active transcription. Conclusion Our findings indicate that dKDM2 is a histone lysine demethylase with specificity for H3K4me3 and regulates nucleolar organization.

  11. Posttranslational Modifications of the Histone 3 Tail and Their Impact on the Activity of Histone Lysine Demethylases In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Helgstrand, Charlotte; Andersson, Jan Legaard

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of the histone H3 tail such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation play important roles in epigenetic signaling. Here we study the effect of some of these PTMs on the demethylation rates of methylated lysine 9 in vitro using peptide substrates...... mimicking histone H3. Various combinations with other PTMs were employed to study possible cross-talk effects by comparing enzyme kinetic characteristics. We compared the kinetics of histone tail substrates for truncated histone lysine demethylases KDM4A and KDM4C containing only the catalytic core (cc...... toward bis-trimethylated substrates could be observed. Furthermore, a significant difference in the catalytic activity between dimethylated and trimethylated substrates was found for full length demethylases in line with what has been reported previously for truncated demethylases. Histone peptide...

  12. Extracellular histones induce erythrocyte fragility and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordbacheh, Farzaneh; O'Meara, Connor H; Coupland, Lucy A; Lelliott, Patrick M; Parish, Christopher R

    2017-12-28

    Extracellular histones have been shown to play an important pathogenic role in many diseases, primarily through their cytotoxicity toward nucleated cells and their ability to promote platelet activation with resultant thrombosis and thrombocytopenia. In contrast, little is known about the effect of extracellular histones on erythrocyte function. We demonstrate in this study that histones promote erythrocyte aggregation, sedimentation, and using a novel in vitro shear stress model, we show that histones induce erythrocyte fragility and lysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, histones impair erythrocyte deformability based on reduced passage of erythrocytes through an artificial spleen. These in vitro results were mirrored in vivo with the injection of histones inducing anemia within minutes of administration, with a concomitant increase in splenic hemoglobin content. Thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also observed. These findings suggest that histones binding to erythrocytes may contribute to the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates observed in inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, histone-induced increases in red blood cell lysis and splenic clearance may be a significant factor in the unexplained anemias seen in critically ill patients. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. TALE-directed local modulation of H3K9 methylation shapes exon recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bieberstein, Nicole; Kozáková, Eva; Huranová, Martina; Thakur, P.K.; Krchňáková, Zuzana; Krausová, Michaela; Oesterreich, F.C.; Staněk, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, jaro (2016), č. článku 29961. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : histone h3 * human genome * efficient design * chromatin * methyltransferase * transcription * trimethylation * identification * recruitment * annotation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Antibodies to H2a and H2b histones from the sera of HIV-infected patients catalyze site-specific degradation of these histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Svetlana V; Dmitrienok, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Nikita V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2017-06-01

    Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive features of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from the sera of HIV-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents including anti-histone Sepharose. In contrast to canonical proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase K), IgGs from HIV-infected patients specifically hydrolyzed only histones but not many other tested globular proteins. Using MALDI mass spectrometry the sites of H2a and H2b histone cleavage by anti-histone IgGs were determined for the first time. One cluster of H2a hydrolysis contains two major (↕) and four moderate (↓) cleavage sites: 31-H↓R↓L↓L↓R↕K G↕N-38. One major and two moderate sites of cleavage were revealed in the second cluster: 14-A↕KSRS↓SRA↓G-22. The third cluster corresponding to the H2a C-terminal part contains only five minor (†) sites of cleavage: 82-H†LQLAIRNDEELN†KLLG†RV†T†I-102. It was shown that two major and four moderate sites of cleavage were present in the main cluster of H2b hydrolysis: 46-K↕QvhpD↓TgiS↓SkA↓M↕GiM↓N-63. Two moderate sites of cleavage correspond to a relatively short 6-mer cluster: 12-K↓GskK↓A-17. The third relatively long 9-mer cluster contains one major and two minor sites of H2b cleavage: 80-L↕AHYN†KRS†T-88. In the nucleosome core particle, most of the major and moderate cleavage sites are located at the H2a/H2b interaction interface. Minor cleavage sites of H2a are involved in binding with H3 in the nucleosome core. Two moderate cleavage sites of H2b and one

  15. Characterization of Chromatin Structure-associated Histone Modifications in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Pyo Hong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin structure and dynamics that are influenced by epigenetic marks, such as histone modification and DNA methylation, play a crucial role in modulating gene transcription. To understand the relationship between histone modifications and regulatory elements in breast cancer cells, we compared our chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq histone modification patterns for histone H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K9/16ac, and H3K27me3 in MCF-7 cells with publicly available formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE-chip signals in human chromosomes 8, 11, and 12, identified by a method called FAIRE. Active regulatory elements defined by FAIRE were highly associated with active histone modifications, like H3K4me3 and H3K9/16ac, especially near transcription start sites. The H3K9/16ac-enriched genes that overlapped with FAIRE signals (FAIRE-H3K9/14ac were moderately correlated with gene expression levels. We also identified functional sequence motifs at H3K4me1-enriched FAIRE sites upstream of putative promoters, suggesting that regulatory elements could be associated with H3K4me1 to be regarded as distal regulatory elements. Our results might provide an insight into epigenetic regulatory mechanisms explaining the association of histone modifications with open chromatin structure in breast cancer cells.

  16. H3 Thr3 phosphorylation is crucial for meiotic resumption and anaphase onset in oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wei, Haojie; Du, Juan; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Nana; Liu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Dandan; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Haspin-catalyzed histone H3 threonine 3 (Thr3) phosphorylation facilitates chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) docking at centromeres, regulating indirectly chromosome behavior during somatic mitosis. It is not fully known about the expression and function of H3 with phosphorylated Thr3 (H3T3-P) during meiosis in oocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression and sub-cellular distribution of H3T3-P, as well as its function in mouse oocytes during meiotic division. Western blot analysis revealed that H3T3-P expression was only detected after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and gradually increased to peak level at metaphase I (MI), but sharply decreased at metaphase II (MII). Immunofluorescence showed H3T3-P was only brightly labeled on chromosomes after GVBD, with relatively high concentration across the whole chromosome axis from pro-metaphase I (pro-MI) to MI. Specially, H3T3-P distribution was exclusively limited to the local space between sister centromeres at MII stage. Haspin inhibitor, 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITu), dose- and time-dependently blocked H3T3-P expression in mouse oocytes. H3T3-P inhibition delayed the resumption of meiosis (GVBD) and chromatin condensation. Moreover, the loss of H3T3-P speeded up the meiotic transition to MII of pro-MI oocytes in spite of the presence of non-aligned chromosomes, even reversed MI-arrest induced with Nocodazole. The inhibition of H3T3-P expression distinguishably damaged MAD1 recruitment on centromeres, which indicates the spindle assembly checkpoint was impaired in function, logically explaining the premature onset of anaphase I. Therefore, Haspin-catalyzed histone H3 phosphorylation is essential for chromatin condensation and the following timely transition from meiosis I to meiosis II in mouse oocytes during meiotic division.

  17. H3 clipping activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is regulated by stefin B and chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Papita; Chauhan, Sakshi; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2014-12-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase has been recently identified as a tissue-specific histone H3-specific clipping enzyme. We have previously shown that it cleaves free as well as chromatin-bound histone H3. However, the physiological significance of this enzyme is still not clear. The present study aimed to improve our understanding of its significance in vivo. Using biochemical and cell biological approaches, we show that glutamate dehydrogenase is primarily associated with euchromatin, and it re-localizes from the nuclear periphery to the nucleolus upon DNA damage. The cysteine protease inhibitor stefin B regulates the H3 clipping activity of the enzyme. Chromatin structure and certain histone modifications influence H3 clipping activity. Interestingly, we also observed that an in vivo truncated form of H3 lacks H3K56 acetylation, which is a code for the DNA damage response. Together, these results suggest that glutamate dehydrogenase is a euchromatin-associated enzyme, and its H3 clipping activity is regulated by chromatin structure, histone modifications and an in vivo inhibitor. In response to DNA damage, it re-localizes to the nuclei, and hence may be involved in regulation of gene expression in vivo. © 2014 FEBS.

  18. Tandem Affinity Purification Approach Coupled to Mass Spectrometry to Identify Post-translational Modifications of Histones Associated with Chromatin-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sophie; Robin, Philippe; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane

    2017-01-01

    Protein purification by tandem affinity purification (TAP)-tag coupled to mass spectrometry analysis is usually used to reveal protein complex composition. Here we describe a TAP-tag purification of chromatin-bound proteins along with associated nucleosomes, which allow exhaustive identification of protein partners. Moreover, this method allows exhaustive identification of the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the associated histones. Thus, in addition to partner characterization, this approach reveals the associated epigenetic landscape that can shed light on the function and properties of the studied chromatin-bound protein.

  19. Computational inference of mRNA stability from histone modification and transcriptome profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyang; Tian, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Han; Meyer, Clifford A; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yong; Liu, X Shirley

    2012-08-01

    Histone modifications play important roles in regulating eukaryotic gene expression and have been used to model expression levels. Here, we present a regression model to systematically infer mRNA stability by comparing transcriptome profiles with ChIP-seq of H3K4me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3. The results from multiple human and mouse cell lines show that the inferred unstable mRNAs have significantly longer 3'Untranslated Regions (UTRs) and more microRNA binding sites within 3'UTR than the inferred stable mRNAs. Regression residuals derived from RNA-seq, but not from GRO-seq, are highly correlated with the half-lives measured by pulse-labeling experiments, supporting the rationale of our inference. Whereas, the functions enriched in the inferred stable and unstable mRNAs are consistent with those from pulse-labeling experiments, we found the unstable mRNAs have higher cell-type specificity under functional constraint. We conclude that the systematical use of histone modifications can differentiate non-expressed mRNAs from unstable mRNAs, and distinguish stable mRNAs from highly expressed ones. In summary, we represent the first computational model of mRNA stability inference that compares transcriptome and epigenome profiles, and provides an alternative strategy for directing experimental measurements.

  20. Presynaptic localization of histamine H3-receptors in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Mizuguchi, H.; Fukui, H.; Wada, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

    1991-06-28

    The localization of histamine H3-receptors in subcellular fractions from the rat brain was examined in a (3H) (R) alpha-methylhistamine binding assay and compared with those of histamine H1- and adrenaline alpha 1- and alpha 2-receptors. Major (3H)(R) alpha-methylhistamine binding sites with increased specific activities ((3H)ligand binding vs. protein amount) were recovered from the P2 fraction by differential centrifugation. Minor (3H)(R)alpha-methylhistamine binding sites with increased specific activities were also detected in the P3 fraction. Further subfractionation of the P2 fraction by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed major recoveries of (3H)(R)alpha-methylhistamine binding in myelin (MYE) and synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) fractions. A further increase in specific activity was observed in the MYE fraction, but the SPM fraction showed no significant increase in specific activity. Adrenaline alpha 2-receptors, the pre-synaptic autoreceptors, in a (3H) yohimbine binding assay showed distribution patterns similar to histamine H3-receptors. On the other hand, post-synaptic histamine H1- and adrenaline alpha 1-receptors were closely localized and distributed mainly in the SPM fraction with increased specific activity. Only a negligible amount was recovered in the MYE fraction, unlike the histamine H3- and adrenaline alpha 2-receptors.

  1. Presynaptic localization of histamine H3-receptors in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Mizuguchi, H.; Fukui, H.; Wada, H.

    1991-01-01

    The localization of histamine H3-receptors in subcellular fractions from the rat brain was examined in a [3H] (R) alpha-methylhistamine binding assay and compared with those of histamine H1- and adrenaline alpha 1- and alpha 2-receptors. Major [3H](R) alpha-methylhistamine binding sites with increased specific activities ([3H]ligand binding vs. protein amount) were recovered from the P2 fraction by differential centrifugation. Minor [3H](R)alpha-methylhistamine binding sites with increased specific activities were also detected in the P3 fraction. Further subfractionation of the P2 fraction by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed major recoveries of [3H](R)alpha-methylhistamine binding in myelin (MYE) and synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) fractions. A further increase in specific activity was observed in the MYE fraction, but the SPM fraction showed no significant increase in specific activity. Adrenaline alpha 2-receptors, the pre-synaptic autoreceptors, in a [3H] yohimbine binding assay showed distribution patterns similar to histamine H3-receptors. On the other hand, post-synaptic histamine H1- and adrenaline alpha 1-receptors were closely localized and distributed mainly in the SPM fraction with increased specific activity. Only a negligible amount was recovered in the MYE fraction, unlike the histamine H3- and adrenaline alpha 2-receptors

  2. Prepatterning of developmental gene expression by modified histones before zygotic genome activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeman, Leif C.; Andersen, Ingrid S.; Reiner, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    A hallmark of anamniote vertebrate development is a window of embryonic transcription-independent cell divisions before onset of zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Chromatin determinants of ZGA are unexplored; however, marking of developmental genes by modified histones in sperm suggests a predictive...... role of histone marks for ZGA. In zebrafish, pre-ZGA development for ten cell cycles provides an opportunity to examine whether genomic enrichment in modified histones is present before initiation of transcription. By profiling histone H3 trimethylation on all zebrafish promoters before and after ZGA......, we demonstrate here an epigenetic prepatterning of developmental gene expression. This involves pre-ZGA marking of transcriptionally inactive genes involved in homeostatic and developmental regulation by permissive H3K4me3 with or without repressive H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Our data suggest that histone...

  3. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum sp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted. H1 was further purified. Their activities against fungi with varying degrees of wheat pathogenicity were determined. They included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. graminearu...

  4. Mechanisms of transcriptional repression by histone lysine methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublitz, Philip; Albert, Mareike; Peters, Antoine H F M

    2009-01-01

    During development, covalent modification of both, histones and DNA contribute to the specification and maintenance of cell identity. Repressive modifications are thought to stabilize cell type specific gene expression patterns, reducing the likelihood of reactivation of lineage-unrelated genes......, transcription factor binding and the antagonizing activities of distinct epigenetic regulators such as histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMs). Subsequently, we compare chromatin signatures associated with different types of transcriptional outcomes from stable repression to highly...

  5. Transcriptome and H3K27 tri-methylation profiling of Ezh2-deficient lung epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei Z. Holik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the lungs to air breathing at birth requires the fine orchestration of different processes to control lung morphogenesis and progenitor cell differentiation. However, there is little understanding of the role that epigenetic modifiers play in the control of lung development. We found that the histone methyl transferase Ezh2 plays a critical role in lung lineage specification and survival at birth. We performed a genome-wide transcriptome study combined with a genome-wide analysis of the distribution of H3K27 tri-methylation marks to interrogate the role of Ezh2 in lung epithelial cells. Lung cells isolated from Ezh2-deficient and control mice at embryonic day E16.5 were sorted into epithelial and mesenchymal populations based on EpCAM expression. This enabled us to dissect the transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced by the loss of Ezh2 specifically in the lung epithelium. Here we provide a detailed description of the analysis of the RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data, including quality control, read mapping, differential expression and differential binding analyses, as well as visualisation methods used to present the data. These data can be accessed from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (super-series accession number GSE57393.

  6. Quantitative high-throughput screening identifies 8-hydroxyquinolines as cell-active histone demethylase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver N F King

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Small molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. N(ε-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner. N(ε-Methyllysine demethylases that use 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor are associated with diverse human diseases, including cancer, inflammation and X-linked mental retardation; they are proposed as targets for the therapeutic modulation of transcription. There are few reports on the identification of templates that are amenable to development as potent inhibitors in vivo and large diverse collections have yet to be exploited for the discovery of demethylase inhibitors.High-throughput screening of a ∼236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4 family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Initial screening hits were prioritized by a combination of cheminformatics, counterscreening using a coupled assay enzyme, and orthogonal confirmatory detection of inhibition by mass spectrometric assays. Follow-up studies were carried out on one of the series identified, 8-hydroxyquinolines, which were shown by crystallographic analyses to inhibit by binding to the active site Fe(II and to modulate demethylation at the H3K9 locus in a cell-based assay.These studies demonstrate that diverse compound screening can yield novel inhibitors of 2OG dependent histone demethylases and provide starting points for the development of potent and selective agents to interrogate epigenetic regulation.

  7. Arabidopsis homologs of retinoblastoma-associated protein 46/48 associate with a histone deacetylase to act redundantly in chromatin silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Gu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA molecules such as small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs and antisense RNAs (asRNAs trigger chromatin silencing of target loci. In the model plant Arabidopsis, RNA-triggered chromatin silencing involves repressive histone modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone H3 lysine-9 methylation, and H3 lysine-27 monomethylation. Here, we report that two Arabidopsis homologs of the human histone-binding proteins Retinoblastoma-Associated Protein 46/48 (RbAp46/48, known as MSI4 (or FVE and MSI5, function in partial redundancy in chromatin silencing of various loci targeted by siRNAs or asRNAs. We show that MSI5 acts in partial redundancy with FVE to silence FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC, which is a crucial floral repressor subject to asRNA-mediated silencing, FLC homologs, and other loci including transposable and repetitive elements which are targets of siRNA-directed DNA Methylation (RdDM. Both FVE and MSI5 associate with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 (HDA6 to form complexes and directly interact with the target loci, leading to histone deacetylation and transcriptional silencing. In addition, these two genes function in de novo CHH (H = A, T, or C methylation and maintenance of symmetric cytosine methylation (mainly CHG methylation at endogenous RdDM target loci, and they are also required for establishment of cytosine methylation in the previously unmethylated sequences directed by the RdDM pathway. This reveals an important functional divergence of the plant RbAp46/48 relatives from animal counterparts.

  8. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  9. Mutations in the Chromatin Regulator Gene BRPF1 Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability and Deficient Histone Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kezhi; Rousseau, Justine; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Kiss, Courtney; Lehman, Anna; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Stumpel, Constance T R; Stegmann, Alexander P A; Robak, Laurie; Scaglia, Fernando; Nguyen, Thi Tuyet Mai; Fu, He; Ajeawung, Norbert F; Camurri, Maria Vittoria; Li, Lin; Gardham, Alice; Panis, Bianca; Almannai, Mohammed; Sacoto, Maria J Guillen; Baskin, Berivan; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; Xia, Fan; Bi, Weimin; Cho, Megan T; Potjer, Thomas P; Santen, Gijs W E; Parker, Michael J; Canham, Natalie; McKinnon, Margaret; Potocki, Lorraine; MacKenzie, Jennifer J; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Campeau, Philippe M; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2017-01-05

    Identification of over 500 epigenetic regulators in humans raises an interesting question regarding how chromatin dysregulation contributes to different diseases. Bromodomain and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1) is a multivalent chromatin regulator possessing three histone-binding domains, one non-specific DNA-binding module, and several motifs for interacting with and activating three lysine acetyltransferases. Genetic analyses of fish brpf1 and mouse Brpf1 have uncovered an important role in skeletal, hematopoietic, and brain development, but it remains unclear how BRPF1 is linked to human development and disease. Here, we describe an intellectual disability disorder in ten individuals with inherited or de novo monoallelic BRPF1 mutations. Symptoms include infantile hypotonia, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, expressive language impairment, and facial dysmorphisms. Central nervous system and spinal abnormalities are also seen in some individuals. These clinical features overlap with but are not identical to those reported for persons with KAT6A or KAT6B mutations, suggesting that BRPF1 targets these two acetyltransferases and additional partners in humans. Functional assays showed that the resulting BRPF1 variants are pathogenic and impair acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 23, an abundant but poorly characterized epigenetic mark. We also found a similar deficiency in different lines of Brpf1-knockout mice. These data indicate that aberrations in the chromatin regulator gene BRPF1 cause histone H3 acetylation deficiency and a previously unrecognized intellectual disability syndrome. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination by inhibiting histone deubiquitinating enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Qingdong; Ellen, Thomas P.; Costa, Max

    2008-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are known carcinogens but underlying mechanisms are not clear. Epigenetic changes are likely to play an important role in nickel ion carcinogenesis. Previous studies have shown epigenetic effects of nickel ions, including the loss of histone acetylation and a pronounced increase in dimethylated H3K9 in nickel-exposed cells. In this study, we demonstrated that both water-soluble and insoluble nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination (uH2A and uH2B) in a variety of cell lines. Investigations of the mechanism by which nickel increases histone ubiquitination in cells reveal that nickel does not affect cellular levels of the substrates of this modification, i.e., ubiquitin, histones, and other non-histone ubiquitinated proteins. In vitro ubiquitination and deubiquitination assays have been developed to further investigate possible effects of nickel on enzymes responsible for histone ubiquitination. Results from the in vitro assays demonstrate that the presence of nickel did not affect the levels of ubiquitinated histones in the ubiquitinating assay. Instead, the addition of nickel significantly prevents loss of uH2A and uH2B in the deubiquitinating assay, suggesting that nickel-induced histone ubiquitination is the result of inhibition of (a) putative deubiquitinating enzyme(s). Additional supporting evidence comes from the comparison of the response to nickel ions with a known deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor, iodoacetamide (IAA). This study is the first to demonstrate such effects of nickel ions on histone ubiquitination. It also sheds light on the possible mechanisms involved in altering the steady state of this modification. The study provides further evidence that supports the notion that nickel ions alter epigenetic homeostasis in cells, which may lead to altered programs of gene expression and carcinogenesis

  11. Loss of p300 and CBP disrupts histone acetylation at the mouse Sry promoter and causes XY gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Siggers, Pam; Xipolita, Marilena; Brindle, Paul; Lutz, Beat; Wells, Sara; Greenfield, Andy

    2018-01-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP, CREBBP, KAT3A) and its closely related paralogue p300 (EP300, KAT3B), together termed p300/CBP, are histone/lysine acetyl-transferases that control gene expression by modifying chromatin-associated proteins. Here, we report roles for both of these chromatin-modifying enzymes in mouse sex determination, the process by which the embryonic gonad develops into a testis or an ovary. By targeting gene ablation to embryonic gonadal somatic cells using an inducible Cre line, we show that gonads lacking either gene exhibit major abnormalities of XY gonad development at 14.5 dpc, including partial sex reversal. Embryos lacking three out of four functional copies of p300/Cbp exhibit complete XY gonadal sex reversal and have greatly reduced expression of the key testis-determining genes Sry and Sox9. An analysis of histone acetylation at the Sry promoter in mutant gonads at 11.5 dpc shows a reduction in levels of the positive histone mark H3K27Ac. Our data suggest a role for CBP/p300 in testis determination mediated by control of histone acetylation at the Sry locus and reveal a novel element in the epigenetic control of Sry and mammalian sex determination. They also suggest possible novel causes of human disorders of sex development (DSD). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Acid-Urea Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting of Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzalin, Catherine A; Mahadevan, Louis C

    2017-01-01

    Acid-urea gel electrophoresis offers significant advantages over SDS-PAGE for analysis of post-translational protein modifications, being capable of resolving proteins of similar size but varying in charge. Hence, it can be used to separate protein variants with small charge-altering differences in primary sequence, and is particularly useful in the analysis of histones whose charge variation arises from post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation or acetylation. On acid-urea gels, histones that carry multiple modifications, each with a characteristic charge, are resolved into distinct bands, the so-called "histone ladder." Thus, the extent and distribution of different modification states of histones can be visualized. Here, we describe the analysis of histone H3 by acid-urea gel electrophoresis and western blotting.

  13. Middle-down hybrid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry workflow for characterization of combinatorial post-translational modifications in histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, Simone; Schwämmle, Veit; Ruminowicz, Chrystian; Hansen, Thomas A; Wu, Xudong; Helin, Kristian; Jensen, Ole N

    2014-10-01

    We present an integrated middle-down proteomics platform for sensitive mapping and quantification of coexisting PTMs in large polypeptides (5-7 kDa). We combined an RP trap column with subsequent weak cation exchange-hydrophilic interaction LC interfaced directly to high mass accuracy ESI MS/MS using electron transfer dissociation. This enabled automated and efficient separation and sequencing of hypermodified histone N-terminal tails for unambiguous localization of combinatorial PTMs. We present Histone Coder and IsoScale software to extract, filter, and analyze MS/MS data, including quantification of cofragmenting isobaric polypeptide species. We characterized histone tails derived from murine embryonic stem cells knockout in suppressor of zeste12 (Suz12(-/-) ) and quantified 256 combinatorial histone marks in histones H3, H4, and H2A. Furthermore, a total of 713 different combinatorial histone marks were identified in purified histone H3. We measured a seven-fold reduction of H3K27me2/me3 (where me2 and me3 are dimethylation and trimethylation, respectively) in Suz12(-) (/) (-) cells and detected significant changes of the relative abundance of 16 other single PTMs of histone H3 and other combinatorial marks. We conclude that the inactivation of Suz12 is associated with changes in the abundance of not only H3K27 methylation but also multiple other PTMs in histone H3 tails. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Open and closed: the roles of linker histones in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ryan S; Michaels, Scott D

    2014-03-01

    Histones package DNA in all eukaryotes and play key roles in regulating gene expression. Approximately 150 base pairs of DNA wraps around an octamer of core histones to form the nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin. Linker histones compact chromatin further by binding to and neutralizing the charge of the DNA between nucleosomes. It is well established that chromatin packing is regulated by a complex pattern of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) to core histones, but linker histone function is less well understood. In this review, we describe the current understanding of the many roles that linker histones play in cellular processes, including gene regulation, cell division, and development, while putting the linker histone in the context of other nuclear proteins. Although intriguing roles for plant linker histones are beginning to emerge, much of our current understanding comes from work in animal systems. Many unanswered questions remain and additional work is required to fully elucidate the complex processes mediated by linker histones in plants.

  15. Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by hexavalent chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hong; Zhou Xue; Chen Haobin; Li Qin; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a mutagen and carcinogen, and occupational exposure can lead to lung cancers and other adverse health effects. Genetic changes resulting from DNA damage have been proposed as an important mechanism that mediates chromate's carcinogenicity. Here we show that chromate exposure of human lung A549 cells increased global levels of di- and tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and lysine 4 (H3K4) but decreased the levels of tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) and di-methylated histone H3 arginine 2 (H3R2). Most interestingly, H3K9 dimethylation was enriched in the human MLH1 gene promoter following chromate exposure and this was correlated with decreased MLH1 mRNA expression. Chromate exposure increased the protein as well as mRNA levels of G9a a histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates H3K9. This Cr(VI)-induced increase in G9a may account for the global elevation of H3K9 dimethylation. Furthermore, supplementation with ascorbate, the primary reductant of Cr(VI) and also an essential cofactor for the histone demethylase activity, partially reversed the H3K9 dimethylation induced by chromate. Thus our studies suggest that Cr(VI) may target histone methyltransferases and demethylases, which in turn affect both global and gene promoter specific histone methylation, leading to the silencing of specific tumor suppressor genes such as MLH1.

  16. The Role of Extracellular Histones in Influenza Virus Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Harshini K; Mueller, Nathan C; Rudd, Jennifer M; Snider, Timothy A; Achanta, Mallika; Prasanthi, Maram; Pulavendran, Sivasami; Thomas, Paul G; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R; Ritchey, Jerry W; Rajasekhar, Rachakatla; Chow, Vincent T K; Esmon, Charles T; Teluguakula, Narasaraju

    2018-01-01

    Although exaggerated host immune responses have been implicated in influenza-induced lung pathogenesis, the etiologic factors that contribute to these events are not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps exacerbate pulmonary injury during influenza pneumonia. Histones are the major protein components of neutrophil extracellular traps and are known to have cytotoxic effects. Here, we examined the role of extracellular histones in lung pathogenesis during influenza. Mice infected with influenza virus displayed high accumulation of extracellular histones, with widespread pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. Occluded pulmonary blood vessels with vascular thrombi often exhibited endothelial necrosis surrounded by hemorrhagic effusions and pulmonary edema. Histones released during influenza induced cytotoxicity and showed strong binding to platelets within thrombi in infected mouse lungs. Nasal wash samples from influenza-infected patients also showed increased accumulation of extracellular histones, suggesting a possible clinical relevance of elevated histones in pulmonary injury. Although histones inhibited influenza growth in vitro, in vivo treatment with histones did not yield antiviral effects and instead exacerbated lung pathology. Blocking with antihistone antibodies caused a marked decrease in lung pathology in lethal influenza-challenged mice and improved protection when administered in combination with the antiviral agent oseltamivir. These findings support the pathogenic effects of extracellular histones in that pulmonary injury during influenza was exacerbated. Targeting histones provides a novel therapeutic approach to influenza pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erives, Albert J

    2017-11-28

    While the genomes of eukaryotes and Archaea both encode the histone-fold domain, only eukaryotes encode the core histone paralogs H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. With DNA, these core histones assemble into the nucleosomal octamer underlying eukaryotic chromatin. Importantly, core histones for H2A and H3 are maintained as neofunctionalized paralogs adapted for general bulk chromatin (canonical H2 and H3) or specialized chromatin (H2A.Z enriched at gene promoters and cenH3s enriched at centromeres). In this context, the identification of core histone-like "doublets" in the cytoplasmic replication factories of the Marseilleviridae (MV) is a novel finding with possible relevance to understanding the origin of eukaryotic chromatin. Here, we analyze and compare the core histone doublet genes from all known MV genomes as well as other MV genes relevant to the origin of the eukaryotic replisome. Using different phylogenetic approaches, we show that MV histone domains encode obligate H2B-H2A and H4-H3 dimers of possible proto-eukaryotic origin. MV core histone moieties form sister clades to each of the four eukaryotic clades of canonical and variant core histones. This suggests that MV core histone moieties diverged prior to eukaryotic neofunctionalizations associated with paired linear chromosomes and variant histone octamer assembly. We also show that MV genomes encode a proto-eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II enzyme that forms a sister clade to eukaryotes. This is a relevant finding given that DNA topo II influences histone deposition and chromatin compaction and is the second most abundant nuclear protein after histones. The combined domain architecture and phylogenomic analyses presented here suggest that a primitive origin for MV histone genes is a more parsimonious explanation than horizontal gene transfers + gene fusions + sufficient divergence to eliminate relatedness to eukaryotic neofunctionalizations within the H2A and H3 clades without loss of relatedness to each of

  18. Rapid divergence of histones in Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) and evolution of a novel histone involved in DNA damage response in hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Ubhe, Suyog; Sirwani, Neha; Lohokare, Rasika; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra. Here, we report identification of the complete repertoire of histone-coding genes in the Hydra magnipapillata genome. Hydra histones were classified based on their copy numbers, gene structure and other characteristic features. Genomic organization of canonical histone genes revealed the presence of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 paired clusters in high frequency and also a cluster with all core histones along with H1. Phylogenetic analysis of identified members of H2A and H2B histones suggested rapid expansion of these groups in Hydrozoa resulting in the appearance of unique subtypes. Amino acid sequence level comparisons of H2A and H2B forms with bilaterian counterparts suggest the possibility of a highly mobile nature of nucleosomes in hydra. Absolute quantitation of transcripts confirmed the high copy number of histones and supported the canonical nature of H2A. Furthermore, functional characterization of H2A.X.1 and a unique variant H2A.X.2 in the gastric region suggest their role in the maintenance of genome integrity and differentiation processes. These findings provide insights into the evolution of histones and their variants in hydra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin C induces specific demethylation of H3K9me2 in mouse embryonic stem cells via Kdm3a/b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Kevin T; Mesh, Kathryn; Liu, Shichong; Bilenky, Misha; Fekete, Alexander; Acker, Michael G; Hirst, Martin; Garcia, Benjamin A; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Histone methylation patterns regulate gene expression and are highly dynamic during development. The erasure of histone methylation is carried out by histone demethylase enzymes. We had previously shown that vitamin C enhances the activity of Tet enzymes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, leading to DNA demethylation and activation of germline genes. We report here that vitamin C induces a remarkably specific demethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in naïve ES cells. Vitamin C treatment reduces global levels of H3K9me2, but not other histone methylation marks analyzed, as measured by western blot, immunofluorescence and mass spectrometry. Vitamin C leads to widespread loss of H3K9me2 at large chromosomal domains as well as gene promoters and repeat elements. Vitamin C-induced loss of H3K9me2 occurs rapidly within 24 h and is reversible. Importantly, we found that the histone demethylases Kdm3a and Kdm3b are required for vitamin C-induced demethylation of H3K9me2. Moreover, we show that vitamin C-induced Kdm3a/b-mediated H3K9me2 demethylation and Tet-mediated DNA demethylation are independent processes at specific loci. Lastly, we document Kdm3a/b are partially required for the upregulation of germline genes by vitamin C. These results reveal a specific role for vitamin C in histone demethylation in ES cells and document that DNA methylation and H3K9me2 cooperate to silence germline genes in pluripotent cells.

  20. The Utility of Phosphohistone H3 in Breast Cancer Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Harada, Shuko; Shen, Dejun; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2015-01-01

    The commonly used Nottingham Grading System in breast cancer takes into consideration the presence of tubular formation, nuclear pleomorphism, and the mitotic index (MI), among which the latter has been shown to be the most powerful prognostic factor. In practice, histologic grading is highly subjective, with only moderate interobserver reproducibility. Phosphorylation of histone H3 has been demonstrated to be a specific event in the mitotic phase, and is negligible during interphase. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Phosphohistone H3 (PHH3) in the breast cancer grading of 97 consecutive biopsy specimens. PHH3 antibodies clearly revealed discrete, strong nuclear immunoreactivity in mitotically active cells even under low magnification. The PHH3 MI showed a significant correlation with that derived by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining as well as the Ki-67 proliferation index. Further, the pairwise κ-value of the MI was significantly increased, and the pairwise agreement was also markedly improved by PHH3 immunostaining, although a significant proportion of breast cancer cases were upgraded by use of the PHH3 MI. Our data showed that PHH3 provided a more sensitive and accurate MI with less interobserver variability when compared with conventional H&E staining, thus emphasizing its potentially increased value in practice. Reconsideration of breast cancer grading with integration of PHH3 should be considered if it continues to demonstrate superiorly to traditional H&E staining.

  1. Histone fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography on cyanoalkylsilane (CN) reverse-phase columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurley, L.R.; Prentice, D.A.; Valdez, J.G.; Spall, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work described conditions for the rapid fractionation of histones by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reverse-phase μBondapak C 18 column. That procedure resolved the major classes of histones with one exception: the more hydrophobic H2A variant, (MHP)H2A, was not resolved from the H4 histone class. This report extends that work describing experiments using a μBondapak CN column which better resolves the classes of histones from each other including the resolution of (MHP)H2A from the H4. In addition, the less hydrophobic H2A variant, (LHP)H2A, is partially resolved from the (MHP)H2A, and the less hydrophobic H3 variant, (LHP)H3, is resolved from the more hydrophobic H3 variant, (MHP)H3. Lower trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentrations (0.1%) in the eluting water/acetonitrile solvent were used with the CN column than were used with the C 18 column which increased the sensitivity of histone detection by ultraviolet absorption at 206 nm. Greater than 95% of the total [ 3 H]lysine-labeled protein applied to the CN column was eluted from the column. Contaminating nonhistone proteins were found to chromatograph in the region of histone elution. These were greatly reduced by isolating nuclei prior to histone preparation. The fractionation of the histones appears to be based on the hydrophobic properties of the proteins. The histone fractions (identified by their electrophoretic mobilities) were eluted from the CN column in the following order: H1, H2B