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Sample records for binding site-leucine-rich repeat

  1. Global expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoping; Meyers, Blake C; Kozik, Alexander; West, Marilyn AL; Morgante, Michele; St Clair, Dina A; Bent, Andrew F; Michelmore, Richard W

    2007-01-01

    Background Nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding genes comprise the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes and the 58 related genes that do not encode LRRs represent approximately 0.8% of all ORFs so far annotated in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Despite their prevalence in the genome and functional importance, there was little information regarding expression of these genes. Results We analyzed the expression patterns of ~170 NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis Col-0 using multiple analytical approaches: expressed sequenced tag (EST) representation, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), microarray analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR, and gene trap lines. Most of these genes were expressed at low levels with a variety of tissue specificities. Expression was detected by at least one approach for all but 10 of these genes. The expression of some but not the majority of NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes was affected by salicylic acid (SA) treatment; the response to SA varied among different accessions. An analysis of previously published microarray data indicated that ten NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes exhibited increased expression in wild-type Landsberg erecta (Ler) after flagellin treatment. Several of these ten genes also showed altered expression after SA treatment, consistent with the regulation of R gene expression during defense responses and overlap between the basal defense response and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Enhancer trap analysis indicated that neither jasmonic acid nor benzothiadiazole (BTH), a salicylic acid analog, induced detectable expression of the five NBS-LRR-encoding genes and one TIR-NBS-encoding gene tested; however, BTH did induce detectable expression of the other TIR-NBS-encoding gene analyzed. Evidence for alternative mRNA polyadenylation sites was observed for many of the tested genes. Evidence for alternative splicing

  2. Global expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Clair Dina A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR-encoding genes comprise the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes and the 58 related genes that do not encode LRRs represent approximately 0.8% of all ORFs so far annotated in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Despite their prevalence in the genome and functional importance, there was little information regarding expression of these genes. Results We analyzed the expression patterns of ~170 NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis Col-0 using multiple analytical approaches: expressed sequenced tag (EST representation, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS, microarray analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE PCR, and gene trap lines. Most of these genes were expressed at low levels with a variety of tissue specificities. Expression was detected by at least one approach for all but 10 of these genes. The expression of some but not the majority of NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes was affected by salicylic acid (SA treatment; the response to SA varied among different accessions. An analysis of previously published microarray data indicated that ten NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes exhibited increased expression in wild-type Landsberg erecta (Ler after flagellin treatment. Several of these ten genes also showed altered expression after SA treatment, consistent with the regulation of R gene expression during defense responses and overlap between the basal defense response and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Enhancer trap analysis indicated that neither jasmonic acid nor benzothiadiazole (BTH, a salicylic acid analog, induced detectable expression of the five NBS-LRR-encoding genes and one TIR-NBS-encoding gene tested; however, BTH did induce detectable expression of the other TIR-NBS-encoding gene analyzed. Evidence for alternative mRNA polyadenylation sites was observed for many of the tested genes. Evidence for

  3. Global expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoping; Meyers, Blake C; Kozik, Alexander; West, Marilyn A L; Morgante, Michele; St Clair, Dina A; Bent, Andrew F; Michelmore, Richard W

    2007-10-23

    Nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-encoding genes comprise the largest class of plant disease resistance genes. The 149 NBS-LRR-encoding genes and the 58 related genes that do not encode LRRs represent approximately 0.8% of all ORFs so far annotated in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. Despite their prevalence in the genome and functional importance, there was little information regarding expression of these genes. We analyzed the expression patterns of approximately 170 NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes in Arabidopsis Col-0 using multiple analytical approaches: expressed sequenced tag (EST) representation, massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS), microarray analysis, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR, and gene trap lines. Most of these genes were expressed at low levels with a variety of tissue specificities. Expression was detected by at least one approach for all but 10 of these genes. The expression of some but not the majority of NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes was affected by salicylic acid (SA) treatment; the response to SA varied among different accessions. An analysis of previously published microarray data indicated that ten NBS-LRR-encoding and related genes exhibited increased expression in wild-type Landsberg erecta (Ler) after flagellin treatment. Several of these ten genes also showed altered expression after SA treatment, consistent with the regulation of R gene expression during defense responses and overlap between the basal defense response and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Enhancer trap analysis indicated that neither jasmonic acid nor benzothiadiazole (BTH), a salicylic acid analog, induced detectable expression of the five NBS-LRR-encoding genes and one TIR-NBS-encoding gene tested; however, BTH did induce detectable expression of the other TIR-NBS-encoding gene analyzed. Evidence for alternative mRNA polyadenylation sites was observed for many of the tested genes. Evidence for alternative splicing was

  4. Genome-wide identification and tissue-specific expression analysis of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat gene family in Cicer arietinum (kabuli chickpea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranu; Rawat, Vimal; Suresh, C G

    2017-12-01

    The nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins play an important role in the defense mechanisms against pathogens. Using bioinformatics approach, we identified and annotated 104 NBS-LRR genes in chickpea. Phylogenetic analysis points to their diversification into two families namely TIR-NBS-LRR and non-TIR-NBS-LRR. Gene architecture revealed intron gain/loss events in this resistance gene family during their independent evolution into two families. Comparative genomics analysis elucidated its evolutionary relationship with other fabaceae species. Around 50% NBS-LRRs reside in macro-syntenic blocks underlining positional conservation along with sequence conservation of NBS-LRR genes in chickpea. Transcriptome sequencing data provided evidence for their transcription and tissue-specific expression. Four cis -regulatory elements namely WBOX, DRE, CBF, and GCC boxes, that commonly occur in resistance genes, were present in the promoter regions of these genes. Further, the findings will provide a strong background to use candidate disease resistance NBS-encoding genes and identify their specific roles in chickpea.

  5. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. PMID:26839128

  6. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The stem rust resistance gene Rpg5 encodes a protein with nucleotide-binding-site, leucine-rich, and protein kinase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, R; Druka, A; Nirmala, J; Cavileer, T; Drader, T; Rostoks, N; Mirlohi, A; Bennypaul, H; Gill, U; Kudrna, D; Whitelaw, C; Kilian, A; Han, F; Sun, Y; Gill, K; Steffenson, B; Kleinhofs, A

    2008-09-30

    We isolated the barley stem rust resistance genes Rpg5 and rpg4 by map-based cloning. These genes are colocalized on a 70-kb genomic region that was delimited by recombination. The Rpg5 gene consists of an unusual structure encoding three typical plant disease resistance protein domains: nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat, and serine threonine protein kinase. The predicted RPG5 protein has two putative transmembrane sites possibly involved in membrane binding. The gene is expressed at low but detectable levels. Posttranscriptional gene silencing using VIGS resulted in a compatible reaction with a normally incompatible stem rust pathogen. Allele sequencing also validated the candidate Rpg5 gene. Allele and recombinant sequencing suggested that the probable rpg4 gene encoded an actin depolymerizing factor-like protein. Involvement of actin depolymerizing factor genes in nonhost resistance has been documented, but discovery of their role in gene-for-gene interaction would be novel and needs to be further substantiated.

  8. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B.A.; Eberwine, J.; Spencer, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington`s disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to >37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and LJV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  9. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-Binding to Nucleotide-Binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenyk, S.; Dixon, C.H.; Gittens, W.H.; Townsend, P.D.; Sharples, G.J.; Pålsson, L.O.; Takken, F.L.W.; Cann, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognise and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception.

  10. Alternative Conformations of the Tau Repeat Domain in Complex with an Engineered Binding Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüning, Clara S. R.; Mirecka, Ewa A.; Klein, Antonia N.; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Willbold, Dieter; Marino, Stephen F.; Stoldt, Matthias; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation of Tau into paired helical filaments is involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease. The aggregation reaction is characterized by conformational conversion of the repeat domain, which partially adopts a cross-β-structure in the resulting amyloid-like fibrils. Here, we report the selection and characterization of an engineered binding protein, β-wrapin TP4, targeting the Tau repeat domain. TP4 was obtained by phage display using the four-repeat Tau construct K18ΔK280 as a target. TP4 binds K18ΔK280 as well as the longest isoform of human Tau, hTau40, with nanomolar affinity. NMR spectroscopy identified two alternative TP4-binding sites in the four-repeat domain, with each including two hexapeptide motifs with high β-sheet propensity. Both binding sites contain the aggregation-determining PHF6 hexapeptide within repeat 3. In addition, one binding site includes the PHF6* hexapeptide within repeat 2, whereas the other includes the corresponding hexapeptide Tau(337–342) within repeat 4, denoted PHF6**. Comparison of TP4-binding with Tau aggregation reveals that the same regions of Tau are involved in both processes. TP4 inhibits Tau aggregation at substoichiometric concentration, demonstrating that it interferes with aggregation nucleation. This study provides residue-level insight into the interaction of Tau with an aggregation inhibitor and highlights the structural flexibility of Tau. PMID:24966331

  11. Solution properties of the archaeal CRISPR DNA repeat-binding homeodomain protein Cbp2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchappa, Chandra; Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Kragelund, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) form the basis of diverse adaptive immune systems directed primarily against invading genetic elements of archaea and bacteria. Cbp1 of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophilic order Sulfolobales, carrying three imperfect repeats, binds...... specifically to CRISPR DNA repeats and has been implicated in facilitating production of long transcripts from CRISPR loci. Here, a second related class of CRISPR DNA repeat-binding protein, denoted Cbp2, is characterized that contains two imperfect repeats and is found amongst members of the crenarchaeal...... in facilitating high affinity DNA binding of Cbp2 by tethering the two domains. Structural studies on mutant proteins provide support for Cys(7) and Cys(28) enhancing high thermal stability of Cbp2(Hb) through disulphide bridge formation. Consistent with their proposed CRISPR transcriptional regulatory role, Cbp2...

  12. Nuclear Receptor HNF4α Binding Sequences are Widespread in Alu Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotin Eugene

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alu repeats, which account for ~10% of the human genome, were originally considered to be junk DNA. Recent studies, however, suggest that they may contain transcription factor binding sites and hence possibly play a role in regulating gene expression. Results Here, we show that binding sites for a highly conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4α, NR2A1, are highly prevalent in Alu repeats. We employ high throughput protein binding microarrays (PBMs to show that HNF4α binds > 66 unique sequences in Alu repeats that are present in ~1.2 million locations in the human genome. We use chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP to demonstrate that HNF4α binds Alu elements in the promoters of target genes (ABCC3, APOA4, APOM, ATPIF1, CANX, FEMT1A, GSTM4, IL32, IP6K2, PRLR, PRODH2, SOCS2, TTR and luciferase assays to show that at least some of those Alu elements can modulate HNF4α-mediated transactivation in vivo (APOM, PRODH2, TTR, APOA4. HNF4α-Alu elements are enriched in promoters of genes involved in RNA processing and a sizeable fraction are in regions of accessible chromatin. Comparative genomics analysis suggests that there may have been a gain in HNF4α binding sites in Alu elements during evolution and that non Alu repeats, such as Tiggers, also contain HNF4α sites. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HNF4α, in addition to regulating gene expression via high affinity binding sites, may also modulate transcription via low affinity sites in Alu repeats.

  13. The Brassicaceae family displays divergent, shoot-skewed NLR resistance gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, David; Gupta, Vikas; Bachmann, Asger

    2018-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance genes (NLRs) allow plants to detect microbial effectors. We hypothesized that NLR expression patterns could reflect organ-specific differences in effector challenge and tested this by carrying out a meta-analysis of expression data for 1,235 ...

  14. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, N.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Linden, van der C.G.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Nijs, den H.C.M.; Flavell, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187

  15. Quantitative and temporal definition of the Mla transcriptional regulon during barley-powdery mildew interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley Mildew resistance locus a (Mla) is a major determinant of immunity to the powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Alleles of Mla encode cytoplasmic- and membrane-localized coiled-coil, nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat proteins that mediate resistance when complem...

  16. Gene Isolation Using Degenerate Primers Targeting Protein Motif: A Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Brandon Pei Hui; Foong, Lian Chee; Tam, Sheh May; Lee, Vivian; Hwang, Siaw San

    2018-01-01

    Structures and functions of protein motifs are widely included in many biology-based course syllabi. However, little emphasis is placed to link this knowledge to applications in biotechnology to enhance the learning experience. Here, the conserved motifs of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeats (NBS-LRR) proteins, successfully used for the…

  17. Cell Context Dependent p53 Genome-Wide Binding Patterns and Enrichment at Repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botcheva, Krassimira; McCorkle, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    The p53 ability to elicit stress specific and cell type specific responses is well recognized, but how that specificity is established remains to be defined. Whether upon activation p53 binds to its genomic targets in a cell type and stress type dependent manner is still an open question. Here we show that the p53 binding to the human genome is selective and cell context-dependent. We mapped the genomic binding sites for the endogenous wild type p53 protein in the human cancer cell line HCT116 and compared them to those we previously determined in the normal cell line IMR90. We report distinct p53 genome-wide binding landscapes in two different cell lines, analyzed under the same treatment and experimental conditions, using the same ChIP-seq approach. This is evidence for cell context dependent p53 genomic binding. The observed differences affect the p53 binding sites distribution with respect to major genomic and epigenomic elements (promoter regions, CpG islands and repeats). We correlated the high-confidence p53 ChIP-seq peaks positions with the annotated human repeats (UCSC Human Genome Browser) and observed both common and cell line specific trends. In HCT116, the p53 binding was specifically enriched at LINE repeats, compared to IMR90 cells. The p53 genome-wide binding patterns in HCT116 and IMR90 likely reflect the different epigenetic landscapes in these two cell lines, resulting from cancer-associated changes (accumulated in HCT116) superimposed on tissue specific differences (HCT116 has epithelial, while IMR90 has mesenchymal origin). Our data support the model for p53 binding to the human genome in a highly selective manner, mobilizing distinct sets of genes, contributing to distinct pathways. PMID:25415302

  18. C-terminal low-complexity sequence repeats of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku modulate DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Ambuj K; Grove, Anne

    2013-01-24

    Ku protein is an integral component of the NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) pathway of DSB (double-strand break) repair. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ku homologues have been characterized and shown to bind DNA ends. A unique feature of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku is its basic C-terminal tail that contains several lysine-rich low-complexity PAKKA repeats that are absent from homologues encoded by obligate parasitic mycobacteria. Such PAKKA repeats are also characteristic of mycobacterial Hlp (histone-like protein) for which they have been shown to confer the ability to appose DNA ends. Unexpectedly, removal of the lysine-rich extension enhances DNA-binding affinity, but an interaction between DNA and the PAKKA repeats is indicated by the observation that only full-length Ku forms multiple complexes with a short stem-loop-containing DNA previously designed to accommodate only one Ku dimer. The C-terminal extension promotes DNA end-joining by T4 DNA ligase, suggesting that the PAKKA repeats also contribute to efficient end-joining. We suggest that low-complexity lysine-rich sequences have evolved repeatedly to modulate the function of unrelated DNA-binding proteins.

  19. Modulation of CRISPR locus transcription by the repeat-binding protein Cbp1 in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Peng, Xu

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR loci are essential components of the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria. They consist of long arrays of repeats separated by DNA spacers encoding guide RNAs (crRNA), which target foreign genetic elements. Cbp1 (CRISPR DNA repeat binding protein) binds specifically to the multiple...... direct repeats of CRISPR loci of members of the acidothermophilic, crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales. cbp1 gene deletion from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A produced a strong reduction in pre-crRNA yields from CRISPR loci but did not inhibit the foreign DNA targeting capacity of the CRISPR/Cas system....... Conversely, overexpression of Cbp1 in S. islandicus generated an increase in pre-crRNA yields while the level of reverse strand transcripts from CRISPR loci remained unchanged. It is proposed that Cbp1 modulates production of longer pre-crRNA transcripts from CRISPR loci. A possible mechanism...

  20. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H.; Gittens, William H.; Townsend, Philip D.; Sharples, Gary J.; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L. W.; Cann, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. PMID:26601946

  1. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H; Gittens, William H; Townsend, Philip D; Sharples, Gary J; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L W; Cann, Martin J

    2016-01-15

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Telomere repeat binding proteins are functional components of Arabidopsis telomeres and interact with telomerase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schrumpfová, P.; Vychodilová, I.; Dvořáčková, Martina; Majerská, J.; Dokládal, Ladislav; Schorová, Š.; Fajkus, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 5 (2014), s. 770-781 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06943S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : telomere protein interaction * telomere repeat binding * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  3. Impact of Alu repeats on the evolution of human p53 binding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirotin Michael V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The p53 tumor suppressor protein is involved in a complicated regulatory network, mediating expression of ~1000 human genes. Recent studies have shown that many p53 in vivo binding sites (BSs reside in transposable repeats. The relationship between these BSs and functional p53 response elements (REs remains unknown, however. We sought to understand whether the p53 REs also reside in transposable elements and particularly in the most-abundant Alu repeats. Results We have analyzed ~160 functional p53 REs identified so far and found that 24 of them occur in repeats. More than half of these repeat-associated REs reside in Alu elements. In addition, using a position weight matrix approach, we found ~400,000 potential p53 BSs in Alu elements genome-wide. Importantly, these putative BSs are located in the same regions of Alu repeats as the functional p53 REs - namely, in the vicinity of Boxes A/A' and B of the internal RNA polymerase III promoter. Earlier nucleosome-mapping experiments showed that the Boxes A/A' and B have a different chromatin environment, which is critical for the binding of p53 to DNA. Here, we compare the Alu-residing p53 sites with the corresponding Alu consensus sequences and conclude that the p53 sites likely evolved through two different mechanisms - the sites overlapping with the Boxes A/A' were generated by CG → TG mutations; the other sites apparently pre-existed in the progenitors of several Alu subfamilies, such as AluJo and AluSq. The binding affinity of p53 to the Alu-residing sites generally correlates with the age of Alu subfamilies, so that the strongest sites are embedded in the 'relatively young' Alu repeats. Conclusions The primate-specific Alu repeats play an important role in shaping the p53 regulatory network in the context of chromatin. One of the selective factors responsible for the frequent occurrence of Alu repeats in introns may be related to the p53-mediated regulation of Alu

  4. Ail Protein Binds Ninth Type III Fibronectin Repeat (9FNIII) within Central 120-kDa Region of Fibronectin to Facilitate Cell Binding by Yersinia pestis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tiffany M.; Annis, Douglas S.; Kronshage, Malte; Fenno, Jesse T.; Usselman, Lisa D.; Mosher, Deane F.; Krukonis, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    The Yersinia pestis adhesin molecule Ail interacts with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (Fn) on host cells to facilitate efficient delivery of cytotoxic Yop proteins, a process essential for plague virulence. A number of bacterial pathogens are known to bind to the N-terminal region of Fn, comprising type I Fn (FNI) repeats. Using proteolytically generated Fn fragments and purified recombinant Fn fragments, we demonstrated that Ail binds the centrally located 120-kDa fragment containing type III Fn (FNIII) repeats. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize specific epitopes within the 120-kDa fragment demonstrated that mAb binding to 9FNIII blocks Ail-mediated bacterial binding to Fn. Epitopes of three mAbs that blocked Ail binding to Fn were mapped to a similar face of 9FNIII. Antibodies directed against 9FNIII also inhibited Ail-dependent cell binding activity, thus demonstrating the biological relevance of this Ail binding region on Fn. Bacteria expressing Ail on their surface could also bind a minimal fragment of Fn containing repeats 9–10FNIII, and this binding was blocked by a mAb specific for 9FNIII. These data demonstrate that Ail binds to 9FNIII of Fn and presents Fn to host cells to facilitate cell binding and delivery of Yops (cytotoxins of Y. pestis), a novel interaction, distinct from other bacterial Fn-binding proteins. PMID:22447929

  5. Ail protein binds ninth type III fibronectin repeat (9FNIII) within central 120-kDa region of fibronectin to facilitate cell binding by Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tiffany M; Annis, Douglas S; Kronshage, Malte; Fenno, Jesse T; Usselman, Lisa D; Mosher, Deane F; Krukonis, Eric S

    2012-05-11

    The Yersinia pestis adhesin molecule Ail interacts with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (Fn) on host cells to facilitate efficient delivery of cytotoxic Yop proteins, a process essential for plague virulence. A number of bacterial pathogens are known to bind to the N-terminal region of Fn, comprising type I Fn (FNI) repeats. Using proteolytically generated Fn fragments and purified recombinant Fn fragments, we demonstrated that Ail binds the centrally located 120-kDa fragment containing type III Fn (FNIII) repeats. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize specific epitopes within the 120-kDa fragment demonstrated that mAb binding to (9)FNIII blocks Ail-mediated bacterial binding to Fn. Epitopes of three mAbs that blocked Ail binding to Fn were mapped to a similar face of (9)FNIII. Antibodies directed against (9)FNIII also inhibited Ail-dependent cell binding activity, thus demonstrating the biological relevance of this Ail binding region on Fn. Bacteria expressing Ail on their surface could also bind a minimal fragment of Fn containing repeats (9-10)FNIII, and this binding was blocked by a mAb specific for (9)FNIII. These data demonstrate that Ail binds to (9)FNIII of Fn and presents Fn to host cells to facilitate cell binding and delivery of Yops (cytotoxins of Y. pestis), a novel interaction, distinct from other bacterial Fn-binding proteins.

  6. Naphthyridine-Benzoazaquinolone: Evaluation of a Tricyclic System for the Binding to (CAG)n Repeat DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Sakata, Akihiro; He, Hanping; Bai, Li-Ping; Murata, Asako; Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2016-07-05

    The expansion of CAG repeats in the human genome causes the neurological disorder Huntington's disease. The small-molecule naphthyridine-azaquinolone NA we reported earlier bound to the CAG/CAG motif in the hairpin structure of the CAG repeat DNA. In order to investigate and improve NA-binding to the CAG repeat DNA and RNA, we conducted systematic structure-binding studies of NA to CAG repeats. Among the five new NA derivatives we synthesized, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay showed that all of the derivatives modified from amide linkages in NA to a carbamate linkage failed to bind to CAG repeat DNA and RNA. One derivative, NBzA, modified by incorporating an additional ring to the azaquinolone was found to bind to both d(CAG)9 and r(CAG)9 . NBzA binding to d(CAG)9 was similar to NA binding in terms of large changes in the SPR assay and circular dichroism (CD) as well as pairwise binding, as assessed by electron spray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) mass spectrometry. For the binding to r(CAG)9 , both NA and NBzA showed stepwise binding in ESI-TOF MS, and NBzA-binding to r(CAG)9 induced more extensive conformational change than NA-binding. The tricyclic system in NBzA did not show significant effects on the binding, selectivity, and translation, but provides a large chemical space for further modification to gain higher affinity and selectivity. These studies revealed that the linker structure in NA and NBzA was suitable for the binding to CAG DNA and RNA, and that the tricyclic benzoazaquinolone did not interfere with the binding. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. FR-like EBNA1 binding repeats in the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Birgersdotter, Anna; Werner, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widely spread in the human population. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a transcription factor that activates viral genes and is necessary for viral replication and partitioning, which binds the EBV genome cooperatively. We identify similar EBNA1 repeat binding sites in the human genome using a nearest-neighbor positional weight matrix. Previously experimentally verified EBNA1 sites in the human genome are successfully recovered by our approach. Most importantly, 40 novel regions are identified in the human genome, constituted of tandemly repeated binding sites for EBNA1. Genes located in the vicinity of these regions are presented as possible targets for EBNA1-mediated regulation. Among these, four are discussed in more detail: IQCB1, IMPG1, IRF2BP2 and TPO. Incorporating the cooperative actions of EBNA1 is essential when identifying regulatory regions in the human genome and we believe the findings presented here are highly valuable for the understanding of EBV-induced phenotypic changes.

  8. Structure of thrombospondin type 3 repeats in bacterial outer membrane protein A reveals its intra-repeat disulfide bond-dependent calcium-binding capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuyan; Sun, Cancan; Tan, Kemin; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Rongguang

    2017-09-01

    Eukaryotic thrombospondin type 3 repeat (TT3R) is an efficient calcium ion (Ca2+) binding motif only found in mammalian thrombospondin family. TT3R has also been found in prokaryotic cellulase Cel5G, which was thought to forfeit the Ca2+-binding capability due to the formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, instead of the inter-repeat ones possessed by eukaryotic TT3Rs. In this study, we have identified an enormous number of prokaryotic TT3R-containing proteins belonging to several different protein families, including outer membrane protein A (OmpA), an important structural protein connecting the outer membrane and the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the crystal structure of the periplasmic region of OmpA from Capnocytophaga gingivalis, which contains a linker region comprising five consecutive TT3Rs. The structure of OmpA-TT3R exhibits a well-ordered architecture organized around two tightly-coordinated Ca2+ and confirms the presence of abnormal intra-repeat disulfide bonds. Further mutagenesis studies showed that the Ca2+-binding capability of OmpA-TT3R is indeed dependent on the proper formation of intra-repeat disulfide bonds, which help to fix a conserved glycine residue at its proper position for Ca2+ coordination. Additionally, despite lacking inter repeat disulfide bonds, the interfaces between adjacent OmpA-TT3Rs are enhanced by both hydrophobic and conserved aromatic-proline interactions.

  9. Human tandem-repeat-type galectins bind bacterial non-βGal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knirel, Yu A.; Gabius, H.-J.; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are multifunctional effectors, for example acting as regulators of cell growth via protein-glycan interactions. The observation of capacity to kill bacteria for two tandem-repeat-type galectins, which target histo-blood epitopes toward this end (Stowell et al. Nat. Med. 16:295-301, 2010......), prompted us to establish an array with bacterial polysaccharides. We addressed the question whether sugar determinants other than β-galactosides may be docking sites, using human galectins-4, -8, and -9. Positive controls with histo-blood group ABH-epitopes and the E. coli 086 polysaccharide ascertained...... the suitability of the set-up. Significant signal generation, depending on type of galectin and polysacchride, was obtained. Presence of cognate β-galactoside-related epitopes within a polysaccharide chain or its branch will not automatically establish binding properties, and structural constellations lacking...

  10. Tandem repeat structure of rhamnose-binding lectin from catfish (Silurus asotus) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, M; Ishikawa, K; Mineki, R; Murayama, K; Numata, C; Ogawa, Y; Takayanagi, Y; Nitta, K

    1999-11-16

    The primary structure of catfish (Silurus asotus) egg lectin (SAL) was determined. SAL cDNA contained 1448-bp nucleotides and 308 amino acid residues, deduced from open reading frame. The SAL mature protein composed of 285-amino acid residues was followed by a predicted signal sequence having 23 residues. The mRNA of SAL was found to be expressed in eggs, but not in liver. SAL is composed of three tandem repeat domain structures divided into exactly 95 amino acid residues each, and all cysteine positions of each domain were completely conserved. Sequence homologies between the three domains, termed D1 (1-95), D2 (96-190) and D3 (191-285), were as follows; D1-D2, 28%; D2-D3, 33%; D1-D3, 43%. Two conserved peptide motifs, -(AN)YGR(TD)S(T)XCS(TGR)P- and -DPCX(G)T(Y)KY(L)-, appear to exist at the N- and C-terminal regions of each domain, respectively. The kinetic parameters of SAL obtained by measuring surface plasmon resonance were as follows: K(a) (M(-1)) for neohesperidosyl-BSA, 7. 1 x 10(6); for melibiosyl-BSA, 4.9 x 10(6); and for lactosyl-BSA, 5. 2 x 10(5). These results show that RBLs including SAL comprise a family of alpha-galactosyl binding lectins having characteristic tandem repeat domain structures.

  11. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Sun, J.D.; MacGregor, J.T.; Wehr, C.M.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased

  12. Subtype-specific sequence variation of the HIV type 1 long terminal repeat and primer-binding site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baar, M. P.; de Ronde, A.; Berkhout, B.; Cornelissen, M.; van der Horn, K. H.; van der Schoot, A. M.; de Wolf, F.; Lukashov, V. V.; Goudsmit, J.

    2000-01-01

    We studied sequence differences in regulatory elements of the long terminal repeat (LTR) and primer-binding site (PBS) among various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes. Phylogenetic sequence analysis of a fragment of 729 base pairs (bp) covering the Gag-coding region for half of

  13. Hexanucleotide Repeats in ALS/FTD Form Length-Dependent RNA Foci, Sequester RNA Binding Proteins, and Are Neurotoxic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Bok Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The GGGGCC (G4C2 intronic repeat expansion within C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Intranuclear neuronal RNA foci have been observed in ALS and FTD tissues, suggesting that G4C2 RNA may be toxic. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of 38× and 72× G4C2 repeats form intranuclear RNA foci that initiate apoptotic cell death in neuronal cell lines and zebrafish embryos. The foci colocalize with a subset of RNA binding proteins, including SF2, SC35, and hnRNP-H in transfected cells. Only hnRNP-H binds directly to G4C2 repeats following RNA immunoprecipitation, and only hnRNP-H colocalizes with 70% of G4C2 RNA foci detected in C9ORF72 mutant ALS and FTD brain tissues. We show that expanded G4C2 repeats are potently neurotoxic and bind hnRNP-H and other RNA binding proteins. We propose that RNA toxicity and protein sequestration may disrupt RNA processing and contribute to neurodegeneration.

  14. Gentamicin binds to the megalin receptor as a competitive inhibitor using the common ligand binding motif of complement type repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagil, Robert; O'Shea, Charlotte; Nykjær, Anders

    2013-01-01

    megalin and investigated its interaction with gentamicin. Using NMR titration data in HADDOCK, we have generated a three-dimensional model describing the complex between megalin and gentamicin. Gentamicin binds to megalin with low affinity and exploits the common ligand binding motif previously described...... to megalin is highly similar to gentamicin binding to calreticulin. We discuss the impact of this novel insight for the future structure-based design of gentamicin antagonists....

  15. Solution structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana telomeric repeat-binding protein DNA binding domain: a new fold with an additional C-terminal helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Shih-Che; Hsiao, Hsin-Hao; Chung, Ben C-P; Cheng, Ying-Hsien; Hsueh, Kuang-Lung; Chen, Chung Mong; Ho, Chia Hsing; Huang, Tai-Huang

    2006-02-10

    The double-stranded telomeric repeat-binding protein (TRP) AtTRP1 is isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. Using gel retardation assays, we defined the C-terminal 97 amino acid residues, Gln464 to Val560 (AtTRP1(464-560)), as the minimal structured telomeric repeat-binding domain. This region contains a typical Myb DNA-binding motif and a C-terminal extension of 40 amino acid residues. The monomeric AtTRP1(464-560) binds to a 13-mer DNA duplex containing a single repeat of an A.thaliana telomeric DNA sequence (GGTTTAG) in a 1:1 complex, with a K(D) approximately 10(-6)-10(-7) M. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) examination revealed that the solution structure of AtTRP1(464-560) is a novel four-helix tetrahedron rather than the three-helix bundle structure found in typical Myb motifs and other TRPs. Binding of the 13-mer DNA duplex to AtTRP1(464-560) induced significant chemical shift perturbations of protein amide resonances, which suggests that helix 3 (H3) and the flexible loop connecting H3 and H4 are essential for telomeric DNA sequence recognition. Furthermore, similar to that in hTRF1, the N-terminal arm likely contributes to or stabilizes DNA binding. Sequence comparisons suggested that the four-helix structure and the involvement of the loop residues in DNA binding may be features unique to plant TRPs.

  16. CREB Binding Protein Interacts with Nucleoporin-Specific FG Repeats That Activate Transcription and Mediate NUP98-HOXA9 Oncogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Lawryn H.; Brindle, Paul K.; Schnabel, Catherine A.; Pritchard, Colin E. J.; Cleary, Michael L.; van Deursen, Jan M. A.

    1999-01-01

    Genes encoding the Phe-Gly (FG) repeat-containing nucleoporins NUP98 and CAN/NUP214 are at the breakpoints of several chromosomal translocations associated with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but their role in oncogenesis is unclear. Here we demonstrate that the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion gene encodes two nuclear oncoproteins with either 19 or 37 NUP98 FG repeats fused to the DNA binding and PBX heterodimerization domains of the transcription factor HOXA9. Both NUP98-HOXA9 chimeras transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and this transformation required the HOXA9 domains for DNA binding and PBX interaction. Surprisingly, the FG repeats acted as very potent transactivators of gene transcription. This NUP98-derived activity is essential for transformation and can be replaced by the bona fide transactivation domain of VP16. Interestingly, FG repeat-containing segments derived from the nucleoporins NUP153 and CAN/NUP214 functioned similarly to those from NUP98. We further demonstrate that transactivation by FG repeat-rich segments of NUP98 correlates with their ability to interact functionally and physically with the transcriptional coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. This finding shows, for the first time, that a translocation-generated fusion protein appears to recruit CBP/p300 as an important step of its oncogenic mechanism. Together, our results suggest that NUP98-HOXA9 chimeras are aberrant transcription factors that deregulate HOX-responsive genes through the transcriptional activation properties of nucleoporin-specific FG repeats that recruit CBP/p300. Indeed, FG repeat-mediated transactivation may be a shared pathogenic function of nucleoporins implicated human AML. PMID:9858599

  17. Trinucleotide repeat expansion of TATA-binding protein gene associated with Parkinson's disease: A Thai multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubtum, Lulin; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat; Hanchaiphiboolkul, Suchat; Pongpakdee, Sunsanee; Tiamkao, Somsak; Pulkes, Teeratorn

    2016-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an inherited cerebellar degeneration associated with trinucleotide repeat expansions in the TATA-binding protein gene (TBP). Low-range expansions of TBP have recently been described in association with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these low-range expansion alleles were also observed in healthy individuals. Prior distinct findings may result from reduced penetrance or age-dependent susceptibility, which may influence phenotypic expression. A case-control study of 456 PD patients and 374 control subjects was conducted. Data and blood samples were collected during 2008-2013. Control subjects were individuals over 65 years old without parkinsonism. Sizes of TBP trinucleotide repeats were analyzed. All available carriers of the TBP repeat of ≥40 repeats were re-examined. A high prevalence of carriers of TBP repeat expansion ≥41 developed PD, mainly at an advanced age. Half of these carriers had onset after 70 years of age (range 34-84). Seven participants carried expansion alleles of ≥42, and all had PD. Fourteen participants (six patients and eight controls) carried a heterozygous 41-repeat allele. At the current mean age of 79 years and mean follow-up period of 4 years, three out of the eight control carriers of the 41-repeat allele developed PD, while none of the thirteen asymptomatic carriers of the 40-repeat allele did. A high prevalence of PD was observed in carriers of low-range expansions of TBP (41-45 repeats), especially in elderly. This finding suggests that cut-off value for pathological TBP repeat expansion appear to be 41. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Wild Eggplant Solanum aculeatissimum NBS-LRR Gene, Involved in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhou; Jun Liu; Shengyou Bao; Yan Yang; Yong Zhuang

    2018-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum, a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene, design...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus keratinocyte invasion is dependent upon multiple high-affinity fibronectin-binding repeats within FnBPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Edwards

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal organism and a frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections, which can progress to serious invasive disease. This bacterium uses its fibronectin binding proteins (FnBPs to invade host cells and it has been hypothesised that this provides a protected niche from host antimicrobial defences, allows access to deeper tissues and provides a reservoir for persistent or recurring infections. FnBPs contain multiple tandem fibronectin-binding repeats (FnBRs which bind fibronectin with varying affinity but it is unclear what selects for this configuration. Since both colonisation and skin infection are dependent upon the interaction of S. aureus with keratinocytes we hypothesised that this might select for FnBP function and thus composition of the FnBR region. Initial experiments revealed that S. aureus attachment to keratinocytes is rapid but does not require FnBRs. By contrast, invasion of keratinocytes was dependent upon the FnBR region and occurred via similar cellular processes to those described for endothelial cells. Despite this, keratinocyte invasion was relatively inefficient and appeared to include a lag phase, most likely due to very weak expression of α(5β(1 integrins. Molecular dissection of the role of the FnBR region revealed that efficient invasion of keratinocytes was dependent on the presence of at least three high-affinity (but not low-affinity FnBRs. Over-expression of a single high-affinity or three low-affinity repeats promoted invasion but not to the same levels as S. aureus expressing an FnBPA variant containing three high-affinity repeats. In summary, invasion of keratinocytes by S. aureus requires multiple high-affinity FnBRs within FnBPA, and given the importance of the interaction between these cell types and S. aureus for both colonisation and infection, may have provided the selective pressure for the multiple binding repeats within FnBPA.

  20. A Structural Model for Binding of the Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesin GspB to Host Carbohydrate Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyburn, Tasia M.; Bensing, Barbara A.; Xiong, Yan Q.; Melancon, Bruce J.; Tomasiak, Thomas M.; Ward, Nicholas J.; Yankovskaya, Victoria; Oliver, Kevin M.; Cecchini, Gary; Sulikowski, Gary A.; Tyska, Matthew J.; Sullam, Paul M.; Iverson, T.M. (VA); (UCLA); (Vanderbilt); (UCSF)

    2014-10-02

    GspB is a serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii that mediates binding of this organism to human platelets via its interaction with sialyl-T antigen on the receptor GPIb{alpha}. This interaction appears to be a major virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. To address the mechanism by which GspB recognizes its carbohydrate ligand, we determined the high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of the GspB binding region (GspB{sub BR}), both alone and in complex with a disaccharide precursor to sialyl-T antigen. Analysis of the GspB{sub BR} structure revealed that it is comprised of three independently folded subdomains or modules: (1) an Ig-fold resembling a CnaA domain from prokaryotic pathogens; (2) a second Ig-fold resembling the binding region of mammalian Siglecs; (3) a subdomain of unique fold. The disaccharide was found to bind in a pocket within the Siglec subdomain, but at a site distinct from that observed in mammalian Siglecs. Confirming the biological relevance of this binding pocket, we produced three isogenic variants of S. gordonii, each containing a single point mutation of a residue lining this binding pocket. These variants have reduced binding to carbohydrates of GPIb{alpha}. Further examination of purified GspB{sub BR}-R484E showed reduced binding to sialyl-T antigen while S. gordonii harboring this mutation did not efficiently bind platelets and showed a significant reduction in virulence, as measured by an animal model of endocarditis. Analysis of other SRR proteins revealed that the predicted binding regions of these adhesins also had a modular organization, with those known to bind carbohydrate receptors having modules homologous to the Siglec and Unique subdomains of GspBBR. This suggests that the binding specificity of the SRR family of adhesins is determined by the type and organization of discrete modules within the binding domains, which may affect the tropism of organisms for different tissues.

  1. Three complement-like repeats compose the complete alpha2-macroglobulin binding site in the second ligand binding cluster of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmer, Klavs; Gettins, Peter G W

    2006-11-10

    Given the importance of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) as an essential endocytosis and signaling receptor for many protein ligands, and of alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M)-proteinase complexes as one such set of ligands, an understanding of the specificity of their interaction with LRP is an important goal. A starting point is the known role of the 138-residue receptor binding domain (RBD) in binding to LRP. Previous studies have localized high affinity alpha2M binding to the eight complement repeat (CR)-containing cluster 2 of LRP. In the present study we have identified the minimum CR domains that constitute the full binding site for RBD and, hence, for alpha2M on LRP. We report on the ability of the triple construct of CR3-4-5 to bind RBD with an affinity (Kd = 130 nM) the same as for isolated RBD to intact LRP. This Kd is 30-fold smaller than for RBD to CR5-6-7, demonstrating the specificity of the interaction with CR3-4-5. Binding requires previously identified critical lysine residues but is almost pH-independent within the range of pH values encountered between extracellular and internal compartments, consistent with an earlier proposed model of intracellular ligand displacement by intramolecular YWTD domains. The present findings suggest a model to explain the ability of LRP to bind a wide range of structurally unrelated ligands in which a nonspecific ligand interaction with the acidic region present in most CR domains is augmented by interactions with other CR surface residues that are unique to a particular CR cluster.

  2. A leucine-rich repeat motif of Leishmania parasite surface antigen 2 binds to macrophages through the complement receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Lukasz; Montgomery, Jacqui; Bullen, Denise; Curtis, Joan; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Jimenez-Ruiz, Antonio; Handman, Emanuela

    2004-04-15

    Membrane glycoconjugates on the Leishmania parasites, notably leishmanolysin and lipophosphoglycan, have been implicated in attachment and invasion of host macrophages. However, the function of parasite surface Ag 2 (PSA-2) and membrane proteophosphoglycan (PPG) has not been elucidated. In this study we demonstrate that native and recombinant Leishmania infantum PSA-2, which consists predominantly of 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) and a recombinant LRR domain derived from L. major PPG, bind to macrophages. The interaction is restricted to macrophages and appears to be calcium independent. We have investigated the PSA-2-macrophage interaction to identify the host receptor involved in binding and we show that binding of PSA-2 to macrophages can be blocked by Abs to the complement receptor 3 (CR3, Mac-1). Data derived from mouse macrophage studies were further confirmed using cell lines expressing human CR3, and showed that PSA-2 also binds to the human receptor. This is the first demonstration of a functional role for PSA-2. Our data indicate that in addition to leishmanolysin and lipophosphoglycan, parasite attachment and invasion of macrophages involve a third ligand comprising the LRRs shared by PSA-2 and PPG and that these interactions occur via the CR3.

  3. The protein network surrounding the human telomere repeat binding factors TRF1, TRF2, and POT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Shen, Rong-Fong [National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health; Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Liu, Yie [National Institute on Aging, Baltimore

    2010-01-01

    Telomere integrity (including telomere length and capping) is critical in overall genomic stability. Telomere repeat binding factors and their associated proteins play vital roles in telomere length regulation and end protection. In this study, we explore the protein network surrounding telomere repeat binding factors, TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 using dual-tag affinity purification in combination with multidimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT LC-MS/MS). After control subtraction and data filtering, we found that TRF2 and POT1 co-purified all six members of the telomere protein complex, while TRF1 identified five of six components at frequencies that lend evidence towards the currently accepted telomere architecture. Many of the known TRF1 or TRF2 interacting proteins were also identified. Moreover, putative associating partners identified for each of the three core components fell into functional categories such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination, chromosome cohesion, chromatin modification/remodeling, DNA replication, cell cycle and transcription regulation, nucleotide metabolism, RNA processing, and nuclear transport. These putative protein-protein associations may participate in different biological processes at telomeres or, intriguingly, outside telomeres.

  4. The protein network surrounding the human telomere repeat binding factors TRF1, TRF2, and POT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Giannone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Telomere integrity (including telomere length and capping is critical in overall genomic stability. Telomere repeat binding factors and their associated proteins play vital roles in telomere length regulation and end protection. In this study, we explore the protein network surrounding telomere repeat binding factors, TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 using dual-tag affinity purification in combination with multidimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT LC-MS/MS. After control subtraction and data filtering, we found that TRF2 and POT1 co-purified all six members of the telomere protein complex, while TRF1 identified five of six components at frequencies that lend evidence towards the currently accepted telomere architecture. Many of the known TRF1 or TRF2 interacting proteins were also identified. Moreover, putative associating partners identified for each of the three core components fell into functional categories such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination, chromosome cohesion, chromatin modification/remodeling, DNA replication, cell cycle and transcription regulation, nucleotide metabolism, RNA processing, and nuclear transport. These putative protein-protein associations may participate in different biological processes at telomeres or, intriguingly, outside telomeres.

  5. Atomic model of human Rcd-1 reveals an armadillo-like-repeat protein with in vitro nucleic acid binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Robert G; Gillon, Wanda; Pai, Emil F

    2007-02-01

    Rcd-1, a protein highly conserved across eukaryotes, was initially identified as a factor essential for nitrogen starvation-invoked differentiation in fission yeast, and its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, CAF40, has been identified as part of the CCR4-NOT transcription complex, where it interacts with the NOT1 protein. Mammalian homologs are involved in various cellular differentiation processes including retinoic acid-induced differentiation and hematopoetic cell development. Here, we present the 2.2 A X-ray structure of the highly conserved region of human Rcd-1 and investigate possible functional abilities of this and the full-length protein. The monomer is made up of six armadillo repeats forming a solvent-accessible, positively-charged cleft 21-22 A wide that, in contrast to other armadillo proteins, stays fully exposed in the dimer. Prompted by this finding, we established that Rcd-1 can bind to single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides in vitro with the affinity of G/C/T > A. Mutation of an arginine residue within the cleft strongly reduced or abolished oligonucleotide binding. Rcd-1's ability to bind to nucleic acids, in addition to the previously reported protein-protein interaction with NOT1, suggests a new feature in Rcd-1's role in regulation of overall cellular differentiation processes.

  6. Regional GABA concentration and [3H]-diazepam binding in rat brain following repeated electroconvulsive shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowdler, J.M.; Green, A.R.; Minchin, M.C.W.; Nutt, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    It has been confirmed that 24 hours following a series of electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) given once daily for 10 days (ECS x 10) to rats there is an increase in GABA concentration in the corpus striatum. A similar change was seen after the ECS had been given to rats anaesthetised with halothane, or when 5 ECS were given spread out over 10 days, the rats being anaesthetised during the ECS. A daily convulsion for 10 days elicited by flurothyl exposure resulted in an increased striatal GABA concentration, but also increased the GABA concentration in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and cortex. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was present 24 hours after ECS daily for 5 days or 3 days after ECS daily for 10 days. No change in [ 3 H]-diazepam binding was seen in hippocampus, cortex or corpus striatum 24 hours after the last of 10 once daily ECS. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was therefore seen at all times when enhanced monoaminemediated behaviours have been demonstrated following seizures. (Author)

  7. Silencing of a unique integrated domain nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene in wheat abolishes Diuraphis noxia resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolis, Vittorio Filippo; Venter, Eduard

    2018-03-13

    Plants respond in a similar manner to aphid feeding as to pathogen attack. Diuraphis noxia is a specialist aphid, feeding only on selected grasses that include wheat, barley, and oats. The wheat-Diuraphis noxia interaction is characterized by very similar responses as seen in wheat-pathogen interactions with none of the underlying resistance pathways and genes characterized yet. From wheat harboring the Dn1 resistance gene, we have identified a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene containing two integrated domains (IDs). These are three C-terminus ankyrin repeat-domains and an N-terminus WRKY domain. The NLR core of the gene can be traced through speciation events within the grass family, with a recent WRKY domain integration that is Triticum specific. Virus induced gene silencing of the gene in a resistant wheat line resulted in the abolishment of the resistance response and induced a highly susceptible phenotype. Silenced plants supported a higher number of aphids similar to the susceptible NIL and the intrinsic rate of increase of the aphids matched that of aphids feeding on the susceptible NIL. The presence of the gene is necessary for Dn1 resistance and we have named the gene Associated with Dn resistance 1 (Adr1) to reflect this function.

  8. Effect of repeat unit structure and molecular mass of lactic acid bacteria hetero-exopolysaccharides on binding to milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Johnny; Harðarson, Hörður Kári; Khan, Sanaullah; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose; Ipsen, Richard; Garrigues, Christel; Almdal, Kristoffer; Hachem, Maher Abou; Svensson, Birte

    2017-12-01

    Interactions of exopolysaccharides and proteins are of great importance in food science, but complicated to analyze and quantify at the molecular level. A surface plasmon resonance procedure was established to characterize binding of seven structure-determined, branched hetero-exopolysaccharides (HePSs) of 0.14-4.9MDa from lactic acid bacteria to different milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, native and heat-treated β-lactoglobulin) at pH 4.0-5.0. Maximum binding capacity (RU max ) and apparent affinity (K A,app ) were HePS- and protein-dependent and varied for example 10- and 600-fold, respectively, in the complexation with native β-lactoglobulin at pH 4.0. Highest RU max and K A,app were obtained with heat-treated β-lactoglobulin and β-casein, respectively. Overall, RU max and K A,app decreased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, with increasing pH from 4.0 to 5.0. K A,app was influenced by ionic strength and temperature, indicating that polar interactions stabilize HePS-protein complexes. HePS size as well as oligosaccharide repeat structure, conferring chain flexibility and hydrogen bonding potential, influence the K A,app . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deletion in the first cysteine-rich repeat of low density lipoprotein receptor impairs its transport but not lipoprotein binding in fibroblasts from a subject with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitersdorf, E.; Hobbs, H.H.; Fourie, A.M.; Jacobs, M.; Van Der Westhuyzen, D.R.; Coetzee, G.A. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The ligand-binding domain of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor is composed of seven cysteine-rich repeats, each {approx} 40 amino acids long. Previous studies showed that if the first repeat of the ligand-binding domain (encoded by exon 2) is deleted, the receptor fails to bind an anti-LDL receptor monoclonal antibody (IgG-C7) but continues to bind LDL with high affinity. Cultured fibroblasts from a Black South African Xhosa patient (TT) with the clinical syndrome of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia demonstrated high-affinity cell-surface binding of {sup 125}I-labeled LDL but not {sup 125}I-labeled IgG-C7. previous haplotype analysis, using 10 restriction fragment length polymorphic sites, suggested that the patient inherited two identical LDL receptor alleles. The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to selectively amplify exon 2 of the LDL receptor gene from this patient. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment disclosed a deletion of six base pairs that removes two amino acids, aspartic acid and glycine, from the first cysteine-rich ligand binding repeat. The mutation creates a new Pst I restriction site that can be used to detect the deletion. The existence of this mutant allele confirms that the epitope of IgG-C7 is located in the first cysteine-rich repeat and that this repeat is not necessary for LDL binding. The mutant gene produced a normally sized 120-kilodalton LDL receptor precursor protein that matured to the 160-kilodalton form at less than one-fourth the normal rate.

  10. Promoter engineering reveals the importance of heptameric direct repeats for DNA-binding by SARP-LAL regulators inStreptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreales, Eva G; Vicente, Cláudia M; de Pedro, Antonio; Santos-Aberturas, Javier; Aparicio, Jesús F

    2018-03-02

    The biosynthesis of small size polyene macrolides is ultimately controlled by a couple of transcriptional regulators that act in a hierarchical way. A SARP-LAL regulator binds the promoter of a PAS-LuxR regulator-encoding gene and activates its transcription, and in turn, the gene product of the latter activates transcription from various promoters of the polyene gene cluster directly. The primary operator of PimR, archetype of SARP-LAL regulators, contains three heptameric direct repeats separated by four nucleotide spacers, but the regulator can also bind a secondary operator with only two direct repeats separated by a 3 nucleotide spacer, both located in the promoter region of its unique target gene pimM Similar arrangement of operators has been identified for PimR counterparts encoded by gene clusters for different antifungal secondary metabolites, including not only polyene macrolides but peptidyl nucleosides, phoslactomycins, or cycloheximide. Here we have used promoter engineering and quantitative transcriptional analyses to determine the contribution of the different heptameric repeats to transcriptional activation and final polyene production. Optimized promoters have thus been developed. Deletion studies and electrophoretic mobility assays have been used for the definition of DNA-binding boxes formed by 22-nucleotide sequences comprising two conserved heptameric direct repeats separated by four-nucleotide less conserved spacers. A cooperative binding of PimR SARP appears to be the mechanism involved in binding of regulator monomers to operators, and at least two protein monomers are required for efficient binding. IMPORTANCE: Here we have shown that modulation of the production of antifungal pimaricin in Streptomyces natalensis can be accomplished via promoter engineering of the PAS-LuxR transcriptional activator pimM Expression of this gene is controlled by the SARP-LAL regulator PimR, which binds a series of heptameric direct repeats in its promoter

  11. The Potato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor Rx1 Is a Pathogen-dependent DNA-deforming Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Townsend, Philip D; Dixon, Christopher H; Spies, Gerhard B; de San Eustaquio Campillo, Alba; Slootweg, Erik J; Westerhof, Lotte B; Gawehns, Fleur K K; Knight, Marc R; Sharples, Gary J; Goverse, Aska; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L W; Cann, Martin J

    2015-10-09

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus; however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously, we noted a structural homology between the nucleotide-binding domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1 proteins. Here we show that the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding, Apaf-1, R-proteins, and CED-4) domain of the Rx1 NLR of potato binds nucleic acids. Rx1 induces ATP-dependent bending and melting of DNA in vitro, dependent upon a functional P-loop. In situ full-length Rx1 binds nuclear DNA following activation by its cognate pathogen-derived effector protein, the coat protein of potato virus X. In line with its obligatory nucleocytoplasmic distribution, DNA binding was only observed when Rx1 was allowed to freely translocate between both compartments and was activated in the cytoplasm. Immune activation induced by an unrelated NLR-effector pair did not trigger an Rx1-DNA interaction. DNA binding is therefore not merely a consequence of immune activation. These data establish a role for DNA distortion in Rx1 immune signaling and define DNA as a molecular target of an activated NLR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. The Potato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor Rx1 Is a Pathogen-dependent DNA-deforming Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Townsend, Philip D.; Dixon, Christopher H.; Spies, Gerhard B.; de San Eustaquio Campillo, Alba; Slootweg, Erik J.; Westerhof, Lotte B.; Gawehns, Fleur K. K.; Knight, Marc R.; Sharples, Gary J.; Goverse, Aska; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L. W.; Cann, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus; however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously, we noted a structural homology between the nucleotide-binding domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1 proteins. Here we show that the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding, Apaf-1, R-proteins, and CED-4) domain of the Rx1 NLR of potato binds nucleic acids. Rx1 induces ATP-dependent bending and melting of DNA in vitro, dependent upon a functional P-loop. In situ full-length Rx1 binds nuclear DNA following activation by its cognate pathogen-derived effector protein, the coat protein of potato virus X. In line with its obligatory nucleocytoplasmic distribution, DNA binding was only observed when Rx1 was allowed to freely translocate between both compartments and was activated in the cytoplasm. Immune activation induced by an unrelated NLR-effector pair did not trigger an Rx1-DNA interaction. DNA binding is therefore not merely a consequence of immune activation. These data establish a role for DNA distortion in Rx1 immune signaling and define DNA as a molecular target of an activated NLR. PMID:26306038

  13. Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene Family among Solanaceae Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Eunyoung; Kim, Seungill; Yeom, Seon-In; Choi, Doil

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate innate immune system against invading pathogens. Within this system, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors are known play critical roles in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) plant defense. We performed genome-wide identification and classification of NLR-coding sequences from the genomes of pepper, tomato, and potato using fixed criteria. We then compared genomic duplication and evolution features. We identified intact 267...

  14. One repeat of the cell wall binding domain is sufficient for anchoring the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The N-terminal repeat (SAC1) of the S-protein of Lactobacillus acidophilus bound efficiently and specifically to cell wall fragments (CWFs) when fused to green fluorescent protein, whereas the C-terminal repeat (SAC2) did not. Treatment of CWFs with hydrofluoric acid, but not phenol, prevented

  15. Cerebral histamine H1 receptor binding potential measured with PET under a test dose of olopatadine, an antihistamine, is reduced after repeated administration of olopatadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Michio; Kubo, Nobuo; Adachi, Kazuhiko; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Shimizu, Keiji; Tominaga, Hideyuki

    2009-06-01

    Some antihistamine drugs that are used for rhinitis and pollinosis have a sedative effect as they enter the brain and block the H(1) receptor, potentially causing serious accidents. Receptor occupancy has been measured with PET under single-dose administration in humans to classify antihistamines as more sedating or as less sedating (or nonsedating). In this study, the effect of repeated administration of olopatadine, an antihistamine, on the cerebral H(1) receptor was measured with PET. A total of 17 young men with rhinitis underwent dynamic brain PET with (11)C-doxepin at baseline, under an initial single dose of 5 mg of olopatadine (acute scan), and under another 5-mg dose after repeated administration of olopatadine at 10 mg/d for 4 wk (chronic scan). The H(1) receptor binding potential was estimated using Logan graphical analysis with cerebellum as reference region input. The acute scan showed a slight decrease in H(1) receptor binding potential across the cerebral cortex (by 15% in the frontal cortex), but the chronic scan showed a marked decrease (by 45% from the acute scan in the frontal cortex). Behavioral data before and after the PET scans did not reveal any sedative effect. The results may be interpreted as either intracerebral accumulation of olopatadine or H(1) receptor downregulation due to repeated administration. The study shows feasibility and potential value for PET in evaluating the pharmacologic effect of a drug not only after a single dose but also after repeated administration.

  16. A DNA-binding protein from Candida albicans that binds to the RPG box of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the telomeric repeat sequence of C. albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, N; Yamamoto, M; Lahm, H W; Iizumi, S; Yoshihara, F; Nakayama, H; Arisawa, M; Aoki, Y

    1997-02-01

    Electromobility shift assays with a DNA probe containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ENO1 RPG box identified a specific DNA-binding protein in total protein extracts of Candida albicans. The protein, named Rbf1p (RPG-box-binding protein 1), bound to other S. cerevisiae RPG boxes, although the nucleotide recognition profile was not completely the same as that of S. cerevisiae Rap 1p (repressor-activator protein 1), an RPG-box-binding protein. The repetitive sequence of the C. albicans chromosomal telomere also competed with RPG-box binding to Rbf1p. For further analysis, we purified Rbf1p 57,600-fold from C. albicans total protein extracts, raised mAbs against the purified protein and immunologically cloned the gene, whose ORF specified a protein of 527 aa. The bacterially expressed protein showed RPG-box-binding activity with the same profile as that of the purified one. The Rbf1p, containing two glutamine-rich regions that are found in many transcription factors, showed transcriptional activation capability in S. cerevisiae and was predominantly observed in nuclei. These results suggest that Rbf1p is a transcription factor with telomere-binding activity in C. albicans.

  17. Repeated administration of D-amphetamine induces loss of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporters in rat brain: a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booij, Jan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.booij@amc.uva.nl; Bruin, Kora de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gunning, W. Boudewijn [Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Centre Kempenhaeghe, 5590 AB Heeze (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    In recent years, several PET and SPECT studies have shown loss of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in amphetamine (AMPH) users. However, the use of DAT SPECT tracers to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding has not been validated. We therefore examined if repeated administration of D-AMPH or methamphetamine (METH) may induce loss of binding to striatal DATs in rats by using an experimental biodistribution study design and a SPECT tracer for the DAT ([{sup 123}I]FP-CIT). Methods: Groups of male rats (n=10 per group) were treated with D-AMPH (10 mg/kg body weight), METH (10 mg/kg body weight), or saline, twice a day for 5 consecutive days. Five days later, [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT was injected intravenously, and 2 h later, the rats were sacrificed and radioactivity was assayed. Results: In D-AMPH but not METH-treated rats, striatal [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT uptake was significantly lower (approximately 17%) than in the control group. Conclusion: These data show that [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT can be used to detect AMPH-induced changes in DAT binding and may validate the use of DAT radiotracers to study AMPH-induced changes in striatal DAT binding in vivo.

  18. Low-temperature-induced expression of rice ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase is mediated by a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element that specifically interacts with rice C-repeat-binding factor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen recycling and redistribution are important for the environmental stress response of plants. In non nitrogen-fixing plants, ureide metabolism is crucial to nitrogen recycling from organic sources. Various studies have suggested that the rate-limiting components of ureide metabolism respond to environmental stresses. However, the underlying regulation mechanism is not well understood. In this report, rice ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase (OsUAH, which is a recently identified enzyme catalyzing the final step of ureide degradation, was identified as low-temperature- (LT but not abscisic acid- (ABA regulated. To elucidate the LT regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region of OsUAH (POsUAH. Series deletions revealed that a minimal region between -522 and -420 relative to the transcriptional start site was sufficient for the cold induction of POsUAH. Detailed analyses of this 103-bp fragment indicated that a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive (CRT/DRE element localized at position -434 was essential for LT-responsive expression. A rice C-repeat-binding factors/DRE-binding proteins 1 (CBFs/DREB1s subfamily member, OsCBF3, was screened to specifically bind to the CRT/DRE element in the minimal region both in yeast one-hybrid assays and in in vitro gel-shift analysis. Moreover, the promoter could be exclusively trans-activated by the interaction between the CRT/DRE element and OsCBF3 in vivo. These findings may help to elucidate the regulation mechanism of stress-responsive ureide metabolism genes and provide an example of the member-specific manipulation of the CBF/DREB1 subfamily.

  19. Sequential binding of calcium ions to the B-repeat domain of SdrD from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Andrei Yu; Devred, François; Lobatchov, Vladimir M; Makarov, Alexander A; Peyrot, Vincent; Kubatiev, Aslan A; Tsvetkov, Philipp O

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms of live bacteria forming on medical devices and implants contribute significantly to bacterial blood dissemination and to the spread of nosocomial infections. Cell surface SdrD protein plays a key role in the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and in the formation of biofilm. SdrD binds calcium ions using its B1-B5 region bearing EF-hand Ca-binding sites, leading to conformational changes in the structure of SdrD. This alters the distance between the bacterial surface and the ECM-interacting domain of SdrD in a spring-like fashion, participating in bacterial attachment. In this study we investigated calcium binding to EF-hand sites of SdrD using isothermal titration calorimetry and determined the impact of this process on SdrD's thermodynamic stability. This allowed us to propose a model of B1-B5 reorganization upon binding of calcium and to get new insight into the molecular mechanism of SdrD's action.

  20. Local helix content and RNA-binding activity of the N-terminal leucine-repeat region of hepatitis delta antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Jyawei; Lin Ijin; Lou Yuanchou; Pai Mingtao [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Life Science (China); Wu Hueynan [Academia Sinica, Institute of Molecular Biology (China)

    1998-07-15

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which provides the surface antigen for the viral coat. Our results show that the N-terminal leucine-repeat region of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg), encompassing residues 24-50, binds to the autolytic domain of HDV genomic RNA and attenuates its autolytic activity. The solution conformation of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 24-50 of HDAg as determined by two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR and circular dichroism techniques is found to be an {alpha}-helix. The local helix content of this peptide was analyzed by NOEs and coupling constants. Mutagenesis studies indicate that Lys{sup 38}, Lys{sup 39}, and Lys{sup 40} within this {alpha}-helical peptide may be directly involved in RNA binding. A structural knowledge of the N-terminal leucine-repeat region of HDAg thus provides a molecular basis for understanding its role in the interaction with RNA.

  1. Repeated Vaccination of Cows with HIV Env gp140 during Subsequent Pregnancies Elicits and Sustains an Enduring Strong Env-Binding and Neutralising Antibody Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarchi, Behnaz; Center, Rob J; Gonelli, Christopher; Muller, Brian; Mackenzie, Charlene; Khoury, Georges; Lichtfuss, Marit; Rawlin, Grant; Purcell, Damian F J

    2016-01-01

    An important feature of a potential vaccine against HIV is the production of broadly neutralising antibodies (BrNAbs) capable of potentially blocking infectivity of a diverse array of HIV strains. BrNAbs naturally arise in some HIV infected individuals after several years of infection and their serum IgG can neutralise various HIV strains across different subtypes. We previously showed that vaccination of cows with HIV gp140 AD8 trimers resulted in a high titre of serum IgG against HIV envelope (Env) that had strong BrNAb activity. These polyclonal BrNAbs concentrated into the colostrum during the late stage of pregnancy and can be harvested in vast quantities immediately after calving. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged HIV gp140 vaccination on bovine colostrum IgG HIV Env-binding and BrNAb activity over subsequent pregnancies. Repeated immunisation led to a maintained high titre of HIV Env specific IgG in the colostrum batches, but this did not increase through repeated cycles. Colostrum IgG from all batches also strongly competed with sCD4 binding to gp140 Env trimer and with human-derived monoclonal VRC01 and b12 BrNAbs that bind the CD4 binding site (CD4bs). Furthermore, competition neutralisation assays using RSC3 Env gp120 protein core and a derivative CD4bs mutant, RSC3 Δ371I/P363N, showed that CD4bs neutralising antibodies contribute to the neutralising activity of all batches of purified bovine colostrum IgG. This result indicates that the high IgG titre/avidity of anti-CD4bs antibodies with BrNAb activity was achieved during the first year of vaccination and was sustained throughout the years of repeated vaccinations in the cow tested. Although IgG of subsequent colostrum batches may have a higher avidity towards the CD4bs, the overall breadth in neutralisation was not enhanced. This implies that the boosting vaccinations over 4 years elicited a polyclonal antibody response that maintained the proportion of both neutralising and non

  2. Repeated Vaccination of Cows with HIV Env gp140 during Subsequent Pregnancies Elicits and Sustains an Enduring Strong Env-Binding and Neutralising Antibody Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Heydarchi

    Full Text Available An important feature of a potential vaccine against HIV is the production of broadly neutralising antibodies (BrNAbs capable of potentially blocking infectivity of a diverse array of HIV strains. BrNAbs naturally arise in some HIV infected individuals after several years of infection and their serum IgG can neutralise various HIV strains across different subtypes. We previously showed that vaccination of cows with HIV gp140 AD8 trimers resulted in a high titre of serum IgG against HIV envelope (Env that had strong BrNAb activity. These polyclonal BrNAbs concentrated into the colostrum during the late stage of pregnancy and can be harvested in vast quantities immediately after calving. In this study, we investigated the effect of prolonged HIV gp140 vaccination on bovine colostrum IgG HIV Env-binding and BrNAb activity over subsequent pregnancies. Repeated immunisation led to a maintained high titre of HIV Env specific IgG in the colostrum batches, but this did not increase through repeated cycles. Colostrum IgG from all batches also strongly competed with sCD4 binding to gp140 Env trimer and with human-derived monoclonal VRC01 and b12 BrNAbs that bind the CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Furthermore, competition neutralisation assays using RSC3 Env gp120 protein core and a derivative CD4bs mutant, RSC3 Δ371I/P363N, showed that CD4bs neutralising antibodies contribute to the neutralising activity of all batches of purified bovine colostrum IgG. This result indicates that the high IgG titre/avidity of anti-CD4bs antibodies with BrNAb activity was achieved during the first year of vaccination and was sustained throughout the years of repeated vaccinations in the cow tested. Although IgG of subsequent colostrum batches may have a higher avidity towards the CD4bs, the overall breadth in neutralisation was not enhanced. This implies that the boosting vaccinations over 4 years elicited a polyclonal antibody response that maintained the proportion of both

  3. Members of a novel protein family containing microneme adhesive repeat domains act as sialic acid-binding lectins during host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nikolas; Santos, Joana M; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S; Leon, Ester; Saouros, Savvas; Kiso, Makoto; Blackman, Michael J; Matthews, Stephen; Feizi, Ten; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2010-01-15

    Numerous intracellular pathogens exploit cell surface glycoconjugates for host cell recognition and entry. Unlike bacteria and viruses, Toxoplasma gondii and other parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa actively invade host cells, and this process critically depends on adhesins (microneme proteins) released onto the parasite surface from intracellular organelles called micronemes (MIC). The microneme adhesive repeat (MAR) domain of T. gondii MIC1 (TgMIC1) recognizes sialic acid (Sia), a key determinant on the host cell surface for invasion by this pathogen. By complementation and invasion assays, we demonstrate that TgMIC1 is one important player in Sia-dependent invasion and that another novel Sia-binding lectin, designated TgMIC13, is also involved. Using BLAST searches, we identify a family of MAR-containing proteins in enteroparasitic coccidians, a subclass of apicomplexans, including T. gondii, suggesting that all these parasites exploit sialylated glycoconjugates on host cells as determinants for enteric invasion. Furthermore, this protein family might provide a basis for the broad host cell range observed for coccidians that form tissue cysts during chronic infection. Carbohydrate microarray analyses, corroborated by structural considerations, show that TgMIC13, TgMIC1, and its homologue Neospora caninum MIC1 (NcMIC1) share a preference for alpha2-3- over alpha2-6-linked sialyl-N-acetyllactosamine sequences. However, the three lectins also display differences in binding preferences. Intense binding of TgMIC13 to alpha2-9-linked disialyl sequence reported on embryonal cells and relatively strong binding to 4-O-acetylated-Sia found on gut epithelium and binding of NcMIC1 to 6'sulfo-sialyl Lewis(x) might have implications for tissue tropism.

  4. Effect of repeat unit structure and molecular mass of lactic acid bacteria hetero-exopolysaccharides on binding to milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Johnny; HarÐarson, HörÐur Kári; Khan, Sanaullah

    2017-01-01

    -exopolysaccharides (HePSs) of 0.14–4.9 MDa from lactic acid bacteria to different milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, native and heat-treated β-lactoglobulin) at pH 4.0–5.0. Maximum binding capacity (RUmax) and apparent affinity (KA,app) were HePS- and protein-dependent and varied for example 10- and 600-fold......, respectively, in the complexation with native β-lactoglobulin at pH 4.0. Highest RUmax and KA,app were obtained with heat-treated β-lactoglobulin and β-casein, respectively. Overall, RUmax and KA,app decreased 6- and 20-fold, respectively, with increasing pH from 4.0 to 5.0. KA,app was influenced by ionic...

  5. TMPyP4 porphyrin distorts RNA G-quadruplex structures of the disease-associated r(GGGGCC)n repeat of the C9orf72 gene and blocks interaction of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Bita; Reddy, Kaalak; Macgregor, Robert B; Pearson, Christopher E

    2014-02-21

    Certain DNA and RNA sequences can form G-quadruplexes, which can affect genetic instability, promoter activity, RNA splicing, RNA stability, and neurite mRNA localization. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia can be caused by expansion of a (GGGGCC)n repeat in the C9orf72 gene. Mutant r(GGGGCC)n- and r(GGCCCC)n-containing transcripts aggregate in nuclear foci, possibly sequestering repeat-binding proteins such as ASF/SF2 and hnRNPA1, suggesting a toxic RNA pathogenesis, as occurs in myotonic dystrophy. Furthermore, the C9orf72 repeat RNA was recently demonstrated to undergo the noncanonical repeat-associated non-AUG translation (RAN translation) into pathologic dipeptide repeats in patient brains, a process that is thought to depend upon RNA structure. We previously demonstrated that the r(GGGGCC)n RNA forms repeat tract length-dependent G-quadruplex structures that bind the ASF/SF2 protein. Here we show that the cationic porphyrin (5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (TMPyP4)), which can bind some G-quadruplex-forming sequences, can bind and distort the G-quadruplex formed by r(GGGGCC)8, and this ablates the interaction of either hnRNPA1 or ASF/SF2 with the repeat. These findings provide proof of concept that nucleic acid binding small molecules, such as TMPyP4, can distort the secondary structure of the C9orf72 repeat, which may beneficially disrupt protein interactions, which may ablate either protein sequestration and/or RAN translation into potentially toxic dipeptides. Disruption of secondary structure formation of the C9orf72 RNA repeats may be a viable therapeutic avenue, as well as a means to test the role of RNA structure upon RAN translation.

  6. Crystal Structure of the Ubiquitin-like Domain-CUT Repeat-like Tandem of Special AT-rich Sequence Binding Protein 1 (SATB1) Reveals a Coordinating DNA-binding Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yang, Xue; Guo, Shuang; Yang, Yin; Su, Xun-Cheng; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2014-01-01

    SATB1 is essential for T-cell development and growth and metastasis of multitype tumors and acts as a global chromatin organizer and gene expression regulator. The DNA binding ability of SATB1 plays vital roles in its various biological functions. We report the crystal structure of the N-terminal module of SATB1. Interestingly, this module contains a ubiquitin-like domain (ULD) and a CUT repeat-like (CUTL) domain (ULD-CUTL tandem). Detailed biochemical experiments indicate that the N terminus of SATB1 (residues 1–248, SATB1(1–248)), including the extreme 70 N-terminal amino acids, and the ULD-CUTL tandem bind specifically to DNA targets. Our results show that the DNA binding ability of full-length SATB1 requires the contribution of the CUTL domain, as well as the CUT1-CUT2 tandem domain and the homeodomain. These findings may reveal a multiple-domain-coordinated mechanism whereby SATB1 recognizes DNA targets. PMID:25124042

  7. Crystal structure of the ubiquitin-like domain-CUT repeat-like tandem of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) reveals a coordinating DNA-binding mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Yang, Xue; Guo, Shuang; Yang, Yin; Su, Xun-Cheng; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2014-10-03

    SATB1 is essential for T-cell development and growth and metastasis of multitype tumors and acts as a global chromatin organizer and gene expression regulator. The DNA binding ability of SATB1 plays vital roles in its various biological functions. We report the crystal structure of the N-terminal module of SATB1. Interestingly, this module contains a ubiquitin-like domain (ULD) and a CUT repeat-like (CUTL) domain (ULD-CUTL tandem). Detailed biochemical experiments indicate that the N terminus of SATB1 (residues 1-248, SATB1((1-248))), including the extreme 70 N-terminal amino acids, and the ULD-CUTL tandem bind specifically to DNA targets. Our results show that the DNA binding ability of full-length SATB1 requires the contribution of the CUTL domain, as well as the CUT1-CUT2 tandem domain and the homeodomain. These findings may reveal a multiple-domain-coordinated mechanism whereby SATB1 recognizes DNA targets. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Analysis of polyglutamine-coding repeats in the TATA-binding protein in different human populations and in patients with schizophrenia an bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J. [Addenbrooke`s National Health Service Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Crow, T.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    A new class of disease (including Huntington disease, Kennedy disease, and spinocerebellar ataxias types 1 and 3) results from abnormal expansions of CAG trinucleotides in the coding regions of genes. In all of these diseases the CAG repeats are thought to be translated into polyglutamine tracts. There is accumulating evidence arguing for CAG trinucleotide expansions as one of the causative disease mutations in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We and others believe that the TATA-binding protein (TBP) is an important candidate to investigate in these diseases as it contains a highly polymorphic stretch of glutamine codons, which are close to the threshold length where the polyglutamine tracts start to be associated with disease. Thus, we examined the lengths of this polyglutamine repeat in normal unrelated East Anglians, South African Blacks, sub-Saharan Africans mainly from Nigeria, and Asian Indians. We also examined 43 bipolar affective disorder patients and 65 schizophrenic patients. The range of polyglutamine tract-lengths that we found in humans was from 26-42 codons. No patients with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia had abnormal expansions at this locus. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Expansion of GA Dinucleotide Repeats Increases the Density of CLAMP Binding Sites on the X-Chromosome to Promote Drosophila Dosage Compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Kuzu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dosage compensation is an essential process that equalizes transcript levels of X-linked genes between sexes by forming a domain of coordinated gene expression. Throughout the evolution of Diptera, many different X-chromosomes acquired the ability to be dosage compensated. Once each newly evolved X-chromosome is targeted for dosage compensation in XY males, its active genes are upregulated two-fold to equalize gene expression with XX females. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CLAMP zinc finger protein links the dosage compensation complex to the X-chromosome. However, the mechanism for X-chromosome identification has remained unknown. Here, we combine biochemical, genomic and evolutionary approaches to reveal that expansion of GA-dinucleotide repeats likely accumulated on the X-chromosome over evolutionary time to increase the density of CLAMP binding sites, thereby driving the evolution of dosage compensation. Overall, we present new insight into how subtle changes in genomic architecture, such as expansions of a simple sequence repeat, promote the evolution of coordinated gene expression.

  10. Expansion of GA Dinucleotide Repeats Increases the Density of CLAMP Binding Sites on the X-Chromosome to Promote Drosophila Dosage Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chery, Jessica; Siggers, Trevor; Boor, Sonia; Bliss, Jacob; Liu, Wei; Jogl, Gerwald; Rohs, Remo; Singh, Nadia D.; Bulyk, Martha L.; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.; Larschan, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation is an essential process that equalizes transcript levels of X-linked genes between sexes by forming a domain of coordinated gene expression. Throughout the evolution of Diptera, many different X-chromosomes acquired the ability to be dosage compensated. Once each newly evolved X-chromosome is targeted for dosage compensation in XY males, its active genes are upregulated two-fold to equalize gene expression with XX females. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CLAMP zinc finger protein links the dosage compensation complex to the X-chromosome. However, the mechanism for X-chromosome identification has remained unknown. Here, we combine biochemical, genomic and evolutionary approaches to reveal that expansion of GA-dinucleotide repeats likely accumulated on the X-chromosome over evolutionary time to increase the density of CLAMP binding sites, thereby driving the evolution of dosage compensation. Overall, we present new insight into how subtle changes in genomic architecture, such as expansions of a simple sequence repeat, promote the evolution of coordinated gene expression. PMID:27414415

  11. Identification of the minimal functional unit in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein for binding the receptor-associated protein (RAP). A conserved acidic residue in the complement-type repeats is important for recognition of RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, O M; Christensen, L L; Christensen, P A; Sørensen, E S; Jacobsen, C; Moestrup, S K; Etzerodt, M; Thogersen, H C

    2000-07-14

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor family, mediates the internalization of a diverse set of ligands. The ligand binding sites are located in different regions of clusters consisting of approximately 40 residues, cysteine-rich complement-type repeats (CRs). The 39-40-kDa receptor-associated protein, a folding chaperone/escort protein required for efficient transport of functional LRP to the cell surface, is an antagonist of all identified ligands. To analyze the multisite inhibition by RAP in ligand binding of LRP, we have used an Escherichia coli expression system to produce fragments of the entire second ligand binding cluster of LRP (CR3-10). By ligand affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we show that RAP binds to all two-repeat modules except CR910. CR10 differs from other repeats in cluster II by not containing a surface-exposed conserved acidic residue between Cys(IV) and Cys(V). By site-directed mutagenesis and ligand competition analysis, we provide evidence for a crucial importance of this conserved residue for RAP binding. We provide experimental evidence showing that two adjacent complement-type repeats, both containing a conserved acidic residue, represent a minimal unit required for efficient binding to RAP.

  12. Synthesis, Binding and Antiviral Properties of Potent Core-Extended Naphthalene Diimides Targeting the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat Promoter G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Rosalba; Doria, Filippo; Butovskaya, Elena; Frasson, Ilaria; Botti, Silvia; Scalabrin, Matteo; Lago, Sara; Grande, Vincenzo; Nadai, Matteo; Freccero, Mauro; Richter, Sara N

    2015-12-24

    We have previously reported that stabilization of the G-quadruplex structures in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter suppresses viral transcription. Here we sought to develop new G-quadruplex ligands to be exploited as antiviral compounds by enhancing binding toward the viral G-quadruplex structures. We synthesized naphthalene diimide derivatives with a lateral expansion of the aromatic core. The new compounds were able to bind/stabilize the G-quadruplex to a high extent, and some of them displayed clear-cut selectivity toward the viral G-quadruplexes with respect to the human telomeric G-quadruplexes. This feature translated into low nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity toward two viral strains and encouraging selectivity indexes. The selectivity depended on specific recognition of LTR loop residues; the mechanism of action was ascribed to inhibition of LTR promoter activity in cells. This is the first example of G-quadruplex ligands that show increased selectivity toward the viral G-quadruplexes and display remarkable antiviral activity.

  13. Crystal Structure of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 Protein Revealed Ca[superscript 2+]-dependent Double-stranded DNA Binding Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong (Cornell); (NWU)

    2012-05-22

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 {angstrom} tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is {approx}26 {angstrom} wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an {alpha}/{beta} domain and an {alpha}-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca{sup 2+} was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca{sup 2+} ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca{sup 2+} ions.

  14. Crystal structure of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated Csn2 protein revealed Ca2+-dependent double-stranded DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kurinov, Igor; Ke, Ailong

    2011-09-02

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and their associated protein genes (cas genes) are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They form a line of RNA-based immunity to eradicate invading bacteriophages and malicious plasmids. A key molecular event during this process is the acquisition of new spacers into the CRISPR loci to guide the selective degradation of the matching foreign genetic elements. Csn2 is a Nmeni subtype-specific cas gene required for new spacer acquisition. Here we characterize the Enterococcus faecalis Csn2 protein as a double-stranded (ds-) DNA-binding protein and report its 2.7 Å tetrameric ring structure. The inner circle of the Csn2 tetrameric ring is ∼26 Å wide and populated with conserved lysine residues poised for nonspecific interactions with ds-DNA. Each Csn2 protomer contains an α/β domain and an α-helical domain; significant hinge motion was observed between these two domains. Ca(2+) was located at strategic positions in the oligomerization interface. We further showed that removal of Ca(2+) ions altered the oligomerization state of Csn2, which in turn severely decreased its affinity for ds-DNA. In summary, our results provided the first insight into the function of the Csn2 protein in CRISPR adaptation by revealing that it is a ds-DNA-binding protein functioning at the quaternary structure level and regulated by Ca(2+) ions.

  15. Components of the Arabidopsis C-Repeat/Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding Factor Cold-Response Pathway Are Conserved in Brassica napus and Other Plant Species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglo, Kirsten R.; Kleff, Susanne; Amundsen, Keenan L.; Zhang, Xin; Haake, Volker; Zhang, James Z.; Deits, Thomas; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2001-01-01

    Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis involves rapid cold-induced expression of the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) transcriptional activators followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes that increase freezing tolerance. Here, we present evidence for a CBF cold-response pathway in Brassica napus. We show that B. napus encodes CBF-like genes and that transcripts for these genes accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature followed closely by expression of the cold-regulated Bn115 gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis CBF-targeted COR15a gene. Moreover, we show that constitutive overexpression of the Arabidopsis CBF genes in transgenic B. napus plants induces expression of orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF-targeted genes and increases the freezing tolerance of both nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants. Transcripts encoding CBF-like proteins were also found to accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Norstar) and rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma), which cold acclimate, as well as in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Bonny Best, Castle Mart, Micro-Tom, and D Huang), a freezing-sensitive plant that does not cold acclimate. An alignment of the CBF proteins from Arabidopsis, B. napus, wheat, rye, and tomato revealed the presence of conserved amino acid sequences, PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP and DSAWR, that bracket the AP2/EREBP DNA binding domains of the proteins and distinguish them from other members of the AP2/EREBP protein family. We conclude that components of the CBF cold-response pathway are highly conserved in flowering plants and not limited to those that cold acclimate. PMID:11706173

  16. Components of the Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor cold-response pathway are conserved in Brassica napus and other plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglo, K R; Kleff, S; Amundsen, K L; Zhang, X; Haake, V; Zhang, J Z; Deits, T; Thomashow, M F

    2001-11-01

    Many plants increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Cold acclimation in Arabidopsis involves rapid cold-induced expression of the C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor (CBF) transcriptional activators followed by expression of CBF-targeted genes that increase freezing tolerance. Here, we present evidence for a CBF cold-response pathway in Brassica napus. We show that B. napus encodes CBF-like genes and that transcripts for these genes accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature followed closely by expression of the cold-regulated Bn115 gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis CBF-targeted COR15a gene. Moreover, we show that constitutive overexpression of the Arabidopsis CBF genes in transgenic B. napus plants induces expression of orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF-targeted genes and increases the freezing tolerance of both nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants. Transcripts encoding CBF-like proteins were also found to accumulate rapidly in response to low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Norstar) and rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma), which cold acclimate, as well as in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Bonny Best, Castle Mart, Micro-Tom, and D Huang), a freezing-sensitive plant that does not cold acclimate. An alignment of the CBF proteins from Arabidopsis, B. napus, wheat, rye, and tomato revealed the presence of conserved amino acid sequences, PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP and DSAWR, that bracket the AP2/EREBP DNA binding domains of the proteins and distinguish them from other members of the AP2/EREBP protein family. We conclude that components of the CBF cold-response pathway are highly conserved in flowering plants and not limited to those that cold acclimate.

  17. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate-binding properties of two tandem repeat-type Jacalin-related lectins, Castanea crenata agglutinin and Cycas revoluta leaf lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiko; Yagi, Fumio; Totani, Kiichiro; Ito, Yukishige; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2005-06-01

    Lectins belonging to the jacalin-related lectin family are distributed widely in the plant kingdom. Recently, two mannose-specific lectins having tandem repeat-type structures were discovered in Castanea crenata (angiosperm) and Cycas revoluta (gymnosperm). The occurrence of such similar molecules in taxonomically less related plants suggests their importance in the plant body. To obtain clues to understand their physiological roles, we performed detailed analysis of their sugar-binding specificity. For this purpose, we compared the dissociation constants (K(d)) of Castanea crenata agglutinin (CCA) and Cycas revoluta leaf lectin (CRLL) by using 102 pyridylaminated and 13 p-nitrophenyl oligosaccharides with a recently developed automated system for frontal affinity chromatography. As a result, we found that the basic carbohydrate-binding properties of CCA and CRLL were similar, but differed in their preference for larger N-linked glycans (e.g. Man7-9 glycans). While the affinity of CCA decreased with an increase in the number of extended alpha1-2 mannose residues, CRLL could recognize these Man7-9 glycans with much enhanced affinity. Notably, both lectins also preserved considerable affinity for mono-antennary, complex type N-linked glycans, though the specificity was much broader for CCA. The information obtained here should be helpful for understanding their functions in vivo as well as for development of useful probes for animal cells. This is the first systematic approach to elucidate the fine specificities of plant lectins by means of high-throughput, automated frontal affinity chromatography.

  18. Specific loss of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation and HP1gamma/cohesin binding at D4Z4 repeats is associated with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zeng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy in which no mutation of pathogenic gene(s has been identified. Instead, the disease is, in most cases, genetically linked to a contraction in the number of 3.3 kb D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4q. How contraction of the 4qter D4Z4 repeats causes muscular dystrophy is not understood. In addition, a smaller group of FSHD cases are not associated with D4Z4 repeat contraction (termed "phenotypic" FSHD, and their etiology remains undefined. We carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using D4Z4-specific PCR primers to examine the D4Z4 chromatin structure in normal and patient cells as well as in small interfering RNA (siRNA-treated cells. We found that SUV39H1-mediated H3K9 trimethylation at D4Z4 seen in normal cells is lost in FSHD. Furthermore, the loss of this histone modification occurs not only at the contracted 4q D4Z4 allele, but also at the genetically intact D4Z4 alleles on both chromosomes 4q and 10q, providing the first evidence that the genetic change (contraction of one 4qD4Z4 allele spreads its effect to other genomic regions. Importantly, this epigenetic change was also observed in the phenotypic FSHD cases with no D4Z4 contraction, but not in other types of muscular dystrophies tested. We found that HP1gamma and cohesin are co-recruited to D4Z4 in an H3K9me3-dependent and cell type-specific manner, which is disrupted in FSHD. The results indicate that cohesin plays an active role in HP1 recruitment and is involved in cell type-specific D4Z4 chromatin regulation. Taken together, we identified the loss of both histone H3K9 trimethylation and HP1gamma/cohesin binding at D4Z4 to be a faithful marker for the FSHD phenotype. Based on these results, we propose a new model in which the epigenetic change initiated at 4q D4Z4 spreads its effect to other genomic regions, which compromises muscle-specific gene regulation leading to FSHD pathogenesis.

  19. Isolation and characterization of nucleotide-binding site and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat-resistance gene candidates in bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Xu, W H; Xie, Y X; Zhang, X; Pu, J J; Qi, Y X; Li, H P

    2011-12-15

    Commercial banana varieties are highly susceptible to fungal pathogens, as well as bacterial pathogens, nematodes, viruses, and insect pests. The largest known family of plant resistance genes encodes proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Conserved motifs in such genes in diverse plant species offer a means for the isolation of candidate genes in banana that may be involved in plant defense. Six degenerate PCR primers were designed to target NBS and additional domains were tested on commercial banana species Musa acuminata subsp malaccensis and the Musa AAB Group propagated in vitro and plants maintained in a greenhouse. Total DNA was isolated by a modified CTAB extraction technique. Four resistance gene analogs were amplified and deposited in GenBank and assigned numbers HQ199833-HQ199836. The predicted amino acid sequences compared to the amino acid sequences of known resistance genes (MRGL1, MRGL2, MRGL3, and MRGL4) revealed significant sequence similarity. The presence of consensus domains, namely kinase-1a, kinase-2 and hydrophobic domain, provided evidence that the cloned sequences belong to the typical non-Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like domain NBS-LRR gene family.

  20. Molecular characterization of cotton C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factor genes that are involved in response to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liu-Feng; Zhang, Jian-Min; Huang, Geng-Qing; Li, Yang; Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Low temperature, drought and salinity are major abiotic stresses that influence survival, productivity and geographical distribution of many important crops across the globe. The C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB) are important proteins involved in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In this study, twenty-one CBF genes were identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by bioinformatic approach. The twenty-one CBF genes (named as GhCBF1--GhCBF21) were characterized to encode proteins that share high similarity with those plant cold stress-related CBF proteins, which contain the classic AP2 domain of 58 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated cotton CBF genes can be classified into 4 groups: GhCBF I, GhCBF II, GhCBF III and GhCBF IV. RT-PCR analysis indicated that GhCBF genes were up-regulated in cotton plants under cold stress. Furthermore, four GhCBF genes were up-regulated in cotton under salinity and drought treatments. Our data provided valuable information for further exploring the roles of the CBF genes in cotton development and in response to cold stress.

  1. Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene Family among Solanaceae Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Kim, Seungill; Yeom, Seon-In; Choi, Doil

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate innate immune system against invading pathogens. Within this system, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors are known play critical roles in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) plant defense. We performed genome-wide identification and classification of NLR-coding sequences from the genomes of pepper, tomato, and potato using fixed criteria. We then compared genomic duplication and evolution features. We identified intact 267, 443, and 755 NLR-encoding genes in tomato, potato, and pepper genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and classification of Solanaceae NLRs revealed that the majority of NLR super family members fell into 14 subgroups, including a TIR-NLR (TNL) subgroup and 13 non-TNL subgroups. Specific subgroups have expanded in each genome, with the expansion in pepper showing subgroup-specific physical clusters. Comparative analysis of duplications showed distinct duplication patterns within pepper and among Solanaceae plants suggesting subgroup- or species-specific gene duplication events after speciation, resulting in divergent evolution. Taken together, genome-wide analysis of NLR family members provide insights into their evolutionary history in Solanaceae. These findings also provide important foundational knowledge for understanding NLR evolution and will empower broader characterization of disease resistance genes to be used for crop breeding. PMID:27559340

  2. Genome-wide Comparative Analyses Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene Family among Solanaceae Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Seo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved an elaborate innate immune system against invading pathogens. Within this system, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR immune receptors are known play critical roles in effector-triggered immunity (ETI plant defense. We performed genome-wide identification and classification of NLR-coding sequences from the genomes of pepper, tomato, and potato using fixed criteria. We then compared genomic duplication and evolution features. We identified intact 267, 443, and 755 NLR-encoding genes in tomato, potato, and pepper genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and classification of Solanaceae NLRs revealed that the majority of NLR super family members fell into 14 subgroups, including a TIR-NLR (TNL subgroup and 13 non-TNL subgroups. Specific subgroups have expanded in each genome, with the expansion in pepper showing subgroup-specific physical clusters. Comparative analysis of duplications showed distinct duplication patterns within pepper and among Solanaceae plants suggesting subgroup- or species-specific gene duplication events after speciation, resulting in divergent evolution. Taken together, genome-wide analyses of NLR family members provide insights into their evolutionary history in Solanaceae. These findings also provide important foundational knowledge for understanding NLR evolution and will empower broader characterization of disease resistance genes to be used for crop breeding.

  3. A Cluster of Nucleotide-Binding Site–Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Resides in a Barley Powdery Mildew Resistance Quantitative Trait Loci on 7HL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos P. Cantalapiedra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew causes severe yield losses in barley production worldwide. Although many resistance genes have been described, only a few have already been cloned. A strong QTL (quantitative trait locus conferring resistance to a wide array of powdery mildew isolates was identified in a Spanish barley landrace on the long arm of chromosome 7H. Previous studies narrowed down the QTL position, but were unable to identify candidate genes or physically locate the resistance. In this study, the exome of three recombinant lines from a high-resolution mapping population was sequenced and analyzed, narrowing the position of the resistance down to a single physical contig. Closer inspection of the region revealed a cluster of closely related NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat containing protein genes. Large differences were found between the resistant lines and the reference genome of cultivar Morex, in the form of PAV (presence-absence variation in the composition of the NBS-LRR cluster. Finally, a template-guided assembly was performed and subsequent expression analysis revealed that one of the new assembled candidate genes is transcribed. In summary, the results suggest that NBS-LRR genes, absent from the reference and the susceptible genotypes, could be functional and responsible for the powdery mildew resistance. The procedure followed is an example of the use of NGS (next-generation sequencing tools to tackle the challenges of gene cloning when the target gene is absent from the reference genome.

  4. Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene Family among Solanaceae Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Kim, Seungill; Yeom, Seon-In; Choi, Doil

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate innate immune system against invading pathogens. Within this system, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors are known play critical roles in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) plant defense. We performed genome-wide identification and classification of NLR-coding sequences from the genomes of pepper, tomato, and potato using fixed criteria. We then compared genomic duplication and evolution features. We identified intact 267, 443, and 755 NLR-encoding genes in tomato, potato, and pepper genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and classification of Solanaceae NLRs revealed that the majority of NLR super family members fell into 14 subgroups, including a TIR-NLR (TNL) subgroup and 13 non-TNL subgroups. Specific subgroups have expanded in each genome, with the expansion in pepper showing subgroup-specific physical clusters. Comparative analysis of duplications showed distinct duplication patterns within pepper and among Solanaceae plants suggesting subgroup- or species-specific gene duplication events after speciation, resulting in divergent evolution. Taken together, genome-wide analysis of NLR family members provide insights into their evolutionary history in Solanaceae. These findings also provide important foundational knowledge for understanding NLR evolution and will empower broader characterization of disease resistance genes to be used for crop breeding.

  5. Differential effects of acute and repeated electrically and chemically induced seizures on ( sup 3 H)Nimodipine and ( sup 125 I)omega-conotoxin GVIA binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleiter, C.H.; Cain, C.J.; Weiss, S.R.; Post, R.M.; Marangos, P.J. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-07-01

    ({sup 3}H)Nimodipine and high-affinity ({sup 125}I)omega-conotoxin GVIA (CgTX) binding were investigated in membranes from rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus after electrically and chemically induced seizures. Animals were decapitated 30 min after a single electroconvulsive shock (ECS) or lidocaine-induced seizure and 24 h after the last of 10 once-daily ECS or six once-daily lidocaine-induced seizures. After a single ECS, ({sup 3}H)nimodipine and ({sup 125}I)CgTX binding sites decreased in cerebral cortex (by 10% and 17%, respectively). A downregulation of ({sup 3}H)nimodipine binding sites in hippocampus occurred after single and repeated lidocaine-induced seizures (by 24% and 11%, respectively), whereas ({sup 125}I)CgTX binding remained unaltered. An earlier report on changes in ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding after chronic ECS in cortex and hippocampus was not confirmed.

  6. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Huang, Hongjun; Tan, Binghe; Wei, Yinglei; Xiong, Qingqing; Yan, Yan; Hou, Lili; Wu, Nannan; Siwko, Stefan; Cimarelli, Andrea; Xu, Jianrong; Han, Honghui; Qian, Min; Liu, Mingyao; Du, Bing

    2017-10-06

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells. Accordingly, Lgr4-deficient mice had dramatically decreased VSV levels in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, Lgr4 knockdown in RAW 264.7 cells also significantly suppressed VSV infection, and Lgr4 overexpression in RAW 264.7 cells enhanced VSV infection. Interestingly, only VSV infection relied on Lgr4, whereas infections with Newcastle disease virus, influenza A virus (A/WSN/33), and herpes simplex virus were unaffected by Lgr4 status. Of note, assays of virus entry, cell ELISA, immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that VSV bound susceptible cells via the Lgr4 extracellular domain. Pretreating cells with an Lgr4 antibody, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain, or R-spondin 1 blocked VSV infection by competitively inhibiting VSV binding to Lgr4. Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Suppression among alleles encoding nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat resistance proteins interferes with resistance in F1 hybrid and allele-pyramided wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnweis, Daniel; Milani, Samira D; Brunner, Susanne; Herren, Gerhard; Buchmann, Gabriele; Peditto, David; Jordan, Tina; Keller, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The development of high-yielding varieties with broad-spectrum durable disease resistance is the ultimate goal of crop breeding. In plants, immune receptors of the nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) class mediate race-specific resistance against pathogen attack. When employed in agriculture this type of resistance is often rapidly overcome by newly adapted pathogen races. The stacking of different resistance genes or alleles in F1 hybrids or in pyramided lines is a promising strategy for achieving more durable resistance. Here, we identify a molecular mechanism which can negatively interfere with the allele-pyramiding approach. We show that pairwise combinations of different alleles of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm3 in F1 hybrids and stacked transgenic wheat lines can result in suppression of Pm3-based resistance. This effect is independent of the genetic background and solely dependent on the Pm3 alleles. Suppression occurs at the post-translational level, as levels of RNA and protein in the suppressed alleles are unaffected. Using a transient expression system in Nicotiana benthamiana, the LRR domain was identified as the domain conferring suppression. The results of this study suggest that the expression of closely related NB-LRR resistance genes or alleles in the same genotype can lead to dominant-negative interactions. These findings provide a molecular explanation for the frequently observed ineffectiveness of resistance genes introduced from the secondary gene pool into polyploid crop species and mark an important step in overcoming this limitation. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effect of a DeltaK280 mutation on the unfolded state of a microtubule-binding repeat in Tau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Huang

    Full Text Available Tau is a natively unfolded protein that forms intracellular aggregates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. To decipher the mechanism underlying the formation of tau aggregates, we developed a novel approach for constructing models of natively unfolded proteins. The method, energy-minima mapping and weighting (EMW, samples local energy minima of subsequences within a natively unfolded protein and then constructs ensembles from these energetically favorable conformations that are consistent with a given set of experimental data. A unique feature of the method is that it does not strive to generate a single ensemble that represents the unfolded state. Instead we construct a number of candidate ensembles, each of which agrees with a given set of experimental constraints, and focus our analysis on local structural features that are present in all of the independently generated ensembles. Using EMW we generated ensembles that are consistent with chemical shift measurements obtained on tau constructs. Thirty models were constructed for the second microtubule binding repeat (MTBR2 in wild-type (WT tau and a DeltaK280 mutant, which is found in some forms of frontotemporal dementia. By focusing on structural features that are preserved across all ensembles, we find that the aggregation-initiating sequence, PHF6*, prefers an extended conformation in both the WT and DeltaK280 sequences. In addition, we find that residue K280 can adopt a loop/turn conformation in WT MTBR2 and that deletion of this residue, which can adopt nonextended states, leads to an increase in locally extended conformations near the C-terminus of PHF6*. As an increased preference for extended states near the C-terminus of PHF6* may facilitate the propagation of beta-structure downstream from PHF6*, these results explain how a deletion at position 280 can promote the formation of tau aggregates.

  9. Reproducibility of repeated measures of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl ([11C]L-deprenyl-D2) binding in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; MacGregor, Robert R.; Shea, Colleen

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of repeated positron emission tomography (PET) measures of brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) using deuterium-substituted [ 11 C]L-deprenyl ([ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2) in normal subjects and to validate the method used for estimating the kinetic constants from the irreversible 3-compartment model applied to the tracer binding. Five normal healthy subjects (age range 23-73 years) each received two PET scans with [ 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2. The time interval between scans was 7-27 days. Time-activity data from eight regions of interest and an arterial plasma input function was used to calculate λk 3 , a model term proportional to MAO B, and K 1 , the plasma to brain transfer constant that is related to blood flow. Linear (LIN) and nonlinear least-squares (NLLSQ) estimation methods were used to calculate the optimum model constants. A comparison of time-activity curves for scan 1 and scan 2 showed that the percent of change for peak uptake varied from -18.5 to 15.0% and that increases and decreases in uptake on scan 2 were associated with increases and decreases in the value of the arterial input of the tracer. Calculation of λk 3 showed a difference between scan 1 and scan 2 in the global value ranging between -6.97 and 4.5% (average -2.1±4.7%). The average percent change for eight brain regions for the five subjects was -2.84±7.07%. Values of λk 3 for scan 1 and scan 2 were highly correlated (r 2 =0.98; p 1 showed a significant correlation between scan 1 and scan 2 (r 2 =0.61; p 11 C]L-deprenyl-D2 varied between scan 1 and scan 2, driven by the differences in arterial tracer input. Application of a 3-compartment model to regional time-activity data and arterial input function yielded λk 3 values for scan 1 and scan 2 with an average difference of -2.84 ± 7.07%. Linear regression applied to values of λk 3 from the LIN and NLLSQ methods validated the use of the linear method for calculating λk 3

  10. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin domain II loop 1 as the binding site of Tenebrio molitor cadherin repeat CR12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Gómez, Isabel; Peña, Guadalupe; Amaro, Itzel; Ortíz, Ernesto; Becerril, Baltazar; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins exert their toxic effect by specific recognition of larval midgut proteins leading to oligomerization of the toxin, membrane insertion and pore formation. The exposed domain II loop regions of Cry toxins have been shown to be involved in receptor binding. Insect cadherins have shown to be functionally involved in toxin binding facilitating toxin oligomerization. Here, we isolated a VHH (VHHA5) antibody by phage display that binds Cry3Aa loop 1 and competed with the binding of Cry3Aa to Tenebrio molitor brush border membranes. VHHA5 also competed with the binding of Cry3Aa to a cadherin fragment (CR12) that was previously shown to be involved in binding and toxicity of Cry3Aa, indicating that Cry3Aa binds CR12 through domain II loop 1. Moreover, we show that a loop 1 mutant, previously characterized to have increased toxicity to T. molitor, displayed a correlative enhanced binding affinity to T. molitor CR12 and to VHHA5. These results show that Cry3Aa domain II loop 1 is a binding site of CR12 T. molitor cadherin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The second and fourth cluster of class A cysteine-rich repeats of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein share ligand-binding properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neels, J. G.; van den Berg, B. M.; Lookene, A.; Olivecrona, G.; Pannekoek, H.; van Zonneveld, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is a multifunctional endocytic cell-surface receptor that binds and internalizes a diverse array of ligands. The receptor contains four putative ligand-binding domains, generally referred to as clusters I, II, III, and IV. In this study,

  12. NC1 domain of type VII collagen binds to the beta3 chain of laminin 5 via a unique subdomain within the fibronectin-like repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Marinkovich, M P; Jones, J C; O'Toole, E A; Li, Y Y; Woodley, D T

    1999-02-01

    Type VII collagen, the major component of anchoring fibrils, consists of a central collagenous triple-helical domain flanked by two noncollagenous, globular domains, NC1 and NC2. Approximately 50% of the molecular mass of the molecule is consumed by the NC1 domain. We previously demonstrated that NC1 binds to various extracellular matrix components including a complex of laminin 5 and laminin 6 (Chen et al, 1997a). In this study, we examined the interaction of NC1 with laminin 5 (a component of anchoring filaments). Both authentic and purified recombinant NC1 bound to human and rat laminin 5 as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and by binding of 125I-radiolabeled NC1 to laminin 5-coated wells, but not to laminin 1 or albumin. NC1 bound predominantly to the beta3 chain of laminin 5, but also to the gamma2 chain when examined by a protein overlay assay. The binding of 125I-NC1 to laminin 5 was inhibited by a 50-fold excess of unlabeled NC1 or de-glycosylated NC1, as well as a polyclonal antibody to laminin 5 or a monoclonal antibody to the beta3 chain. In contrast, the NC1-laminin 5 interaction was not affected by a monoclonal antibody to the alpha3 chain. Using NC1 deletion mutant recombinant proteins, a 285 AA (residues 760-1045) subdomain of NC1 was identified as the binding site for laminin 5. IgG from an epidermolysis bullosa acquisita serum containing autoantibodies to epitopes within NC1 that colocalized with the laminin 5 binding site inhibited the binding of NC1 to laminin 5. Thus, perturbation of the NC1-laminin 5 interaction may contribute to the pathogenesis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

  13. The Potato Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor Rx1 is a Pathogen Dependent DNA-Deforming Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenyk, S.; Townsend, P.D.; Dixon, C.H.; Spies, G.B.; Campillo, A.S.E.; Slootweg, E.J.; Westerhof, L.B.; Gawehns, F.K.K.; Knight, M.R.; Sharples, G.J.; Goverse, A.; Palsson, L.O.; Takken, F.L.W.; Cann, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant NLR proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus, however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously we noted a structural homology between the NB domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1

  14. Preferential binding of p53 tumor suppressor to p21 promoter sites that contain inverted repeats capable of forming cruciform structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, Jan; Jagelská, Eva; Liao, J.C.C.; Brázda, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 441, č. 1 (2013), s. 83-85 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2076; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G151 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : DNA-BINDING * SUPERCOILED DNA * EXPRESSION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2013

  15. Inscuteable and NuMA proteins bind competitively to Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein (LGN) during asymmetric cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culurgioni, Simone; Alfieri, Andrea; Pendolino, Valentina; Laddomada, Federica; Mapelli, Marina

    2011-12-27

    Coupling of spindle orientation to cellular polarity is a prerequisite for epithelial asymmetric cell divisions. The current view posits that the adaptor Inscuteable (Insc) bridges between Par3 and the spindle tethering machinery assembled on NuMALGNGαi(GDP), thus triggering apico-basal spindle orientation. The crystal structure of the Drosophila ortholog of LGN (known as Pins) in complex with Insc reveals a modular interface contributed by evolutionary conserved residues. The structure also identifies a positively charged patch of LGN binding to an invariant EPE-motif present on both Insc and NuMA. In vitro competition assays indicate that Insc competes with NuMA for LGN binding, displaying a higher affinity, and that it is capable of opening the LGN conformational switch. The finding that Insc and NuMA are mutually exclusive interactors of LGN challenges the established model of force generators assembly, which we revise on the basis of the newly discovered biochemical properties of the intervening components.

  16. [open quotes]Cryptic[close quotes] repeating triplets of purines and pyrimidines (cRRY(i)) are frequent and polymorphic: Analysis of coding cRRY(i) in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostout, B.; Qiang Liu; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Triplets of the form of purine, purine, pyrimidine (RRY(i)) are enhanced in frequency in the genomes of primates, rodents, and bacteria. Some RRY(i) are [open quotes]cryptic[close quotes] repeats (cRRY(i)) in which no one tandem run of a trinucleotide predominates. A search of human GenBank sequence revealed that the sequences of cRRY(i) are highly nonrandom. Three randomly chosen human cRRY(i) were sequenced in search of polymorphic alleles. Multiple polymorphic alleles were found in cRRY(i) in the coding regions of the genes for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). The highly polymorphic TBP cRRY(i) was characterized in detail. Direct sequencing of 157 unrelated human alleles demonstrated the presence of 20 different alleles which resulted in 29--40 consecutive glutamines in the amino-terminal region of TBP. These alleles are differently distributed among the races. PCR was used to screen 1,846 additional alleles in order to characterize more fully the range of variation in the population. Three additional alleles were discovered, but there was no example of a substantial sequence amplification as is seen in the repeat sequences associated with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or the fragile-X syndrome. The structure of the TBP cRRY(i) is conserved in the five monkey species examined. In the chimpanzee, examination of four individuals revealed that the cRRY(i) was highly polymorphic, but the pattern of polymorphism differed from that in humans. The TBP cRRY(i) displays both similarities with and differences from the previously described RRY(i) in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor. The data suggest how simple tandem repeats could evolve from cryptic repeats. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Repeated Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated? • What treatment is available if I have antiphospholipid syndrome? • What are my chances of having a successful ... may have an increased risk of repeated miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder in which a ...

  18. The soybean-Phytophthora resistance locus Rps1-k encompasses coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat-like genes and repetitive sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Madan K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of Rps (resistance to Pytophthora sojae genes have been protecting soybean from the root and stem rot disease caused by the Oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae. Five Rps genes were mapped to the Rps1 locus located near the 28 cM map position on molecular linkage group N of the composite genetic soybean map. Among these five genes, Rps1-k was introgressed from the cultivar, Kingwa. Rps1-k has been providing stable and broad-spectrum Phytophthora resistance in the major soybean-producing regions of the United States. Rps1-k has been mapped and isolated. More than one functional Rps1-k gene was identified from the Rps1-k locus. The clustering feature at the Rps1-k locus might have facilitated the expansion of Rps1-k gene numbers and the generation of new recognition specificities. The Rps1-k region was sequenced to understand the possible evolutionary steps that shaped the generation of Phytophthora resistance genes in soybean. Results Here the analyses of sequences of three overlapping BAC clones containing the 184,111 bp Rps1-k region are reported. A shotgun sequencing strategy was applied in sequencing the BAC contig. Sequence analysis predicted a few full-length genes including two Rps1-k genes, Rps1-k-1 and Rps1-k-2. Previously reported Rps1-k-3 from this genomic region 1 was evolved through intramolecular recombination between Rps1-k-1 and Rps1-k-2 in Escherichia coli. The majority of the predicted genes are truncated and therefore most likely they are nonfunctional. A member of a highly abundant retroelement, SIRE1, was identified from the Rps1-k region. The Rps1-k region is primarily composed of repetitive sequences. Sixteen simple repeat and 63 tandem repeat sequences were identified from the locus. Conclusion These data indicate that the Rps1 locus is located in a gene-poor region. The abundance of repetitive sequences in the Rps1-k region suggested that the location of this locus is in or near a

  19. Impact of repeated pesticide applications on the binding and release of 14C-methamidophos to soil matrices under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Altaf; Iqbal, Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Chaudhry, Jamil Anwar

    2001-01-01

    The dissipation of 14 C-methamidophos was monitored in the absence or presence of other pesticides using in situ soil columns in cotton fields. Samples were taken randomly in duplicate at 0, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The soils were analyzed for total, extractable and bound residues. The dissipation of 14 C-methamidophos was rapid in the field environment; 3 hours after application, 12% was of the radioactivity lost due to volatilization and 88% was found in the 0-15 cm soil layer. With the passage of time bound residues in treated soil were less (11.52%) compared to those in untreated soil (13.47%). In general bound residues gradually increased with time and binding was higher in untreated soil at every sampling stage. The estimated time required for loss of 50% of radiocarbon was 73 days. In untreated samples the parent compound and three unknown spots were seen on TLC plates whereas four unknown spots with the parent chemical were found in the treated samples. (author)

  20. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  1. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  2. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Deployment repeatability Olive Stohlman (NASA Langley), Mark Silver (Lincoln Labs), and Dave Waller (Ball Aerospace) Abstract Every time a...of motors or deployment drivers  Loss or redistribution of lubrication Hysteresis errors  Material creep due to time in storage and time in the...controlled or where friction changes unreliably in vacuum or thermal conditions (where these affect the deployment, and not only postdeployment stability

  3. A harpin elicitor induces the expression of a coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene and others functioning during defense to parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaafri, Weasam A R; McNeece, Brant T; Lawaju, Bisho R; Sharma, Keshav; Niruala, Prakash M; Pant, Shankar R; Long, David H; Lawrence, Kathy S; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2017-12-01

    The bacterial effector harpin induces the transcription of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1/HARPIN INDUCED1 (NDR1/HIN1) coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene. In Glycine max, Gm-NDR1-1 transcripts have been detected within root cells undergoing a natural resistant reaction to parasitism by the syncytium-forming nematode Heterodera glycines, functioning in the defense response. Expressing Gm-NDR1-1 in Gossypium hirsutum leads to resistance to Meloidogyne incognita parasitism. In experiments presented here, the heterologous expression of Gm-NDR1-1 in G. hirsutum impairs Rotylenchulus reniformis parasitism. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Gm-NDR1-1 expression functions broadly in generating a defense response. To examine a possible relationship with harpin, G. max plants topically treated with harpin result in induction of the transcription of Gm-NDR1-1. The result indicates the topical treatment of plants with harpin, itself, may lead to impaired nematode parasitism. Topical harpin treatments are shown to impair G. max parasitism by H. glycines, M. incognita and R. reniformis and G. hirsutum parasitism by M. incognita and R. reniformis. How harpin could function in defense has been examined in experiments showing it also induces transcription of G. max homologs of the proven defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1), TGA2, galactinol synthase, reticuline oxidase, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase, alpha soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (α-SNAP) and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT). In contrast, other defense genes are not directly transcriptionally activated by harpin. The results indicate harpin induces pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) defense processes in the root, activating defense to parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  4. The novel flightless-I gene brings together two gene families, actin-binding proteins related to gelsolin and leucine-rich-repeat proteins involved in Ras signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudianos, C; Campbell, H D

    1995-05-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster gene flightless-I, involved in gastrulation and muscle degeneration, has Caenorhabditis elegans and human homologues. In these highly conserved genes, two previously known gene families have been brought together, families encoding the actin-binding proteins related to gelsolin and the leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) group of proteins involved in protein-protein interactions. Both these gene families exhibit characteristics of molecular changes involving replication slippage and exon shuffling. Phylogenetic analyses of 19 amino acid sequences of 6 related protein types indicate that actin-associated proteins related to gelsolin are monophyletic to a common ancestor and include flightless proteins. Conversely, comparison of 24 amino acid sequences of LRR proteins including the flightless proteins indicates that flightless proteins are members of a structurally related subgroup. Included in the flightless cluster are human and mouse rsp-1 proteins involved in suppressing v-Ras transformation of cells and the membrane-associated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) adenylate cyclase whose analogous LRRs are required for interaction with Ras proteins. There is a strong possibility that ligands for this group could be related and that flightless may have a similar role in Ras signal transduction. It is hypothesized that an ancestral monomeric gelsolin precursor protein has undergone at least four independent gene reorganization events to account for the structural diversity of the extant family of gelsolin-related proteins and that gene duplication and exon shuffling events occurred prior to or at the beginning of multicellular life, resulting in the evolution of some members of the family soon after the appearance of actin-type proteins.

  5. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  6. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [ 3 H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  7. Effects of single and repeated administration of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline analogs on the binding of [11C]raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, K.; Senda, M.; Saitoh, T.; Taguchi, K.; Toda, J.; Sano, T.; Koyanagi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects of intraperitoneal injection of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) analogs and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on the binding of [ 11 C]raclopride to striatal dopamine D 2 receptors in mice. The binding of [ 11 C]raclopride, but not of [ 11 C]N-methylspiperone or [ 11 C]nemonapride with higher affinity, to the receptors was significantly decreased immediately after TIQ injection. Neither a dopamine transporter blocker induced such effect nor TIQ affected the dopamine transporter-radioligand binding. Among the compounds investigated, including parkinsonism-inducing TIQ and (R/S)-1-benzyl-TIQ, parkinsonism-preventing (R)- and (S)-1-methyl-TIQ, and probable N-methylated metabolites of TIQ and 1-methyl-TIQ, TIQ and (S)-1-methyl-TIQ had the strongest effect on the binding of [ 11 C]raclopride, and N-methylated derivatives showed less of an effect than the respective parent compounds. The decrease in the binding of [ 11 C]raclopride continued for 7 hours and was followed by an increase until 10 days after the single and subchronic administration of TIQ. These findings suggest that TIQ analogs profoundly stimulated dopamine release which resulted in the competitive inhibition of the binding of [ 11 C]raclopride to dopamine D 2 receptors, but did not induce degeneration of the receptors. (author)

  8. A Repeat Look at Repeating Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    A "repeating pattern" is a cyclical repetition of an identifiable core. Children in the primary grades usually begin pattern work with fairly simple patterns, such as AB, ABC, or ABB patterns. The unique letters represent unique elements, whereas the sequence of letters represents the core that is repeated. Based on color, shape,…

  9. Pathogen corruption and site-directed recombination at a plant disease resistance gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ervin D; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2008-12-01

    The Pc locus of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) determines dominant sensitivity to a host-selective toxin produced by the fungal pathogen Periconia circinata. The Pc region was cloned by a map-based approach and found to contain three tandemly repeated genes with the structures of nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes. Thirteen independent Pc-to-pc mutations were analyzed, and each was found to remove all or part of the central gene of the threesome. Hence, this central gene is Pc. Most Pc-to-pc mutations were associated with unequal recombination. Eight recombination events were localized to different sites in a 560-bp region within the approximately 3.7-kb NBS-LRR genes. Because any unequal recombination located within the flanking NBS-LRR genes would have removed Pc, the clustering of cross-over events within a 560-bp segment indicates that a site-directed recombination process exists that specifically targets unequal events to generate LRR diversity in NBS-LRR loci.

  10. The Vat locus encodes for a CC-NBS-LRR protein that confers resistance to Aphis gossypii infestation and A. gossypii-mediated virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogimont, Catherine; Chovelon, Veronique; Pauquet, Jerome; Boualem, Adnane; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2014-12-01

    Aphis gossypii is a polyphagous sucking aphid and a vector for many viruses. In Cucumis melo, a dominant locus, Vat, confers a high level of resistance to Aphis gossypii infestation and to viruses transmitted by this vector. To investigate the mechanism underlying this double resistance, we first genetically dissected the Vat locus. We delimited the double resistance to a single gene that encodes for a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR) protein type. To validate the genetic data, transgenic lines expressing the Vat gene were generated and assessed for the double resistance. In this analysis, Vat-transgenic plants were resistant to A. gossypii infestation as well as A. gossypii-mediated virus transmission. When the plants were infected mechanically, virus infection occurred on both transgenic and non-transgenic control plants. These results confirmed that the cloned CC-NBS-LRR gene mediates both resistance to aphid infestation and virus infection using A. gossypii as a vector. This resistance also invokes a separate recognition and response phases in which the recognition phase involves the interaction of an elicitor molecule from the aphid and Vat from the plant. The response phase is not specific and blocks both aphid infestation and virus infection. Sequence analysis of Vat alleles suggests a major role of an unusual conserved LRR repeat in the recognition of A. gossypii. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  12. Large-scale analysis of NBS domain-encoding resistance gene analogs in Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhia Bouktila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteins containing nucleotide binding sites (NBS encoded by plant resistance genes play an important role in the response of plants to a wide array of pathogens. In this paper, an in silico search was conducted in order to identify and characterize members of NBS-encoding gene family in the tribe of Triticeae. A final dataset of 199 sequences was obtained by four search methods. Motif analysis confirmed the general structural organization of the NBS domain in cereals, characterized by the presence of the six commonly conserved motifs: P-loop, RNBS-A, Kinase-2, Kinase-3a, RNBS-C and GLPL. We revealed the existence of 11 distinct distribution patterns of these motifs along the NBS domain. Four additional conserved motifs were shown to be significantly present in all 199 sequences. Phylogenetic analyses, based on genetic distance and parsimony, revealed a significant overlap between Triticeae sequences and Coiled coil-Nucleotide binding site-Leucine rich repeat (CNL-type functional genes from monocotyledons. Furthermore, several Triticeae sequences belonged to clades containing functional homologs from non Triticeae species, which has allowed for these sequences to be functionally assigned. The findings reported, in this study, will provide a strong groundwork for the isolation of candidate R-genes in Triticeae crops and the understanding of their evolution.

  13. Quantum repeated games revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable. (paper)

  14. Repeat migration and disappointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J

    1986-01-01

    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  15. StaRProtein, A Web Server for Prediction of the Stability of Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongtao; Zhou, Xu; Huang, Meilan

    2015-01-01

    Repeat proteins have become increasingly important due to their capability to bind to almost any proteins and the potential as alternative therapy to monoclonal antibodies. In the past decade repeat proteins have been designed to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. The tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins are two classes of helical repeat proteins that form different binding pockets to accommodate various partners. It is important to understand the factors that define folding and stability of repeat proteins in order to prioritize the most stable designed repeat proteins to further explore their potential binding affinities. Here we developed distance-dependant statistical potentials using two classes of alpha-helical repeat proteins, tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins respectively, and evaluated their efficiency in predicting the stability of repeat proteins. We demonstrated that the repeat-specific statistical potentials based on these two classes of repeat proteins showed paramount accuracy compared with non-specific statistical potentials in: 1) discriminate correct vs. incorrect models 2) rank the stability of designed repeat proteins. In particular, the statistical scores correlate closely with the equilibrium unfolding free energies of repeat proteins and therefore would serve as a novel tool in quickly prioritizing the designed repeat proteins with high stability. StaRProtein web server was developed for predicting the stability of repeat proteins. PMID:25807112

  16. Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-10-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants.

  17. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  18. Genetic characterization and linkage disequilibrium mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Shi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gray leaf spot (GLS, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, is an important foliar disease of maize (Zea mays L. worldwide, resistance to which is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL. To gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying the resistance to this disease, an association mapping population consisting of 161 inbred lines was evaluated for resistance to GLS in a plant pathology nursery at Shenyang in 2010 and 2011. Subsequently, a genome-wide association study, using 41,101 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identified 51 SNPs significantly (P < 0.001 associated with GLS resistance, which could be converted into 31 QTL. In addition, three candidate genes related to plant defense were identified, including nucleotide-binding-site/leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like kinase genes similar to those involved in basal defense. Two genic SNPs, PZE-103142893 and PZE-109119001, associated with GLS resistance in chromosome bins 3.07 and 9.07, can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS of GLS resistance. These results provide an important resource for developing molecular markers closely linked with the target trait, enhancing breeding efficiency.

  19. Evolutionary meta-analysis of solanaceous resistance gene and solanum resistance gene analog sequences and a practical framework for cross-species comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Edmund A; Mann, Harpartap; Meyer, Rachel S; Traini, Alessandra; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Litt, Amy; Bradeen, James M

    2012-05-01

    Cross-species comparative genomics approaches have been employed to map and clone many important disease resistance (R) genes from Solanum species-especially wild relatives of potato and tomato. These efforts will increase with the recent release of potato genome sequence and the impending release of tomato genome sequence. Most R genes belong to the prominent nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class and conserved NBS-LRR protein motifs enable survey of the R gene space of a plant genome by generation of resistance gene analogs (RGA), polymerase chain reaction fragments derived from R genes. We generated a collection of 97 RGA from the disease-resistant wild potato S. bulbocastanum, complementing smaller collections from other Solanum species. To further comparative genomics approaches, we combined all known Solanum RGA and cloned solanaceous NBS-LRR gene sequences, nearly 800 sequences in total, into a single meta-analysis. We defined R gene diversity bins that reflect both evolutionary relationships and DNA cross-hybridization results. The resulting framework is amendable and expandable, providing the research community with a common vocabulary for present and future study of R gene lineages. Through a series of sequence and hybridization experiments, we demonstrate that all tested R gene lineages are of ancient origin, are shared between Solanum species, and can be successfully accessed via comparative genomics approaches.

  20. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of NBS-encoding genes in Malus x domestica and expansion of NBS genes family in Rosaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Arya

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins play an important role in plant defense against pathogen attack. A number of recent studies have been carried out to identify and characterize NBS-LRR gene families in many important plant species. In this study, we identified NBS-LRR gene family comprising of 1015 NBS-LRRs using highly stringent computational methods. These NBS-LRRs were characterized on the basis of conserved protein motifs, gene duplication events, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, equal distribution of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and coiled coil (CC (1 ∶ 1 was detected in apple while the unequal distribution was reported in majority of all other known plant genome studies. Prediction of gene duplication events intriguingly revealed that not only tandem duplication but also segmental duplication may equally be responsible for the expansion of the apple NBS-LRR gene family. Gene expression profiling using expressed sequence tags database of apple and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR revealed the expression of these genes in wide range of tissues and disease conditions, respectively. Taken together, this study will provide a blueprint for future efforts towards improvement of disease resistance in apple.

  1. Rapid identification of rice blast resistance gene by specific length amplified fragment sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Excavation of resistance genes is one of the most effective and environment-friendly measures to control the devastating rice disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. Many resistance genes have been mapped and characterized in the last century. Nevertheless, only a few of the total resistance genes could be really applied in the rice breeding program. Huazhan (HZ is a new native rice restorer line developed in China and widely used in hybrid rice in recent years. HZ and its crossed combinations usually show a broad spectrum of resistance against rice blast in different rice ecosystems in China. Dissection of the genetic background of HZ is very useful for its further application. In this study, a combined method based on bulked segregation analysis (BSA and specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq was used to identify blast resistance gene(s in HZ. A total of 56,187 SLAFs labels were captured and 9051 polymorphic SLAFs markers were analysed and procured in this study. One trait associated with candidate resistance genes region on chromosome 12 overlapping 10.2–17.6 Mb has been identified, in which 10 NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat coding genes were used as resistance gene candidates. Our result indicated that SLAF-seq with BSA is a rapid and effective method for initial identification of blast resistance genes. The identification of resistance gene in HZ will improve its molecular breeding and resistance variety application.

  2. Molecular markers linked to papaya ring spot virus resistance and Fusarium race 2 resistance in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Kovalski, Irina; Dogimont, Catherine; Pitrat, Michel; Portnoy, Vitaly; Katzir, Nurit; Perl-Treves, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In melon, the Fom-1 gene confers monogenic resistance against the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, races 0 and 2, while the closely linked Prv gene specifies resistance against the papaya ring spot virus. Markers linked to these resistance (R) genes were identified using two recombinant inbred line populations, derived from crosses between Cucumis melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 161375, and between C. melo Vedrantais and C. melo PI 414723, respectively. Using bulked segregant analysis, as well as systematic scoring of the mapping populations, we developed two amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two random amplified polymorphic DNA markers and five restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers linked to this locus. Four of the RFLP sequences bear homology to nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat R genes, indicating the presence of a significant R-gene cluster in this locus. Our study provides the most closely linked markers published so far for these important traits. It also improves the resolution of the whole linkage group IX, which was difficult to order in our previous studies. Two of the markers were converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to facilitate their application in marker-assisted selection. Testing these two markers in several melon lines revealed different marker haplotypes in the melon germplasm and supported multiple, independent origin of the Fusarium races 0 and 2 resistance trait.

  3. Plant elicitor peptides promote plant defences against nematodes in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Huffaker, Alisa; Crippen, Devany; Robbins, Robert T; Goggin, Fiona L

    2018-04-01

    Plant elicitor peptides (Peps) are widely distributed among angiosperms, and have been shown to amplify immune responses in multiple plant families. Here, we characterize three Peps from soybean (Glycine max) and describe their effects on plant defences against two damaging agricultural pests, the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Seed treatments with exogenous GmPep1, GmPep2 or GmPep3 significantly reduced the reproduction of both nematodes. Pep treatment also protected plants from the inhibitory effects of root-knot nematodes on above-ground growth, and up-regulated basal expression levels of nematode-responsive defence genes. GmPep1 induced the expression of its propeptide precursor (GmPROPEP1), a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein (NBS-LRR), a pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI), Respiratory Burst Oxidase Protein D (RBOHD) and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves. In addition, GmPep2 and GmPep3 seed treatments up-regulated RBOHD expression and ROS accumulation in roots and leaves. These results suggest that GmPeps activate plant defences through systemic transcriptional reprogramming and ROS signalling, and that Pep seed treatments represent a potential strategy for nematode management. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. The rpg4/Rpg5 stem rust resistance locus in barley: resistance genes and cytoskeleton dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, Robert; Steffenson, Brian J; Kleinhofs, Andris

    2009-04-01

    Two closely linked resistance genes, rpg4 and Rpg5, conferring resistance to several races of Puccinia graminis, were cloned and characterized. The Rpg5 gene confers resistance to an isolate of Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis (Pgs), while rpg4 confers resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Rpg5 is a novel gene containing nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat domains in combination with a serine threonine protein kinase domain. High-resolution mapping plus allele and recombinant sequencing identified the rpg4 gene, which encodes an actin depolymerizing factor-like protein (ADF2). Resistance against the Pgt races QCCJ, MCCF, TTKSK (aka Ug99) and RCRS requires both Rpg5 and rpg4, while Rpg5 alone confers resistance to Pgs isolate 92-MN-90. The dependency on the actin modifying protein ADF2 indicates cytoskeleton reorganization or redirection plays a role in pathogen-host interactions. Rpg5 may interact with ADF2 to activate or deactivate its function in the resistance response. Alternatively, Rpg5 could initiate signal transduction leading to resistance in response to detecting ADF2 protein modification. Pgt may redirect the actin cytoskeleton by inducing modifications of ADF2. The redirection of actin could possibly enable the pathogen to develop a haustoria-plant cell cytoskeleton interface for acquisition of nutrients.

  5. Light acclimation, retrograde signalling, cell death and immune defences in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiński, Stanisław; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Wituszyńska, Weronika; Burdiak, Paweł

    2013-04-01

    This review confronts the classical view of plant immune defence and light acclimation with recently published data. Earlier findings have linked plant immune defences to nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-dependent recognition of pathogen effectors and to the role of plasma membrane-localized NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase (AtRbohD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and salicylic acid (SA). However, recent results suggest that plant immune defence also depends on the absorption of excessive light energy and photorespiration. Rapid changes in light intensity and quality often cause the absorption of energy, which is in excess of that required for photosynthesis. Such excessive light energy is considered to be a factor triggering photoinhibition and disturbance in ROS/hormonal homeostasis, which leads to cell death in foliar tissues. We highlight here the tight crosstalk between ROS- and SA-dependent pathways leading to light acclimation, and defence responses leading to pathogen resistance. We also show that LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1) regulates and integrates these processes. Moreover, we discuss the role of plastid-nucleus signal transduction, photorespiration, photoelectrochemical signalling and 'light memory' in the regulation of acclimation and immune defence responses. All of these results suggest that plants have evolved a genetic system that simultaneously regulates systemic acquired resistance (SAR), cell death and systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Identification and characterization of novel NBS-LRR resistance gene analogues from the pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, S; Bouktila, D; Makni, H; Makni, M; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M

    2015-06-11

    Pea (Pisum sativum) is one of the most cultivated le-gumes in the world, and its yield and seed quality are affected by a variety of pathogens. In plants, NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat) is the main class of disease resistance genes. Using degenerate primers deduced from conserved motifs in the NBS domain of known resistance genes, we identified 10 NBS sequences in three varieties of P. sativum. The deduced amino acid sequences of the iden-tified resistance gene analogues (RGAs) exhibited the typical motifs of the NBS domain (P-loop, kinase-2, kinase-3a, and the hydrophobic domain, GLPL) present in the majority of plant proteins belonging to the NBS-LRR class. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven RGAs belonged to the non-TIR-NBS-LRR subclass and three to the TIR-NBS-LRR subclass. The results of this study provide insights into the structure of this class of resistance genes in the pea, and their evolution-ary relationships with those of other plant species.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Wild Eggplant Solanum aculeatissimum NBS-LRR Gene, Involved in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum, a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance gene, designated as SacMi. The full-length cDNA of the SacMi gene was obtained using the technique of rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The open reading frame of the SacMi gene was 4014 bp and encoded a protein of 1338 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that SacMi belong to the non- Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-NBS-LRR type disease-resistance genes. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR showed that SacMi is expressed at low levels in uninfected roots, but was up-regulated by infection with M. incognita. To investigate the role of SacMi in S. aculeatissimum resistance against M. incognica, the tobacco rattle virus (TRV-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS system was used. Silencing of SacMi enhanced susceptibility of S. aculeatissimum plants to M. incognita, suggesting the possible involvement of SacMi in resistance against M. incognita infection.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Wild Eggplant Solanum aculeatissimum NBS-LRR Gene, Involved in Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Jun; Bao, Shengyou; Yang, Yan; Zhuang, Yong

    2018-02-15

    Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause considerable damage in eggplant production. Transferring of resistance genes from wild relatives would be valuable for the continued improvement of eggplant. Solanum aculeatissimum , a wild relative of eggplant possessing resistance to Meloidogyne incognita , is potentially useful for genetically enhancing eggplant. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance gene, designated as SacMi . The full-length cDNA of the SacMi gene was obtained using the technique of rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The open reading frame of the SacMi gene was 4014 bp and encoded a protein of 1338 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that SacMi belong to the non- Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR type disease-resistance genes. Interestingly, quantitative RT-PCR showed that SacMi is expressed at low levels in uninfected roots, but was up-regulated by infection with M. incognita . To investigate the role of SacMi in S. aculeatissimum resistance against M. incognica , the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system was used. Silencing of SacMi enhanced susceptibility of S. aculeatissimum plants to M. incognita , suggesting the possible involvement of SacMi in resistance against M. incognita infection.

  9. The genome of melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Benjak, Andrej; Sanseverino, Walter; Bourgeois, Michael; Mir, Gisela; González, Víctor M; Hénaff, Elizabeth; Câmara, Francisco; Cozzuto, Luca; Lowy, Ernesto; Alioto, Tyler; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Blanca, Jose; Cañizares, Joaquín; Ziarsolo, Pello; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Droege, Marcus; Du, Lei; Alvarez-Tejado, Miguel; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Melé, Marta; Yang, Luming; Weng, Yiqun; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Aranda, Miguel A; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén; Gabaldón, Toni; Roma, Guglielmo; Guigó, Roderic; Casacuberta, Josep M; Arús, Pere; Puigdomènech, Pere

    2012-07-17

    We report the genome sequence of melon, an important horticultural crop worldwide. We assembled 375 Mb of the double-haploid line DHL92, representing 83.3% of the estimated melon genome. We predicted 27,427 protein-coding genes, which we analyzed by reconstructing 22,218 phylogenetic trees, allowing mapping of the orthology and paralogy relationships of sequenced plant genomes. We observed the absence of recent whole-genome duplications in the melon lineage since the ancient eudicot triplication, and our data suggest that transposon amplification may in part explain the increased size of the melon genome compared with the close relative cucumber. A low number of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat disease resistance genes were annotated, suggesting the existence of specific defense mechanisms in this species. The DHL92 genome was compared with that of its parental lines allowing the quantification of sequence variability in the species. The use of the genome sequence in future investigations will facilitate the understanding of evolution of cucurbits and the improvement of breeding strategies.

  10. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  11. The decorin sequence SYIRIADTNIT binds collagen type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Aspberg, Anders; Oldberg, Ake

    2007-01-01

    Decorin belongs to the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan family, interacts with fibrillar collagens, and regulates the assembly, structure, and biomechanical properties of connective tissues. The decorin-collagen type I-binding region is located in leucine-rich repeats 5-6. Site......-directed mutagenesis of this 54-residue-long collagen-binding sequence identifies Arg-207 and Asp-210 in leucine-rich repeat 6 as crucial for the binding to collagen. The synthetic peptide SYIRIADTNIT, which includes Arg-207 and Asp-210, inhibits the binding of full-length recombinant decorin to collagen in vitro....... These collagen-binding amino acids are exposed on the exterior of the beta-sheet-loop structure of the leucine-rich repeat. This resembles the location of interacting residues in other leucine-rich repeat proteins....

  12. The competing mini-dumbbell mechanism: new insights into CCTG repeat expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Pei; Lam, Sik Lok

    2016-01-01

    CCTG repeat expansions in intron 1 of the cellular nucleic acid-binding protein gene are associated with myotonic dystrophy type 2. Recently, we have reported a novel mini-dumbbell (MDB) structure formed by two CCTG or TTTA repeats, which potentially has a critical role in repeat expansions. Here we present a mechanism, called the competing MDB mechanism, to explain how the formation of MDB can lead to efficient mismatch repair (MMR) escape and thus CCTG repeat expansions during DNA replicati...

  13. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  14. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  15. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  16. Wages and employment in a repeated game with revenue fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Empirical investigations suggests that the real wage is surprisingly flat over the business cycle. This paper analyses a repeated game between a union and a firm which can contribute to explaining the flat wage. The parties cannot enter binding contracts, and revenue is fluctuating. The paper...

  17. REPEAT KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, kidney transplantation is the best approach of renal replacement therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease that significantly improves the quality and length of life. Advances in the field of organ donation, immunosuppression, transplant surgery and immunology have improved short-term graft and patient survival. But the long-term graft survival remains static over last two decades. The disparity between low graft and high patient long-term survival led to increasing number of transplant recipients with failed grafts. Repeat renal transplant is presumed to be a good option for many patients losing their grafts, but it is associated with higher complication rates. Unfortunately, there are no evidence-based recommendations or guidelines for renal retransplantation procedure. This review is based on 100 scientifi c publications related to various aspects of the kidney retransplantation and provides the recent data on this matter.

  18. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... comment on Industrial/ Business licensees' usage of mobile repeaters. Telemetry Channels We seek comment... mobile repeater applications, e.g., by listing active, co-channel incumbent call signs and associated... Rulemaking, including this IRFA, to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration (SBA...

  19. Comparative Genomics of Non-TNL Disease Resistance Genes from Six Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Madhav P; Andersen, Ethan J; Neupane, Surendra; Benson, Benjamin V

    2017-09-30

    Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis , we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago , soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding site (NBS), leucine rich repeat (LRR), resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8), and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) genes were nested into four clades (CNL A-D) often with abundant, well-supported homogeneous subclades of Type-II R genes. CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. Genomes from Arabidopsis , common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence.

  20. The NBS-LRR architectures of plant R-proteins and metazoan NLRs evolved in independent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Jonathan M; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2017-01-31

    There are intriguing parallels between plants and animals, with respect to the structures of their innate immune receptors, that suggest universal principles of innate immunity. The cytosolic nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance proteins of plants (R-proteins) and the so-called NOD-like receptors of animals (NLRs) share a domain architecture that includes a STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains) family NTPase followed by a series of LRRs, suggesting inheritance from a common ancestor with that architecture. Focusing on the STAND NTPases of plant R-proteins, animal NLRs, and their homologs that represent the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, certain R gene products and CED-4) and NACHT (named for NAIP, CIIA, HET-E, and TEP1) subfamilies of the STAND NTPases, we analyzed the phylogenetic distribution of the NBS-LRR domain architecture, used maximum-likelihood methods to infer a phylogeny of the NTPase domains of R-proteins, and reconstructed the domain structure of the protein containing the common ancestor of the STAND NTPase domain of R-proteins and NLRs. Our analyses reject monophyly of plant R-proteins and NLRs and suggest that the protein containing the last common ancestor of the STAND NTPases of plant R-proteins and animal NLRs (and, by extension, all NB-ARC and NACHT domains) possessed a domain structure that included a STAND NTPase paired with a series of tetratricopeptide repeats. These analyses reject the hypothesis that the domain architecture of R-proteins and NLRs was inherited from a common ancestor and instead suggest the domain architecture evolved at least twice. It remains unclear whether the NBS-LRR architectures were innovations of plants and animals themselves or were acquired by one or both lineages through horizontal gene transfer.

  1. Comparative Genomics of Non-TNL Disease Resistance Genes from Six Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav P. Nepal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disease resistance genes (R genes, as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis, we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago, soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding site (NBS, leucine rich repeat (LRR, resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8, and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL genes were nested into four clades (CNL A-D often with abundant, well-supported homogeneous subclades of Type-II R genes. CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. Genomes from Arabidopsis, common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence.

  2. Repeatability of visual acuity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, T W; Bailey, I L; Bullimore, M A

    1998-05-01

    This study investigates features of visual acuity chart design and acuity testing scoring methods which affect the validity and repeatability of visual acuity measurements. Visual acuity was measured using the Sloan and British Standard letter series, and Landolt rings. Identifiability of the different letters as a function of size was estimated, and expressed in the form of frequency-of-seeing curves. These functions were then used to simulate acuity measurements with a variety of chart designs and scoring criteria. Systematic relationships exist between chart design parameters and acuity score, and acuity score repeatability. In particular, an important feature of a chart, that largely determines the repeatability of visual acuity measurement, is the amount of size change attributed to each letter. The methods used to score visual acuity performance also affect repeatability. It is possible to evaluate acuity score validity and repeatability using the statistical principles discussed here.

  3. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  4. Tevatron serial data repeater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducar, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A ten megabit per second serial data repeater system has been developed for the 6.28km Tevatron accelerator. The repeaters are positioned at each of the thirty service buildings and accommodate control and abort system communications as well as distribution of the Tevatron time and energy clocks. The repeaters are transparent to the particular protocol of the transmissions. Serial data are encoded locally as unipolar two volt signals employing the self-clocking Manchester Bi-Phase code. The repeaters modulate the local signals to low-power bursts of 50 MHz rf carrier for the 260m transmission between service buildings. The repeaters also demodulate the transmission and restructure the data for local utilization. The employment of frequency discrimination techniques yields high immunity to the characteristic noise spectrum

  5. Filamin repeat segments required for photosensory signalling in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Afsar U

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamin is an actin binding protein which is ubiquitous in eukaryotes and its basic structure is well conserved – an N-terminal actin binding domain followed by a series of repeated segments which vary in number in different organisms. D. discoideum is a well established model organism for the study of signalling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton and as such makes an excellent organism in which to study filamin. Ddfilamin plays a putative role as a scaffolding protein in a photosensory signalling pathway and this role is thought to be mediated by the unusual repeat segments in the rod domain. Results To study the role of filamin in phototaxis, a filamin null mutant, HG1264, was transformed with constructs each of which expressed wild type filamin or a mutant filamin with a deletion of one of the repeat segments. Transformants expressing the full length filamin to wild type levels completely rescued the phototaxis defect in HG1264, however if filamin was expressed at lower than wild type levels the phototaxis defect was not restored. The transformants lacking any one of the repeat segments 2–6 retained defective phototaxis and thermotaxis phenotypes, whereas transformants expressing filaminΔ1 exhibited a range of partial complementation of the phototaxis phenotype which was related to expression levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that filamin lacking any of the repeat segments still localised to the same actin rich areas as wild type filamin. Ddfilamin interacts with RasD and IP experiments demonstrated that this interaction did not rely upon any single repeat segment or the actin binding domain. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that wild type levels of filamin expression are essential for the formation of functional photosensory signalling complexes and that each of the repeat segments 2–6 are essential for filamins role in phototaxis. By contrast, repeat segment 1 is not essential provided the mutated

  6. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2014-12-16

    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated-fully or partially-from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Coding repeats and evolutionary "agility".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburet, Sandrine; Cocquet, Julie; Vaiman, Daniel; Veitia, Reiner A

    2005-06-01

    The rapid generation of new shapes observed in the living world is the result of genetic variation, especially in "morphological" developmental genes. Many of these genes contain coding tandem repeats. Fondon and Garner have shown that expansions and contractions of these repeats are associated with the great diversity of morphologies observed in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. In particular, they found that the repeat variations in two genes were significantly associated with changes in limb and skull morphology. These results open the possibility that such a mechanism contributes to the diversity of life.

  8. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  9. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  10. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    The Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd 5 Ge 2 Si 2 and Ni 50 Mn 35 In 15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis

  11. Identification and Characterization of Tandem Repeats in Exon III of Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) Genes from Different Mammalian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S. A.; Mogensen, L.; Dietz, R.

    2005-01-01

    not be identified in sequences from rodents. All tandem repeats possessed a high GC content with a strong bias for C. On phylogenetic analysis of the tandem repeats evolutionary related species were clustered into the same groups. The degree of conservation of the tandem repeats varied significantly between species...... domain binding proteins, potential phosphorylation sites, PDZ domain binding motifs, and FHA domain binding motifs in the amino acid sequences of the tandem repeats. The numbers of potential functional sites varied pronouncedly between species. Our observations provide a platform for future studies...

  12. Chromosomal rearrangements occurred repeatedly and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, molecular and/or chromosomal data indicate that Paroedura is a monophyletic genus, in which chromosome rearrangements occurred repeatedly and independently during the specific diversification. Moreover both P. bastardi and P. gracilis in current definitions are paraphyletic assemblages of several ...

  13. Sequencing Games with Repeated Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estevez Fernandez, M.A.; Borm, P.; Calleja, P.; Hamers, H.

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of one machine sequencing situations are considered in which each job corresponds to exactly one player but a player may have more than one job to be processed, so called RP(repeated player) sequencing situations. In max-RP sequencing situations it is assumed that each player's cost

  14. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  15. Mutated Leguminous Lectin Containing a Heparin-Binding like Motif in a Carbohydrate-Binding Loop Specifically Binds to Heparin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Abo

    Full Text Available We previously introduced random mutations in the sugar-binding loops of a leguminous lectin and screened the resulting mutated lectins for novel specificities using cell surface display. Screening of a mutated peanut agglutinin (PNA, revealed a mutated PNA with a distinct preference for heparin. Glycan microarray analyses using the mutated lectin fused to the Fc region of human immunoglobulin, revealed that a particular sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG, heparin, had the highest binding affinity for mutated PNA among 97 glycans tested, although wild-type PNA showed affinity towards Galβ1-3GalNAc and similar galactosylated glycans. Further analyses of binding specificity using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay demonstrated that the mutated PNA specifically binds to heparin, and weakly to de-2-O-sulfated heparin, but not to other GAG chains including de-6-O-sulfated and de-N-sulfated heparins. The mutated PNA had six amino acid substitutions within the eight amino acid-long sugar-binding loop. In this loop, the heparin-binding like motif comprised three arginine residues at positions 124, 128, and 129, and a histidine at position 125 was present. Substitution of each arginine or histidine residue to alanine reduced heparin-binding ability, indicating that all of these basic amino acid residues contributed to heparin binding. Inhibition assay demonstrated that heparin and dextran sulfate strongly inhibited mutated PNA binding to heparin in dose-dependent manner. The mutated PNA could distinguish between CHO cells and proteoglycan-deficient mutant cells. This is the first report establishing a novel leguminous lectin that preferentially binds to highly sulfated heparin and may provide novel GAG-binding probes to distinguish between heterogeneous GAG repeating units.

  16. Mutated Leguminous Lectin Containing a Heparin-Binding like Motif in a Carbohydrate-Binding Loop Specifically Binds to Heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Hirohito; Soga, Keisuke; Tanaka, Atsuhiro; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously introduced random mutations in the sugar-binding loops of a leguminous lectin and screened the resulting mutated lectins for novel specificities using cell surface display. Screening of a mutated peanut agglutinin (PNA), revealed a mutated PNA with a distinct preference for heparin. Glycan microarray analyses using the mutated lectin fused to the Fc region of human immunoglobulin, revealed that a particular sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), heparin, had the highest binding affinity for mutated PNA among 97 glycans tested, although wild-type PNA showed affinity towards Galβ1-3GalNAc and similar galactosylated glycans. Further analyses of binding specificity using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay demonstrated that the mutated PNA specifically binds to heparin, and weakly to de-2-O-sulfated heparin, but not to other GAG chains including de-6-O-sulfated and de-N-sulfated heparins. The mutated PNA had six amino acid substitutions within the eight amino acid-long sugar-binding loop. In this loop, the heparin-binding like motif comprised three arginine residues at positions 124, 128, and 129, and a histidine at position 125 was present. Substitution of each arginine or histidine residue to alanine reduced heparin-binding ability, indicating that all of these basic amino acid residues contributed to heparin binding. Inhibition assay demonstrated that heparin and dextran sulfate strongly inhibited mutated PNA binding to heparin in dose-dependent manner. The mutated PNA could distinguish between CHO cells and proteoglycan-deficient mutant cells. This is the first report establishing a novel leguminous lectin that preferentially binds to highly sulfated heparin and may provide novel GAG-binding probes to distinguish between heterogeneous GAG repeating units.

  17. The competing mini-dumbbell mechanism: new insights into CCTG repeat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pei; Lam, Sik Lok

    2016-01-01

    CCTG repeat expansions in intron 1 of the cellular nucleic acid-binding protein gene are associated with myotonic dystrophy type 2. Recently, we have reported a novel mini-dumbbell (MDB) structure formed by two CCTG or TTTA repeats, which potentially has a critical role in repeat expansions. Here we present a mechanism, called the competing MDB mechanism, to explain how the formation of MDB can lead to efficient mismatch repair (MMR) escape and thus CCTG repeat expansions during DNA replication. In a long tract of CCTG repeats, two competing MDBs can be formed in any segment of three repeats. Fast exchange between these MDBs will make the commonly occupied repeat behave like a mini-loop. Further participations of the 5'- or 3'-flanking repeat in forming competing MDBs will make the mini-loop shift in the 5'- or 3'-direction, thereby providing a pathway for the mini-loop to escape from MMR. To avoid the complications due to the formation of hairpin conformers in longer CCTG repeats, we made use of TTTA repeats as model sequences to demonstrate the formation of competing MDBs and shifting of mini-loop in a long tract of repeating sequence.

  18. Asporin competes with decorin for collagen binding, binds calcium and promotes osteoblast collagen mineralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Aspberg, Anders; Lindblom, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of the ECM (extracellular matrix) protein asporin with ECM components have previously not been investigated. Here, we show that asporin binds collagen type I. This binding is inhibited by recombinant asporin fragment LRR (leucine-rich repeat) 10-12 and by full-length decorin......, but not by biglycan. We demonstrate that the polyaspartate domain binds calcium and regulates hydroxyapatite formation in vitro. In the presence of asporin, the number of collagen nodules, and mRNA of osteoblastic markers Osterix and Runx2, were increased. Moreover, decorin or the collagen-binding asporin fragment...... LRR 10-12 inhibited the pro-osteoblastic activity of full-length asporin. Our results suggest that asporin and decorin compete for binding to collagen and that the polyaspartate in asporin directly regulates collagen mineralization. Therefore asporin has a role in osteoblast-driven collagen...

  19. The Genetics Underlying Natural Variation in the Biotic Interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana: The Challenges of Linking Evolutionary Genetics and Community Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F; Bergelson, J

    2016-01-01

    In the context of global change, predicting the responses of plant communities in an ever-changing biotic environment calls for a multipronged approach at the interface of evolutionary genetics and community ecology. However, our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation involved in mediating biotic interactions, and associated adaptive dynamics of focal plants in their natural communities, is still in its infancy. Here, we review the genetic and molecular bases of natural variation in the response to biotic interactions (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, herbivores, and plants) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as the adaptive value of these bases. Among the 60 identified genes are a number that encode nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type proteins, consistent with early examples of plant defense genes. However, recent studies have revealed an extensive diversity in the molecular mechanisms of defense. Many types of genetic variants associate with phenotypic variation in biotic interactions, even among the genes of large effect that tend to be identified. In general, we found that (i) balancing selection rather than directional selection explains the observed patterns of genetic diversity within A. thaliana and (ii) the cost/benefit tradeoffs of adaptive alleles can be strongly dependent on both genomic and environmental contexts. Finally, because A. thaliana rarely interacts with only one biotic partner in nature, we highlight the benefit of exploring diffuse biotic interactions rather than tightly associated host-enemy pairs. This challenge would help to improve our understanding of coevolutionary quantitative genetics within the context of realistic community complexity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistance to stem rust race TTKSK maps to the rpg4/Rpg5 complex of chromosome 5H of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenson, B J; Jin, Y; Brueggeman, R S; Kleinhofs, A; Sun, Y

    2009-10-01

    Race TTKSK (Ug99) of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is a serious threat to both wheat and barley production worldwide because of its wide virulence on many cultivars and rapid spread from eastern Africa. Line Q21861 is one of the most resistant barleys known to this race. To elucidate the genetics of resistance in this line, we evaluated the Q21861/SM89010 (Q/SM) doubled-haploid population for reaction to race TTKSK at the seedling stage. Segregation for resistance:susceptibility in Q/SM doubled-haploid lines fit a 1:1 ratio (58:71 with chi2=1.31 and P=0.25), indicating that a single gene in Q21861 confers resistance to race TTKSK. In previous studies, a recessive gene (rpg4) and a partially dominant gene (Rpg5) were reported to control resistance to P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ and P. graminis f. sp. secalis isolate 92-MN-90, respectively, in Q21861. These resistance genes co-segregate with each other in the Q/SM population and were mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5H. Resistance to race TTKSK also co-segregated with resistance to both rusts, indicating that the gene conferring resistance to race TTKSK also lies at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus. This result was confirmed through the molecular analysis of recombinants previously used to characterize loci conferring resistance to race QCCJ and isolate 92-MN-90. The 70-kb region contains Rpg5 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase gene), rpg4 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), and two other genes of unidentified function. Research is underway to resolve which of the genes are required for conferring resistance to race TTKSK. Regardless, the simple inheritance should make Q21861 a valuable source of TTKSK resistance in barley breeding programs.

  1. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley.

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Common Bean Genotypes in Response to Soybean Cyst Nematode Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Jain

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe reproduces on the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and can cause reductions in plant growth and seed yield. The molecular changes in common bean roots caused by SCN infection are unknown. Identification of genetic factors associated with SCN resistance could help in development of improved bean varieties with high SCN resistance. Gene expression profiling was conducted on common bean roots infected by SCN HG type 0 using next generation RNA sequencing technology. Two pinto bean genotypes, PI533561 and GTS-900, resistant and susceptible to SCN infection, respectively, were used as RNA sources eight days post inoculation. Total reads generated ranged between ~ 3.2 and 5.7 million per library and were mapped to the common bean reference genome. Approximately 70-90% of filtered RNA-seq reads uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In the inoculated roots of resistant genotype PI533561, a total of 353 genes were differentially expressed with 154 up-regulated genes and 199 down-regulated genes when compared to the transcriptome of non- inoculated roots. On the other hand, 990 genes were differentially expressed in SCN-inoculated roots of susceptible genotype GTS-900 with 406 up-regulated and 584 down-regulated genes when compared to non-inoculated roots. Genes encoding nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance (NLR proteins, WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and heat shock proteins involved in diverse biological processes were differentially expressed in both resistant and susceptible genotypes. Overall, suppression of the photosystem was observed in both the responses. Furthermore, RNA-seq results were validated through quantitative real time PCR. This is the first report describing genes/transcripts involved in SCN-common bean interaction and the results will have important implications for further characterization of SCN resistance genes in

  3. Molecular Mapping of PMR1, a Novel Locus Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkwan Jo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica, is a major fungal disease affecting greenhouse-grown pepper (Capsicum annuum. Powdery mildew resistance has a complex mode of inheritance. In the present study, we investigated a novel powdery mildew resistance locus, PMR1, using two mapping populations: 102 ‘VK515' F2:3 families (derived from a cross between resistant parental line ‘VK515R' and susceptible parental line ‘VK515S' and 80 ‘PM Singang' F2 plants (derived from the F1 ‘PM Singang' commercial hybrid. Genetic analysis of the F2:3 ‘VK515' and F2 ‘PM Singang' populations revealed a single dominant locus for inheritance of the powdery mildew resistance trait. Genetic mapping showed that the PMR1 locus is located on syntenic regions of pepper chromosome 4 in a 4-Mb region between markers CZ2_11628 and HRM4.1.6 in ‘VK515R'. Six molecular markers including one SCAR marker and five SNP markers were localized to a region 0 cM from the PMR1 locus. Two putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR-type disease resistance genes were identified in this PMR1 region. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and genetic mapping analysis revealed suppressed recombination in the PMR1 region, perhaps due to alien introgression. In addition, a comparison of species-specific InDel markers as well as GBS-derived SNP markers indicated that C. baccatum represents a possible source of such alien introgression of powdery mildew resistance into ‘VK515R'. The molecular markers developed in this study will be especially helpful for marker-assisted selection in pepper breeding programs for powdery mildew resistance.

  4. The Quantitative Basis of the Arabidopsis Innate Immune System to Endemic Pathogens Depends on Pathogen Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Jason A; Copeland, Daniel; Feusier, Julie; Subedy, Anushriya; Eshbaugh, Robert; Palmer, Christine; Maloof, Julin; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B. cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs), were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total genes associated with quantitative resistance. Using publically available co-expression data, we condensed the quantitative resistance associated genes into co-expressed gene networks. GO analysis of these networks implicated several biological processes commonly connected to disease resistance, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60%) when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study shows that the genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system is extremely complex and is likely able to sense and respond to differential virulence among pathogen genotypes.

  5. The Quantitative Basis of the Arabidopsis Innate Immune System to Endemic Pathogens Depends on Pathogen Genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Corwin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most established model of the eukaryotic innate immune system is derived from examples of large effect monogenic quantitative resistance to pathogens. However, many host-pathogen interactions involve many genes of small to medium effect and exhibit quantitative resistance. We used the Arabidopsis-Botrytis pathosystem to explore the quantitative genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system in a population of Arabidopsis thaliana. By infecting a diverse panel of Arabidopsis accessions with four phenotypically and genotypically distinct isolates of the fungal necrotroph B. cinerea, we identified a total of 2,982 genes associated with quantitative resistance using lesion area and 3,354 genes associated with camalexin production as measures of the interaction. Most genes were associated with resistance to a specific Botrytis isolate, which demonstrates the influence of pathogen genetic variation in analyzing host quantitative resistance. While known resistance genes, such as receptor-like kinases (RLKs and nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs, were found to be enriched among associated genes, they only account for a small fraction of the total genes associated with quantitative resistance. Using publically available co-expression data, we condensed the quantitative resistance associated genes into co-expressed gene networks. GO analysis of these networks implicated several biological processes commonly connected to disease resistance, including defense hormone signaling and ROS production, as well as novel processes, such as leaf development. Validation of single gene T-DNA knockouts in a Col-0 background demonstrate a high success rate (60% when accounting for differences in environmental and Botrytis genetic variation. This study shows that the genetic architecture underlying host innate immune system is extremely complex and is likely able to sense and respond to differential virulence among pathogen

  6. Isolation and characterization of resistance gene analogues from Psilanthus species that represent wild relatives of cultivated coffee endemic to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendre, Prasad S; Bhat, Prasanna R; Krishnakumar, V; Aggarwal, Ramesh K

    2011-05-01

    Biotic or abiotic stress can cause considerable damage to crop plants that can be managed by building disease resistance in the cultivated gene pool through breeding for disease resistance genes (R-genes). R-genes, conferring resistance to diverse pathogens or pests share a high level of similarity at the DNA and protein levels in different plant species. This property of R-genes has been successfully employed to isolate putative resistance gene analogues (RGAs) using a PCR-based approach from new plant sources. Using a similar approach, in the present study, we have successfully amplified putative RGAs having nucleotide-binding-site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR-type RGAs) from seven different sources: two cultivated coffee species (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex. A. Froehner), four related taxa endemic to India (wild tree coffee species: Psilanthus bengalensis (Roem. & Schuttles) J.-F. Leroy, Psilanthus khasiana , Psilanthus travencorensis (Wight & Arn.) J.-F. Leroy, Psilanthus weightiana (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) J.-F. Leroy), and a cDNA pool originally prepared from light- and drought-stressed Coffea arabica L. leaves. The total PCR amplicons obtained using NBS-LRR-specific primers from each source were cloned and transformed to construct seven independent libraries, from which 434 randomly picked clones were sequenced. In silico analysis of the sequenced clones revealed 27 sequences that contained characteristic RGA motifs, of which 24 had complete uninterrupted open reading frames. Comparisons of these with published RGAs showed several of these to be novel RGA sequences. Interestingly, most of such novel RGAs belonged to the related wild Psilanthus species. The data thus suggest the potential of the secondary gene pool as possible untapped donors of resistance genes to the present day cultivated species of coffee.

  7. The standing pool of genomic structural variation in a natural population of Mimulus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagel, Lex E; Willis, John H; Vision, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    Major unresolved questions in evolutionary genetics include determining the contributions of different mutational sources to the total pool of genetic variation in a species, and understanding how these different forms of genetic variation interact with natural selection. Recent work has shown that structural variants (SVs) (insertions, deletions, inversions, and transpositions) are a major source of genetic variation, often outnumbering single nucleotide variants in terms of total bases affected. Despite the near ubiquity of SVs, major questions about their interaction with natural selection remain. For example, how does the allele frequency spectrum of SVs differ when compared with single nucleotide variants? How often do SVs affect genes, and what are the consequences? To begin to address these questions, we have systematically identified and characterized a large set of submicroscopic insertion and deletion (indel) variants (between 1 and 200 kb in length) among ten inbred lines from a single natural population of the plant species Mimulus guttatus. After extensive computational filtering, we focused on a set of 4,142 high-confidence indels that showed an experimental validation rate of 73%. All but one of these indels were less than 200 kb. Although the largest were generally at lower frequencies in the population, a surprising number of large indels are at intermediate frequencies. Although indels overlapping with genes were much rarer than expected by chance, approximately 600 genes were affected by an indel. Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) defense response genes were the most enriched among the gene families affected. Most indels associated with genes were rare and appeared to be under purifying selection, though we do find four high-frequency derived insertion alleles that show signatures of recent positive selection.

  8. Remapping of the stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cuiling; Wu, Jingzheng; Yan, Baiqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Zhang, Chaozhong; Lyu, Bo; Ni, Fei; Caplan, Allan; Wu, Jiajie; Fu, Daolin

    2018-02-23

    Yr10 is an important gene to control wheat stripe rust, and the search for Yr10 needs to be continued. Wheat stripe rust or yellow rust is a devastating fungal disease caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Host disease resistance offers a primary source for controlling wheat stripe rust. The stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 confers the race-specific resistance to most tested Pst races in China including CYR29. Early studies proposed that Yr10 was a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat gene archived as GenBank accession AF149112 (hereafter designated the Yr10 candidate gene or Yr10 CG ). In this study, we revealed that 15 Chinese wheat cultivars positive for Yr10 CG are susceptible to CYR29. We then expressed the Yr10 CG cDNA in the common wheat 'Bobwhite'. The Yr10 CG -cDNA positive transgenic plants were also susceptible to CYR29. Thus, it is highly unlikely that Yr10 CG corresponds to the Yr10 resistance gene. Using the Yr10 donor 'Moro' and the Pst-susceptible wheat 'Huixianhong', we generated two F 3 populations that displayed a single Mendelian segregation on the Yr10 gene, and used them to remap the Yr10 gene. Six markers were placed in the Yr10 region, with the Yr10 CG gene now mapping about 1.2-cM proximal to the Yr10 locus and the Xsdauw79 marker is completely linked to the Yr10 locus. Apparently, the Yr10 gene has not yet been identified. Fine mapping and positional cloning of Yr10 is important for gene pyramiding for stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  9. Genetic characterization and fine mapping of the novel Phytophthora resistance gene in a Chinese soybean cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqing; Xia, Changjian; Wang, Xiaoming; Duan, Canxing; Sun, Suli; Wu, Xiaofei; Zhu, Zhendong

    2013-06-01

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR), caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann & Gerdemann, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Deployment of resistance genes is the most economical and effective way of controlling the disease. The soybean cultivar 'Yudou 29' is resistant to many P. sojae isolates in China. The genetic basis of the resistance in 'Yudou 29' was elucidated through an inheritance study and molecular mapping. In response to 25 P. sojae isolates, 'Yudou 29' displayed a new resistance reaction pattern distinct from those of differentials carrying known Rps genes. A population of 214 F2:3 families from a cross between 'Jikedou 2' (PRR susceptible) and 'Yudou 29' was used for Rps gene mapping. The segregation fit a ratio of 1:2:1 for resistance:segregation:susceptibility within this population, indicating that resistance in 'Yudou 29' is controlled by a single dominant gene. This gene was temporarily named RpsYD29 and mapped on soybean chromosome 03 (molecular linkage group N; MLG N) flanked by SSR markers SattWM82-50 and Satt1k4b at a genetic distance of 0.5 and 0.2 cM, respectively. Two nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) type genes were detected in the 204.8 kb region between SattWM82-50 and Satt1k4b. These two genes showed high similarity to Rps1k in amino acid sequence and could be candidate genes for PRR resistance. Based on the phenotype reactions and the physical position on soybean chromosome 03, RpsYD29 might be a novel allele at, or a novel gene tightly linked to, the Rps1 locus.

  10. Silencing of the major family of NBS-LRR-encoding genes in lettuce results in the loss of multiple resistance specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Tomczak, Anna; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Michelmore, Richard W

    2007-09-01

    The RGC2 gene cluster in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the largest known families of genes encoding nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins. One of its members, RGC2B, encodes Dm3 which determines resistance to downy mildew caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae carrying the cognate avirulence gene, Avr3. We developed an efficient strategy for analysis of this large family of low expressed genes using post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We transformed lettuce cv. Diana (carrying Dm3) using chimeric gene constructs designed to simultaneously silence RGC2B and the GUS reporter gene via the production of interfering hairpin RNA (ihpRNA). Transient assays of GUS expression in leaves accurately predicted silencing of both genes and were subsequently used to assay silencing in transgenic T(1) plants and their offspring. Levels of mRNA were reduced not only for RGC2B but also for all seven diverse RGC2 family members tested. We then used the same strategy to show that the resistance specificity encoded by the genetically defined Dm18 locus in lettuce cv. Mariska is the result of two resistance specificities, only one of which was silenced by ihpRNA derived from RGC2B. Analysis of progeny from crosses between transgenic, silenced tester stocks and lettuce accessions carrying other resistance genes previously mapped to the RGC2 locus indicated that two additional resistance specificities to B. lactucae, Dm14 and Dm16, as well as resistance to lettuce root aphid (Pemphigus bursarius L.), Ra, are encoded by RGC2 family members.

  11. A Novel Phytophthora sojae Resistance Rps12 Gene Mapped to a Genomic Region That Contains Several Rps Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipak K; Abeysekara, Nilwala S; Cianzio, Silvia R; Robertson, Alison E; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, which causes Phytophthora root rot, is a widespread pathogen that limits soybean production worldwide. Development of Phytophthora resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora resistance Rps genes is a cost-effective approach in controlling this disease. For this mapping study of a novel Rps gene, 290 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (F7 families) were developed by crossing the P. sojae resistant cultivar PI399036 with the P. sojae susceptible AR2 line, and were phenotyped for responses to a mixture of three P. sojae isolates that overcome most of the known Rps genes. Of these 290 RILs, 130 were homozygous resistant, 12 heterzygous and segregating for Phytophthora resistance, and 148 were recessive homozygous and susceptible. From this population, 59 RILs homozygous for Phytophthora sojae resistance and 61 susceptible to a mixture of P. sojae isolates R17 and Val12-11 or P7074 that overcome resistance encoded by known Rps genes mapped to Chromosome 18 were selected for mapping novel Rps gene. A single gene accounted for the 1:1 segregation of resistance and susceptibility among the RILs. The gene encoding the Phytophthora resistance mapped to a 5.8 cM interval between the SSR markers BARCSOYSSR_18_1840 and Sat_064 located in the lower arm of Chromosome 18. The gene is mapped 2.2 cM proximal to the NBSRps4/6-like sequence that was reported to co-segregate with the Phytophthora resistance genes Rps4 and Rps6. The gene is mapped to a highly recombinogenic, gene-rich genomic region carrying several nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-like genes. We named this novel gene as Rps12, which is expected to be an invaluable resource in breeding soybeans for Phytophthora resistance.

  12. A Novel Phytophthora sojae Resistance Rps12 Gene Mapped to a Genomic Region That Contains Several Rps Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak K Sahoo

    Full Text Available Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, which causes Phytophthora root rot, is a widespread pathogen that limits soybean production worldwide. Development of Phytophthora resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora resistance Rps genes is a cost-effective approach in controlling this disease. For this mapping study of a novel Rps gene, 290 recombinant inbred lines (RILs (F7 families were developed by crossing the P. sojae resistant cultivar PI399036 with the P. sojae susceptible AR2 line, and were phenotyped for responses to a mixture of three P. sojae isolates that overcome most of the known Rps genes. Of these 290 RILs, 130 were homozygous resistant, 12 heterzygous and segregating for Phytophthora resistance, and 148 were recessive homozygous and susceptible. From this population, 59 RILs homozygous for Phytophthora sojae resistance and 61 susceptible to a mixture of P. sojae isolates R17 and Val12-11 or P7074 that overcome resistance encoded by known Rps genes mapped to Chromosome 18 were selected for mapping novel Rps gene. A single gene accounted for the 1:1 segregation of resistance and susceptibility among the RILs. The gene encoding the Phytophthora resistance mapped to a 5.8 cM interval between the SSR markers BARCSOYSSR_18_1840 and Sat_064 located in the lower arm of Chromosome 18. The gene is mapped 2.2 cM proximal to the NBSRps4/6-like sequence that was reported to co-segregate with the Phytophthora resistance genes Rps4 and Rps6. The gene is mapped to a highly recombinogenic, gene-rich genomic region carrying several nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR-like genes. We named this novel gene as Rps12, which is expected to be an invaluable resource in breeding soybeans for Phytophthora resistance.

  13. Enhancing Motivation through Repeated Listening

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Listening in a foreign language is difficult. Previous research has identified a number of strategies that can result in increased comprehension. One such is repeated listening. The present article describes a study in which 98 Japanese college students of English as a foreign language viewed five videos, rating their comprehension of each video after an initial viewing and again after a second viewing. Self-reported comprehension was found to be significantly better after the second viewing....

  14. Learning in repeated visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Hout, Michael C.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search could be facilitated by object memory and by memory for spatial layouts. Participants searched for new targets (real-world, nameable objects) embe...

  15. Preventing repeat pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Dona; Glasier, Anna

    2008-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy is on a decline, but there are wide inequalities in those who are still becoming pregnant at an early age. Teenage pregnancy remains a public health concern. Numbers of repeat pregnancy in adolescence are small but contribute to poor health outcomes for young women and their children. A number of studies have demonstrated the impact that low levels of educational attainment, lack of aspiration, low socioeconomic status, dislike of school, lack of family connectedness and poor parental monitoring can have on early sexual activity and, in some cases, pregnancy among adolescents. Risks for repeat pregnancy in adolescence would appear to be linked to whether the pregnancy was intended or not, and what incentives or motivations, if any, existed to prevent subsequent early pregnancies. There would appear to be two options available to those who wish to reduce the negative health outcomes associated with repeat pregnancy in adolescence. First, to increase the life choices available to young women, which improve their social and economic circumstances. Secondly, to develop a clear understanding of pregnancy intentions within this group to ensure the provision of appropriate services which deliver the best possible outcomes for them and their child.

  16. Role of tryptophan repeats and flanking amino acids in Myb-DNA interactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Saikumar, P; Murali, R; Reddy, E P

    1990-01-01

    The c-myb protooncogene codes for a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that appears to act as a transcriptional regulator and is highly conserved through evolution. The DNA-binding domain of Myb has been shown to contain three imperfectly conserved repeats of 52 amino acids that constitute the amino-terminal end. Within each repeat, there are three tryptophans that are separated by 18 or 19 amino acids and are flanked by basic amino acids. To determine the role of tryptophans and the flank...

  17. Inverted repeats in the promoter as an autoregulatory sequence for TcrX in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Monolekha; Das, Amit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The regulatory sequences recognized by TcrX have been identified. ► The regulatory region comprises of inverted repeats segregated by 30 bp region. ► The mode of binding of TcrX with regulatory sequence is unique. ► In silico TcrX–DNA docked model binds one of the inverted repeats. ► Both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated TcrX binds regulatory sequence in vitro. -- Abstract: TcrY, a histidine kinase, and TcrX, a response regulator, constitute a two-component system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. tcrX, which is expressed during iron scarcity, is instrumental in the survival of iron-dependent M. tuberculosis. However, the regulator of tcrX/Y has not been fully characterized. Crosslinking studies of TcrX reveal that it can form oligomers in vitro. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) show that TcrX recognizes two regions in the promoter that are comprised of inverted repeats separated by ∼30 bp. The dimeric in silico model of TcrX predicts binding to one of these inverted repeat regions. Site-directed mutagenesis and radioactive phosphorylation indicate that D54 of TcrX is phosphorylated by H256 of TcrY. However, phosphorylated and unphosphorylated TcrX bind the regulatory sequence with equal efficiency, which was shown with an EMSA using the D54A TcrX mutant.

  18. Low-Normal FMR1 CGG Repeat Length: Phenotypic Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha eMailick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This population-based study investigates genotype-phenotype correlations of low-normal CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. FMR1 plays an important role in brain development and function, and encodes FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein, an RNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis impacting activity-dependent synaptic development and plasticity. Most past research has focused on CGG premutation expansions (41 to 200 CGG repeats and on fragile X syndrome (200+ CGG repeats, with considerably less attention on the other end of the spectrum of CGG repeats. Using existing data, older adults with 23 or fewer CGG repeats (2 SDs below the mean were compared with age-peers who have normal numbers of CGGs (24-40 with respect to cognition, mental health, cancer, and having children with disabilities. Men (n = 341 with an allele in the low-normal range and women (n = 46 with two low-normal alleles had significantly more difficulty with their memory and ability to solve day to day problems. Women with both FMR1 alleles in the low-normal category had significantly elevated odds of feeling that they need to drink more to get the same effect as in the past. These women also had two and one-half times the odds of having had breast cancer and four times the odds of uterine cancer. Men and women with low-normal CGGs had higher odds of having a child with a disability, either a developmental disability or a mental health condition. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that there is a need for tight neuronal homeostatic control mechanisms for optimal cognitive and behavioral functioning, and more generally that low numbers as well as high numbers of CGG repeats may be problematic for health.

  19. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  1. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  2. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  4. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  5. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    J. Biosci. 32(1), January 2007. The list of microsatellite rich as well as poor regions in the five mycobacterial genomes. Local GC%. Repeat rich(+)/. Repeat poor(-). Total ORFs. Number of ... Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes. VATTIPALLY .... heat shock protein (grpE) (15839737), heat shock protein (dnaJ) ...

  6. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  7. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  8. Learning in repeated visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hout, Michael C; Goldinger, Stephen D

    2010-07-01

    Visual search (e.g., finding a specific object in an array of other objects) is performed most effectively when people are able to ignore distracting nontargets. In repeated search, however, incidental learning of object identities may facilitate performance. In three experiments, with over 1,100 participants, we examined the extent to which search could be facilitated by object memory and by memory for spatial layouts. Participants searched for new targets (real-world, nameable objects) embedded among repeated distractors. To make the task more challenging, some participants performed search for multiple targets, increasing demands on visual working memory (WM). Following search, memory for search distractors was assessed using a surprise two-alternative forced choice recognition memory test with semantically matched foils. Search performance was facilitated by distractor object learning and by spatial memory; it was most robust when object identity was consistently tied to spatial locations and weakest (or absent) when object identities were inconsistent across trials. Incidental memory for distractors was better among participants who searched under high WM load, relative to low WM load. These results were observed when visual search included exhaustive-search trials (Experiment 1) or when all trials were self-terminating (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, stimulus exposure was equated across WM load groups by presenting objects in a single-object stream; recognition accuracy was similar to that in Experiments 1 and 2. Together, the results suggest that people incidentally generate memory for nontarget objects encountered during search and that such memory can facilitate search performance.

  9. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  10. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. [ 35 S]GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of [ 35 S]GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin

  11. Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Binding Sites in the Brain: Regulation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rochelle D.; Kellar, Kenneth J.

    1983-04-01

    Tritiated acetylcholine was used to measure binding sites with characteristics of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Regulation of the binding sites in vivo was examined by administering two drugs that stimulate nicotinic receptors directly or indirectly. After 10 days of exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex was decreased. However, after repeated administration of nicotine for 10 days, binding of tritiated acetylcholine in the cortex was increased. Saturation analysis of tritiated acetylcholine binding in the cortices of rats treated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate or nicotine indicated that the number of binding sites decreased and increased, respectively, while the affinity of the sites was unaltered.

  12. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  13. Huntington's disease is a four-repeat tauopathy with tau nuclear rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Nogales, M.; Cabrera, J.R.; Santos-Galindo, M.; Hoozemans, J.J.M.; Ferrer, I.; Rozemuller, A.J.M.; Hernandez, F.; Avila, J.; Lucas, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    An imbalance of tau isoforms containing either three or four microtubule-binding repeats causes frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) in families with intronic mutations in the MAPT gene. Here we report equivalent imbalances at the mRNA and protein levels and

  14. New binding mode to TNF-alpha revealed by ubiquitin-based artificial binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A variety of approaches have been employed to generate binding proteins from non-antibody scaffolds. Utilizing a beta-sheet of the human ubiquitin for paratope creation we obtained binding proteins against tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha. The bioactive form of this validated pharmacological target protein is a non-covalently linked homo-trimer. This structural feature leads to the observation of a certain heterogeneity concerning the binding mode of TNF-alpha binding molecules, for instance in terms of monomer/trimer specificity. We analyzed a ubiquitin-based TNF-alpha binder, selected by ribosome display, with a particular focus on its mode of interaction. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, specific binding to TNF-alpha with nanomolar affinity was observed. In isothermal titration calorimetry we obtained comparable results regarding the affinity and detected an exothermic reaction with one ubiquitin-derived binding molecule binding one TNF-alpha trimer. Using NMR spectroscopy and other analytical methods the 1:3 stoichiometry could be confirmed. Detailed binding analysis showed that the interaction is affected by the detergent Tween-20. Previously, this phenomenon was reported only for one other type of alternative scaffold-derived binding proteins--designed ankyrin repeat proteins--without further investigation. As demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy, the presence of the detergent increases the association rate significantly. Since the special architecture of TNF-alpha is known to be modulated by detergents, the access to the recognized epitope is indicated to be restricted by conformational transitions within the target protein. Our results suggest that the ubiquitin-derived binding protein targets a new epitope on TNF-alpha, which differs from the epitopes recognized by TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies.

  15. Repeats and EST analysis for new organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonassen Inge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat masking is an important step in the EST analysis pipeline. For new species, genomic knowledge is scarce and good repeat libraries are typically unavailable. In these cases it is common practice to mask against known repeats from other species (i.e., model organisms. There are few studies that investigate the effectiveness of this approach, or attempt to evaluate the different methods for identifying and masking repeats. Results Using zebrafish and medaka as example organisms, we show that accurate repeat masking is an important factor for obtaining a high quality clustering. Furthermore, we show that masking with standard repeat libraries based on curated genomic information from other species has little or no positive effect on the quality of the resulting EST clustering. Library based repeat masking which often constitutes a computational bottleneck in the EST analysis pipeline can therefore be reduced to species specific repeat libraries, or perhaps eliminated entirely. In contrast, substantially improved results can be achived by applying a repeat library derived from a partial reference clustering (e.g., from mapping sequences against a partially sequenced genome. Conclusion Of the methods explored, we find that the best EST clustering is achieved after masking with repeat libraries that are species specific. In the absence of such libraries, library-less masking gives results superior to the current practice of using cross-species, genome-based libraries.

  16. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  17. DNS & Bind Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Cricket

    2011-01-01

    The DNS & BIND Cookbook presents solutions to the many problems faced by network administrators responsible for a name server. Following O'Reilly's popular problem-and-solution cookbook format, this title is an indispensable companion to DNS & BIND, 4th Edition, the definitive guide to the critical task of name server administration. The cookbook contains dozens of code recipes showing solutions to everyday problems, ranging from simple questions, like, "How do I get BIND?" to more advanced topics like providing name service for IPv6 addresses. It's full of BIND configuration files that yo

  18. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  19. DNS BIND Server Configuratio

    OpenAIRE

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  20. DNS BIND Server Configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Radu MARSANU

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the DNS and BIND standard for Unix platforms, the paper presents an application which has a principal objective, the configuring of the DNS BIND 9 server. The general objectives of the application are presented, follow by the description of the details of designing the program.

  1. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S; Fairchild, R G; Watts, K P; Greenberg, D; Hannon, S J

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed. (PSB)

  2. Melanin-binding radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.; Fairchild, R.G.; Watts, K.P.; Greenberg, D.; Hannon, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of this paper is limited to an analysis of the factors that are important to the relationship of radiopharmaceuticals to melanin. While the authors do not attempt to deal with differences between melanin-binding vs. melanoma-binding, a notable variance is assumed

  3. A model of high-affinity antibody binding to type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M R; Muñoz, A; Kasper, D L

    1987-12-01

    We recently reported that the single repeating-unit pentasaccharide of type III group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharide is only weakly reactive with type III GBS antiserum. To further elucidate the relationship between antigen-chain length and antigenicity, tritiated oligosaccharides derived from type III capsular polysaccharide were used to generate detailed saturation binding curves with a fixed concentration of rabbit antiserum in a radioactive antigen-binding assay. A graded increase in affinity of antigen-antibody binding was seen as oligosaccharide size increased from 2.6 repeating units to 92 repeating units. These differences in affinity of antibody binding to oligosaccharides of different molecular size were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and competitive ELISA, two independent assays of antigen-antibody binding. Analysis of the saturation binding experiment indicated a difference of 300-fold in antibody-binding affinity for the largest versus the smallest tested oligosaccharides. Unexpectedly, the saturation binding values approached by the individual curves were inversely related to oligosaccharide chain length on a molar basis but equivalent on a weight basis. This observation is compatible with a model in which binding of an immunoglobulin molecule to an antigenic site on the polysaccharide facilitates subsequent binding of antibody to that antigen.

  4. Acanthamoeba castellanii contains a ribosomal RNA enhancer binding protein which stimulates TIF-IB binding and transcription under stringent conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Radebaugh, C A; Kubaska, W; Geiss, G K; Paule, M R

    1995-01-01

    The intergenic spacer (IGS) of Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA genes contains repeated elements which are weak enhancers for transcription by RNA polymerase I. A protein, EBF, was identified and partially purified which binds to the enhancers and to several other sequences within the IGS, but not to other DNA fragments, including the rRNA core promoter. No consensus binding sequence could be discerned in these fragments and bound factor is in rapid equilibrium with unbound. EBF has functional characteristics similar to vertebrate upstream binding factors (UBF). Not only does it bind to the enhancer and other IGS elements, but it also stimulates binding of TIF-IB, the fundamental transcription initiation factor, to the core promoter and stimulates transcription from the promoter. Attempts to identify polypeptides with epitopes similar to rat or Xenopus laevis UBF suggest that structurally the protein from A.castellanii is not closely related to vertebrate UBF. Images PMID:7501455

  5. simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... 212 primer pairs selected, based on repeat patterns of n≥8 for di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeat ... Cluster analysis revealed a high genetic similarity among the sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding lines which could reduce the genetic gain in ..... The multiple allele characteristic of SSR com-.

  6. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  7. (SSR) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, they were washed 3 to 4 times with sterile distilled water and inoculated aseptically on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium free hormones. Single nodes resulted from seedlings cultured as explants. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers used produced different ...

  8. Characterization and DNA-binding specificities of Ralstonia TAL-like effectors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. © 2013 The Author.

  9. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  10. Telomere-binding proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, U

    1995-02-01

    The nucleoprotein structure of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres was investigated. A protein specifically binding to telomeric sequences was characterized by gel mobility shift assays with synthetic oligonucleotides consisting of four 7 bp telomeric repeats of Arabidopsis (TTTAGGG) and crude nuclear protein extracts of Arabidopsis leaves. These DNA-protein binding studies revealed that the binding affinity of this telomere-binding protein to the G-rich single-strand as well as to the double-stranded telomeric DNA is much higher than to the C-rich single-strand. The molecular mass of the protein was identified by SDS-PAGE to be 67 kDa. The isoelectric points were determined to be 5.0, 4.85 and 4.7, respectively, indicating that either one protein with different modifications or three slightly different proteins have been isolated. An RNA component, possibly serving as a template for reverse transcription of a plant telomerase, does not mediate the DNA-protein contact because the DNA-protein interactions were not RNAse-sensitive.

  11. Nephronectin binds to heparan sulfate proteoglycans via its MAM domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuya; Shimono, Chisei; Li, Shaoliang; Nakano, Itsuko; Norioka, Naoko; Sugiura, Nobuo; Kimata, Koji; Yamada, Masashi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2013-04-24

    Nephronectin is a basement membrane protein comprising five N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a central linker segment containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif and a C-terminal meprin-A5 protein-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase μ (MAM) domain. Nephronectin has been shown to interact with α8β1 integrin through the central linker segment, but its interactions with other molecules remain to be elucidated. Here, we examined the binding of nephronectin to a panel of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Nephronectin bound strongly to heparin and chondroitin sulfate (CS)-E and moderately to heparan sulfate (HS), but failed to bind to CS-A, CS-C, CS-D, dermatan sulfate and hyaluronic acid. Deletion of the MAM domain severely impaired the binding of nephronectin to heparin but not CS-E, whereas deletion of the EGF-like repeats reduced its binding to CS-E but not heparin, suggesting that nephronectin interacts with CS-E and heparin through the EGF-like repeats and MAM domain, respectively. Consistent with these results, nephronectin bound to agrin and perlecan, which are heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in basement membranes, in HS-dependent manners. Site-directed mutagenesis of the MAM domain revealed that multiple basic amino acid residues in the putative loop regions were involved in the binding of the MAM domain to agrin. The binding of nephronectin to basement membrane HSPGs was further confirmed by in situ nephronectin overlay assays using mouse frozen tissue sections. Taken together, these findings indicate that nephronectin is capable of binding to HSPGs in basement membranes via the MAM domain, and thereby raise the possibility that interactions with basement membrane HSPGs may be involved in the deposition of nephronectin onto basement membranes. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A GBP 130 derived peptide from Plasmodium falciparum binds to human erythrocytes and inhibits merozoite invasion in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Suarez

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The malarial GBP 130 protein binds weakly to intact human erythrocytes; the binding sites seem to be located in the repeat region and this region's antibodies block the merozoite invasion. A peptide from this region (residues from 701 to 720 which binds to human erythrocytes was identified. This peptide named 2220 did not bind to sialic acid; the binding site on human erythrocyte was affected by treatment with trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. The peptide was able to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. The residues F701, K703, L705, T706, E713 (FYKILTNTDPNDEVERDNAD were found to be critical for peptide binding to erythrocytes.

  13. DNA triplet repeat expansion and mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ravi R; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway.

  14. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeate......: the suicidal act is perceived--and learned--as way to solve problems.......The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  15. Robust Repeated Auctions under Heterogeneous Buyer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Shipra; Daskalakis, Constantinos; Mirrokni, Vahab; Sivan, Balasubramanian

    2018-01-01

    We study revenue optimization in a repeated auction between a single seller and a single buyer. Traditionally, the design of repeated auctions requires strong modeling assumptions about the bidder behavior, such as it being myopic, infinite lookahead, or some specific form of learning behavior. Is it possible to design mechanisms which are simultaneously optimal against a multitude of possible buyer behaviors? We answer this question by designing a simple state-based mechanism that is simulta...

  16. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  17. Natively Unfolded FG Repeats Stabilize the Structure of the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, Evgeny; Tang, Jeffrey H; Andersen, Kasper R; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Vallotton, Pascal; Derrer, Carina P; Kralt, Annemarie; Mugler, Christopher F; Chan, Leon Y; Schwartz, Thomas U; Weis, Karsten

    2017-11-02

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are ∼100 MDa transport channels assembled from multiple copies of ∼30 nucleoporins (Nups). One-third of these Nups contain phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-rich repeats, forming a diffusion barrier, which is selectively permeable for nuclear transport receptors that interact with these repeats. Here, we identify an additional function of FG repeats in the structure and biogenesis of the yeast NPC. We demonstrate that GLFG-containing FG repeats directly bind to multiple scaffold Nups in vitro and act as NPC-targeting determinants in vivo. Furthermore, we show that the GLFG repeats of Nup116 function in a redundant manner with Nup188, a nonessential scaffold Nup, to stabilize critical interactions within the NPC scaffold needed for late steps of NPC assembly. Our results reveal a previously unanticipated structural role for natively unfolded GLFG repeats as Velcro to link NPC subcomplexes and thus add a new layer of connections to current models of the NPC architecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  19. Two unique ligand-binding clamps of Rhizopus oryzae starch binding domain for helical structure disruption of amylose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available The N-terminal starch binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoSBD has a high binding affinity for raw starch. RoSBD has two ligand-binding sites, each containing a ligand-binding clamp: a polyN clamp residing near binding site I is unique in that it is expressed in only three members of carbohydrate binding module family 21 (CBM21 members, and a Y32/F58 clamp located at binding site II is conserved in several CBMs. Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural bioinformatics. RoSBD induced the release of iodine from the amylose helical cavity and disrupted the helical structure of amylose type III, thereby significantly diminishing the thickness and length of the amylose type III fibrils. A point mutation in the critical ligand-binding residues of sites I and II, however, reduced both the binding affinity and amylose helix disruption. This is the first molecular model for structure disruption of the amylose helix by a non-hydrolytic CBM21 member. RoSBD apparently twists the helical amylose strands apart to expose more ligand surface for further SBD binding. Repeating the process triggers the relaxation and unwinding of amylose helices to generate thinner and shorter amylose fibrils, which are more susceptible to hydrolysis by glucoamylase. This model aids in understanding the natural roles of CBMs in protein-glycan interactions and contributes to potential molecular engineering of CBMs.

  20. Two Unique Ligand-Binding Clamps of Rhizopus oryzae Starch Binding Domain for Helical Structure Disruption of Amylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting-Ying; Ci, Yuan-Pei; Chou, Wei-I; Lee, Yuan-Chuan; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Chou, Wei-Yao; Li, Kun-Mou; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal starch binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoSBD) has a high binding affinity for raw starch. RoSBD has two ligand-binding sites, each containing a ligand-binding clamp: a polyN clamp residing near binding site I is unique in that it is expressed in only three members of carbohydrate binding module family 21 (CBM21) members, and a Y32/F58 clamp located at binding site II is conserved in several CBMs. Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural bioinformatics. RoSBD induced the release of iodine from the amylose helical cavity and disrupted the helical structure of amylose type III, thereby significantly diminishing the thickness and length of the amylose type III fibrils. A point mutation in the critical ligand-binding residues of sites I and II, however, reduced both the binding affinity and amylose helix disruption. This is the first molecular model for structure disruption of the amylose helix by a non-hydrolytic CBM21 member. RoSBD apparently twists the helical amylose strands apart to expose more ligand surface for further SBD binding. Repeating the process triggers the relaxation and unwinding of amylose helices to generate thinner and shorter amylose fibrils, which are more susceptible to hydrolysis by glucoamylase. This model aids in understanding the natural roles of CBMs in protein-glycan interactions and contributes to potential molecular engineering of CBMs. PMID:22815939

  1. Repeat aware evaluation of scaffolding tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandric, Igor; Knyazev, Sergey; Zelikovsky, Alex

    2018-03-14

    Genomic sequences are assembled into a variable, but large number of contigs that should be scaffolded (ordered and oriented) for facilitating comparative or functional analysis. Finding scaffolding is computationally challenging due to misassemblies, inconsistent coverage across the genome, and long repeats. An accurate assessment of scaffolding tools should take into account multiple locations of the same contig on the reference scaffolding rather than matching a repeat to a single best location. This makes mapping of inferred scaffoldings onto the reference a computationally challenging problem. This paper formulates the repeat-aware scaffolding evaluation problem which is to find a mapping of the inferred scaffolding onto the reference maximizing number of correct links and proposes a scalable algorithm capable of handling large whole-genome datasets. Our novel scaffolding validation framework has been applied to assess the most of state-of-the-art scaffolding tools on the representative subset of GAGE datasets and some novel simulated datasets. The source code of this evaluation framework is available at https://github.com/mandricigor/repeat-aware. The documentation is hosted at https://mandricigor.github.io/repeat-aware. imandric1@cs.gsu.edu.

  2. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Duer, W.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  3. Children's eyewitness memory for a repeated event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNichol, S; Shute, R; Tucker, A

    1999-11-01

    This study examined a significant issue for chronic sexual abuse investigations: Children's eyewitness testimony about repeated events. The few previous studies focused on preschoolers and none used the present methodology of presenting repeated events differing slightly in their details, as would happen in chronic abuse. One group of 6- to 7-year-olds played individually with an experimenter on one occasion; the other group experienced three such events, with some details remaining the same and others changing. In a phased interview, children were questioned about the initial event. For details which stayed the same, the children who experienced three events had more accurate memories. They had poorer memories than the single-event group for details which were changed in the later events; however, this was due to interference errors, with errors of omission and commission being lower than in the single-event group. Children conveyed clearly that inappropriate touching did not occur. Children who experience repeated events have increased recall for repeated details but confuse the timing of details which change across events. The findings support previous suggestions that (a) it is unrealistic to expect children to be able to report repeated events without some confusion about timing of details and (b) children are resistant to misleading questions about abuse.

  4. Risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Brázda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc., the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGGn, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2 and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development.

  6. [C-11]raclopride-PET studies of the Huntington's disease rate of progression : Relevance of the trinucleotide repeat length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonini, A; Leenders, KL; Eidelberg, D

    We used [C-11]raclopride and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the relationship between striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding, trinucleotide repeat number (GAG), and subject age in 10 asymptomatic and 8 symptomatic carriers of the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation. In both preclinical

  7. binding protein (HABP1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    adsorbed on carbon coated copper grid (400 mesh) for. 5 min at room temperature. The grids were subsequently .... and inhibition by GAGs and DMA were determined on polystyrene wells of microtitre plates (Costar, ... for binding inhibition assays was carried out by mixing equal volumes of the conjugate and the inhibitor at ...

  8. Quarkeosynthesis Binding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bill

    2009-05-01

    Quarkeosynthesis shows that the binding energy of a nucleus is the difference between the relativistic kinetic energies of its threesome of Jumbo Quarks and that of its building block quarks from neutrons and protons. There is no involvement of a nuclear strong force or gluon material.

  9. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  10. binding protein (HABP1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of HA in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting its multiligand affinity amongst carbohydrates. rHABP1 shows differential affinity ... site is seen to correspond to the carbohydrate-binding site in E-selectin, which has similarity in the ... adsorbed on carbon coated copper grid (400 mesh) for. 5 min at room temperature.

  11. Scale-invariance in soft gamma repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Sang, Yu; Wang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    The statistical properties of the soft gamma repeater SGR J1550-5418 are investigated carefully. We find that the cumulative distributions of fluence, peak flux and duration can be well fitted by a bent power law, while the cumulative distribution of waiting time follows a simple power law. In particular, the probability density functions of fluctuations of fluence, peak flux, and duration have a sharp peak and fat tails, which can be well fitted by a q-Gaussian function. The q values keep approximately steady for different scale intervals, indicating a scale-invariant structure of soft gamma repeaters. Those results support that the origin of soft gamma repeaters is crustquakes of neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375203, 11675182, 11690022, 11603005), and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (106112016CDJCR301206)

  12. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  13. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver’s cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51–71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction

  14. The repeatability of automated and clinician refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, M A; Fusaro, R E; Adams, C W

    1998-08-01

    Auto-refractors are used as a starting point for clinicians' refractions and in studies of refractive error. We investigated the repeatability of the Hoya AR-570 and clinician refraction. Eighty-six subjects, aged 11 to 60 years, were recruited by mailing inquiries to 500 randomly selected patients who had received recent examinations at the University of California Optometric Eye Center. Contact lens wearers, patients with best corrected visual acuity worse than 20/30 in either eye, and patients with a history of diabetes were excluded. Each subject was examined by two clinicians during one visit. The first clinician obtained five auto-refractor readings for each eye (which were later averaged), performed a balanced subjective refraction (with spherical masking lenses in the phoropter), and repeated the automated refractor measurements. This protocol was then repeated by the second clinician. Clinicians were randomized with regard to testing order and masked to automated refractor results, each other's refractions, and previous spectacle prescriptions. To quantify repeatability, we used mixed model analyses of variance to estimate the appropriate variance components while accounting for the correlation among, for example, repeated measurements of the same eye. Astigmatic data were analyzed by converting into Fourier form: two cross-cylinders at axis 0 degrees (J0) and axis 45 degrees (J45). For mean spherical equivalent, the average difference between five averaged automated refractor readings, taken by two different optometrists, was +0.02 D (95% limits of agreement = -0.36 to +0.40 D). The average difference between the two optometrists' subjective refractions was -0.12 D (95% limits of agreement = -0.90 to +0.65 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the automated refractor were about half those of the clinician for both astigmatic terms (J0 and J45) and for all comparisons. Automated refraction is more repeatable than subjective refraction and therefore more

  15. Human pentraxin 3 binds to the complement regulator c4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Braunschweig

    Full Text Available The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is a soluble recognition molecule with multiple functions including innate immune defense against certain microbes and the clearance of apoptotic cells. PTX3 interacts with recognition molecules of the classical and lectin complement pathways and thus initiates complement activation. In addition, binding of PTX3 to the alternative complement pathway regulator factor H was shown. Here, we show that PTX3 binds to the classical and lectin pathway regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP. A PTX3-binding site was identified within short consensus repeats 1-3 of the C4BP α-chain. PTX3 did not interfere with the cofactor activity of C4BP in the fluid phase and C4BP maintained its complement regulatory activity when bound to PTX3 on surfaces. While C4BP and factor H did not compete for PTX3 binding, the interaction of C4BP with PTX3 was inhibited by C1q and by L-ficolin. PTX3 bound to human fibroblast- and endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrices and recruited functionally active C4BP to these surfaces. Whereas PTX3 enhanced the activation of the classical/lectin pathway and caused enhanced C3 deposition on extracellular matrix, deposition of terminal pathway components and the generation of the inflammatory mediator C5a were not increased. Furthermore, PTX3 enhanced the binding of C4BP to late apoptotic cells, which resulted in an increased rate of inactivation of cell surface bound C4b and a reduction in the deposition of C5b-9. Thus, in addition to complement activators, PTX3 interacts with complement inhibitors including C4BP. This balanced interaction on extracellular matrix and on apoptotic cells may prevent excessive local complement activation that would otherwise lead to inflammation and host tissue damage.

  16. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Repeatability And Validity Of IUATLD Respiratory Questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Two hundred and forty seven adults and children who previously reported wheeze in the past year, and 174 who did not. ... Conclusion: Our findings suggest that self-reported wheeze and asthma have good short-term repeatability, but do not closely reflect exercise-induced bronchospasm or bronchodilator ...

  18. On Solving Intransitivities in Repeated Pairwise Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Maas (Arne); Th.G.G. Bezembinder (Thom); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAn operational method is presented for deriving a linear ranking of alternatives from repeated paired comparisons of the alternatives. Intransitivities in the observed preferences are cleared away by the introduction of decision errors of varying importance. An observed preference

  19. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  20. Mixed models for repeated count data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Maria Aukje Julianne van

    1993-01-01

    Discrete data resulting from repeated counts are often collected in various fields of scientific research. They may come from experiments where, in various conditions or tasks, the number of certain happenings (e.g. a right or wrong answer) are counted. When the data are balanced (i.e., every

  1. FRB 121102: A Starquake-induced Repeater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyang; Luo, Rui; Yue, Han; Chen, Xuelei; Lee, Kejia; Xu, Renxin

    2018-01-01

    Since its initial discovery, the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 121102 has been found to be repeating with millisecond-duration pulses. Very recently, 14 new bursts were detected by the Green Bank Telescope during its continuous monitoring observations. In this paper, we show that the burst energy distribution has a power-law form which is very similar to the Gutenberg–Richter law of earthquakes. In addition, the distribution of burst waiting time can be described as a Poissonian or Gaussian distribution, which is consistent with earthquakes, while the aftershock sequence exhibits some local correlations. These findings suggest that the repeating FRB pulses may originate from the starquakes of a pulsar. Noting that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) also exhibit such distributions, the FRB could be powered by some starquake mechanisms associated with the SGRs, including the crustal activity of a magnetar or solidification-induced stress of a newborn strangeon star. These conjectures could be tested with more repeating samples.

  2. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2006-12-18

    Dec 18, 2006 ... of many pathogenic bacteria have been shown to contain these repetitive ... of many repeats in E. coli ORFs related to physiological adaptations, DNA repair ..... Graph showing ratios of observed and expected (after 1000 times randomizations) numbers of microsatellites from E. coli K12,. H. pylori (J99 and ...

  3. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  4. Repeatability And Validity Of IUATLD Respiratory Questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interventions: Administered IUATLD bronchial symptoms questionnaire; standardised free-running exercise test or (for those with airflow obstruction) assessment of bronchodilator response to inhaled salbutamol. Results: Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 (95% CI 0.52 ...

  5. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads to s...

  6. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads to s...... method involving differences between orthogonal projections onto subspaces generated by within-subject models....

  7. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  8. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits.

  9. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from ‘Arka Manik’ × ‘TS34’ and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits. PMID:26700647

  10. Genome wide re-sequencing of newly developed Rice Lines from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. for the identification of NBS-LRR genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    Full Text Available Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. is an important germplasm for rice breeding, which contains many resistance genes. Re-sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore the abundant useful genes at whole genome level. Here, we identified the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR encoding genes by re-sequencing of two wild rice lines (i.e. Huaye 1 and Huaye 2 that were developed from common wild rice. We obtained 128 to 147 million reads with approximately 32.5-fold coverage depth, and uniquely covered more than 89.6% (> = 1 fold of reference genomes. Two wild rice lines showed high SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms variation rate in 12 chromosomes against the reference genomes of Nipponbare (japonica cultivar and 93-11 (indica cultivar. InDels (insertion/deletion polymorphisms count-length distribution exhibited normal distribution in the two lines, and most of the InDels were ranged from -5 to 5 bp. With reference to the Nipponbare genome sequence, we detected a total of 1,209,308 SNPs, 161,117 InDels and 4,192 SVs (structural variations in Huaye 1, and 1,387,959 SNPs, 180,226 InDels and 5,305 SVs in Huaye 2. A total of 44.9% and 46.9% genes exhibited sequence variations in two wild rice lines compared to the Nipponbare and 93-11 reference genomes, respectively. Analysis of NBS-LRR mutant candidate genes showed that they were mainly distributed on chromosome 11, and NBS domain was more conserved than LRR domain in both wild rice lines. NBS genes depicted higher levels of genetic diversity in Huaye 1 than that found in Huaye 2. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction analysis showed that NBS genes mostly interacted with the cytochrome C protein (Os05g0420600, Os01g0885000 and BGIOSGA038922, while some NBS genes interacted with heat shock protein, DNA-binding activity, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and a coiled coil region. We explored abundant NBS-LRR encoding genes in two common wild rice lines through genome

  11. Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation in repeated and non-repeated treatment with zoledronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Toni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is used to treat bone metastases and has been shown to reduce skeletal-related events and exert antitumor activity. The present in vitro study investigates the mechanism of action of Zoledronic Acid on breast cancer cell lines with different hormonal and HER2 patterns. Furthermore, we investigated the efficacy of repeated versus non-repeated treatments. Methods The study was performed on 4 breast cancer cell lines (BRC-230, SkBr3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Non-repeated treatment (single exposure of 168 hrs’ duration with zoledronic acid was compared with repeated treatment (separate exposures, each of 48 hrs’ duration, for a total of 168 hrs at different dosages. A dose–response profile was generated using sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and biomolecular characteristics were analyzed by western blot. Results Zoledronic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in all cell lines. Anti-proliferative activity was enhanced with the repeated treatment, proving to be statistically significant in the triple-negative lines. In these lines repeated treatment showed a cytocidal effect, with apoptotic cell death caused by caspase 3, 8 and 9 activation and decreased RAS and pMAPK expression. Apoptosis was not observed in estrogen receptor-positive line: p21 overexpression suggested a slowing down of cell cycle. A decrease in RAS and pMAPK expression was seen in HER2-overexpressing line after treatment. Conclusions The study suggests that zoledronic acid has an antitumor activity in breast cancer cell lines. Its mechanism of action involves the decrease of RAS and RHO, as in osteoclasts. Repeated treatment enhances antitumor activity compared to non-repeated treatment. Repeated treatment has a killing effect on triple-negative lines due to apoptosis activation. Further research is warranted especially in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

  12. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan

    2005-01-01

    to express high levels of megalin, is inhibitable by excess unlabeled FBP and by receptor associated protein, a known inhibitor of binding to megalin. Immortalized rat yolk sac cells, representing an established model for studying megalin-mediated uptake, reveal (125)I-labeled FBP uptake which is inhibited...... to bind and mediate cellular uptake of FBP. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows binding of bovine and human milk FBP to immobilized megalin, but not to low density lipoprotein receptor related protein. Binding of (125)I-labeled folate binding protein (FBP) to sections of kidney proximal tubule, known...

  13. Binding matrix: a novel approach for binding site recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jan T; Gewehr, Jan E; Martinetz, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    Recognition of protein-DNA binding sites in genomic sequences is a crucial step for discovering biological functions of genomic sequences. Explosive growth in availability of sequence information has resulted in a demand for binding site detection methods with high specificity. The motivation of the work presented here is to address this demand by a systematic approach based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation. A general framework is developed in which a large class of binding site detection methods can be described in a uniform and consistent way. Protein-DNA binding is determined by binding energy, which is an approximately linear function within the space of sequence words. All matrix based binding word detectors can be regarded as different linear classifiers which attempt to estimate the linear separation implied by the binding energy function. The standard approaches of consensus sequences and profile matrices are described using this framework. A maximum likelihood approach for determining this linear separation leads to a novel matrix type, called the binding matrix. The binding matrix is the most specific matrix based classifier which is consistent with the input set of known binding words. It achieves significant improvements in specificity compared to other matrices. This is demonstrated using 95 sets of experimentally determined binding words provided by the TRANSFAC database.

  14. The variable number of tandem repeats element in DAT1 regulates in vitro dopamine transporter density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilts Clinton D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR polymorphism exists in the 15th exon of DAT1, the gene encoding the human dopamine transporter (DAT. Though the VNTR resides in a region encoding the 3' untranslated region (UTR and does not alter the protein's amino acid sequence, the prevalent 10-repeat variant has shown both linkage and association to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. In this study, we examined the effects of the DAT1 VNTR on measures of in vitro DAT expression and pharmacology. A series of four DAT1 constructs, each containing the DAT1 coding region, but varying with respect to the downstream presence or content of the 3'UTR, were engineered and stably transfected into an HEK-293 variant using Flp-In integration, an enzyme-mediated, site-specific recombination technology. Results [3H] Win 35,428 saturation binding assays and DAT immunoblots revealed statistically significant differences in DAT expression attributable to DAT1 genotype. Cells harboring the 10-repeat DAT1 variant were characterized by a Bmax approximately 50% greater than cells with the 9-repeat VNTR; those containing only the DAT1 coding region or the coding region flanked by a truncated 3' UTR resulted in greater DAT density than either of the naturalistic 9- and 10-repeat variants. Competition binding assays showed no statistically significant DAT1 genotype effects on the DAT affinity for methylphenidate, a finding consistent with the positional location of the VNTR. Conclusion This study identified the DAT1 VNTR as a functional polymorphism and provides an interpretive framework for its association with behavioral phenotypes.

  15. Familial transmission of the FMR1 CGG repeat.

    OpenAIRE

    Nolin, S. L.; Lewis, F. A.; Ye, L. L.; Houck, G. E.; Glicksman, A. E.; Limprasert, P.; Li, S. Y.; Zhong, N.; Ashley, A. E.; Feingold, E.; Sherman, S. L.; Brown, W. T.

    1996-01-01

    To better define the nature of FMR1 CGG-repeat expansions, changes in allele sizes for 191 families with fragile X and for 33 families with gray-zone repeats (40-60) were analyzed. Expansion of the fragile X chromosome to the full mutation was seen in 13.4% of offspring from premutation mothers with 56-59 repeats, 20.6% of those with 60-69 repeats, 57.8% of those with 70-79 repeats, 72.9% of those with 80-89 repeats, and 97.3% of those with 90-199 repeats. For premutation fathers, the majorit...

  16. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  17. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  18. Toxicological characteristics of petroleum products repeated exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Rubin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The ability of petroleum products to initiate cumulative effects was assessed in experimental intragastric admission to male albino rats for one month. The analysis of skin-resorptive effects was performed using "test-tube" method on the skin of rats’ tails. It has been established that petroleum products can penetrate the intact skin and, with repeated admission, cause a general toxic effect. There were reductions bodyweights, the negative effect on the function of the kidneys and liver, changes of hematological parameters, as well as activation of the antioksidatnoy system. Repeated intragastric administration does not lead to the death of the animals testifying to the lack of accumulation capacity for petroleum products at the level of functional mortal effects, the cumulation coefficient being > 5.1. Negative impact on urinary function and hepatobiliary system, changes in hematological parameters and activation of the «lipid peroxidation – antioksidant defense» were observed.

  19. Identification and chromosomal localization of repeat sequences ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    generate linkage maps of human and cattle as well as for other mammalian ... through BAC end sequencing and identification in silico. (Larkin et al. ... LINEs. 2,344. 653,391 bp. 19.80. LTR elements. 500. 124,761 bp. 3.78. DNA elements. 267. 46,569 bp. 1.14. Total interspersed repeats. 1,105,666 bp. 33.51. Small RNA. 26.

  20. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  1. Developing Aural Comprehension Skills through Repeated Listening

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Listening in a foreign language is difficult. Previous research has identified a number of strategies that can result in increased comprehension. One such is simply listening to a given text more than one time. The present article describes the psychological and linguistic background to this issue, describes a small scale empirical study which provides support for the view that repeated listening increases some important aspects of comprehension and motivation, and suggests a number of techni...

  2. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  3. Electrochemical detection of DNA triplet repeat expansion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Vojtíšková, Marie; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 21 (2004), s. 6532-6533 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004402; GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA triplet repeat expansion * PCR amplification * neurodegenerative diseases Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.903, year: 2004

  4. Security of Quantum Repeater Network Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-03

    taxonomies for RFID tags, because both RFID tags and quantum links and nodes are sensitive to their local environment, and attacks at the physical level...vulnerable to being hacked . Thus, operation of the quantum repeater network is vulnerable to undetectable disruption of the network operation. This...Jogenfors, J., Elhassan, A. M., Ahrens, J., Bourennane, M., & Larsson, J. (2015). Hacking the Bell test using classical light in energy-time

  5. Structures of Human Pumilio with Noncognate RNAs Reveal Molecular Mechanisms for Binding Promiscuity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta,Y.; Nair, D.; Wharton, R.; Aggarwal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Pumilio is a founder member of the evolutionarily conserved Puf family of RNA-binding proteins that control a number of physiological processes in eukaryotes. A structure of human Pumilio (hPum) Puf domain bound to a Drosophila regulatory sequence showed that each Puf repeat recognizes a single nucleotide. Puf domains in general bind promiscuously to a large set of degenerate sequences, but the structural basis for this promiscuity has been unclear. Here, we describe the structures of hPum Puf domain complexed to two noncognate RNAs, CycBreverse and Puf5. In each complex, one of the nucleotides is ejected from the binding surface, in effect, acting as a 'spacer.' The complexes also reveal the plasticity of several Puf repeats, which recognize noncanonical nucleotides. Together, these complexes provide a molecular basis for recognition of degenerate binding sites, which significantly increases the number of mRNAs targeted for regulation by Puf proteins in vivo.

  6. Carboplatin binding to histidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanley, Simon W. M. [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diederichs, Kay [University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Levy, Colin [University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom); Schreurs, Antoine M. M. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Helliwell, John R., E-mail: john.helliwell@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-29

    An X-ray crystal structure showing the binding of purely carboplatin to histidine in a model protein has finally been obtained. This required extensive crystallization trials and various novel crystal structure analyses. Carboplatin is a second-generation platinum anticancer agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Previous X-ray crystallographic studies of carboplatin binding to histidine (in hen egg-white lysozyme; HEWL) showed the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin owing to the high NaCl concentration used in the crystallization conditions. HEWL co-crystallizations with carboplatin in NaBr conditions have now been carried out to confirm whether carboplatin converts to the bromine form and whether this takes place in a similar way to the partial conversion of carboplatin to cisplatin observed previously in NaCl conditions. Here, it is reported that a partial chemical transformation takes place but to a transplatin form. Thus, to attempt to resolve purely carboplatin binding at histidine, this study utilized co-crystallization of HEWL with carboplatin without NaCl to eliminate the partial chemical conversion of carboplatin. Tetragonal HEWL crystals co-crystallized with carboplatin were successfully obtained in four different conditions, each at a different pH value. The structural results obtained show carboplatin bound to either one or both of the N atoms of His15 of HEWL, and this particular variation was dependent on the concentration of anions in the crystallization mixture and the elapsed time, as well as the pH used. The structural details of the bound carboplatin molecule also differed between them. Overall, the most detailed crystal structure showed the majority of the carboplatin atoms bound to the platinum centre; however, the four-carbon ring structure of the cyclobutanedicarboxylate moiety (CBDC) remained elusive. The potential impact of the results for the administration of carboplatin as an anticancer agent are described.

  7. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  8. Optical Binding of Nanowires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Zemánek, Pavel; Marago, O.M.; Jones, P.H.; Hanna, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2017), s. 3485-3492 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-12 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding nanowires * Brownian motion * self -organization * non-equilibrium thermodynamics * non-equilibrium steady state * spin-orbit coupling * emergent phenomena Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 12.712, year: 2016

  9. Feature binding in visual short term memory: A General Recognition Theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel

    2017-05-23

    Creating and maintaining accurate bindings of elementary features (e.g., color and shape) in visual short-term memory (VSTM) is fundamental for veridical perception. How are low-level features bound in memory? The present work harnessed a multivariate model of perception - the General Recognition Theory (GRT) - to unravel the internal representations underlying feature binding in VSTM. On each trial, preview and target colored shapes were presented in succession, appearing in either repeated or altered spatial locations. Participants gave two same/different responses: one with respect to color and one with respect to shape. Converging GRT analyses on the accuracy confusion matrices provided substantial evidence for binding in the form of violations of perceptual independence at the level of the individual stimulus, such that positive correlations were obtained when both features repeated or alternated together, while negative correlations were obtained when one feature repeated and the other alternated. This "cloverleaf" GRT pattern of binding was similar whether the spatial location of the preview and target repeated or altered. The current results are consistent with: (a) the discrete memory "slots" model of VSTM, and (b) the notion that spatial location is not necessary for the formation of "object files." The GRT approach presented here offers a viable quantitative model for testing various questions regarding feature binding in VSTM.

  10. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Manjari, E-mail: manjari@imsc.res.in [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc-HBNI), 4th Cross Road, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  11. IGF binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Leon A

    2017-12-18

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1-6 bind IGFs but not insulin with high affinity. They were initially identified as serum carriers and passive inhibitors of IGF actions. However, subsequent studies showed that, although IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions in many circumstances, they may also potentiate these actions. IGFBPs are widely expressed in most tissues, and they are flexible endocrine and autocrine/paracrine regulators of IGF activity, which is essential for this important physiological system. More recently, individual IGFBPs have been shown to have IGF-independent actions. Mechanisms underlying these actions include (i) interaction with non-IGF proteins in compartments including the extracellular space and matrix, the cell surface and intracellularly; (ii) interaction with and modulation of other growth factor pathways including EGF, TGF- and VEGF; and (iii) direct or indirect transcriptional effects following nuclear entry of IGFBPs. Through these IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions, IGFBPs modulate essential cellular processes including proliferation, survival, migration, senescence, autophagy and angiogenesis. They have been implicated in a range of disorders including malignant, metabolic, neurological and immune diseases. A more complete understanding of their cellular roles may lead to the development of novel IGFBP-based therapeutic opportunities.

  12. Dystrophin contains multiple independent membrane-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junling; Kodippili, Kasun; Yue, Yongping; Hakim, Chady H; Wasala, Lakmini; Pan, Xiufang; Zhang, Keqing; Yang, Nora N; Duan, Dongsheng; Lai, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Dystrophin is a large sub-sarcolemmal protein. Its absence leads to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Binding to the sarcolemma is essential for dystrophin to protect muscle from contraction-induced injury. It has long been thought that membrane binding of dystrophin depends on its cysteine-rich (CR) domain. Here, we provide in vivo evidence suggesting that dystrophin contains three additional membrane-binding domains including spectrin-like repeats (R)1-3, R10-12 and C-terminus (CT). To systematically study dystrophin membrane binding, we split full-length dystrophin into ten fragments and examined subcellular localizations of each fragment by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. In skeletal muscle, R1-3, CR domain and CT were exclusively localized at the sarcolemma. R10-12 showed both cytosolic and sarcolemmal localization. Importantly, the CR-independent membrane binding was conserved in murine and canine muscles. A critical function of the CR-mediated membrane interaction is the assembly of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC). While R1-3 and R10-12 did not restore the DGC, surprisingly, CT alone was sufficient to establish the DGC at the sarcolemma. Additional studies suggest that R1-3 and CT also bind to the sarcolemma in the heart, though relatively weak. Taken together, our study provides the first conclusive in vivo evidence that dystrophin contains multiple independent membrane-binding domains. These structurally and functionally distinctive membrane-binding domains provide a molecular framework for dystrophin to function as a shock absorber and signaling hub. Our results not only shed critical light on dystrophin biology and DMD pathogenesis, but also provide a foundation for rationally engineering minimized dystrophins for DMD gene therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Zinc induces structural reorganization of gelatin binding domain from human fibronectin and affects collagen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graille, Marc; Pagano, Maurice; Rose, Thierry; Ravaux, Michèle Reboud; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

    2010-06-09

    Fibronectin is a modular extracellular matrix protein involved in cell adhesion, cell motility, wound healing, and maintenance of cell morphology. It is composed of multiple repeats of three distinct modules: F(I), F(II), and F(III). Various combinations of these modules create fragments able to interact with different constituents of the extracellular matrix. Here, we present the 2.5-A resolution crystal structure of its 45-kDa gelatin-binding domain (GBD; 6F(I)-1F(II)-2F(II)-7F(I)-8F(I)-9F(I)), which also corresponds to the C-terminal half of the migration stimulating factor, a Fn splice variant expressed in human breast cancers. GBD forms a very compact zinc-mediated homodimer, in stark contrast with previous structures of fibronectin fragments. Most remarkably, 8F(I) no longer adopts the canonical F(I) fold but is composed of two long strands that associate with 7F(I) and 9F(I) into a large beta-sheet superdomain. Binding studies in solution confirmed that Zn induces conformational rearrangements and causes loss of binding of Fn-GBD to high-affinity collagen peptides. These data suggest the Zn may play a regulatory role for the cellular functions of fibronectin.

  14. High-throughput deep sequencing reveals that microRNAs play important roles in salt tolerance of euhalophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Jinhui; Fan, Pengxiang; Jia, Weitao; Nie, Lingling; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Wan, Lichuan; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2015-02-26

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in plant development processes and play pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a suitable model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. S. europaea is also a vegetable, forage, and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. Despite its importance, no miRNA has been identified from S. europaea thus far. Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and ten conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including seven miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. About half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs significantly changed in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between the shoots and roots. Furthermore, 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encoded a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constituted the largest category. Four of these genes encoding laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were validated using 5'-RACE. Our results indicate that specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in the shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which may play important roles in salt tolerance of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with high stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with high biomass and regulatable

  15. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid-resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Zixiang; Gu, Cuihua; An, Yong-Qiang Charles; Bales, Carmille; DiFonzo, Chris; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun

    2017-12-01

    Rag6 and Rag3c were delimited to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 and a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Structural variants in the exons of candidate genes were identified. The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2000. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management strategy for aphids. Two novel aphid-resistance loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from Glycine soja 85-32, were previously detected in a 10.5-cM interval on chromosome 8 and a 7.5-cM interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Defining the exact genomic position of these two genes is critical for improving the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance and for identification of the functional genes. To pinpoint the locations of Rag6 and Rag3c, four populations segregating for Rag6 and Rag3c were used to fine map these two genes. The availability of the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K/8K iSelect BeadChip, combined with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers discovered through the whole-genome re-sequencing of E12901, facilitated the fine mapping process. Rag6 was refined to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 with four candidate genes, including three clustered nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes and an amine oxidase encoding gene. Rag3c was refined to a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16 with 11 candidate genes, two of which are a LRR gene and a lipase gene. Moreover, by sequencing the whole-genome exome-capture of the resistant source (E12901), structural variants were identified in the exons of the candidate genes of Rag6 and Rag3c. The closely linked SNP markers and the candidate gene information presented in this study will be significant resources for integrating Rag6 and Rag3c into elite cultivars and for future functional genetics studies.

  16. Next-generation sequencing to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers for a novel Phytophthora resistance gene, RpsHC18, in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; Sun, Suli; Li, Yinping; Duan, Canxing; Zhu, Zhendong

    2018-03-01

    A novel Phytophthora sojae resistance gene RpsHC18 was identified and finely mapped on soybean chromosome 3. Two NBS-LRR candidate genes were identified and two diagnostic markers of RpsHC18 were developed. Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora sojae is a destructive disease of soybean. The most effective disease-control strategy is to deploy resistant cultivars carrying Phytophthora-resistant Rps genes. The soybean cultivar Huachun 18 has a broad and distinct resistance spectrum to 12 P. sojae isolates. Quantitative trait loci sequencing (QTL-seq), based on the whole-genome resequencing (WGRS) of two extreme resistant and susceptible phenotype bulks from an F 2:3 population, was performed, and one 767-kb genomic region with ΔSNP-index ≥ 0.9 on chromosome 3 was identified as the RpsHC18 candidate region in Huachun 18. The candidate region was reduced to a 146-kb region by fine mapping. Nonsynonymous SNP and haplotype analyses were carried out in the 146-kb region among ten soybean genotypes using WGRS. Four specific nonsynonymous SNPs were identified in two nucleotide-binding sites-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes, RpsHC18-NBL1 and RpsHC18-NBL2, which were considered to be the candidate genes. Finally, one specific SNP marker in each candidate gene was successfully developed using a tetra-primer ARMS-PCR assay, and the two markers were verified to be specific for RpsHC18 and to effectively distinguish other known Rps genes. In this study, we applied an integrated genomic-based strategy combining WGRS with traditional genetic mapping to identify RpsHC18 candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers. These results suggest that next-generation sequencing is a precise, rapid and cost-effective way to identify candidate genes and develop diagnostic markers, and it can accelerate Rps gene cloning and marker-assisted selection for breeding of P. sojae-resistant soybean cultivars.

  17. Two alternative recessive quantitative trait loci influence resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Richard P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the genetic basis of plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens is incomplete and has been characterised in relatively few pathosystems. In this study, the cytology and genetics of resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot caused by Phoma medicaginis, an economically important necrotrophic pathogen of Medicago spp., was examined in the model legume M. truncatula. Results Macroscopically, the resistant response of accession SA27063 was characterised by small, hypersensitive-like spots following inoculation while the susceptible interaction with accessions A17 and SA3054 showed necrotic lesions and spreading chlorosis. No unique cytological differences were observed during early infection (2 populations segregating for resistance to spring black stem and leaf spot were established between SA27063 and the two susceptible accessions, A17 and SA3054. The cross between SA27063 and A17 represented a wider cross than between SA27063 and SA3054, as evidenced by higher genetic polymorphism, reduced fertility and aberrant phenotypes of F2 progeny. In the SA27063 × A17 F2 population a highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL, LOD = 7.37; P Phoma medicaginis one (rnpm1 genetically mapped to the top arm of linkage group 4 (LG4. rnpm1 explained 33.6% of the phenotypic variance in the population's response to infection depicted on a 1–5 scale and was tightly linked to marker AW256637. A second highly significant QTL (LOD = 6.77; P rnpm2, was located on the lower arm of LG8 in the SA27063 × SA3054 map. rnpm2 explained 29.6% of the phenotypic variance and was fine mapped to a 0.8 cM interval between markers h2_16a6a and h2_21h11d. rnpm1 is tightly linked to a cluster of Toll/Interleukin1 receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR genes and disease resistance protein-like genes, while no resistance gene analogues (RGAs are apparent in the genomic sequence of the reference accession A17 at the

  18. Binding profiles and cytokine-inducing effects of fish rhamnose-binding lectins on Burkitt's lymphoma Raji cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Masahiro; Sugawara, Shigeki; Matsuda, Atsushi; Tatsuta, Takeo; Koide, Yasuhiro; Hasan, Imtiaj; Hasan, Imtiaji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Nitta, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    Rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) is one of the animal lectin categories which take part in the innate immune responses of fish. Osmerus lanceolatus lectin (OLL) from shishamo smelt eggs is an RBL composed of two tandem-repeated domains, both of which are considered to be a carbohydrate-recognition domain. SAL, catfish (Silurus asotus) egg RBL composed of three domains, binds to Burkitt's lymphoma Raji cells through globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) carbohydrate chain and to reduce cell size and growth by altering membrane composition without causing cell death. In this experiment, we tried to compare the binding effects of these two RBLs on Raji cells. Flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic analyses revealed that OLL also directly bound to and shrunk Raji cells with ten times less reactivity than SAL but reduced cell growth with decreasing cell viability. Anti-Gb3 antibody completely blocked the binding of SAL to Raji cells but not that of OLL. In addition, the direct bindings of OLL and SAL to Raji cells were comparably inhibited by melibiose, but lactose was more effective inhibitor for the binding of OLL than that of SAL. These results suggest that OLL has slightly different cell-binding property compared with SAL and binds not only to Gb3 but also to the other carbohydrate receptor-bearing β-galactoside chains. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that SAL induced the expression of TNF-α but not of IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-10. Thus, SAL-induced cytostatic effect on Raji cells might be partially caused by TNF-α-mediated signaling pathway.

  19. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  20. Repeatability and validity of Zywave aberrometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hament, Willem J; Nabar, Vaisjaly A; Nuijts, Rudy M M A

    2002-12-01

    To study the repeatability of Zywave aberrometer (Bausch & Lomb) measurements and compare the measurements with those of subjective refraction and noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefractions in a clinical setting. Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Subjective manifest refraction, noncycloplegic autorefraction, cycloplegic autorefraction, and Zywave aberrometer measurements were performed in 20 eyes of 20 myopic patients. Three consecutive Zywave measurements were performed with and without dilation of the pupil. The mean difference and 95% limits of agreement among the measurement methods were determined for dilated and 3.5 mm pupils. The repeatability coefficient of the Zywave aberrometer measurements was determined. The mean differences in spherical equivalent (SE), sphere, and cylinder between subjective refraction and Zywave predicted phoropter refraction (PPR) with a dilated pupil were -1.10 diopters (D) +/- 0.46 (SD) (P <.001), -1.08 +/- 0.44 D (P <.001), and -0.02 +/- 0.37 D (P =.87), respectively (paired Student t test). After the data were converted to a 3.5 mm pupil, the mean differences were -0.55 +/- 0.48 D (P <.001), -0.50 +/- 0.49 D (P <.001), and -0.16 +/- 0.50 D (P =.15), respectively. The mean difference in SE between autorefraction and cycloplegic autorefraction versus subjective refraction was +0.18 +/- 0.71 D (P =.27) and +0.35 +/- 0.62 D (P =.02), respectively. The mean difference in SE between cycloplegic autorefraction and Zywave PPR with a dilated pupil was -1.44 +/- 0.79 D (P <.001). The repeatability coefficient of Zywave PPR was +/-0.25 D for SE, +/-0.29 D for sphere, and +/-0.29 D for cylinder. Subjective refraction measurements are slightly more myopic than cycloplegic autorefraction measurements. With a dilated pupil, the Zywave measurements were significantly more myopic than subjective refractions and even more myopic than cycloplegic autorefractions. Zywave measurements and

  1. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    . It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood...

  2. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly...... select an inference from a probability distribution with full support the set of steady states is a subset of the set of Nash equilibria in which only stage game Nash equilibria are played. When players make ‘cautious' inferences the set of steady states is the subset of self-confirming equilibria...

  3. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...... to the unique pure strategy WRP equilibrium without renegotiation costs, which implies marginal-cost pricing in every period. Moreover, in comparison to the findings of McCutcheon (1997), who states that renegotiation costs have to be substantial to facilitate collusion, this result points to a quite different...

  4. Repeated events and total time on test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2008-01-01

    We adopt the total time on test procedure to investigate monotone time trends in the intensity in a repeated event setting. The correct model is assumed to be a proportional hazards model, with a random effect to account for dependence within subjects. The method offers a simple routine for testing...... relevant hypotheses for recurrent event processes, without making distributional assumptions about the frailty. Such assumptions may severely affect conclusions concerning regression coefficients and cause bias in the estimated heterogeneity. The method is illustrated by re-analyzing Danish registry data...

  5. Quantitative analysis and prediction of curvature in leucine-rich repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, K Lauren; Bella, Jordi; Lovell, Simon C

    2009-11-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins form a large and diverse family. They have a wide range of functions most of which involve the formation of protein-protein interactions. All known LRR structures form curved solenoids, although there is large variation in their curvature. It is this curvature that determines the shape and dimensions of the inner space available for ligand binding. Unfortunately, large-scale parameters such as the overall curvature of a protein domain are extremely difficult to predict. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of determinants of curvature of this family. Individual repeats typically range in length between 20 and 30 residues and have a variety of secondary structures on their convex side. The observed curvature of the LRR domains correlates poorly with the lengths of their individual repeats. We have, therefore, developed a scoring function based on the secondary structure of the convex side of the protein that allows prediction of the overall curvature with a high degree of accuracy. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in selecting a suitable template for comparative modeling. We have developed an automated, quantitative protocol that can be used to predict accurately the curvature of leucine-rich repeat proteins of unknown structure from sequence alone. This protocol is available as an online resource at http://www.bioinf.manchester.ac.uk/curlrr/.

  6. Enhanced antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis by chimeric monoclonal antibodies with tandemly repeated Fc domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Ootsubo, Michiko; Fukazawa, Mizuki; Motoi, Sotaro; Konakahara, Shu; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2011-04-01

    We previously reported that chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with tandemly repeated Fc domains, which were developed by introducing tandem repeats of Fc domains downstream of 2 Fab domains, augmented binding avidities for all Fcγ receptors, resulting in enhanced antibody (Ab)-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Here we investigated regarding Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) mediated by these chimeric mAbs, which is considered one of the most important mechanisms that kills tumor cells, using two-color flow cytometric methods. ADCP mediated by T3-Ab, a chimeric mAb with 3 tandemly repeated Fc domains, was 5 times more potent than that by native anti-CD20 M-Ab (M-Ab hereafter). Furthermore, T3-Ab-mediated ADCP was resistant to competitive inhibition by intravenous Ig (IVIG), although M-Ab-mediated ADCP decreased in the presence of IVIG. An Fcγ receptor-blocking study demonstrated that T3-Ab mediated ADCP via both FcγRIA and FcγRIIA, whereas M-Ab mediated ADCP exclusively via FcγRIA. These results suggest that chimeric mAbs with tandemly repeated Fc domains enhance ADCP as well as ADCC, and that Fc multimerization may significantly enhance the efficacy of therapeutic Abs. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CRISPRstrand: predicting repeat orientations to determine the crRNA-encoding strand at CRISPR loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhnbashi, Omer S.; Costa, Fabrizio; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The discovery of CRISPR-Cas systems almost 20 years ago rapidly changed our perception of the bacterial and archaeal immune systems. CRISPR loci consist of several repetitive DNA sequences called repeats, inter-spaced by stretches of variable length sequences called spacers. This CRISPR...... array is transcribed and processed into multiple mature RNA species (crRNAs). A single crRNA is integrated into an interference complex, together with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, to bind and degrade invading nucleic acids. Although existing bioinformatics tools can recognize CRISPR loci...... by their characteristic repeat-spacer architecture, they generally output CRISPR arrays of ambiguous orientation and thus do not determine the strand from which crRNAs are processed. Knowledge of the correct orientation is crucial for many tasks, including the classification of CRISPR conservation, the detection...

  8. Crystal structures of the tetratricopeptide repeat domains of kinesin light chains: insight into cargo recognition mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhong Zhu

    Full Text Available Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%, KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1 cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form "a carboxylate clamp" with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1 interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  9. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won (SGC-Toronto); (PPCS); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  10. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  11. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  12. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  13. Repeatability of subjective and objective refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, M; Chiu, N N

    1995-08-01

    Although several studies have examined the repeatability of objective refraction, data concerning the repeatability of subjective refraction under masked conditions, i.e., where the examiner is unaware of the refractive results, are limited. Accordingly, the present study compared the variability of both subjective and objective refractive techniques. Refractive error was measured in 12 subjects on 5 separate occasions. Conventional subjective procedures were used, with the exception that the sphere power scale on the phoropter was covered so that the examiner was unaware of the final result. Objective measurements were obtained using a Canon Autoref R-1 infrared autorefractor. The standard deviation (SD) of the five examinations was calculated for each individual and the mean values for the population sample determined. The mean SD's for the subjective and objective techniques were +/- 0.14 and +/- 0.18 D, indicating 95% confidence limits of +/- 0.27 and +/- 0.35 D, respectively. It is concluded that with either assessment technique, a change in refractive error of at least +/- 0.50 D should be adopted as the minimum significant shift in refractive status.

  14. Repeatable assessment protocol for electromagnetic trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidegger, Tamas; Sirokai, Beáta; Fenyvesi, Gábor; Kovács, Levente; Benyó, Balázs; Benyó, Zoltán

    2012-02-01

    In the past decades, many new trends appeared in interventional medicine. One of the most groundbreaking ones is Image-Guided Surgery (IGS). The main benefit of IGS procedures is the reduction of the patient's pain and collateral damage through improved accuracy and targeting. Electromagnetic Tracking (EMT) has been introduced to medical applications as an effective tool for navigation. However, magnetic fields can be severely distorted by ferromagnetic materials and electronic equipment, which is a major barrier towards their wider application. The focus of the study is to determine and compensate the inherent errors of the different types of EMTs, in order to improve their accuracy. Our aim is to develop a standardized, simple and repeatable assessment protocol; to determine tracking errors with sub-millimeter accuracy, hence increasing the measurement precision and reliability. For initial experiments, the NDI Aurora and the Ascension medSAFE systems were used in a standard laboratory environment. We aim to advance to the state-of-the art by describing and disseminating an easily reproducible calibration method, publishing the CAD files of the accuracy phantom and the source of the evaluation data. This should allow the wider spread of the technique, and eventually lead to the repeatable and comparable assessment of EMT systems.

  15. TERRA: telomeric repeat-containing RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Brian; Lingner, Joachim

    2009-09-02

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of tandem arrays of short DNA repeats and a large set of specialized proteins. A recent analysis has identified telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA in animals and fungi, which forms an integral component of telomeric heterochromatin. TERRA transcription occurs at most or all chromosome ends and it is regulated by RNA surveillance factors and in response to changes in telomere length. TERRA functions that are emerging suggest important roles in the regulation of telomerase and in orchestrating chromatin remodelling throughout development and cellular differentiation. The accumulation of TERRA at telomeres can also interfere with telomere replication, leading to a sudden loss of telomere tracts. Such a phenotype can be observed upon impairment of the RNA surveillance machinery or in cells from ICF (Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, Facial anomalies) patients, in which TERRA is upregulated because of DNA methylation defects in the subtelomeric region. Thus, TERRA may mediate several crucial functions at the telomeres, a region of the genome that had been considered to be transcriptionally silent.

  16. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  17. Structural Basis of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase Interaction with Dystrophin Repeats 16 and 17*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molza, Anne-Elisabeth; Mangat, Khushdeep; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Hubert, Jean-François; Menhart, Nick; Delalande, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal genetic defect that is associated with the absence of dystrophin protein. Lack of dystrophin protein completely abolishes muscular nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) function as a regulator of blood flow during muscle contraction. In normal muscles, nNOS function is ensured by its localization at the sarcolemma through an interaction of its PDZ domain with dystrophin spectrin-like repeats R16 and R17. Early studies suggested that repeat R17 is the primary site of interaction but ignored the involved nNOS residues, and the R17 binding site has not been described at an atomic level. In this study, we characterized the specific amino acids involved in the binding site of nNOS-PDZ with dystrophin R16–17 using combined experimental biochemical and structural in silico approaches. First, 32 alanine-scanning mutagenesis variants of dystrophin R16–17 indicated the regions where mutagenesis modified the affinity of the dystrophin interaction with the nNOS-PDZ. Second, using small angle x-ray scattering-based models of dystrophin R16–17 and molecular docking methods, we generated atomic models of the dystrophin R16–17·nNOS-PDZ complex that correlated well with the alanine scanning identified regions of dystrophin. The structural regions constituting the dystrophin interaction surface involve the A/B loop and the N-terminal end of helix B of repeat R16 and the N-terminal end of helix A′ and a small fraction of helix B′ and a large part of the helix C′ of repeat R17. The interaction surface of nNOS-PDZ involves its main β-sheet and its specific C-terminal β-finger. PMID:26378238

  18. Structural Basis of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase Interaction with Dystrophin Repeats 16 and 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molza, Anne-Elisabeth; Mangat, Khushdeep; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Hubert, Jean-François; Menhart, Nick; Delalande, Olivier

    2015-12-04

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal genetic defect that is associated with the absence of dystrophin protein. Lack of dystrophin protein completely abolishes muscular nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) function as a regulator of blood flow during muscle contraction. In normal muscles, nNOS function is ensured by its localization at the sarcolemma through an interaction of its PDZ domain with dystrophin spectrin-like repeats R16 and R17. Early studies suggested that repeat R17 is the primary site of interaction but ignored the involved nNOS residues, and the R17 binding site has not been described at an atomic level. In this study, we characterized the specific amino acids involved in the binding site of nNOS-PDZ with dystrophin R16-17 using combined experimental biochemical and structural in silico approaches. First, 32 alanine-scanning mutagenesis variants of dystrophin R16-17 indicated the regions where mutagenesis modified the affinity of the dystrophin interaction with the nNOS-PDZ. Second, using small angle x-ray scattering-based models of dystrophin R16-17 and molecular docking methods, we generated atomic models of the dystrophin R16-17·nNOS-PDZ complex that correlated well with the alanine scanning identified regions of dystrophin. The structural regions constituting the dystrophin interaction surface involve the A/B loop and the N-terminal end of helix B of repeat R16 and the N-terminal end of helix A' and a small fraction of helix B' and a large part of the helix C' of repeat R17. The interaction surface of nNOS-PDZ involves its main β-sheet and its specific C-terminal β-finger. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Common architecture of nuclear receptor heterodimers on DNA direct repeat elements with different spacings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochel, Natacha; Ciesielski, Fabrice; Godet, Julien; Moman, Edelmiro; Roessle, Manfred; Peluso-Iltis, Carole; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Callow, Phil; Mély, Yves; Svergun, Dmitri I; Moras, Dino

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) control numerous physiological processes through the regulation of gene expression. The present study provides a structural basis for understanding the role of DNA in the spatial organization of NHR heterodimers in complexes with coactivators such as Med1 and SRC-1. We have used SAXS, SANS and FRET to determine the solution structures of three heterodimer NHR complexes (RXR-RAR, PPAR-RXR and RXR-VDR) coupled with the NHR interacting domains of coactivators bound to their cognate direct repeat elements. The structures show an extended asymmetric shape and point to the important role played by the hinge domains in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the structures. The results reveal two additional features: the conserved position of the ligand-binding domains at the 5' ends of the target DNAs and the binding of only one coactivator molecule per heterodimer, to RXR's partner.

  20. The absolute number of repeat operations for complex intra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal sepsis, questions about futility of treatment frequently arise. This study focuses specifically on patients who required two or more repeat laparotomies and describes the spectrum of disease necessitating multiple repeat laparotomies ...

  1. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  2. Non-Radioactive Detection of Trinucleotide Repeat Size Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Tomé, Stéphanie; Nicole, Annie; Gomes-Pereira, Mario; Gourdon, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases are associated with the abnormal expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeat sequences. The mechanisms of trinucleotide repeat size mutation have not been fully dissected, and their understanding must be grounded on the detailed analysis of repeat size distributions in human tissues and animal models. Small-pool PCR (SP-PCR) is a robust, highly sensitive and efficient PCR-based approach to assess the levels of repeat size variation, providing both quantitative and qualitati...

  3. Telomere binding protein TRB1 is associated with promoters of translation machinery genes in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schrumpfová, P.; Vychodilová, I.; Hapala, J.; Schorová, Š.; Dvořáček, Vojtěch; Fajkus, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, 1-2 (2016), s. 189-206 ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06943S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Telomere repeat binding * ChIP - seq * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.356, year: 2016

  4. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  5. The ligand-binding domain of the cell surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ploug, M; Patthy, L

    1991-01-01

    with the internal repeats of u-PAR constitute the extracellular part of Ly-6 antigens and of the squid glycoprotein Sgp-2. Like u-PAR, these proteins are attached to the membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. The hydrophilic, ligand-binding u-PAR domain identified in the present study has potential...

  6. Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...

  7. Pictorial binding: endeavor to classify

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the classification of bindings of the 1-19th centuries with a unique and untypical book binding decoration technique (encaustic, tempera and oil paintings. Analysis of design features, materials and techniques of art decoration made it possible to identify them as a separate type - pictorial bindings and divide them into four groups. The first group consists of Coptic bindings, decorated with icon-painting images in encaustic technique. The second group is made up of leather Western bindings of the 13-14th centuries, which have the decoration and technique of ornamentation close to iconography. The third group involves parchment bindings, ornamentation technique of which is closer to the miniature. The last group comprises bindings of East Slavic origin of the 15-19th centuries, decorated with icon-painting pictures made in the technique of tempera or oil painting. The proposed classification requires further basic research as several specific kinds of bindings have not yet been investigated

  8. A genomic view of short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gymrek, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are some of the fastest mutating loci in the genome. Tools for accurately profiling STRs from high-throughput sequencing data have enabled genome-wide interrogation of more than a million STRs across hundreds of individuals. These catalogs have revealed that STRs are highly multiallelic and may contribute more de novo mutations than any other variant class. Recent studies have leveraged these catalogs to show that STRs play a widespread role in regulating gene expression and other molecular phenotypes. These analyses suggest that STRs are an underappreciated but rich reservoir of variation that likely make significant contributions to Mendelian diseases, complex traits, and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  10. Local chromatin structure of heterochromatin regulates repeated DNA stability, nucleolus structure, and genome integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jamy C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Heterochromatin constitutes a significant portion of the genome in higher eukaryotes; approximately 30% in Drosophila and human. Heterochromatin contains a high repeat DNA content and a low density of protein-encoding genes. In contrast, euchromatin is composed mostly of unique sequences and contains the majority of single-copy genes. Genetic and cytological studies demonstrated that heterochromatin exhibits regulatory roles in chromosome organization, centromere function and telomere protection. As an epigenetically regulated structure, heterochromatin formation is not defined by any DNA sequence consensus. Heterochromatin is characterized by its association with nucleosomes containing methylated-lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me), heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) that binds H3K9me, and Su(var)3-9, which methylates H3K9 and binds HP1. Heterochromatin formation and functions are influenced by HP1, Su(var)3-9, and the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. My thesis project investigates how heterochromatin formation and function impact nuclear architecture, repeated DNA organization, and genome stability in Drosophila melanogaster. H3K9me-based chromatin reduces extrachromosomal DNA formation; most likely by restricting the access of repair machineries to repeated DNAs. Reducing extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA stabilizes rDNA repeats and the nucleolus structure. H3K9me-based chromatin also inhibits DNA damage in heterochromatin. Cells with compromised heterochromatin structure, due to Su(var)3-9 or dcr-2 (a component of the RNAi pathway) mutations, display severe DNA damage in heterochromatin compared to wild type. In these mutant cells, accumulated DNA damage leads to chromosomal defects such as translocations, defective DNA repair response, and activation of the G2-M DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints that ensure cellular and animal viability. My thesis research suggests that DNA replication, repair, and recombination mechanisms in heterochromatin differ from those in

  11. Metal binding by food components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Ning

    For calcium binding: Electrochemical method (calcium ion selective electrode) combined with quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory) were used to investigate the calcium binding affinity of the amino acids and small glycine peptides. The effects of the ionic strength and p......, synergistic effect in calcium binding was found for the small glycine peptide rather than amino acids mixtures with the enhanced driving force up to -6 kJ/mol. Such study provides useful information for the future development of calcium supplements. For zinc binding: Isothermal titration calorimetry...... titration calorimetry and quantum mechanical calculations. This is due to the zinc binding affinity of the relatively softer ligands (investigated food components) will become much stronger than citrate or phytate when they present together in aqueous solution. This mechanism indicates these food components...

  12. In situ detection of tandem DNA repeat length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.; Smith, C.L. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A simple method for scoring short tandem DNA repeats is presented. An oligonucleotide target, containing tandem repeats embedded in a unique sequence, was hybridized to a set of complementary probes, containing tandem repeats of known lengths. Single-stranded loop structures formed on duplexes containing a mismatched (different) number of tandem repeats. No loop structure formed on duplexes containing a matched (identical) number of tandem repeats. The matched and mismatched loop structures were enzymatically distinguished and differentially labeled by treatment with S1 nuclease and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  13. MNS16A tandem repeat minisatellite of human telomerase gene: functional studies in colorectal, lung and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Philipp; Zöchmeister, Cornelia; Behm, Christian; Brezina, Stefanie; Baierl, Andreas; Doriguzzi, Angelina; Vanas, Vanita; Holzmann, Klaus; Sutterlüty-Fall, Hedwig; Gsur, Andrea

    2017-04-25

    MNS16A, a functional polymorphic tandem repeat minisatellite, is located in the promoter region of an antisense transcript of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. MNS16A promoter activity depends on the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) presenting varying numbers of transcription factor binding sites for GATA binding protein 1. Although MNS16A has been investigated in multiple cancer epidemiology studies with incongruent findings, functional data of only two VNTRs (VNTR-243 and VNTR-302) were available thus far, linking the shorter VNTR to higher promoter activity.For the first time, we investigated promoter activity of all six VNTRs of MNS16A in cell lines of colorectal, lung and prostate cancer using Luciferase reporter assay. In all investigated cell lines shorter VNTRs showed higher promoter activity. While this anticipated indirect linear relationship was affirmed for colorectal cancer SW480 (P = 0.006), a piecewise linear regression model provided significantly better model fit in lung cancer A-427 (P = 6.9 × 10-9) and prostate cancer LNCaP (P = 0.039). In silico search for transcription factor binding sites in MNS16A core repeat element suggested a higher degree of complexity involving X-box binding protein 1, general transcription factor II-I, and glucocorticoid receptor alpha in addition to GATA binding protein 1.Further functional studies in additional cancers are requested to extend our knowledge of MNS16A functionality uncovering potential cancer type-specific differences. Risk alleles may vary in different malignancies and their determination in vitro could be relevant for interpretation of genotype data.

  14. Structure of a group C streptococcal protein that binds to fibrinogen, albumin and immunoglobulin G via overlapping modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talay, S R; Grammel, M P; Chhatwal, G S

    1996-04-15

    Pathogenic streptococci express surface proteins that bind to host serum proteins. A novel multiple-ligand-binding protein has now been identified in a species belonging to serotype C streptococci. This protein binds to fibrinogen, albumin and IgG and was therefore designated FAI protein. The structure of the fai gene has been determined, and deletion analysis and expression of FAI fusion polypeptides revealed that the binding domain for fibrinogen and IgG is located within the nonrepetitive N-terminal half of the protein. A 93-amino acid peptide retained the ability to bind both proteins, whereas a 56-amino acid subpeptide only bound fibrinogen. IgG-binding activity required the complete fibrinogen-binding domain and an additional 37 amino acids C-terminal to it, and albumin-binding activity was only obtained with a polypeptide reflecting the complete surface-exposed region of FAI protein indicating that the binding sites for each ligand were located on overlapping modules. Signal sequence, C repeat region and C-terminus revealed high homology to group A streptococcal M proteins whereas the N-terminal region containing the fibrinogen/IgG-binding domains is completely different and exhibits no similarity to any other previously characterized protein. Thus FAI protein exhibits a framework structure that might have evolved in group C streptococci via fusion of unrelated sequences, thereby generating an albumin-binding domain in the functional context of multiple-ligand-binding activity.

  15. Repeat Rapid Response Events in Children: Characteristics and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulmester, Kristen M; Jaimon, Nancy; Bavare, Aarti C

    2018-04-01

    We describe the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric repeat rapid response events within a single hospitalization. We hypothesized that triggers for repeat rapid response and initial rapid response events are similar, and repeat rapid response events are associated with high prevalence of medical complexity and worse outcomes. A 3-year retrospective study. High-volume tertiary academic pediatric hospital. All rapid response events were reviewed to identify repeat rapid response events. None. Patient demographics, rapid response triggers, primary clinical diagnoses, illness acuity scores, medical interventions, transfers to ICU, occurrence of critical deterioration, and mortality were reviewed. We reviewed 146 patients with 309 rapid response events (146 initial rapid response and 163 repeat rapid response: 36% 7 d after initial rapid response). Median age was 3 years, and 60% were males. Eighty-five percentage of repeat rapid response occurred in medical complexity patients. The triggers for 71% of all repeat rapid response matched with those of initial rapid response. Transfer to ICU occurred in 69 (47%) of initial rapid response and 124 (76%) of repeat rapid response (p events correlated. Transfer to ICU was more likely after repeat rapid response and among repeat rapid response, events with ICU readmissions had a longer length of ICU and hospital stay. Mortality for the repeat rapid response cohort was higher than that for overall rapid responses in our center and per published reports from other centers.

  16. Determining ERβ Binding Affinity to Singly Mutant ERE Using Dual Polarization Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hong Yan; Su, Xiaodi

    In a classic mode of estrogen action, estrogen receptors (ERs) bind to estrogen responsive element (ERE) to activate gene transcription. A perfect ERE contains a 13-base pair sequence of a palindromic repeat separated by a three-base spacer, 5‧-GGTCAnnnTGACC-3‧. In addition to the consensus or wild-type ERE (wtERE), naturally occurring EREs often have one or two base pairs’ alternation. Based on the newly constructed Thermodynamic Modeling of ChIP-seq (TherMos) model, binding energy between ERβ and a series of 34-bp mutant EREs (mutERE) was simulated to predict the binding affinity between ERs and EREs with single base pair deviation at different sites of the 13-bp inverted sequence. Experimentally, dual polarization interferometry (DPI) method was developed to measure ERβ-mutEREs binding affinity. On a biotin-NeutrAvidin (NA)-biotin treated DPI chip, wtERE is immobilized. In a direct binding assay, ERβ-wtERE binding affinity is determined. In a competition assay, ERβ was preincubated with mutant EREs before being added for competitive binding to the immobilized wtERE. This competition strategy provided a successful platform to evaluate the binding affinity variation among large number of ERE with different base mutations. The experimental result correlates well with the mathematically predicted binding energy with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.97.

  17. Extratelomeric Binding of the Telomere Binding Protein TRF2 at the PCGF3 Promoter Is G-Quadruplex Motif-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Gunjan; Mukherjee, Ananda Kishor; Sharma, Shalu; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2018-04-11

    Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is critical for the protection of chromosome ends. Mounting evidence suggests that TRF2 associates with extratelomeric sites and TRF2 functions may not be limited to telomeres. Here, we show that the PCGF3 promoter harbors a sequence capable of forming the DNA secondary structure G-quadruplex motif, which is required for binding of TRF2 at the PCGF3 promoter. We demonstrate that promoter binding by TRF2 mediates PCGF3 promoter activity, and both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of TRF2 are necessary for promoter activity. Altogether, this shows for the first time that a telomere binding factor may regulate a component of the polycomb group of proteins.

  18. Sequestration of DROSHA and DGCR8 by Expanded CGG RNA Repeats Alters MicroRNA Processing in Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Sellier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of 55–200 CGG repeats in the 5′ UTR of FMR1. These expanded CGG repeats are transcribed and accumulate in nuclear RNA aggregates that sequester one or more RNA-binding proteins, thus impairing their functions. Here, we have identified that the double-stranded RNA-binding protein DGCR8 binds to expanded CGG repeats, resulting in the partial sequestration of DGCR8 and its partner, DROSHA, within CGG RNA aggregates. Consequently, the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs is reduced, resulting in decreased levels of mature miRNAs in neuronal cells expressing expanded CGG repeats and in brain tissue from patients with FXTAS. Finally, overexpression of DGCR8 rescues the neuronal cell death induced by expression of expanded CGG repeats. These results support a model in which a human neurodegenerative disease originates from the alteration, in trans, of the miRNA-processing machinery.

  19. Starch‐binding domains in the CBM45 family – low‐affinity domains from glucan, water dikinase and α‐amylase involved in plastidial starch metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Baumann, Martin; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2011-01-01

    Starch‐binding domains are noncatalytic carbohydrate‐binding modules that mediate binding to granular starch. The starch‐binding domains from the carbohydrate‐binding module family 45 (CBM45, ) are found as N‐terminal tandem repeats in a small number of enzymes, primarily from photosynthesizing...... organisms. Isolated domains from representatives of each of the two classes of enzyme carrying CBM45‐type domains, the Solanum tuberosumα‐glucan, water dikinase and the Arabidopsis thaliana plastidial α‐amylase 3, were expressed as recombinant proteins and characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry...

  20. Comparison of the carboxy-terminal DP-repeat region in the co-chaperones Hop and Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory M; Huffman, Holly; Smith, David F

    2003-01-01

    Functional steroid receptor complexes are assembled and maintained by an ordered pathway of interactions involving multiple components of the cellular chaperone machinery. Two of these components, Hop and Hip, serve as co-chaperones to the major heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, and participate in intermediate stages of receptor assembly. In an effort to better understand the functions of Hop and Hip in the assembly process, we focused on a region of similarity located near the C-terminus of each co-chaperone. Contained within this region is a repeated sequence motif we have termed the DP repeat. Earlier mutagenesis studies implicated the DP repeat of either Hop or Hip in Hsp70 binding and in normal assembly of the co-chaperones with progesterone receptor (PR) complexes. We report here that the DP repeat lies within a protease-resistant domain that extends to or is near the C-terminus of both co-chaperones. Point mutations in the DP repeats render the C-terminal regions hypersensitive to proteolysis. In addition, a Hop DP mutant displays altered proteolytic digestion patterns, which suggest that the DP-repeat region influences the folding of other Hop domains. Although the respective DP regions of Hop and Hip share sequence and structural similarities, they are not functionally interchangeable. Moreover, a double-point mutation within the second DP-repeat unit of Hop that converts this to the sequence found in Hip disrupts Hop function; however, the corresponding mutation in Hip does not alter its function. We conclude that the DP repeats are important structural elements within a C-terminal domain, which is important for Hop and Hip function.

  1. Repeated cocaine administration results in supersensitivity of striatal D-2 dopamine autoreceptors to pergolide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwoskin, L.P.; Peris, J.; Yasuda, R.P.; Philpott, K.; Zahniser, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Groups of rats administered cocaine-HCl (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline either acutely or once daily for 8 or 14 days were killed 24 hrs after the last dose. In striatal slices prelabelled with [ 3 H]DA, modulation of [ 3 H]-overflow by pergolide was used to measure D-2 autoreceptor activity. Compared to the contemporaneous control group pergolide produced a greater inhibition only in striatal slices from rats treated repeatedly with cocaine. In radioligand binding studies using striatal membranes from control rats, pergolide had a 500-fold greater affinity for the D-2, as opposed to the D-1, dopamine (DA) receptor subtype. These results indicate that repeated treatment with cocaine produces supersensitive striatal D-2 release-modulating autoreceptors consistent with a compensatory change to diminish the effect of elevated synaptic concentrations of DA produced by cocaine. In contrast, supersensitivity of D-2 receptors was not detected in [ 3 H]spiperone binding assays. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  2. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R [Berkeley, CA; Song, Jie [Shrewsbury, MA; Lee, Seung-Wuk [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  3. Pro DNS and BIND 10

    CERN Document Server

    Aitchison, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Pro DNS and BIND 10 guides you through the challenging array of features surrounding DNS with a special focus on the latest release of BIND, the world's most popular DNS implementation. This book unravels the mysteries of DNS, offering insight into origins, evolution, and key concepts like domain names and zone files. This book focuses on running DNS systems based on BIND 10, the first stable release that includes support for the latest DNSSEC standards. Whether you administer a DNS system, are thinking about running one, or you simply want to understand the DNS system, then this book for you.

  4. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  5. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  6. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  7. The effect of repeated testing vs repeated practice on skills learning in undergraduate dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn-Kirchner, S; Goerlich, Y; Kirchner, B; Notbohm, M; Schiekirka, S; Simmenroth, A; Raupach, T

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies in undergraduate medical education have demonstrated the advantage of repeated testing over repeated practice with regard to knowledge and skills retention. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this "testing effect" also applies to skills retention in undergraduate dental education. In this prospective, randomised controlled trial, fourth-year dental students at Göttingen University Medical Centre participated in a training session on surgical suturing in winter term 2014/2015. Following this, they were either assigned to two sessions of additional skills training (group A) or two sessions of skills assessment with feedback (group B). These sessions were spaced over a period of 4 weeks. Skills retention was assessed in a summative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) at the end of term, that is 6 months after the initial teaching session. A total of 32 students completed the study. With regard to suturing, OSCE performance was significantly better in group B than group A (81.9±13.1% vs 63.0±15.4%; P=0.001; Cohen's d=1.33). There was no significant OSCE performance difference in the two groups with regard to other learning objectives that were addressed in the end-of-term examination. Thus, the group difference was specific to suturing skills. This is the first study to demonstrate that in dental education, repeated testing produces more favourable skills retention than repeated practice. Test-enhanced learning might be a viable concept for skills retention in undergraduate dentistry education. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat length correlates with risk of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproviero, William; Shatunov, Aleksey; Stahl, Daniel; Shoai, Maryam; van Rheenen, Wouter; Jones, Ashley R; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Andersen, Peter M; Bonini, Nancy M; Conforti, Francesca L; Van Damme, Philip; Daoud, Hussein; Del Mar Amador, Maria; Fogh, Isabella; Forzan, Monica; Gaastra, Ben; Gellera, Cinzia; Gitler, Aaron D; Hardy, John; Fratta, Pietro; La Bella, Vincenzo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Langenhove, Tim; Lattante, Serena; Lee, Yi-Chung; Malaspina, Andrea; Meininger, Vincent; Millecamps, Stéphanie; Orrell, Richard; Rademakers, Rosa; Robberecht, Wim; Rouleau, Guy; Ross, Owen A; Salachas, Francois; Sidle, Katie; Smith, Bradley N; Soong, Bing-Wen; Sorarù, Gianni; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kabashi, Edor; Troakes, Claire; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Shaw, Christopher E; Powell, John F; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2017-03-01

    We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10 -18 ), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R 2  = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... Syndrome CME. Medscape From Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism [On-line information]. Available online at http://www. ...

  10. Taxonomic distribution, repeats, and functions of the S1 domain-containing proteins as members of the OB-fold family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryusheva, Evgeniia I; Machulin, Andrey V; Selivanova, Olga M; Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2017-04-01

    Proteins of the nucleic acid-binding proteins superfamily perform such functions as processing, transport, storage, stretching, translation, and degradation of RNA. It is one of the 16 superfamilies containing the OB-fold in protein structures. Here, we have analyzed the superfamily of nucleic acid-binding proteins (the number of sequences exceeds 200,000) and obtained that this superfamily prevalently consists of proteins containing the cold shock DNA-binding domain (ca. 131,000 protein sequences). Proteins containing the S1 domain compose 57% from the cold shock DNA-binding domain family. Furthermore, we have found that the S1 domain was identified mainly in the bacterial proteins (ca. 83%) compared to the eukaryotic and archaeal proteins, which are available in the UniProt database. We have found that the number of multiple repeats of S1 domain in the S1 domain-containing proteins depends on the taxonomic affiliation. All archaeal proteins contain one copy of the S1 domain, while the number of repeats in the eukaryotic proteins varies between 1 and 15 and correlates with the protein size. In the bacterial proteins, the number of repeats is no more than 6, regardless of the protein size. The large variation of the repeat number of S1 domain as one of the structural variants of the OB-fold is a distinctive feature of S1 domain-containing proteins. Proteins from the other families and superfamilies have either one OB-fold or change slightly the repeat numbers. On the whole, it can be supposed that the repeat number is a vital for multifunctional activity of the S1 domain-containing proteins. Proteins 2017; 85:602-613. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Characterization of a second ligand binding site of the insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Caili; Whittaker, Linda; Whittaker, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Insulin binding to its receptor is characterized by high affinity, curvilinear Scatchard plots, and negative cooperativity. These properties may be the consequence of binding of insulin to two receptor binding sites. The N-terminal L1 domain and the C-terminus of the α subunit contain one binding site. To locate a second site, we examined the binding properties of chimeric receptors in which the L1 and L2 domains and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor were replaced by corresponding regions of the insulin receptor. Substitutions of the L2 domain and the first Fibronectin Type III repeat together with the L1 domain produced 80- and 300-fold increases in affinity for insulin. Fusion of these domains to human immunoglobulin Fc fragment produced a protein which bound insulin with a K d of 2.9 nM. These data strongly suggest that these domains contain an insulin binding site

  12. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong

    2017-01-01

    solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...

  13. The alternating-access mechanism of MFS transporters arises from inverted-topology repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radestock, Sebastian; Forrest, Lucy R

    2011-04-15

    Lactose permease (LacY) is the prototype of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of secondary transporters. Available structures of LacY reveal a state in which the substrate is exposed to the cytoplasm but is occluded from the periplasm. However, the alternating-access transport mechanism requires the existence of a periplasm-facing state. We recently showed that inverted-topology structural repeats provide the foundation for the mechanisms of two transporter families with folds distinct from the MFS. Here, we generated a structural model of LacY by swapping the conformations of inverted-topology repeats identified in its two domains. The model exhibits all required properties of an outward-facing conformation, i.e., closure of the binding site to the cytoplasm and exposure to the periplasm. Furthermore, the model agrees with double electron-electron resonance distance changes, accessibility to cysteine-modifying reagents, cysteine cross-linking data, and a recent structure of a distantly related transporter. Analysis of the intradomain differences between the two states suggests a role for conserved sequence motifs in occluding the central pathway through kinking of the pore-lining helices. In addition, predicted re-pairing of critical salt-bridging residues in the binding sites agrees remarkably well with previous proposals, allowing a description of the proton/sugar transport mechanism. More fundamentally, our model demonstrates that inverted-topology repeats provide the foundation for the alternating-access mechanisms of MFS transporters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of CRISPR repeat sequence on structures of a Cas6 protein-RNA complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruiying; Zheng, Han; Preamplume, Gan; Shao, Yaming; Li, Hong [FSU

    2012-03-15

    The repeat-associated mysterious proteins (RAMPs) comprise the most abundant family of proteins involved in prokaryotic immunity against invading genetic elements conferred by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system. Cas6 is one of the first characterized RAMP proteins and is a key enzyme required for CRISPR RNA maturation. Despite a strong structural homology with other RAMP proteins that bind hairpin RNA, Cas6 distinctly recognizes single-stranded RNA. Previous structural and biochemical studies show that Cas6 captures the 5' end while cleaving the 3' end of the CRISPR RNA. Here, we describe three structures and complementary biochemical analysis of a noncatalytic Cas6 homolog from Pyrococcus horikoshii bound to CRISPR repeat RNA of different sequences. Our study confirms the specificity of the Cas6 protein for single-stranded RNA and further reveals the importance of the bases at Positions 5-7 in Cas6-RNA interactions. Substitutions of these bases result in structural changes in the protein-RNA complex including its oligomerization state.

  15. The effect of gamma-enhancing binaural beats on the control of feature bindings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Binaural beats represent the auditory experience of an oscillating sound that occurs when two sounds with neighboring frequencies are presented to one's left and right ear separately. Binaural beats have been shown to impact information processing via their putative role in increasing neural synchronization. Recent studies of feature-repetition effects demonstrated interactions between perceptual features and action-related features: repeating only some, but not all features of a perception-action episode hinders performance. These partial-repetition (or binding) costs point to the existence of temporary episodic bindings (event files) that are automatically retrieved by repeating at least one of their features. Given that neural synchronization in the gamma band has been associated with visual feature bindings, we investigated whether the impact of binaural beats extends to the top-down control of feature bindings. Healthy adults listened to gamma-frequency (40 Hz) binaural beats or to a constant tone of 340 Hz (control condition) for ten minutes before and during a feature-repetition task. While the size of visuomotor binding costs (indicating the binding of visual and action features) was unaffected by the binaural beats, the size of visual feature binding costs (which refer to the binding between the two visual features) was considerably smaller during gamma-frequency binaural beats exposure than during the control condition. Our results suggest that binaural beats enhance selectivity in updating episodic memory traces and further strengthen the hypothesis that neural activity in the gamma band is critically associated with the control of feature binding.

  16. LRRK2 kinase activity is dependent on LRRK2 GTP binding capacity but independent of LRRK2 GTP binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Taymans

    Full Text Available Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 is a Parkinson's disease (PD gene that encodes a large multidomain protein including both a GTPase and a kinase domain. GTPases often regulate kinases within signal transduction cascades, where GTPases act as molecular switches cycling between a GTP bound "on" state and a GDP bound "off" state. It has been proposed that LRRK2 kinase activity may be increased upon GTP binding at the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC GTPase domain. Here we extensively test this hypothesis by measuring LRRK2 phosphorylation activity under influence of GDP, GTP or non-hydrolyzable GTP analogues GTPγS or GMPPCP. We show that autophosphorylation and lrrktide phosphorylation activity of recombinant LRRK2 protein is unaltered by guanine nucleotides, when co-incubated with LRRK2 during phosphorylation reactions. Also phosphorylation activity of LRRK2 is unchanged when the LRRK2 guanine nucleotide binding pocket is previously saturated with various nucleotides, in contrast to the greatly reduced activity measured for the guanine nucleotide binding site mutant T1348N. Interestingly, when nucleotides were incubated with cell lysates prior to purification of LRRK2, kinase activity was slightly enhanced by GTPγS or GMPPCP compared to GDP, pointing to an upstream guanine nucleotide binding protein that may activate LRRK2 in a GTP-dependent manner. Using metabolic labeling, we also found that cellular phosphorylation of LRRK2 was not significantly modulated by nucleotides, although labeling is significantly reduced by guanine nucleotide binding site mutants. We conclude that while kinase activity of LRRK2 requires an intact ROC-GTPase domain, it is independent of GDP or GTP binding to ROC.

  17. Crystal structure of CbpF, a bifunctional choline-binding protein and autolysis regulator from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; González, Ana; Stelter, Meike; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Kahn, Richard; Morales, María; Moscoso, Miriam; Campuzano, Susana; Campillo, Nuria E; Mobashery, Shahriar; García, José L; García, Pedro; Hermoso, Juan A

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorylcholine, a crucial component of the pneumococcal cell wall, is essential in bacterial physiology and in human pathogenesis because it binds to serum components of the immune system and acts as a docking station for the family of surface choline-binding proteins. The three-dimensional structure of choline-binding protein F (CbpF), one of the most abundant proteins in the pneumococcal cell wall, has been solved in complex with choline. CbpF shows a new modular structure composed both of consensus and non-consensus choline-binding repeats, distributed along its length, which markedly alter its shape, charge distribution and binding ability, and organizing the protein into two well-defined modules. The carboxy-terminal module is involved in cell wall binding and the amino-terminal module is crucial for inhibition of the autolytic LytC muramidase, providing a regulatory function for pneumococcal autolysis.

  18. Requirement for an A-tract structure at the binding site of phage phi 29 transcriptional activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1994-03-25

    The Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 transcriptional activator, protein p4, binds to the 5'-AACT-TTTT-15 base-pair spacer-AAAATGTT-3' inverted repeat. In this communication, we study the influence in protein p4 binding of the DNA helical structure within the protein p4 recognition sequences, 5'-AAAATAG-3'. Protein p4 could efficiently bind to a modified target in which the A-tracts had been changed into T-tracts (a different sequence with a similar structure). Binding was lost when the structure of the binding site was modified by an interrupting C residue. The results suggest that the DNA helical structure of the A-tracts is critical for p4 binding. Two models are described that would explain how protein p4 recognized its target sequences on the DNA.

  19. Repeated pulsed x-ray emission equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hikaru; Iida, Satoshi

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique has been applied to determine the spatial positions of atoms which compose a material, and it is needless to say that the technique is a fundamental means regardless of the fields of research. However, the application of X-ray diffraction to the research on physical properties has been so far limited to know the spatial positions of atoms or molecules under thermal equilibrium condition. The addition of time element to the conventional technique, that is, the analysis of material structure including the time-varying processes under non-equilibrium conditions, is considered to approach the elucidation of the essence of materials. The authors call this dynamic structural analysis. The authors have planned to analyze X-ray diffraction intensity which has the resolution of about 10 -8 s in the real time which is conjugate with energy. However, present pulsed X-ray sources are not suitable for diffraction experiment because the pulse width is too long or X-ray wavelength is too short. Accordingly, the authors have made for trial a pulsed X-ray source for diffraction experiment. Its specifications are: diode voltage (X-ray tube voltage) from 200 to 300 kV, diode current from 2 to 5 kA, pulse width of about 30ns, maximum repetition frequency 10 pps, and X-ray focus size of 2 mm diameter. One of the features of this source is the repeated generation of pulsed X-ray. This is the first trial in the world, and is indispensable to the dynamic structural analysis described above. The quality of the emitted X-ray is also written. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Repeated speech errors: evidence for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Karin R; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological speech error in the study phase of the experiment (e.g. saying "beg pet" in place of "peg bet") they were over four times as likely to make an error on that same item several minutes later at test. A pseudo-error condition demonstrated that the effect is not simply due to a propensity for speakers to repeat phonological forms, regardless of whether or not they have been made in error. That is, saying "beg pet" correctly at study did not induce speakers to say "beg pet" in error instead of "peg bet" at test. Instead, the effect appeared to be due to learning of the error pathway. Experiment 2 replicated this finding, but also showed that after 48 h, errors made at study were no longer more likely to reoccur. As well as providing constraints on the longevity of the effect, this provides strong evidence that the error reoccurrences observed are not due to item-specific difficulty that leads individual speakers to make habitual mistakes on certain items. Experiment 3 showed that the diminishment of the effect 48 h later is not due to specific extra practice at the task. We discuss how these results fit in with a larger view of language as a dynamic system that is constantly adapting in response to experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation of human simple repeat loci by hybridization selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Neumann, R; Gobert, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated short tandem repeat arrays from the human genome, using a rapid method involving filter hybridization to enrich for tri- or tetranucleotide tandem repeats. About 30% of clones from the enriched library cross-hybridize with probes containing trimeric or tetrameric tandem arrays, facilitating the rapid isolation of large numbers of clones. In an initial analysis of 54 clones, 46 different tandem arrays were identified. Analysis of these tandem repeat loci by PCR showed that 24 were polymorphic in length; substantially higher levels of polymorphism were displayed by the tetrameric repeat loci isolated than by the trimeric repeats. Primary mapping of these loci by linkage analysis showed that they derive from 17 chromosomes, including the X chromosome. We anticipate the use of this strategy for the efficient isolation of tandem repeats from other sources of genomic DNA, including DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes, and from other species.

  2. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting*

    OpenAIRE

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F.; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the −1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded re...

  3. Practical quantum repeaters with parametric down-conversion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krovi, Hari; Guha, Saikat; Dutton, Zachary; Slater, Joshua A.; Simon, Christoph; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that realistic quantum repeaters will require quasi-deterministic sources of entangled photon pairs. In contrast, we here study a quantum repeater architecture that uses simple parametric down-conversion sources, as well as frequency-multiplexed multimode quantum memories and photon-number-resolving detectors. We show that this approach can significantly extend quantum communication distances compared to direct transmission. This shows that important trade-offs are possible between the different components of quantum repeater architectures.

  4. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  5. C-terminal lysine repeats in Streptomyces topoisomerase I stabilize the enzyme–DNA complex and confer high enzyme processivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzałka, Agnieszka; Szafran, Marcin J.; Strick, Terence

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Streptomyces topoisomerase I (TopA) exhibits exceptionally high processivity. The enzyme, as other actinobacterial topoisomerases I, differs from its bacterial homologs in its C-terminal domain (CTD). Here, bioinformatics analyses established that the presence of lysine repeats is a characteristic feature of actinobacterial TopA CTDs. Streptomyces TopA contains the longest stretch of lysine repeats, which terminate with acidic amino acids. DNA-binding studies revealed that the lysine repeats stabilized the TopA–DNA complex, while single-molecule experiments showed that their elimination impaired enzyme processivity. Streptomyces coelicolor TopA processivity could not be restored by fusion of its N-terminal domain (NTD) with the Escherichia coli TopA CTD. The hybrid protein could not re-establish the distribution of multiple chromosomal copies in Streptomyces hyphae impaired by TopA depletion. We expected that the highest TopA processivity would be required during the growth of multigenomic sporogenic hyphae, and indeed, the elimination of lysine repeats from TopA disturbed sporulation. We speculate that the interaction of the lysine repeats with DNA allows the stabilization of the enzyme–DNA complex, which is additionally enhanced by acidic C-terminal amino acids. The complex stabilization, which may be particularly important for GC-rich chromosomes, enables high enzyme processivity. The high processivity of TopA allows rapid topological changes in multiple chromosomal copies during Streptomyces sporulation. PMID:28981718

  6. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  7. Misleading Children: Causal Attributions of Inconsistency under Repeated Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four studies investigated whether inconsistency of children aged four to six on developmental tasks may reflect a misinterpretation of the experimenter's intent in communication under repeated questioning. (SKC)

  8. R-loops: targets for nuclease cleavage and repeat instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2018-01-11

    R-loops form when transcribed RNA remains bound to its DNA template to form a stable RNA:DNA hybrid. Stable R-loops form when the RNA is purine-rich, and are further stabilized by DNA secondary structures on the non-template strand. Interestingly, many expandable and disease-causing repeat sequences form stable R-loops, and R-loops can contribute to repeat instability. Repeat expansions are responsible for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy, and several types of ataxias. Recently, it was found that R-loops at an expanded CAG/CTG repeat tract cause DNA breaks as well as repeat instability (Su and Freudenreich, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, E8392-E8401, 2017). Two factors were identified as causing R-loop-dependent breaks at CAG/CTG tracts: deamination of cytosines and the MutLγ (Mlh1-Mlh3) endonuclease, defining two new mechanisms for how R-loops can generate DNA breaks (Su and Freudenreich, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114, E8392-E8401, 2017). Following R-loop-dependent nicking, base excision repair resulted in repeat instability. These results have implications for human repeat expansion diseases and provide a paradigm for how RNA:DNA hybrids can cause genome instability at structure-forming DNA sequences. This perspective summarizes mechanisms of R-loop-induced fragility at G-rich repeats and new links between DNA breaks and repeat instability.

  9. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins: a new approach to mimic complex antigens for diagnostic purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hausammann

    Full Text Available Inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII can be found in patients with acquired and congenital hemophilia A. Such FVIII-inhibiting antibodies are routinely detected by the functional Bethesda Assay. However, this assay has a low sensitivity and shows a high inter-laboratory variability. Another method to detect antibodies recognizing FVIII is ELISA, but this test does not allow the distinction between inhibitory and non-inhibitory antibodies. Therefore, we aimed at replacing the intricate antigen FVIII by Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins mimicking the epitopes of FVIII inhibitors. As a model we used the well-described inhibitory human monoclonal anti-FVIII antibody, Bo2C11, for the selection on DARPin libraries. Two DARPins were selected binding to the antigen-binding site of Bo2C11, which mimic thus a functional epitope on FVIII. These DARPins inhibited the binding of the antibody to its antigen and restored FVIII activity as determined in the Bethesda assay. Furthermore, the specific DARPins were able to recognize the target antibody in human plasma and could therefore be used to test for the presence of Bo2C11-like antibodies in a large set of hemophilia A patients. These data suggest, that our approach might be used to isolate epitopes from different sets of anti-FVIII antibodies in order to develop an ELISA-based screening assay allowing the distinction of inhibitory and non-inhibitory anti-FVIII antibodies according to their antibody signatures.

  10. Convulxin binding to platelet receptor GPVI: competition with collagen related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedergang, F; Alcover, A; Knight, C G; Farndale, R W; Barnes, M J; Francischetti, I M; Bon, C; Leduc, M

    2000-06-24

    Convulxin (CVX), a potent platelet aggregating protein from the venom of the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus, is known to bind to the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). CVX binding to human platelets was investigated by flow cytometry, using fluorescein labeled convulxin (FITC-CVX). Scatchard analysis indicated high and low affinity binding sites with Kd values of 0.6 and 4 nM and Bmax values of 1200 and 2000 binding sites per platelet. FITC-CVX binding was inhibited by collagen related peptides (CRPs) comprising a repeated GPO sequence, namely GCO(GPO)(10)GCOGNH(2) and GKO(GPO)(10)GKOGNH(2), which also bind to receptor GPVI. These peptides (monomeric or cross-linked forms) gave a high affinity inhibition of 10-20% for concentrations between 10 ng/ml and 5 microg/ml, followed by a second phase of inhibition at concentrations greater than 5 microg/ml. It was shown also that the inhibition of FITC-CVX binding by CRPs was independent on the time of preincubation of platelets with CRPs, and the same percentage of inhibition was seen with various concentrations of convulxin. Confocal microscopy of the distribution of FITC-CVX binding sites on platelets showed an homogeneous distribution of FITC-CVX bound to GPVI, although some limited clustering may exist. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. In vivo [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine binding in rat striatum: sensitivity to dopamine concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, Michael R.; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Desmond, Timothy; Sherman, Phillip; Harris, Paul E.; Frey, Kirk A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The sensitivity of the in vivo binding of [ 11 C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 11 C]DTBZ) and [ 11 C]methylphenidate ([ 11 C]MPH) to their respective targets - vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) and neuronal membrane dopamine transporter - after alterations in endogenous levels of dopamine was examined in the rat brain. Methods: In vivo binding of [ 11 C]DTBZ and [ 11 C]MPH was determined using a bolus+infusion protocol. The in vitro number of VMAT2 binding sites was determined by autoradiography. Results: Repeated dosing with α-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT) at doses that significantly (-75%) depleted brain tissue dopamine levels resulted in increased (+36%) in vivo [ 11 C]DTBZ binding to VMAT2 in the striatum. The increase in binding could be completely reversed via treatment with L-DOPA/benserazide to restore dopamine levels. There were no changes in the total number of VMAT2 binding sites, as measured using in vitro autoradiography. No changes were observed for in vivo [ 11 C]MPH binding to the dopamine transporter in the striatum following AMPT pretreatment. Conclusion: These results indicate that large reductions in dopamine concentrations in the rat brain can produce modest but significant changes in the binding of radioligands to VMAT2, which can be reversed by replenishment of dopamine using exogenous L-DOPA.

  12. A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Baranowska Körberg

    Full Text Available The white spotting locus (S in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S to extreme white spotting (s(w. We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

  13. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  14. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  15. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic investigations of TMPyP4 association with guanine- and cytosine-rich DNA and RNA repeats of C9orf72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alniss, Hasan; Zamiri, Bita; Khalaj, Melisa; Pearson, Christopher E; Macgregor, Robert B

    2018-01-22

    An expansion of the hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC)n·(GGCCCC)n in the C9orf72 promoter has been shown to be the cause of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). The C9orf72 repeat can form four-stranded structures; the cationic porphyrin (TMPyP4) binds and distorts these structures. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and circular dichroism (CD) were used to study the binding of TMPyP4 to the C-rich and G-rich DNA and RNA oligos containing the hexanucleotide repeat at pH 7.5 and 0.1 M K + . The CD spectra of G-rich DNA and RNA TMPyP4 complexes showed features of antiparallel and parallel G-quadruplexes, respectively. The shoulder at 260 nm in the CD spectrum becomes more intense upon formation of complexes between TMPyP4 and the C-rich DNA. The peak at 290 nm becomes more intense in the c-rich RNA molecules, suggesting induction of an i-motif structure. The ITC data showed that TMPyP4 binds at two independent sites for all DNA and RNA molecules. For DNA, the data are consistent with TMPyP4 stacking on the terminal tetrads and intercalation. For RNA, the thermodynamics of the two binding modes are consistent with groove binding and intercalation. In both cases, intercalation is the weaker binding mode. These findings are considered with respect to the structural differences of the folded DNA and RNA molecules and the energetics of the processes that drive site-specific recognition by TMPyP4; these data will be helpful in efforts to optimize the specificity and affinity of the binding of porphyrin-like molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping of protein phosphatase-6 association with its SAPS domain regulatory subunit using a model of helical repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Jessica R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helical repeat motifs are common among regulatory subunits for type-1 and type-2A protein Ser/Thr phosphatases. Yeast Sit4 is a distinctive type-2A phosphatase that has dedicated regulatory subunits named Sit4-Associated Proteins (SAPS. These subunits are conserved, and three human SAPS-related proteins are known to associate with PP6 phosphatase, the Sit4 human homologue. Results Here we show that endogenous SAPS subunit PP6R3 co-precipitates half of PP6 in cell extracts, and the SAPS region of PP6R3 is sufficient for binding PP6. The SAPS domain of recombinant GST-PP6R3 is relatively resistant to trypsin despite having many K and R residues, and the purified SAPS domain (residues 1-513 has a circular dichroic spectrum indicative of mostly alpha helical structure. We used sequence alignments and 3D-jury methods to develop alternative models for the SAPS domain, based on available structures of other helical repeat proteins. The models were used to select sites for charge-reversal substitutions in the SAPS domain of PP6R3 that were tested by co-precipitation of endogenous PP6c with FLAG-tagged PP6R3 from mammalian cells. Mutations that reduced binding with PP6 suggest that SAPS adopts a helical repeat similar to the structure of p115 golgin, but distinct from the PP2A-A subunit. These mutations did not cause perturbations in overall PP6R3 conformation, evidenced by no change in kinetics or preferential cleavage by chymotrypsin. Conclusion The conserved SAPS domain in PP6R3 forms helical repeats similar to those in golgin p115 and negatively charged residues in interhelical loops are used to associate specifically with PP6. The results advance understanding of how distinctive helical repeat subunits uniquely distribute and differentially regulate closely related Ser/Thr phosphatases.

  17. Repeatability study of replicate crash tests: A signal analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppi, Jeremy; Toczyski, Jacek; Crandall, Jeff R; Kerrigan, Jason

    2017-10-03

    To provide an objective basis on which to evaluate the repeatability of vehicle crash test methods, a recently developed signal analysis method was used to evaluate correlation of sensor time history data between replicate vehicle crash tests. The goal of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of rollover crash tests performed with the Dynamic Rollover Test System (DRoTS) relative to other vehicle crash test methods. Test data from DRoTS tests, deceleration rollover sled (DRS) tests, frontal crash tests, frontal offset crash tests, small overlap crash tests, small overlap impact (SOI) crash tests, and oblique crash tests were obtained from the literature and publicly available databases (the NHTSA vehicle database and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety TechData) to examine crash test repeatability. Signal analysis of the DRoTS tests showed that force and deformation time histories had good to excellent repeatability, whereas vehicle kinematics showed only fair repeatability due to the vehicle mounting method for one pair of tests and slightly dissimilar mass properties (2.2%) in a second pair of tests. Relative to the DRS, the DRoTS tests showed very similar or higher levels of repeatability in nearly all vehicle kinematic data signals with the exception of global X' (road direction of travel) velocity and displacement due to the functionality of the DRoTS fixture. Based on the average overall scoring metric of the dominant acceleration, DRoTS was found to be as repeatable as all other crash tests analyzed. Vertical force measures showed good repeatability and were on par with frontal crash barrier forces. Dynamic deformation measures showed good to excellent repeatability as opposed to poor repeatability seen in SOI and oblique deformation measures. Using the signal analysis method as outlined in this article, the DRoTS was shown to have the same or better repeatability of crash test methods used in government regulatory and consumer evaluation test

  18. Characterization of α-isopropylmalate synthases containing different copy numbers of tandem repeats in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palittapongarnpim Prasit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (α-IPMS is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the leucine biosynthetic pathway. The gene encoding α-IPMS in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leuA, is polymorphic due to the insertion of 57-bp repeat units referred to as Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR. The role of the VNTR found within the M. tuberculosis genome is unclear. To investigate the role of the VNTR in leuA, we compared two α-IPMS proteins with different numbers of amino acid repeats, one with two copies and the other with 14 copies. We have cloned leuA with 14 copies of the repeat units into the pET15b expression vector with a His6-tag at the N-terminus, as was previously done for the leuA gene with two copies of the repeat units. Results The recombinant His6-α-IPMS proteins with two and 14 copies (α-IPMS-2CR and α-IPMS-14CR, respectively of the repeat units were purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and gel filtration. Both enzymes were found to be dimers by gel filtration. Both enzymes work well at pH values of 7–8.5 and temperatures of 37–42°C. However, α-IPMS-14CR tolerates pH values and temperatures outside of this range better than α-IPMS-2CR does. α-IPMS-14CR has higher affinity than α-IPMS-2CR for the two substrates, α-ketoisovalerate and acetyl CoA. Furthermore, α-IPMS-2CR was feedback inhibited by the end product l-leucine, whereas α-IPMS-14CR was not. Conclusion The differences in the kinetic properties and the l-leucine feedback inhibition between the two M. tuberculosis α-IPMS proteins containing low and high numbers of VNTR indicate that a large VNTR insertion affects protein structure and function. Demonstration of l-leucine binding to α-IPMS-14CR would confirm whether or not α-IPMS-14CR responds to end-product feedback inhibition.

  19. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water binding in legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    The physical status of water in seeds has a pivotal role in determining the physiological reactions that can take place in the dry state. Using water sorption isotherms from cotyledon and axis tissue of five leguminous seeds, the strength of water binding and the numbers of binding sites have been estimated using van't Hoff analyses and the D'Arcy/Watt equation. These parameters of water sorption are calculated for each of the three regions of water binding and for a range of temperatures. Water sorption characteristics are reflective of the chemical composition of the biological materials as well as the temperature at which hydration takes place. Changes in the sorption characteristics with temperature and hydration level may suggest hydration-induced structural changes in cellular components.

  1. Oligomerization domains in the glycan-binding receptors DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR: Sequence variation and stability differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ália; Hadjivasiliou, Andreas; Ossa, Felipe; Lim, Novandy K; Turgut, Aylin; Taylor, Maureen E; Drickamer, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    Human dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-1 grabbing nonintegrin, DC-SIGN, and the sinusoidal endothelial cell receptor DC-SIGNR or L-SIGN, are closely related sugar-binding receptors. DC-SIGN acts both as a pathogen-binding endocytic receptor and as a cell adhesion molecule, while DC-SIGNR has only the pathogen-binding function. In addition to differences in the sugar-binding properties of the carbohydrate-recognition domains in the two receptors, there are sequence differences in the adjacent neck domains, which are coiled-coil tetramerization domains comprised largely of 23-amino acid repeat units. A series of model polypeptides consisting of uniform repeat units have been characterized by gel filtration, differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism. The results demonstrate that two features characterize repeat units which form more stable tetramers: a leucine reside in the first position of the heptad pattern of hydrophobic residues that pack on the inside of the coiled coil and an arginine residue on the surface of the coiled coil that forms a salt bridge with a glutamic acid residue in the same polypeptide chain. In DC-SIGNR from all primates, very stable repeat units predominate, so the carbohydrate-recognition domains must be held relatively closely together. In contrast, stable repeat units are found only near the membrane in DC-SIGN. The presence of residues that disrupt tetramer formation in repeat units near the carbohydrate-recognition domains of DC-SIGN would allow these domains to splay further apart. Thus, the neck domains of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can contribute to the different functions of these receptors by presenting the sugar-binding sites in different contexts. © 2016 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  2. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardiner, Sarah L.; van Belzen, Martine J.; Boogaard, Merel W.; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M. C.; Rozing, Maarten P.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Smit, Johannes H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; van Grootheest, Gerard; Schoevers, Robert A.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Roos, Raymund A. C.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Aziz, N. Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect

  3. Triplet repeat DNA structures and human genetic disease: dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    alternative to double-stranded DNA (table 2). These include single-stranded hairpins, triplex and quadruplex. DNA, and slipped-strand DNA. Studies have also con- firmed that the formation of alternative structures occurs in trinucleotide repeat sequences. Linear DNA molecules containing triplet repeats have unusual ...

  4. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  5. Towards accurate de novo assembly for genomes with repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucur, Doina

    2017-01-01

    De novo genome assemblers designed for short k-mer length or using short raw reads are unlikely to recover complex features of the underlying genome, such as repeats hundreds of bases long. We implement a stochastic machine-learning method which obtains accurate assemblies with repeats and

  6. REPEAT BURGLARY VICTIMIZATION : RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH by

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, E R

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores some theoretical notions about repeat burglary inctimization, and reports findings from research into repeat victimization of residential burglary in the city of Bnschede, the Nether- lands, using police records over a period of six years. The study shows that there is a highly

  7. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  8. a cause of repeated myocardial infarction and symptomatic 'torsade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repeated serial enzyme estimations and resting ECGs were all within normal limits. 'Ventricular ectopic activity also appeared to have regressed. Submaximal treadmill stress testing was repeated but this failed to show any ischaemia or provoke ventricular arrhythmias. A thallium-20I exercise test was then performed,.

  9. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardiner, Sarah L.; van Belzen, Martine J.; Boogaard, Merel W.

    2017-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect...

  10. Trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    Using an enrichment procedure, we have cloned microsatellite repeats from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and developed primers for microsatellite marker analysis. Ten primer pairs, mostly for trinucleotide repeats, produced polymorphic fragments in P. nigra. Some of them also showed amplification

  11. Large cryptic internal sequence repeats in protein structures from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Like similar repeats, Proline and Histidine had a low propensity. This may be because Histidine is involved in the active site and is highly conserved, while Proline has a specific function in the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Figure 4. The propensity of different amino acids to form different types of repeats is ...

  12. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  13. Ocular surface sensitivity repeatability with Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Badarudin, Ezailina; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    To determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer on the same day and 3 months apart. Two separate studies were conducted to determine the repeatability of ocular surface threshold measurements made on the same day (n = 20 subjects) and 3 months apart (n = 29 subjects). The Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was used to measure corneal and inferior conjunctival thresholds using the ascending method of limits. The pressure exerted by the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer was determined using an analytical balance, for both the 0.08- and 0.12-mm-diameter filaments. This calibration was then used to convert filament length measurements to pressure. Repeatability was determined using a Bland and Altman analysis. The pressure exerted at each filament length differed between the two filament diameters. The measured pressure also differed from values provided by the manufacturer. Repeatability of threshold measurements at the central cornea was shown to be good, with better repeatability for same-day measurements (coefficient of repeatability [CoR] = ±0.23 g/mm²) than for those 3 months apart (CoR = ±0.52 g/mm²). Threshold measurements at the inferior conjunctiva, in contrast, were poorly repeatable (CoR = ±12.78 g/mm²). Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry is repeatable when performed on the central cornea on the same day and 3 months apart, but this instrument is not recommended for conjunctival threshold measurements.

  14. Repeated annual influenza vaccination and vaccine effectiveness: review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belongia, Edward A; Skowronski, Danuta M; McLean, Huong Q; Chambers, Catharine; Sundaram, Maria E; De Serres, Gaston

    2017-07-01

    Studies in the 1970s and 1980s signaled concern that repeated influenza vaccination could affect vaccine protection. The antigenic distance hypothesis provided a theoretical framework to explain variability in repeat vaccination effects based on antigenic similarity between successive vaccine components and the epidemic strain. Areas covered: A meta-analysis of vaccine effectiveness studies from 2010-11 through 2014-15 shows substantial heterogeneity in repeat vaccination effects within and between seasons and subtypes. When negative effects were observed, they were most pronounced for H3N2, especially in 2014-15 when vaccine components were unchanged and antigenically distinct from the epidemic strain. Studies of repeated vaccination across multiple seasons suggest that vaccine effectiveness may be influenced by more than one prior season. In immunogenicity studies, repeated vaccination blunts the hemagglutinin antibody response, particularly for H3N2. Expert commentary: Substantial heterogeneity in repeated vaccination effects is not surprising given the variation in study populations and seasons, and the variable effects of antigenic distance and immunological landscape in different age groups and populations. Caution is required in the interpretation of pooled results across multiple seasons, since this can mask important variation in repeat vaccination effects between seasons. Multi-season clinical studies are needed to understand repeat vaccination effects and guide recommendations.

  15. Natural conception: repeated predictions over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eekelen, R; Scholten, I; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; van der Steeg, J W; Steures, P; Hompes, P; van Wely, M; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W; Eijkemans, M J; Te Velde, E R; van Geloven, N

    2017-02-01

    How can we predict chances of natural conception at various time points in couples diagnosed with unexplained subfertility? We developed a dynamic prediction model that can make repeated predictions over time for couples with unexplained subfertility that underwent a fertility workup at a fertility clinic. The most frequently used prediction model for natural conception (the 'Hunault model') estimates the probability of natural conception only once per couple, that is, after completion of the fertility workup. This model cannot be used for a second or third time for couples who wish to know their renewed chances after a certain period of expectant management. A prospective cohort studying the long-term follow-up of subfertile couples included in 38 centres in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Couples with bilateral tubal occlusion, anovulation or a total motile sperm count conception, leading to an ongoing pregnancy. Follow-up time was censored at the start of treatment or at the last date of contact. In developing the new dynamic prediction model, we used the same predictors as the Hunault model, i.e. female age, duration of subfertility, female subfertility being primary or secondary, sperm motility and referral status. The performance of the model was evaluated in terms of calibration and discrimination. Additionally, we assessed the utility of the model in terms of the variability of the calculated predictions. Of the 4999 couples in the cohort, 1053 (21%) women reached a natural conception leading to an ongoing pregnancy within a mean follow-up of 8 months (5th and 95th percentile: 1-21). Our newly developed dynamic prediction model estimated the median probability of conceiving in the first year after the completion of the fertility workup at 27%. For couples not yet pregnant after half a year, after one year and after one and a half years of expectant management, the median probability of conceiving over the next year was estimated at

  16. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  17. Repeat profile analysis in an x-ray department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassey, C.E.; Ojo, O.O.; Akpabio, I.

    1991-01-01

    The repeat profile of an x-ray department in a developing country was analysed monthly between July 1989 and June 1990. Results showed an average repeat rate of 3.7% for the period of study. The main causes of film repetition were: equipment fault, 33.9%; radiographer's fault, 27.4%; film fault, 19.3%; processing fault, 10.8% and patient's fault, 8.6%. The average repeat rate in the first 6 months of study reduced by 50% in the last 6 months. This was due to the effectiveness of implementation of corrective actions. The overall repeat rate was found to correlate well with both the equipment fault and radiographer's fault with correlation coefficients, r, of 0.94 and 0.91, respectively. It is expected that a further reduction in the repeat rate will be obtained after the introduction of quality assurance programmes. (author)

  18. P1 plasmid replication: initiator sequestration is inadequate to explain control by initiator-binding sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, S K; Chattoraj, D K

    1988-01-01

    The unit-copy plasmid replicon mini-P1 consists of an origin, a gene for an initiator protein, RepA, and a control locus, incA. Both the origin and the incA locus contain repeat sequences that bind RepA. It has been proposed that the incA repeats control replication by sequestering the rate-limiting RepA initiator protein. Here we show that when the concentration of RepA was increased about fourfold beyond its normal physiological level from an inducible source in trans, the copy number of a ...

  19. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficici, Emel; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Jennings, Michael L; Forrest, Lucy R

    2017-12-04

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. © 2017 Ficici et al.

  20. Asymmetry of inverted-topology repeats in the AE1 anion exchanger suggests an elevator-like mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldo-Gómez, José D.

    2017-01-01

    The membrane transporter anion exchanger 1 (AE1), or band 3, is a key component in the processes of carbon-dioxide transport in the blood and urinary acidification in the renal collecting duct. In both erythrocytes and the basolateral membrane of the collecting-duct α-intercalated cells, the role of AE1 is to catalyze a one-for-one exchange of chloride for bicarbonate. After decades of biochemical and functional studies, the structure of the transmembrane region of AE1, which catalyzes the anion-exchange reaction, has finally been determined. Each protomer of the AE1 dimer comprises two repeats with inverted transmembrane topologies, but the structures of these repeats differ. This asymmetry causes the putative substrate-binding site to be exposed only to the extracellular space, consistent with the expectation that anion exchange occurs via an alternating-access mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that the unknown, inward-facing conformation results from inversion of this asymmetry, and we propose a model of this state constructed using repeat-swap homology modeling. By comparing this inward-facing model with the outward-facing experimental structure, we predict that the mechanism of AE1 involves an elevator-like motion of the substrate-binding domain relative to the nearly stationary dimerization domain and to the membrane plane. This hypothesis is in qualitative agreement with a wide range of biochemical and functional data, which we review in detail, and suggests new avenues of experimentation. PMID:29167180

  1. Comparison of metal-binding strength between methionine and cysteine residues: Implications for the design of metal-binding motifs in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Deepak, R N V; Chandrakar, Brijesh; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2017-05-01

    Metals play vital role in various physiological processes and are bound to biomolecules. Although cysteine sulfur is more frequently found as metal-binding ligand, methionine prefers to occur in copper-binding motifs of some proteins. To address methionine's lower preference in copper-binding sites in comparison to cysteine, we have considered copper-binding motifs (His-Cys-His-Met) from seven different high-resolution protein structures. We performed quantum chemical calculations to find out the strength of interactions between sulfur and metal ion in both Met and Cys residues. In the case of Cys, both neutral (CysH) and the deprotonated form (Cys - ) were considered. We used two different levels of theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and the model compounds methyl propyl sulfide, ethanethiol and ethanethiolate were used to represent Met, CysH and Cys - respectively. To compare the metal-binding strength, we mutated Met in silico to CysH/Cys - and performed the calculations. We also carried out calculations with wild-type Cys present in the same metal-binding motif. On average, interactions of Met with copper ion are stronger by 13-35kcal/mol compared to CysH. However, Cys - interactions with copper is stronger than that of Met by ~250kcal/mol. We then considered the entire metal-binding motif with four residues and calculated the interaction energies with the copper ion. We also considered Met→Cys - mutation in the motif and repeated the calculations. Interaction of the wild-type motif with the copper ion is ~160kcal/mol weaker than that of mutated motif. Our studies suggest the factors that could explain why Met is not as frequently observed as Cys in the metal-binding motifs. Results of these studies will help in designing metal-binding motifs in proteins with varying interaction strengths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alu repeats: A source for the genesis of primate microsatellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcot, S.S.; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wang, Zhenyuan [Marshfield Medical Research Foundation, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    As a result of their abundance, relatively uniform distribution, and high degree of polymorphism, microsatellites and minisatellites have become valuable tools in genetic mapping, forensic identity testing, and population studies. In recent years, a number of microsatellite repeats have been found to be associated with Alu interspersed repeated DNA elements. The association of an Alu element with a microsatellite repeat could result from the integration of an Alu element within a preexisting microsatellite repeat. Alternatively, Alu elements could have a direct role in the origin of microsatellite repeats. Errors introduced during reverse transcription of the primary transcript derived from an Alu {open_quotes}master{close_quote} gene or the accumulation of random mutations in the middle A-rich regions and oligo(dA)-rich tails of Alu elements after insertion and subsequent expansion and contraction of these sequences could result in the genesis of a microsatellite repeat. We have tested these hypotheses by a direct evolutionary comparison of the sequences of some recent Alu elements that are found only in humans and are absent from nonhuman primates, as well as some older Alu elements that are present at orthologous positions in a number of nonhuman primates. The origin of {open_quotes}young{close_quotes} Alu insertions, absence of sequences that resemble microsatellite repeats at the orthologous loci in chimpanzees, and the gradual expansion of microsatellite repeats in some old Alu repeats at orthologous positions within the genomes of a number of nonhuman primates suggest that Alu elements are a source for the genesis of primate microsatellite repeats. 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Disease-associated repeat instability and mismatch repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monika H M; Pearson, Christopher E

    2016-02-01

    Expanded tandem repeat sequences in DNA are associated with at least 40 human genetic neurological, neurodegenerative, and neuromuscular diseases. Repeat expansion can occur during parent-to-offspring transmission, and arise at variable rates in specific tissues throughout the life of an affected individual. Since the ongoing somatic repeat expansions can affect disease age-of-onset, severity, and progression, targeting somatic expansion holds potential as a therapeutic target. Thus, understanding the factors that regulate this mutation is crucial. DNA repair, in particular mismatch repair (MMR), is the major driving force of disease-associated repeat expansions. In contrast to its anti-mutagenic roles, mammalian MMR curiously drives the expansion mutations of disease-associated (CAG)·(CTG) repeats. Recent advances have broadened our knowledge of both the MMR proteins involved in disease repeat expansions, including: MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, MLH1, PMS2, and MLH3, as well as the types of repeats affected by MMR, now including: (CAG)·(CTG), (CGG)·(CCG), and (GAA)·(TTC) repeats. Mutagenic slipped-DNA structures have been detected in patient tissues, and the size of the slip-out and their junction conformation can determine the involvement of MMR. Furthermore, the formation of other unusual DNA and R-loop structures is proposed to play a key role in MMR-mediated instability. A complex correlation is emerging between tissues showing varying amounts of repeat instability and MMR expression levels. Notably, naturally occurring polymorphic variants of DNA repair genes can have dramatic effects upon the levels of repeat instability, which may explain the variation in disease age-of-onset, progression and severity. An increasing grasp of these factors holds prognostic and therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure of the ankyrin-binding domain of alpha-Na,K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Devarajan, P; Dorfman, A L; Morrow, J S

    1998-07-24

    The ankyrin 33-residue repeating motif, an L-shaped structure with protruding beta-hairpin tips, mediates specific macromolecular interactions with cytoskeletal, membrane, and regulatory proteins. The association between ankyrin and alpha-Na,K-ATPase, a ubiquitous membrane protein critical to vectorial transport of ions and nutrients, is required to assemble and stabilize Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane. alpha-Na,K-ATPase binds both red cell ankyrin (AnkR, a product of the ANK1 gene) and Madin-Darby canine kidney cell ankyrin (AnkG, a product of the ANK3 gene) utilizing residues 142-166 (SYYQEAKSSKIMESFK NMVPQQALV) in its second cytoplasmic domain. Fusion peptides of glutathione S-transferase incorporating these 25 amino acids bind specifically to purified ankyrin (Kd = 118 +/- 50 nM). The three-dimensional structure (2.6 A) of this minimal ankyrin-binding motif, crystallized as the fusion protein, reveals a 7-residue loop with one charged hydrophilic face capping a double beta-strand. Comparison with ankyrin-binding sequences in p53, CD44, neurofascin/L1, and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor suggests that the valency and specificity of ankyrin binding is achieved by the interaction of 5-7-residue surface loops with the beta-hairpin tips of multiple ankyrin repeat units.

  5. Re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiqi Guo

    Full Text Available A novel role for antifreeze proteins (AFPs may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-MDa adhesin isolated from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis. MpAFP was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. We have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region II (RII and region IV (RIV, divide MpAFP into five distinct regions, all of which require mM Ca(2+ levels for correct folding. Also, the antifreeze activity is confined to the 322-residue RIV, which forms a Ca(2+-bound beta-helix containing thirteen Repeats-In-Toxin (RTX-like repeats. RII accounts for approximately 90% of the mass of MpAFP and is made up of ∼120 tandem 104-residue repeats. Because these repeats are identical in DNA sequence, their number was estimated here by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Structural homology analysis by the Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (Phyre2 server indicates that the 104-residue RII repeat adopts an immunoglobulin beta-sandwich fold that is typical of many secreted adhesion proteins. Additional RTX-like repeats in RV may serve as a non-cleavable signal sequence for the type I secretion pathway. Immunodetection shows both repeated regions are uniformly distributed over the cell surface. We suggest that the development of an AFP-like domain within this adhesin attached to the bacterial outer surface serves to transiently bind the host bacteria to ice. This association would keep the bacteria within the upper reaches of the water column where oxygen and nutrients are potentially more abundant. This novel envirotactic role would give AFPs a third function, after freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance: that of transiently binding an organism to ice.

  6. Repetitive N-WASP-binding elements of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli effector EspF(U synergistically activate actin assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G Campellone

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC generate F-actin-rich adhesion pedestals by delivering effector proteins into mammalian cells. These effectors include the translocated receptor Tir, along with EspF(U, a protein that associates indirectly with Tir and contains multiple peptide repeats that stimulate actin polymerization. In vitro, the EspF(U repeat region is capable of binding and activating recombinant derivatives of N-WASP, a host actin nucleation-promoting factor. In spite of the identification of these important bacterial and host factors, the underlying mechanisms of how EHEC so potently exploits the native actin assembly machinery have not been clearly defined. Here we show that Tir and EspF(U are sufficient for actin pedestal formation in cultured cells. Experimental clustering of Tir-EspF(U fusion proteins indicates that the central role of the cytoplasmic portion of Tir is to promote clustering of the repeat region of EspF(U. Whereas clustering of a single EspF(U repeat is sufficient to bind N-WASP and generate pedestals on cultured cells, multi-repeat EspF(U derivatives promote actin assembly more efficiently. Moreover, the EspF(U repeats activate a protein complex containing N-WASP and the actin-binding protein WIP in a synergistic fashion in vitro, further suggesting that the repeats cooperate to stimulate actin polymerization in vivo. One explanation for repeat synergy is that simultaneous engagement of multiple N-WASP molecules can enhance its ability to interact with the actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex. These findings define the minimal set of bacterial effectors required for pedestal formation and the elements within those effectors that contribute to actin assembly via N-WASP-Arp2/3-mediated signaling pathways.

  7. When is protein binding important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of single-stranded DNA binding proteins on primer extension by telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomit; Jacob, Eyal; Manor, Haim

    2004-08-12

    We present a biochemical analysis of the effects of three single-stranded DNA binding proteins on extension of oligonucleotide primers by the Tetrahymena telomerase. One of them, a human protein designated translin, which was shown to specifically bind the G-rich Tetrahymena and human telomeric repeats, slightly stimulated the primer extension reactions at molar ratios of translin/primer of primers, rather than by a direct interaction of this protein with telomerase. A second protein, the general human single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA), similarly affected the primer extension by telomerase, even though its mode of binding to DNA differs from that of translin. A third protein, the E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), whose binding to DNA is highly cooperative, caused more substantial stimulation and inhibition at the lower and the higher molar ratios of SSB/primer, respectively. Both telomere-specific and general single-stranded DNA binding proteins are found in living cells in telomeric complexes. Based on our data, we propose that these proteins may exert either stimulatory or inhibitory effects on intracellular telomerases, depending on their local concentrations. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Dental Fear in Children with Repeated Tooth Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negovetić Vranić, Dubravka; Ivančić Jokić, Nataša; Bakarčić, Danko; Carek, Andreja; Rotim, Željko; Verzak, Željko

    2016-06-01

    Tooth injuries are serious clinical conditions. Some children experience dental trauma only once, while others are more prone to repeated tooth injuries. Repeated dental trauma occurs in 19.4% to 30% of patients. Pain and dental trauma are the most common reasons for fear and anxiety. The main objective of this study was to investigate how dental trauma, as well as repeated dental trauma affects the occurrence and development of dental fear in children. The study was conducted on a random sample of 147 subjects (88 boys and 59 girls) aged 5-8 and 9-12 years. Subjects in both age groups were divided into subroups without dental trauma, with one dental trauma and with repeated dental trauma. The validated Children’s Fear Survey Schedule – Dental Subscale was used on fear assessment. Results showed that only 12.2% of children without trauma, 33.3% with one trauma and 51.7% with repeated trauma were not afraid of injection. Older children had a significantly lower fear of injections, touch of an unknown person, choking, going to the hospital and people in white uniforms. Dentist was not the cause of fear in 65.5% of patients with repeated trauma. With each repeated injury of teeth, the degree of their fear of dental treatment was lower.

  10. Radon Space Dose Optimization in Repeat CT Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamul, N; Joskowicz, L

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method for on-line radiation dose optimization in repeat computer tomography (CT) scanning. Our method uses the information of the baseline scan during the repeat scanning to significantly reduce the radiation dose without compromising the repeat scan quality. It automatically registers the patient to the baseline scan using fractional scanning and detects in sinogram space the patient regions where changes have occurred without having to reconstruct the repeat scan image. It scans only these regions in the patient, thereby considerably reducing the necessary radiation dose. It then completes the missing values of the sparsely sampled repeat scan sinogram with those of the fully sampled baseline sinogram in regions where no changes were detected and computes the repeat scan image by standard filtered backprojection reconstruction. Experiments on a patient scan with simulated changes yield a mean recall of 98% using <19% of a full dose. Experiments on real CT scans of an abdomen phantom produce similar results, with a mean recall of 94.5% and only 14.4% of a full dose more than the theoretical optimum. As hardly any changed rays are missed, the reconstructed images are practically indistinguishable from a full dose scan. Our method successfully detects small, low contrast changes and produces an accurate repeat scan reconstruction using three times less radiation than an image space baseline method.

  11. Partial genetic deletion of neuregulin 1 and adolescent stress interact to alter NMDA receptor binding in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Waseem Chohan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is thought to arise due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors during early neurodevelopment. We have recently shown that partial genetic deletion of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 and adolescent stress interact to disturb sensorimotor gating, neuroendocrine activity and dendritic morphology in mice. Both stress and Nrg1 may have converging effects upon N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs which are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, sensorimotor gating and dendritic spine plasticity. Using an identical repeated restraint stress paradigm to our previous study, here we determined NMDAR binding across various brain regions in adolescent Nrg1 heterozygous (HET and wild-type (WT mice using [3H] MK-801 autoradiography. Repeated restraint stress increased NMDAR binding in the ventral part of the lateral septum (LSV and the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus irrespective of genotype. Partial genetic deletion of Nrg1 interacted with adolescent stress to promote an altered pattern of NMDAR binding in the infralimbic (IL subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex. In the IL, whilst stress tended to increase NMDAR binding in WT mice, it decreased binding in Nrg1 HET mice. However in the DG, stress selectively increased the expression of NMDAR binding in Nrg1 HET mice but not WT mice. These results demonstrate a Nrg1-stress interaction during adolescence on NMDAR binding in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  12. Altered SPECT 123I iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro eNagamitsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT measurements using 123I iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26 and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil binding activity in cortical regions of interest (ROIs and psychometric profiles, and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the anterior posterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Depression-Dejection, and Confusion POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score, showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil binding activity. Decreased binding in the ACC and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in children

  13. Altered SPECT 123I-iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Rieko; Matsuoka, Michiko; Chiba, Hiromi; Ozono, Shuichi; Tanigawa, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuki; Croarkin, Paul E.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements using 123I-iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26) and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil-binding activity in cortical regions of interest and psychometric profiles and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). “Depression–Dejection” and “Confusion” POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil-binding activity. Decreased binding in the anterior cingulate cortex and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered

  14. Reduction of starch granule size by expression of an engineered tandem starch-binding domain in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.; Oomen, R.J.F.J.; Vincken, J.P.; Bolam, D.N.; Gilbert, H.J.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Granule size is an important parameter when using starch in industrial applications. An artificial tandem repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD2) was engineered by two copies of the SBD derived from Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase via the Pro-Thr-rich linker peptice

  15. Non-immune binding of human IgG to M-related proteins confers resistance to phagocytosis of group A streptococci in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry S Courtney

    Full Text Available The non-immune binding of immunoglobulins by bacteria is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of infections. M-related proteins (Mrp are group A streptococcal (GAS receptors for immunoglobulins, but it is not known if this binding has any impact on virulence. To further investigate the binding of immunoglobulins to Mrp, we engineered mutants of an M type 4 strain of GAS by inactivating the genes for mrp, emm, enn, sof, and sfbX and tested these mutants in IgG-binding assays. Inactivation of mrp dramatically decreased the binding of human IgG, whereas inactivation of emm, enn, sof, and sfbx had only minor effects, indicating that Mrp is a major IgG-binding protein. Binding of human immunoglobulins to a purified, recombinant form of Mrp indicated that it selectively binds to the Fc domain of human IgG, but not IgA or IgM and that it preferentially bound subclasses IgG₁>IgG₄>IgG₂>IgG₃. Recombinant proteins encompassing different regions of Mrp were engineered and used to map its IgG-binding domain to its A-repeat region and a recombinant protein with 3 A-repeats was a better inhibitor of IgG binding than one with a single A-repeat. A GAS mutant expressing Mrp with an in-frame deletion of DNA encoding the A-repeats had a dramatically reduced ability to bind human IgG and to grow in human blood. Mrp exhibited host specificity in binding IgG; human IgG was the best inhibitor of the binding of IgG followed by pig, horse, monkey, and rabbit IgG. IgG from goat, mouse, rat, cow, donkey, chicken, and guinea pig were poor inhibitors of binding. These findings indicate that Mrp preferentially binds human IgG and that this binding contributes to the ability of GAS to resist phagocytosis and may be a factor in the restriction of GAS infections to the human host.

  16. Novel anti-HIV peptides containing multiple copies of artificially designed heptad repeat motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiguo; Qi Zhi; Pan Chungen; Xue Na; Debnath, Asim K.; Qie Jiankun; Jiang Shibo; Liu Keliang

    2008-01-01

    The peptidic anti-HIV drug T20 (Fuzeon) and its analog C34 share a common heptad repeat (HR) sequence, but they have different functional domains, i.e., pocket- and lipid-binding domains (PBD and LBD, respectively). We hypothesize that novel anti-HIV peptides may be designed by using artificial sequences containing multiple copies of HR motifs plus zero, one or two functional domains. Surprisingly, we found that the peptides containing only the non-natural HR sequences could significantly inhibit HIV-1 infection, while addition of PBD and/or LBD to the peptides resulted in significant improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. These results suggest that these artificial HR sequences, which may serve as structural domains, could be used as templates for the design of novel antiviral peptides against HIV and other viruses with class I fusion proteins

  17. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the osteoinductive protein NELL1 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kaneyoshi; Imai, Arisa; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Maturana, Andrés D; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Niimi, Tomoaki

    2015-12-21

    Neural epidermal growth factor-like (NEL)-like 1 (NELL1) is a secretory osteogenic protein comprising an N-terminal thrombospondin-1-like (TSPN) domain, four von Willebrand factor type C domains, and six epidermal growth factor-like repeats. NELL1 shows heparin-binding activity; however, the biological significance remains to be explored. In this report, we demonstrate that NELL1 binds to cell surface proteoglycans through its TSPN domain. Major heparin-binding sites were identified on the three-dimensional structural model of the TSPN domain of NELL1. Mutant analysis of the heparin-binding sites indicated that the heparin-binding activity of the TSPN domain is involved in interaction of NELL1 with cell surface proteoglycans. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionarily conserved domain of heat shock transcription factor negatively regulates oligomerization and DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Azumi; Enoki, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Noritaka; Sawai, Maki; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) regulates the expression of genes encoding molecular chaperones and stress-responsive proteins. Conversion of HSF from a monomer to a homotrimer or heterotrimer is essential for its binding to heat shock elements (HSEs) comprised of inverted repeats of the pentamer nGAAn. Here, we constructed various human HSF1 derivatives and analyzed their transcriptional activity through the continuously and discontinuously arranged nGAAn units. We identified a short stretch of amino acids that inhibits the activation ability of HSF1, especially through discontinuous HSEs. This stretch is conserved in HSFs of various organisms, interacts with the hydrophobic repeat regions that mediate HSF oligomerization, and impedes homotrimer formation and DNA binding. This conserved domain plays an important role in maintaining HSF in an inactive monomeric form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Plant Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase PSY1R from Head to Toe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, Christian Berg

    PSY1R belongs to the family of plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases that play important roles in processes such as growth regulation and plant immunity response. PSY1R was proposed to be the receptor of the plant peptide hormone PSY1 which promotes cell expansion. PSY1R was furthermore...... are conserved among related plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases whereas Ser951 is unique for PSY1R which suggests that it may serve a specialized function in regulation of PSY1R kinase activity....... shown to phosphorylate and regulate the activity of the plasma membrane localized H+-ATPase, AHA2. While the mechanism of PSY1R-mediated AHA2 phosphorylation has previously been studied in detail, little is known about how PSY1R binds PSY1 peptide ligand and how the intracellular PSY1R kinase domain...

  20. Crystal structure of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex bound to the SxFG/PxFG repeats of the nucleoporin Nup42p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masako; Hirano, Hidemi; Shirai, Natsuki; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-10-01

    Xpo1p (yeast CRM1) is the major nuclear export receptor that carries a plethora of proteins and ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to cytoplasm. The passage of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is facilitated by interactions with nucleoporins (Nups) containing extensive repeats of phenylalanine-glycine (so-called FG repeats), although the precise role of each Nup in the nuclear export reaction remains incompletely understood. Here we report structural and biochemical characterization of the interactions between the Xpo1p nuclear export complex and the FG repeats of Nup42p, a nucleoporin localized at the cytoplasmic face of yeast NPCs and has characteristic SxFG/PxFG sequence repeat motif. The crystal structure of Xpo1p-PKI-Nup42p-Gsp1p-GTP complex identified three binding sites for the SxFG/PxFG repeats on HEAT repeats 14-20 of Xpo1p. Mutational analyses of Nup42p showed that the conserved serines and prolines in the SxFG/PxFG repeats contribute to Xpo1p-Nup42p binding. Our structural and biochemical data suggest that SxFG/PxFG-Nups such as Nup42p and Nup159p at the cytoplasmic face of NPCs provide high-affinity docking sites for the Xpo1p nuclear export complex in the terminal stage of NPC passage and that subsequent disassembly of the nuclear export complex facilitates recycling of free Xpo1p back to the nucleus. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. A novel glucan-binding protein with lipase activity from the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Deepan S H; Russell, Roy R B

    2004-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans produces extracellular glucosyltransferases (GTFs) that synthesize glucans from sucrose. These glucans are important in determining the permeability properties and adhesiveness of dental plaque. GTFs and the GbpA glucan-binding protein are characterized by a binding domain containing a series of 33-amino-acid repeats, called 'A' repeats. The S. mutans genome sequence was searched for ORFs containing 'A' repeats, and one novel gene, gbpD, which appears to be unique to the mutans group of streptococci, was identified. The GbpD sequence revealed the presence of three 'A' repeats, in the middle of the protein, and a novel glucan-binding assay showed that GbpD binds to dextran with a K(D) of 2-3 nM. Construction of truncated derivatives of GbpD confirmed that the 'A' repeat region was essential for binding. Furthermore, a gbpD knockout mutant was modified in the extent of aggregation induced by polymers derived from sucrose. The N-terminus of GbpD has a signal sequence, followed by a region with no homologues in the public databases, while the C-terminus has homology to the alpha/beta hydrolase family (including lipases and carboxylesterases). GbpD contains the two regions typical of these enzymes: a GxSxG active site 'lipase box' and an 'oxyanion hole'. GbpD released free fatty acids (FFAs) from a range of triglycerides in the presence of calcium, indicating a lipase activity. The glucan binding/lipase bifunctionality suggested the natural substrate for the enzyme may be a surface macromolecule consisting of carbohydrate linked to lipid. The gbpD mutant was less hydrophobic than wild-type and pure recombinant GbpD reduced the hydrophobicity of S. mutans and another plaque bacterium, Streptococcus sanguinis. GbpD bound to and released FFA from lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of S. sanguinis, but had no effect on LTA from S. mutans. These results raise the intriguing possibility that GbpD may be involved in direct interspecies competition within the plaque

  2. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  3. simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-28

    1998). Cross- species amplification of soybean (Glycine max) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) within the genus and other legume genera: implications for the transferability of SSRs in plants. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15:1275-1287.

  4. Awareness of Repeat Antenatal HIV Testing in Mothers Six Weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMTCT) recommend that all pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers must have HIV tests every 3 months. However, less than 10% of pregnant women in Lusaka District get retested. Repeat HIV testing identifies women who seroconvert ...

  5. Experimental nested purification for a linear optical quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luo-Kan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Xu, Ping; Yao, Xing-Can; Xiang, Tong; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Chang; Lu, He; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Quantum repeaters1-4 are essential elements for demonstrating global-scale quantum communication. Over the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been dedicated to implementing a practical quantum repeater5-10. However, nested purification1, the backbone of a quantum repeater, remains a challenge because the capacity for successive entanglement manipulation is still absent. Here, we propose and demonstrate an architecture of nested purification using spontaneous parametric downconversion sources11. A heralded entangled photon pair with higher fidelity is successfully purified from two copies of low-fidelity pairs that experience entanglement swapping and noisy channels. By delicately designing the optical circuits, double-pair emission noise is eliminated automatically and the purified state can be used for scalable entanglement connections to extend the communication distance. Combined with a quantum memory, our approach can be applied immediately in the implemention of a practical quantum repeater.

  6. Advantages and disadvantages : longitudinal vs. repeated cross-section surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-20

    The benefits of a longitudinal analysis over a repeated cross-sectional study include increased statistical power and the capability to estimate a greater range of conditional probabilities. With the Puget Sound Transportation Panel (PSTP), and any s...

  7. Repeat Assessed Values Model for Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Manuela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an innovative methodology, named Repeat Appraised Price Model (RAV, useful for determining the price index numbers for real estate markets and the corresponding index numbers of hedonic prices of main real estate characteristics in the case of a lack of data. The methodological approach proposed in this paper aims to appraise the time series of price index numbers. It integrates the principles of the method of repeat sales with the peculiarities of the Hedonic Price Method, overcoming the problem of an almost total absence of repeat sales for the same property in a given time range; on the other hand, the technique aims to overcome the limitation of the repeat sales technique concerning the inability to take into account the characteristics of individual properties.

  8. Abundant Intergenic TAACTGA Direct Repeats and Putative Alternate RNA Polymerase β' Subunits in Marine Beggiatoaceae Genomes: Possible Regulatory Roles and Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequences of several giant marine sulfur-oxidizing bacteria present evidence of a possible post-transcriptional regulatory network that may have been transmitted to or from two distantly related bacteria lineages. The draft genome of a Cand. "Maribeggiatoa" filament from the Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California, Mexico) seafloor contains 169 sets of TAACTGA direct repeats and one indirect repeat, with two to six copies per set. Related heptamers are rarely or never found as direct repeats. TAACTGA direct repeats are also found in some other Beggiatoaceae, Thiocystis violascens, a range of Cyanobacteria, and five Bacteroidetes. This phylogenetic distribution suggests they may have been transmitted horizontally, but no mechanism is evident. There is no correlation between total TAACTGA occurrences and repeats per genome. In most species the repeat units are relatively short, but longer arrays of up to 43 copies are found in several Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. The majority of TAACTGA repeats in the Cand. "Maribeggiatoa" Orange Guaymas (BOGUAY) genome are within several nucleotides upstream of a putative start codon, suggesting they may be binding sites for a post-transcriptional regulator. Candidates include members of the ribosomal protein S1, Csp (cold shock protein), and Csr (carbon storage regulator) families. No pattern was evident in the predicted functions of the open reading frames (ORFs) downstream of repeats, but some encode presumably essential products such as ribosomal proteins. Among these is an ORF encoding a possible alternate or modified RNA polymerase beta prime subunit, predicted to have the expected subunit interaction domains but lacking most catalytic residues. A similar ORF was found in the Thioploca ingrica draft genome, but in no others. In both species they are immediately upstream of putative sensor kinase genes with nearly identical domain structures. In the marine Beggiatoaceae, a role for the TAACTGA repeats in translational

  9. A specific family of interspersed repeats (SINEs facilitates meiotic synapsis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Errors during meiosis that affect synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes contribute to aneuploidy and infertility in humans. Despite the clinical relevance of these defects, we know very little about the mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes interact with one another during mammalian meiotic prophase. Further, we remain ignorant of the way in which chromosomal DNA complexes with the meiosis-specific structure that tethers homologs, the synaptonemal complex (SC, and whether specific DNA elements are necessary for this interaction. Results In the present study we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and DNA sequencing to demonstrate that the axial elements of the mammalian SC are markedly enriched for a specific family of interspersed repeats, short interspersed elements (SINEs. Further, we refine the role of the repeats to specific sub-families of SINEs, B1 in mouse and AluY in old world monkey (Macaca mulatta. Conclusions Because B1 and AluY elements are the most actively retrotransposing SINEs in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, our observations imply that they may serve a dual function in axial element binding; i.e., as the anchoring point for the SC but possibly also as a suppressor/regulator of retrotransposition.

  10. Visualization of PML nuclear import complexes reveals FG-repeat nucleoporins at cargo retrieval sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lång, Anna; Eriksson, Jens; Schink, Kay Oliver; Lång, Emma; Blicher, Pernille; Połeć, Anna; Brech, Andreas; Dalhus, Bjørn; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2017-07-04

    Selective nuclear import in eukaryotic cells involves sequential interactions between nuclear import receptors and phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat nucleoporins. Traditionally, binding of cargoes to import receptors is perceived as a nuclear pore complex independent event, while interactions between import complexes and nucleoporins are thought to take place at the nuclear pores. However, studies have shown that nucleoporins are mobile and not static within the nuclear pores, suggesting that they may become engaged in nuclear import before nuclear pore entry. Here we have studied post-mitotic nuclear import of the tumor suppressor protein PML. Since this protein forms nuclear compartments called PML bodies that persist during mitosis, the assembly of putative PML import complexes can be visualized on the surface of these protein aggregates as the cell progress from an import inactive state in mitosis to an import active state in G1. We show that these post-mitotic cytoplasmic PML bodies incorporate a multitude of peripheral nucleoporins, but not scaffold or nuclear basket nucleoporins, in a manner that depends on FG-repeats, the KPNB1 import receptor, and the PML nuclear localization signal. The study suggests that nucleoporins have the ability to target certain nuclear cargo proteins in a nuclear pore-uncoupled state, before nuclear pore entry.

  11. Repeatability and reproducibility of decisions by latent fingerprint examiners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T Ulery

    Full Text Available The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. We tested latent print examiners on the extent to which they reached consistent decisions. This study assessed intra-examiner repeatability by retesting 72 examiners on comparisons of latent and exemplar fingerprints, after an interval of approximately seven months; each examiner was reassigned 25 image pairs for comparison, out of total pool of 744 image pairs. We compare these repeatability results with reproducibility (inter-examiner results derived from our previous study. Examiners repeated 89.1% of their individualization decisions, and 90.1% of their exclusion decisions; most of the changed decisions resulted in inconclusive decisions. Repeatability of comparison decisions (individualization, exclusion, inconclusive was 90.0% for mated pairs, and 85.9% for nonmated pairs. Repeatability and reproducibility were notably lower for comparisons assessed by the examiners as "difficult" than for "easy" or "moderate" comparisons, indicating that examiners' assessments of difficulty may be useful for quality assurance. No false positive errors were repeated (n = 4; 30% of false negative errors were repeated. One percent of latent value decisions were completely reversed (no value even for exclusion vs. of value for individualization. Most of the inter- and intra-examiner variability concerned whether the examiners considered the information available to be sufficient to reach a conclusion; this variability was concentrated on specific image pairs such that repeatability and reproducibility were very high on some comparisons and very low on others. Much of the variability appears to be due to making categorical decisions in borderline cases.

  12. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  13. Crystal structures of the human G3BP1 NTF2-like domain visualize FxFG Nup Repeat Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vognsen, Tina Reinholdt; Möller, Ingvar Rúnar; Kristensen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Ras GTPase Activating Protein SH3 Domain Binding Protein (G3BP) is a potential anti-cancer drug target implicated in several cellular functions. We have used protein crystallography to solve crystal structures of the human G3BP1 NTF2-like domain both alone and in complex with an FxFG Nup repeat...... peptide. Despite high structural similarity, the FxFG binding site is located between two alpha helices in the G3BP1 NTF2-like domain and not at the dimer interface as observed for nuclear transport factor 2. ITC studies showed specificity towards the FxFG motif but not FG and GLFG motifs. The unliganded...

  14. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  15. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins...... as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context....

  16. Binding energy of protonium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad Abdel-Raouf, Mohamed

    2009-11-01

    The goal of the present work is to calculate the binding energy of the protonium ions bar PPe+ and bar PPe- using Rayleigh- Ritz variational method. It is indicated that an employment of 21 components of the trial wavefunction yields -0.08793 eV as the ground state energy of these ions. Our result agrees quite well with recently obtained results based on elaborate Monte Carlo approximations. It confirms the possible formation of these ions in laboratory.

  17. Impact of Repeated Exposures on Information Spreading in Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangqi; Zhao, Qianchuan; Lu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Clustered structure of social networks provides the chances of repeated exposures to carriers with similar information. It is commonly believed that the impact of repeated exposures on the spreading of information is nontrivial. Does this effect increase the probability that an individual forwards a message in social networks? If so, to what extent does this effect influence people's decisions on whether or not to spread information? Based on a large-scale microblogging data set, which logs the message spreading processes and users' forwarding activities, we conduct a data-driven analysis to explore the answer to the above questions. The results show that an overwhelming majority of message samples are more probable to be forwarded under repeated exposures, compared to those under only a single exposure. For those message samples that cover various topics, we observe a relatively fixed, topic-independent multiplier of the willingness of spreading when repeated exposures occur, regardless of the differences in network structure. We believe that this finding reflects average people's intrinsic psychological gain under repeated stimuli. Hence, it makes sense that the gain is associated with personal response behavior, rather than network structure. Moreover, we find that the gain is robust against the change of message popularity. This finding supports that there exists a relatively fixed gain brought by repeated exposures. Based on the above findings, we propose a parsimonious model to predict the saturated numbers of forwarding activities of messages. Our work could contribute to better understandings of behavioral psychology and social media analytics.

  18. Repeatability of diffusion-weighted imaging in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intven, Martijn; Reerink, Onne; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2014-07-01

    Serial diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of rectal tumors are used for rectal cancer response evaluation after neo-adjuvant treatment. In this study, we determined the repeatability of DW-MRI to distinguish therapy-related response from measurement variations. In 18 patients with rectal cancer on five consecutive days, 1.5 Tesla (T) MR imaging was performed including two identical DW-MRI sequences. The repeatability of the tumor ADC measurements and the intraobserver ADC variation were depicted in a Bland-Altman plot. The repeatability coefficient was calculated as the range of ADC values of two identical DWI measurements for 95% of subjects. It was expressed as percentage of the mean ADC value. Three females and 15 males were included. The mean tumor ADC value was 1.15 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (SD 0.07 × 10(-3) mm(2)). The repeatability coefficient of the ADC value was 9.8% and for the intraobserver repeatability 4.7%. In serial DW-MRI for rectal cancer treatment response evaluation, a repeatability coefficient of 9.8% has to be considered to account for measurement variations in rectal tumor ADC. These variations represent observer judgement and patient and MR spectrometer induced variations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Poisson process approximation for sequence repeats, and sequencing by hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arratia, R; Martin, D; Reinert, G; Waterman, M S

    1996-01-01

    Sequencing by hybridization is a tool to determine a DNA sequence from the unordered list of all l-tuples contained in this sequence; typical numbers for l are l = 8, 10, 12. For theoretical purposes we assume that the multiset of all l-tuples is known. This multiset determines the DNA sequence uniquely if none of the so-called Ukkonen transformations are possible. These transformations require repeats of (l-1)-tuples in the sequence, with these repeats occurring in certain spatial patterns. We model DNA as an i.i.d. sequence. We first prove Poisson process approximations for the process of indicators of all leftmost long repeats allowing self-overlap and for the process of indicators of all left-most long repeats without self-overlap. Using the Chen-Stein method, we get bounds on the error of these approximations. As a corollary, we approximate the distribution of longest repeats. In the second step we analyze the spatial patterns of the repeats. Finally we combine these two steps to prove an approximation for the probability that a random sequence is uniquely recoverable from its list of l-tuples. For all our results we give some numerical examples including error bounds.

  20. Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers.

  1. Anion binding in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiters, Martin C [Department of Organic Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [EMBL Hamburg Outstation at DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V [Faculty of Physics, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu, 344090 (Russian Federation); Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris-VI, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, BP 74, F-29682 Roscoff cedex, Bretagne (France); Kuepper, Frithjof C [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zuerich, Schafmattstrasse 20, Zuerich, 8093 (Switzerland); Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R, E-mail: m.feiters@science.ru.n [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L{sub 3} (2p{sub 3/2}) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  2. Anion binding in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V; Soldatov, Alexander V; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Kuepper, Frithjof C; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P; Bevers, Loes E; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R

    2009-01-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L 3 (2p 3/2 ) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  3. Anion binding in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  4. Structural and functional insights into small, glutamine-rich, tetratricopeptide repeat protein alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna D Roberts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SGTA is a co-chaperone that interacts with molecular chaperones and steroid receptor complexes and plays an important role in various cellular pathways. It consists of three structural domains with individual functions, an N-terminal dimerisation domain (SGTA_NT that assists protein sorting pathways, a central tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain that interacts with heat-shock proteins and a C-terminal glutamine rich region that binds hydrophobic substrates. A range of biophysical techniques has been employed to characterize its structure and to investigate its interactions with binding partners. SGTA interacts with the androgen receptor and other steroid receptor complexes and has been shown to be linked to hormonally induced disease states. Therefore, a full structure of SGTA and further investigation of its function as a molecular co-chaperone could provide us with useful insights into the mechanisms of related pathologies. This review describes how some structural features of SGTA have been elucidated, and what this has uncovered about its function as a co-chaperone. A brief background on the structure and function of SGTA is given, highlighting its importance to biomedicine and related fields. The current level of knowledge and what remains to be understood about the structure and function of SGTA is summarised, discussing the potential direction of future research.

  5. A Secreted Ankyrin-Repeat Protein from Clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolates Disrupts Actin Cytoskeletal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Logan C; O'Keefe, Sean; Parnes, Mei-Fan; MacDonald, Hanlon; Stretz, Lindsey; Templer, Suzanne J; Wong, Emily L; Berger, Bryan W

    2016-01-08

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging, multidrug-resistant pathogen of increasing importance for the immunocompromised, including cystic fibrosis patients. Despite its significance as an emerging pathogen, relatively little is known regarding the specific factors and mechanisms that contribute to its pathogenicity. We identify and characterize a putative ankyrin-repeat protein (Smlt3054) unique to clinical S. maltophilia isolates that binds F-actin in vitro and co-localizes with actin in transfected HEK293a cells. Smlt3054 is endogenously expressed and secreted from clinical S. maltophilia isolates, but not an environmental isolate (R551-3). The in vitro binding of Smlt3054 to F-actin resulted in a thickening of the filaments as observed by TEM. Ectopic expression of Smlt3054-GFP exhibits strong co-localization with F-actin, with distinct, retrograde F-actin waves specifically associated with Smlt3054 in individual cells as well as formation of dense, internal inclusions at the expense of retrograde F-actin waves. Collectively, our results point to an interaction between Smlt3054 and F-actin. Furthermore, as a potentially secreted protein unique to clinical S. maltophilia isolates, Smlt3054 may serve as a starting point for understanding the mechanisms by which S. maltophilia has become an emergent pathogen.

  6. Germ-line CAG repeat instability causes extreme CAG repeat expansion with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Ek, Jakob; Duno, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by dominant inheritance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and diverse extracerebellar symptoms. A subgroup of the ataxias is caused by unstable CAG-repeat expansions in their respective...

  7. LIGAND-BINDING SITES ON THE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS UREASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2017-10-01

    algorithm. To model the reduction in flexibility of allosteric pocket on modulator binding, the unperturbed normal modes are first calculated for the protein. The calculation is then repeated, each time perturbing one of the pockets in the protein. These results are combined with output from Fpocket in a support vector machine (SVM to predict allosteric pockets on proteins. The AlloSite server is similar to the AlloPred method in that it uses the Fpocket algorithm to elucidate allosteric pockets, whereas AlloPred uses an approach that combines flexibility with the Fpocket output. Results and discussion. By computational solvent mapping method FTSite, we have explored M.tuberculosis urease nonamer surface to find sites that tend to bind small organic molecular probes representing fragments of drug molecules with diverse hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. The predicted three top ranked binding sites were situated at the interfaces between chains C and A, and chain G of neighbour trimer (and at equivalent locations in symmetrical trimers as well. A mapping of enzymes generally yields the most probable sites situated in a subsite of the enzyme active site. This was not the case for MTU which active sites were inaccessible for probes due to the closed conformation of the covering flap, and predicted binding sites were located not far from them at the entrance into a deep pocket. To explore their possible structural and functional role, we correlated the locations of predicted MTU binding sites and its ancillary pockets (which remain open and solvent exposed even while the flap is closed and indicated their partial overlapping. This overlapping may suggest that predicted sites are likely the intermediate binding sites responsible for recruiting a ligand to another binding site deeply buried in the protein. To examine the possibility that predicted binding sites are the sites for allostery binding we carried out the search for probable sites of allostery binding on MTU

  8. Src binds cortactin through an SH2 domain cystine-mediated linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jason V.; Ammer, Amanda G.; Jett, John E.; Bolcato, Chris A.; Breaux, Jason C.; Martin, Karen H.; Culp, Mark V.; Gannett, Peter M.; Weed, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tyrosine-kinase-based signal transduction mediated by modular protein domains is critical for cellular function. The Src homology (SH)2 domain is an important conductor of intracellular signaling that binds to phosphorylated tyrosines on acceptor proteins, producing molecular complexes responsible for signal relay. Cortactin is a cytoskeletal protein and tyrosine kinase substrate that regulates actin-based motility through interactions with SH2-domain-containing proteins. The Src kinase SH2 domain mediates cortactin binding and tyrosine phosphorylation, but how Src interacts with cortactin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that Src binds cortactin through cystine bonding between Src C185 in the SH2 domain within the phosphotyrosine binding pocket and cortactin C112/246 in the cortactin repeats domain, independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Interaction studies show that the presence of reducing agents ablates Src-cortactin binding, eliminates cortactin phosphorylation by Src, and prevents Src SH2 domain binding to cortactin. Tandem MS/MS sequencing demonstrates cystine bond formation between Src C185 and cortactin C112/246. Mutational studies indicate that an intact cystine binding interface is required for Src-mediated cortactin phosphorylation, cell migration, and pre-invadopodia formation. Our results identify a novel phosphotyrosine-independent binding mode between the Src SH2 domain and cortactin. Besides Src, one quarter of all SH2 domains contain cysteines at or near the analogous Src C185 position. This provides a potential alternative mechanism to tyrosine phosphorylation for cysteine-containing SH2 domains to bind cognate ligands that may be widespread in propagating signals regulating diverse cellular functions. PMID:23097045

  9. Solute-vacancy binding in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous efforts to understand solute-vacancy binding in aluminum alloys have been hampered by a scarcity of reliable, quantitative experimental measurements. Here, we report a large database of solute-vacancy binding energies determined from first-principles density functional calculations. The calculated binding energies agree well with accurate measurements where available, and provide an accurate predictor of solute-vacancy binding in other systems. We find: (i) some common solutes in commercial Al alloys (e.g., Cu and Mg) possess either very weak (Cu), or even repulsive (Mg), binding energies. Hence, we assert that some previously reported large binding energies for these solutes are erroneous. (ii) Large binding energies are found for Sn, Cd and In, confirming the proposed mechanism for the reduced natural aging in Al-Cu alloys containing microalloying additions of these solutes. (iii) In addition, we predict that similar reduction in natural aging should occur with additions of Si, Ge and Au. (iv) Even larger binding energies are found for other solutes (e.g., Pb, Bi, Sr, Ba), but these solutes possess essentially no solubility in Al. (v) We have explored the physical effects controlling solute-vacancy binding in Al. We find that there is a strong correlation between binding energy and solute size, with larger solute atoms possessing a stronger binding with vacancies. (vi) Most transition-metal 3d solutes do not bind strongly with vacancies, and some are even energetically strongly repelled from vacancies, particularly for the early 3d solutes, Ti and V

  10. Lactoferrin binding molecules in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, C J; Vanderpuye, O A; McIntyre, J A; Faulk, W P

    1990-10-01

    During ejaculation, the iron binding protein lactoferrin binds to sperm and forms a major component of sperm-coating antigens. Physicochemical properties of lactoferrin in seminal plasma (SP) and on sperm differ from those of purified lactoferrin. These differences have been attributed to the binding of unknown seminal macromolecules to lactoferrin. We have studied lactoferrin binding molecules in SP. The SP samples were coated onto microtiter plates and tested for binding of biotinylated lactoferrin. SP was found to specifically bind biotinylated lactoferrin. This binding was competitively inhibited by coincubation with unlabeled lactoferrin but was not affected by control incubations done with human IgG or transferrin. Lactoferrin binding molecules in SP were biochemically characterized by using SDS-PAGE and ligand blotting. Biotinylated lactoferrin bound to SP molecules of approximately 120, 60 and 30 kDa. No binding was observed with biotinylated transferrin. The presence of molecules that associate with lactoferrin in SP was further studied by using crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Lactoferrin in SP immunoprecipitated as two peaks, one of which corresponded to purified lactoferrin. These results suggest that some lactoferrin molecules in SP are free and that others are associated with lactoferrin binding molecules. Binding of lactoferrin to lactoferrin binding molecules appears to change its physicochemical properties and thus could influence its biologic activity and its affinity to sperm.

  11. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Knudsen, J; Poulsen, F M

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein a...

  12. Polymeric competitive protein binding adsorbents for radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Serum protein comprising specific binding proteins such as antibodies, B 12 intrinsic factor, thyroxin binding globulin and the like may be copolymerized with globulin constituents of serum by the action of ethylchloroformate to form readily packed insoluble precipitates which, following purification as by washing, are eminently suited for employment as competitive binding protein absorbents in radioassay procedures. 10 claims, no drawings

  13. Instability of repeated DNAs during transformation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Vera I; Klysik, Elzbieta A; Rosche, William A; Sinden, Richard R

    2002-05-22

    Escherichia coli has provided an important model system for understanding the molecular basis for genetic instabilities associated with repeated DNA. Changes in triplet repeat length during growth following transformation in E. coli have been used as a measure of repeat instability. However, very little is known about the molecular and biological changes that may occur on transformation. Since only a small proportion of viable cells become competent, uncertainty exists regarding the nature of these transformed cells. To establish whether the process of transformation can be inherently mutagenic for certain DNA sequences, we used a genetic assay in E. coli to compare the frequency of genetic instabilities associated with transformation with those occurring in plasmid maintained in E. coli. Our results indicate that, for certain DNA sequences, bacterial transformation can be highly mutagenic. The deletion frequency of a 106 bp perfect inverted repeat is increased by as much as a factor of 2 x 10(5) following transformation. The high frequency of instability was not observed when cells stably harboring plasmid were rendered competent. Thus, the process of transformation was required to observe the instability. Instabilities of (CAG).(CTG) repeats are also dramatically elevated upon transformation. The magnitude of the instability is dependent on the nature and length of the repeat. Differences in the methylation status of plasmid used for transformation and the methylation and restriction/modification systems present in the bacterial strain used must also be considered in repeat instability measurements. Moreover, different E. coli genetic backgrounds show different levels of instability during transformation.

  14. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E

    2009-11-01

    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  15. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  16. Relationships between repeated sprint testing, speed, and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Saunders, Philo U; Montgomery, Paul G; Hewitt, Adam J; Sheehan, Kevin

    2008-09-01

    Repeated sprint testing is gaining popularity in team sports, but the methods of data analysis and relationships to speed and endurance qualities are not well described. We compared three different methods for analyzing repeated sprint test results, and we quantified relationships between repeated sprints, short sprints, and endurance test scores. Well-trained male junior Australian Football players (n = 60, age 18.1 +/- 0.4 years, height 1.88 +/- 0.07 m, mass 82.0 +/- 8.1 kg; mean +/- SD) completed a 6 x 30-m repeated sprint running test on a 20-second cycle, a 20-m sprint test (short sprint), and the 20-m multistage shuttle run for endurance. Repeated sprint results were evaluated in three ways: total time for all six sprints (TOTAL), percent change from predicted times (PRED) from the fastest 30-m sprint time, and percent change from first to last sprint (CHANGE). We observed a very large decrement (CHANGE 6.3 +/- 0.7%, mean +/- 90% confidence limits) in 30-m performance from the first to last sprint (4.16 +/- 0.10 to 4.42 +/- 0.11 seconds, mean +/- SD). Results from TOTAL were highly correlated with 20-m sprint and 20-m multistage shuttle run tests. Performance decrements calculated by PRED were highly correlated with TOTAL (r = 0.91), but neither method was directly comparable with CHANGE (r = -0.23 and r = 0.12 respectively). TOTAL was moderately correlated with fastest 20-m sprint time (r = 0.66) but not the 20-m multistage shuttle run (r = -0.20). Evaluation of repeated sprint testing is sensitive to the method of data analysis employed. The total sprint time and indices of the relative decrement in performance are not directly interchangeable. Repeated sprint ability seems more related to short sprint qualities than endurance fitness.

  17. Tandem repeats of Allium fistulosum associated with major chromosomal landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Ilya V; Kiseleva, Anna V; Van Laere, Katrijn; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I

    2017-04-01

    Tandem repeats are often associated with important chromosomal landmarks, such as centromeres, telomeres, subtelomeric, and other heterochromatic regions, and can be good candidates for molecular cytogenetic markers. Tandem repeats present in many plant species demonstrate dramatic differences in unit length, proportion in the genome, and chromosomal organization. Members of genus Allium with their large genomes represent a challenging task for current genetics. Using the next generation sequencing data, molecular, and cytogenetic methods, we discovered two tandemly organized repeats in the Allium fistulosum genome (2n = 2C = 16), HAT58 and CAT36. Together, these repeats comprise 0.25% of the bunching onion genome with 160,000 copies/1 C of HAT58 and 93,000 copies/1 C of CAT36. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and C-banding showed that HAT58 and CAT36 associated with the interstitial and pericentromeric heterochromatin of the A. fistulosum chromosomes 5, 6, 7, and 8. FISH with HAT58 and CAT36 performed on A. cepa (2n = 2C = 16) and A. wakegi (2n = 2C = 16), a natural allodiploid hybrid between A. fistulosum and A. cepa, revealed that these repeats are species specific and produced specific hybridization patterns only on A. fistulosum chromosomes. Thus, the markers can be used in interspecific breeding programs for monitoring of alien genetic material. We applied Non-denaturing FISH that allowed detection of the repeat bearing chromosomes within 3 h. A polymorphism of the HAT58 chromosome location was observed. This finding suggests that the rapid evolution of the HAT58 repeat is still ongoing.

  18. A comparative study of procedures for binding of aflatoxin M1 to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Jean Claude; Atoui, Ali; Khoury, André El; Chokr, Ali; Louka, Nicolas

    Several strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), frequently used in food fermentation and preservation, have been reported to bind different types of toxins in liquid media. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) to bind aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in liquid media. AFM1 binding was tested following repetitive washes or filtration procedures in combination with additional treatments such as heating, pipetting, and centrifugation. The mixture of L. rhamnosus GG and AFM1 was incubated for 18h at 37°C and the binding efficiency was determined by quantifying the unbound AFM1 using HPLC. The stability of the complexes viable bacteria-AFM1 and heat treated bacteria-AFM1 was tested. Depending on the bacterial concentration and procedure used, the percentages of bound AFM1 by L. rhamnosus GG varied from as low as undetectable to as high as 63%. The highest reduction in the level of unbound AFM1 was recorded for the five washes procedure that involved heating and pipetting. Results also showed that binding was partially reversible and AFM1 was released after repeated washes. These findings highlight the effect of different treatments on the binding of AFM1 to L. rhamnosus GG in liquid matrix. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Tenascin C promiscuously binds growth factors via its fifth fibronectin type III-like domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Laporte

    Full Text Available Tenascin C (TNC is an extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during development as well as tissue remodeling. TNC is comprised of multiple independent folding domains, including 15 fibronectin type III-like (TNCIII domains. The fifth TNCIII domain (TNCIII5 has previously been shown to bind heparin. Our group has shown that the heparin-binding fibronectin type III domains of fibronectin (FNIII, specifically FNIII12-14, possess affinity towards a large number of growth factors. Here, we show that TNCIII5 binds growth factors promiscuously and with high affinity. We produced recombinant fragments of TNC representing the first five TNCIII repeats (TNCIII1-5, as well as subdomains, including TNCIII5, to study interactions with various growth factors. Multiple growth factors of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF family, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF family, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs, and neurotrophins were found to bind with high affinity to this region of TNC, specifically to TNCIII5. Surface plasmon resonance was performed to analyze the kinetics of binding of TNCIII1-5 with TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, NT-3, and FGF-2. The promiscuous yet high affinity of TNC for a wide array of growth factors, mediated mainly by TNCIII5, may play a role in multiple physiological and pathological processes involving TNC.

  20. Exact Tandem Repeats Analyzer (E-TRA): A new program for DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Exact Tandem Repeats Analyzer 1.0 (E-TRA) combines sequence motif searches with keywords such as 'organs',. 'tissues', 'cell lines' and 'development stages' for finding simple exact tandem repeats as well as non-simple repeats. E-TRA has several advanced repeat search parameters/options compared to other repeat ...

  1. AcmD, a homolog of the major autolysin AcmA of Lactococcus lactis, binds to the cell wall and contributes to cell separation and autolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R; Steen, Anton; Leenhouts, Kees; Szeliga, Monika; Ruban, Beata; Hesseling-Meinders, Anne; Dijkstra, Bauke W; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kok, Jan; Buist, Girbe

    2013-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis expresses the homologous glucosaminidases AcmB, AcmC, AcmA and AcmD. The latter two have three C-terminal LysM repeats for peptidoglycan binding. AcmD has much shorter intervening sequences separating the LysM repeats and a lower iso-electric point (4.3) than AcmA (10.3). Under

  2. Effect of repeated Kangaroo Mother Care on repeated procedural pain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haixia; Xu, Guihua; Gao, Honglian; Dong, Rongzhi; Fu, Hongjie; Wang, Danwen; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-01

    Preterm infants' repeated exposure to painful procedures may lead to negative consequences. Thus, non-pharmacological pain management is essential due to medication side effects. Kangaroo Mother Care, which aims at offering human care to neonates, has been established for the treatment of a single painful procedure, but the effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care across repeated painful procedures is unknown. To test the effectiveness of repeated Kangaroo Mother Care on repeated heel-stick pain in preterm neonates. Randomized controlled trial. Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at a large teaching hospital in northeast China. Preterm infants (gestational age less than 37 weeks) (n=80) were recruited and randomly assigned using a random table format to either an incubator group (n=40) or Kangaroo Mother Care group (n=40). Pain assessments were carried out during four routine heel stick procedures. For the first heel stick, preterm infants in each group received no intervention (routinely stayed in incubator). During the next three heel sticks, the infants in Kangaroo Mother Care group received heel sticks during Kangaroo Mother Care, while infants in the incubator group received heel sticks in incubator. The procedure of each heel stick included 3 phases: baseline, blood collection and recovery. Crying, grimacing and heart rate in response to pain were evaluated at each phase across four heel sticks by three trained independent observers who were blinded to the purpose of the study. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), with repeated measures at different evaluation phases of heel stick. 75 preterm infants completed the protocol. Between-group comparison revealed that preterm infants' heart rate was significantly lower, and the duration of crying and facial grimacing were both significantly shorter in the Kangaroo Mother Care group (n=38) than the incubator group (n=37) from the blood collection phase to recovery phase during repeated heel sticks. No

  3. In silico engineering and optimization of Transcription Activator-Like Effectors and their derivatives for improved DNA binding predictions.

    KAUST Repository

    Piatek, Marek J.

    2015-12-01

    Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) can be used as adaptable DNAbinding modules to create site-specific chimeric nucleases or synthetic transcriptional regulators. The central repeat domain mediates specific DNA binding via hypervariable repeat di-residues (RVDs). This DNA-Binding Domain can be engineered to bind preferentially to any user-selected DNA sequence if engineered appropriately. Therefore, TALEs and their derivatives have become indispensable molecular tools in site-specific manipulation of genes and genomes. This thesis revolves around two problems: in silico design and improved binding site prediction of TALEs. In the first part, a study is shown where TALEs are successfully designed in silico and validated in laboratory to yield the anticipated effects on selected genes. Software is developed to accompany the process of designing and prediction of binding sites. I expanded the functionality of the software to be used as a more generic set of tools for the design, target and offtarget searching. Part two contributes a method and associated toolkit developed to allow users to design in silico optimized synthetic TALEs with user-defined specificities for various experimental purposes. This method is based on a mutual relationship of three consecutive tandem repeats in the DNA-binding domain. This approach revealed positional and compositional bias behind the binding of TALEs to DNA. In conclusion, I developed methods, approaches, and software to enhance the functionality of synthetic TALEs, which should improve understanding of TALEs biology and will further advance genome-engineering applications in various organisms and cell types.

  4. Flanking Variation Influences Rates of Stutter in Simple Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August E. Woerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL. While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers.

  5. Incremental Dynamic Analysis of Koyna Dam under Repeated Ground Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab Nik Azizan, Nik; Majid, Taksiah A.; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Maity, Damodar; Abdullah, Junaidah

    2018-03-01

    This paper discovers the incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) of concrete gravity dam under single and repeated earthquake loadings to identify the limit state of the dam. Seven ground motions with horizontal and vertical direction as seismic input considered in the nonlinear dynamic analysis based on the real repeated earthquake in the worldwide. All the ground motions convert to respond spectrum and scaled according to the developed elastic respond spectrum in order to match the characteristic of the ground motion to the soil type. The scaled was depends on the fundamental period, T1 of the dam. The Koyna dam has been selected as a case study for the purpose of the analysis by assuming that no sliding and rigid foundation, has been estimated. IDA curves for Koyna dam developed for single and repeated ground motions and the performance level of the dam identifies. The IDA curve of repeated ground motion shown stiffer rather than single ground motion. The ultimate state displacement for a single event is 45.59mm and decreased to 39.33mm under repeated events which are decreased about 14%. This showed that the performance level of the dam based on seismic loadings depend on ground motion pattern.

  6. STAR: an algorithm to Search for Tandem Approximate Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgrange, Olivier; Rivals, Eric

    2004-11-01

    Tandem repeats consist in approximate and adjacent repetitions of a DNA motif. Such repeats account for large portions of eukaryotic genomes and have also been found in other life kingdoms. Owing to their polymorphism, tandem repeats have proven useful in genome cartography, forensic and population studies, etc. Nevertheless, they are not systematically detected nor annotated in genome projects. Partially because of this lack of data, their evolution is still poorly understood. In this work, we design an exact algorithm to locate approximate tandem repeats (ATR) of a motif in a DNA sequence. Given a motif and a DNA sequence, our method named STAR, identifies all segments of the sequence that correspond to significant approximate tandem repetitions of the motif. In our model, an Exact Tandem Repeat (ETR) comes from the tandem duplication of the motif and an ATR derives from an ETR by a series of point mutations. An ATR can then be encoded as a number of duplications of the motif together with a list of mutations. Consequently, any sequence that is not an ATR cannot be encoded efficiently by this description, while a true ATR can. Our method uses the minimum description length criterion to identify which sequence segments are ATR. Our optimization procedure guarantees that STAR finds a combination of ATR that minimizes this criterion. for use at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/star

  7. Zero-determinant strategies in finitely repeated games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Masuda, Naoki

    2018-02-07

    Direct reciprocity is a mechanism for sustaining mutual cooperation in repeated social dilemma games, where a player would keep cooperation to avoid being retaliated by a co-player in the future. So-called zero-determinant (ZD) strategies enable a player to unilaterally set a linear relationship between the player's own payoff and the co-player's payoff regardless of the strategy of the co-player. In the present study, we analytically study zero-determinant strategies in finitely repeated (two-person) prisoner's dilemma games with a general payoff matrix. Our results are as follows. First, we present the forms of solutions that extend the known results for infinitely repeated games (with a discount factor w of unity) to the case of finitely repeated games (0 < w < 1). Second, for the three most prominent ZD strategies, the equalizers, extortioners, and generous strategies, we derive the threshold value of w above which the ZD strategies exist. Third, we show that the only strategies that enforce a linear relationship between the two players' payoffs are either the ZD strategies or unconditional strategies, where the latter independently cooperates with a fixed probability in each round of the game, proving a conjecture previously made for infinitely repeated games. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Lorenz; Kraus, Barbara; Duer, Wolfgang; Briegel, Hans

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e. without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication

  9. Occupational COPD and HMOX1 repeats in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Steffensen, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dinucleotide repeats (GT)n in the 5’prime promoter region of the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene modulate the gene expression. Long repeats might affect occurrence of COPD. We aimed to investigate associations of the HMOX1 polymorphism of (GT)n repeats to occurrence of COPD.......Methods: This population based cohort included 4703 Danes aged 45-84 of Northern European descents. COPD was defined by LLN: 2.5th FEV1/FVC and FEV1 centiles. The occupational exposures were defined as years with vapour, gas, dust or fume (VGDF) exposure. The HMOX1 repeat was genotyped by fragment analysis and capillary......, analyses are attempted replicated in a younger Danish cohort aged 20-44.Results: A HMOX1 (GT)n genotype was present in 4423 participants and distributed as S/S 12%, S/M 42%, M/M 35%, S/L 4%, M/L 7% and L/L 0.1%. The crude association between COPD and at least one long GT repeat (S/L, M/L, L/L) GT genotype...

  10. Intragenic tandem repeats in Daphnia magna: structure, function and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Pasquier Louis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST databases provide a valuable source of genetic data in organisms whose genome sequence information is not yet compiled. We used a published EST database for the waterflea Daphnia magna (Crustacea:Cladocera to isolate variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR markers for linkage mapping, Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL, and functional studies. Findings Seventy-four polymorphic markers were isolated and characterised. Analyses of repeat structure, putative gene function and polymorphism indicated that intragenic tandem repeats are not distributed randomly in the mRNA sequences; instead, dinucleotides are more frequent in non-coding regions, whereas trinucleotides (and longer motifs involving multiple-of-three nucleotide repeats are preferentially situated in coding regions. We also observed differential distribution of repeat motifs across putative genetic functions. This indicates differential selective constraints and possible functional significance of VNTR polymorphism in at least some genes. Conclusion Databases of VNTR markers situated in genes whose putative function can be inferred from homology searches will be a valuable resource for the genetic study of functional variation and selection.

  11. The diversity and evolution of Wolbachia ankyrin repeat domain genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Siozios

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes are common in the eukaryotic and viral domains of life, but they are rare in bacteria, the exception being a few obligate or facultative intracellular Proteobacteria species. Despite having a reduced genome, the arthropod strains of the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia contain an unusually high number of ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes ranging from 23 in wMel to 60 in wPip strain. This group of genes has attracted considerable attention for their astonishing large number as well as for the fact that ankyrin proteins are known to participate in protein-protein interactions, suggesting that they play a critical role in the molecular mechanism that determines host-Wolbachia symbiotic interactions. We present a comparative evolutionary analysis of the wMel-related ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes present in different Drosophila-Wolbachia associations. Our results show that the ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes change in size by expansion and contraction mediated by short directly repeated sequences. We provide examples of intra-genic recombination events and show that these genes are likely to be horizontally transferred between strains with the aid of bacteriophages. These results confirm previous findings that the Wolbachia genomes are evolutionary mosaics and illustrate the potential that these bacteria have to generate diversity in proteins potentially involved in the symbiotic interactions.

  12. Polymorphic repeat in AIB1 does not alter breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Christopher A; Hankinson, Susan E; Spiegelman, Donna; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Speizer, Frank E; Brown, Myles; Hunter, David J

    2000-01-01

    We assessed the association between a glutamine repeat polymorphism in AIB1 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study (464 cases, 624 controls) nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. We observed no association between AIB1 genotype and breast cancer incidence, or specific tumor characteristics. These findings suggest that AIB1 repeat genotype does not influence postmenopausal breast cancer risk among Caucasian women in the general population. A causal association between endogenous and exogenous estrogens and breast cancer has been established. Steroid hormones regulate the expression of proteins that are involved in breast cell proliferation and development after binding to their respective steroid hormone receptors. Coactivator and corepressor proteins have recently been identified that interact with steroid hormone receptors and modulate transcriptional activation [1]. AIB1 (amplified in breast 1) is a member of the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family that interacts with estrogen receptor (ER)α in a ligand-dependent manner, and increases estrogen-dependent transcription [2]. Amplification and overexpression of AIB1 has been observed in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines and in breast tumors [2,3]. A polymorphic stretch of glutamine amino acids, with unknown biologic function, has recently been described in the carboxyl-terminal region of AIB1 [4]. Among women with germline BRCA1 mutations, significant positive associations were observed between AIB1 alleles with 26 or fewer glutamine repeats and breast cancer risk [5] To establish whether AIB1 repeat alleles are associated with breast cancer risk and specific tumor characteristics among Caucasian women. We evaluated associations prospectively between AIB1 alleles and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study using a nested case-control design. The Nurses' Health Study was initiated in 1976, when 121 700 US-registered nurses between the ages of 30 and 55 years returned an

  13. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...... per albumin molecule, and binding of the first sulfamethizole molecule is possibly reduced as well. Diazepam binds with equal affinity to the fetal and adult proteins. Among the two main albumin drug-binding functions, for warfarin and diazepam, the former is thus compromised in the newborn infant...

  14. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerker, D.J.; Sweet, I.R.; Baskin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white [extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius] muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding

  15. Insulin binding to individual rat skeletal muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerker, D.J.; Sweet, I.R.; Baskin, D.G. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Studies of insulin binding to skeletal muscle, performed using sarcolemmal membrane preparations or whole muscle incubations of mixed muscle or typical red (soleus, psoas) or white (extensor digitorum longus (EDL), gastrocnemius) muscle, have suggested that red muscle binds more insulin than white muscle. We have evaluated this hypothesis using cryostat sections of unfixed tissue to measure insulin binding in a broad range of skeletal muscles; many were of similar fiber-type profiles. Insulin binding per square millimeter of skeletal muscle slice was measured by autoradiography and computer-assisted densitometry. We found a 4.5-fold range in specific insulin tracer binding, with heart and predominantly slow-twitch oxidative muscles (SO) at the high end and the predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) muscles at the low end of the range. This pattern reflects insulin sensitivity. Evaluation of displacement curves for insulin binding yielded linear Scatchard plots. The dissociation constants varied over a ninefold range (0.26-2.06 nM). Binding capacity varied from 12.2 to 82.7 fmol/mm2. Neither binding parameter was correlated with fiber type or insulin sensitivity; e.g., among three muscles of similar fiber-type profile, the EDL had high numbers of low-affinity binding sites, whereas the quadriceps had low numbers of high-affinity sites. In summary, considerable heterogeneity in insulin binding was found among hindlimb muscles of the rat, which can be attributed to heterogeneity in binding affinities and the numbers of binding sites. It can be concluded that a given fiber type is not uniquely associated with a set of insulin binding parameters that result in high or low binding.

  16. Children's memories of experienced and nonexperienced events following repeated interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Schaaf, Jennifer M

    2002-12-01

    The present study compared 3- and 5-year-olds' reports of a true or false play interaction following repeated interviews. Final interviews were conducted either by the same researcher or by a new researcher. Age-related improvements in performance were evident. Also, 3-year-olds questioned repeatedly about an entirely false event made more errors in response to specific questions than 3-year-olds questioned repeatedly about false details of a true event. Five-year-olds who were questioned about the false event, however, were particularly accurate when answering questions about never-experienced body touch. Interviewer familiarity was associated with decreases in the amount of narrative detail 5-year-olds provided in free-recall and with increases in 3-year-olds' accuracy in response to direct questions. Both errors and response latency on a cognitive matching task were related to children's suggestibility.

  17. A dynamic trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion in the DMD gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekou, Kyriaki; Sofocleous, Christalena; Papadimas, George; Petichakis, Dimitris; Svingou, Maria; Pons, Roser-Maria; Vorgia, Pelagia; Gika, Artemis; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia; Kanavakis, Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Dystrophinopathies are allelic X-linked myopathies caused by large deletions/duplications or small lesions along the DMD gene. An unexpected dynamic trinucleotide (GAA) expansion, ranging from ∼59 to 82 pure GAA repeats, within the DMD intron 62, was revealed to segregate through three family generations. From the pedigree, two female patients were referred for DMD investigation due to chronic myopathy and a muscle biopsy compatible with dystrophinopathy. As the size of the GAA repeat is limited to 11-33 within the general population our findings may provide a novel insight towards a Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion. Whether this TNR has an impact on the reported phenotype remains to be resolved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...... features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...

  19. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1979-01-01

    after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments...... accounted for 2.6% of the labelled C in the soil amended with one repeated addition, and 1.0% in the soil amended with 4 repeated additions. The increase in the evolution of labelled CO2-C caused by the stress treatments ranged from 0.3 to 1.7% of the labelled C in the soil: air-drying had the least effect...

  20. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, A.; Chettri, J. K.

    2017-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  1. Secondary immune response of rainbow trout following repeated immersion vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, R. M.; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection...... vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri. It was found that rainbow trout...... does not raise a classical secondary response following repeated immersion vaccination. Serum antibody titres were merely slightly increased even after three immunizations, using 30-s immersion into a bacterin consisting of formalin-inactivated Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotypes 1 and 2), performed over...

  2. Structural basis underlying CAC RNA recognition by the RRM domain of dimeric RNA-binding protein RBPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplova, Marianna; Farazi, Thalia A.; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-09-08

    Abstract

    RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (designated RBPMS) is a higher vertebrate mRNA-binding protein containing a single RNA recognition motif (RRM). RBPMS has been shown to be involved in mRNA transport, localization and stability, with key roles in axon guidance, smooth muscle plasticity, as well as regulation of cancer cell proliferation and migration. We report on structure-function studies of the RRM domain of RBPMS bound to a CAC-containing single-stranded RNA. These results provide insights into potential topologies of complexes formed by the RBPMS RRM domain and the tandem CAC repeat binding sites as detected by photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation. These studies establish that the RRM domain of RBPMS forms a symmetrical dimer in the free state, with each monomer binding sequence-specifically to all three nucleotides of a CAC segment in the RNA bound state. Structure-guided mutations within the dimerization and RNA-binding interfaces of RBPMS RRM on RNA complex formation resulted in both disruption of dimerization and a decrease in RNA-binding affinity as observed by size exclusion chromatography and isothermal titration calorimetry. As anticipated from biochemical binding studies, over-expression of dimerization or RNA-binding mutants of Flag-HA-tagged RBPMS were no longer able to track with stress granules in HEK293 cells, thereby documenting the deleterious effects of such mutationsin vivo.

  3. Human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H; Nielsen, B B

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin (TN) and the C-type lectin CRD of this protein (TN3) have been crystallized. TN3 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(2)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = b = 64.0, c = 75.7 A and with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals...... to at least 2.5 A. A full data set has been collected to 3.0 A. The asymmetric unit contains one monomer of TN. Molecular replacement solutions for TN3 and TN have been obtained using the structure of the C-type lectin CRD of rat mannose-binding protein as search model. The rhombohedral space group indicates...... diffract X-rays to at least 2.0 A resolution. A complete diffraction data set has been collected to 2.7 A resolution. The crystals of TN, obtained by the vapour-diffusion reverse salting-in method at 280 K, are rhombohedral, space group R3, with the hexagonal axes a = b = 89.1, c = 75.8 A, and diffract...

  4. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kevin P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards and lake systems (for example, African cichlids. Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships.

  5. Repeat: a framework to assess empirical reproducibility in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie D. McIntosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproducibility of research is essential to rigorous science, yet significant concerns of the reliability and verifiability of biomedical research have been recently highlighted. Ongoing efforts across several domains of science and policy are working to clarify the fundamental characteristics of reproducibility and to enhance the transparency and accessibility of research. Methods The aim of the proceeding work is to develop an assessment tool operationalizing key concepts of research transparency in the biomedical domain, specifically for secondary biomedical data research using electronic health record data. The tool (RepeAT was developed through a multi-phase process that involved coding and extracting recommendations and practices for improving reproducibility from publications and reports across the biomedical and statistical sciences, field testing the instrument, and refining variables. Results RepeAT includes 119 unique variables grouped into five categories (research design and aim, database and data collection methods, data mining and data cleaning, data analysis, data sharing and documentation. Preliminary results in manually processing 40 scientific manuscripts indicate components of the proposed framework with strong inter-rater reliability, as well as directions for further research and refinement of RepeAT. Conclusions The use of RepeAT may allow the biomedical community to have a better understanding of the current practices of research transparency and accessibility among principal investigators. Common adoption of RepeAT may improve reporting of research practices and the availability of research outputs. Additionally, use of RepeAT will facilitate comparisons of research transparency and accessibility across domains and institutions.

  6. Indications and outcome of repeat penetrating keratoplasty in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiyal Jeewan S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat penetrating keratoplasty is quite often required as there is high chance of failure of the primary graft particularly in the developing world. We planned a study to analyze the indications and outcome of repeat penetrating keratoplasty in a tertiary care centre in India. Methods A retrospective analysis of all the patients who underwent repeat penetrating keratoplasty, between January 1999 and December 2001 was performed. The parameters evaluated were indication for the primary penetrating keratoplasty, causes of failure of the previous graft, and final visual outcome and clarity of the repeat corneal grafts. Results Of fifty-three eyes of 50 patients with repeat penetrating keratoplasty (three patients underwent bilateral corneal regrafts, 37 eyes had undergone one regraft each, 14 eyes two regrafts and two eyes had three regrafts. The follow-up of the patients ranged from one to three years. The most common primary etiologic diagnosis was vascularized corneal scars (66%, of which the scars related to infection were most common (68.5%. Twenty-eight regrafts (52.8% remained clear at a mean follow-up of 1.54 ± 0.68 years, of which 25 were single regrafts (89.3%. The commonest cause of failure of regraft was infection to the corneal graft (recurrence of herpetic infection in 9 eyes and perforated graft ulcers in 3 eyes. Three (18.6% of the 16 eyes with multiple corneal regrafts achieved a BCVA of 6/60. Overall, only five eyes (all with single regraft achieved a BCVA of 6/18 or better at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Graft infection is the leading cause of failure of repeat keratoplasty in this part of the world. Prognosis for visual recovery and graft survival is worse in eyes undergoing multiple regrafts.

  7. Gene conversion homogenizes the CMT1A paralogous repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurles Matthew E

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-allelic homologous recombination between paralogous repeats is increasingly being recognized as a major mechanism causing both pathogenic microdeletions and duplications, and structural polymorphism in the human genome. It has recently been shown empirically that gene conversion can homogenize such repeats, resulting in longer stretches of absolute identity that may increase the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination. Results Here, a statistical test to detect gene conversion between pairs of non-coding sequences is presented. It is shown that the 24 kb Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A paralogous repeats (CMT1A-REPs exhibit the imprint of gene conversion processes whilst control orthologous sequences do not. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations of the evolutionary divergence of the CMT1A-REPs, incorporating two alternative models for gene conversion, generate repeats that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed repeats. Bounds are placed on the rate of these conversion processes, with central values of 1.3 × 10-4 and 5.1 × 10-5 per generation for the alternative models. Conclusions This evidence presented here suggests that gene conversion may have played an important role in the evolution of the CMT1A-REP paralogous repeats. The rates of these processes are such that it is probable that homogenized CMT1A-REPs are polymorphic within modern populations. Gene conversion processes are similarly likely to play an important role in the evolution of other segmental duplications and may influence the rate of non-allelic homologous recombination between them.

  8. Preferential reduction of binding of 125I-iodopindolol to beta-1 adrenoceptors in the amygdala of rat after antidepressant treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordway, G.A.; Gambarana, C.; Tejani-Butt, S.M.; Areso, P.; Hauptmann, M.; Frazer, A.

    1991-01-01

    This study utilized quantitative receptor autoradiography to examine the effects of repeated administration of antidepressants to rats on the binding of the beta adrenoceptor antagonist, 125 I-iodopindolol ( 125 I-IPIN) to either beta-1 or beta-2 adrenoceptors in various regions of brain. Antidepressants were selected to represent various chemical and pharmacological classes including tricyclic compounds (desipramine and protriptyline), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (clorgyline, phenelzine and tranylcypromine), atypical antidepressants (mianserin and trazodone) and selective inhibitors of the uptake of serotonin (citalopram and sertraline). Additionally, rats were treated with various psychotropic drugs that lack antidepressant efficacy (cocaine, deprenyl, diazepam and haloperidol). Repeated treatment of rats with desipramine, protriptyline, clorgyline, phenelzine, tranylcypromine or mianserin reduced the binding of 125 I-IPIN to beta-1 adrenoceptors in many brain areas. Only in the basolateral and lateral nuclei of the amygdala did all six of these antidepressants significantly reduce 125 I-IPIN binding to beta-1 adrenoceptors. In these amygdaloid nuclei, the magnitude of the reduction in the binding of 125 I-IPIN caused by each of these drugs was comparable to or greater than the reduction in binding produced in any other region of brain. Reductions of binding of 125 I-IPIN after antidepressant treatments were not consistently observed in the cortex, the area of brain examined most often in homogenate binding studies. Only the monoamine oxidase inhibitors caused reductions in the binding of 125 I-IPIN to beta-2 adrenoceptors, and this effect was generally localized to the amygdala and hypothalamus

  9. Cumulative effects of repeated subthreshold doses of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, J.A.; Zaynoun, S.; Anderson, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    For fair Caucasian skin, the minimal delayed erythema dose (MED) 24 hr after exposure to broadband UVA is about 1200 times greater than the MED of broadband UVB, for both single and multiple daily exposures. Repeated daily exposure to doses less than MED results in cumulative effects manifest by gradual lowering of the daily dose threshold for delayed erythema and pigmentation induced by UVA or UVB. At threshold doses, UVB is more erythemogenic than melanogenic; the opposite is true for UVA. Repeated daily UVA exposure greatly enhances melanogenesis such that markedly suberythemogenic exposure doses of UVA result in true melanogenesis

  10. Layered Architectures for Quantum Computers and Quantum Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan C.

    This chapter examines how to organize quantum computers and repeaters using a systematic framework known as layered architecture, where machine control is organized in layers associated with specialized tasks. The framework is flexible and could be used for analysis and comparison of quantum information systems. To demonstrate the design principles in practice, we develop architectures for quantum computers and quantum repeaters based on optically controlled quantum dots, showing how a myriad of technologies must operate synchronously to achieve fault-tolerance. Optical control makes information processing in this system very fast, scalable to large problem sizes, and extendable to quantum communication.

  11. Distinct Prion Domain Sequences Ensure Efficient Amyloid Propagation by Promoting Chaperone Binding or Processing In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Langlois

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prions are a group of proteins that can adopt a spectrum of metastable conformations in vivo. These alternative states change protein function and are self-replicating and transmissible, creating protein-based elements of inheritance and infectivity. Prion conformational flexibility is encoded in the amino acid composition and sequence of the protein, which dictate its ability not only to form an ordered aggregate known as amyloid but also to maintain and transmit this structure in vivo. But, while we can effectively predict amyloid propensity in vitro, the mechanism by which sequence elements promote prion propagation in vivo remains unclear. In yeast, propagation of the [PSI+] prion, the amyloid form of the Sup35 protein, has been linked to an oligopeptide repeat region of the protein. Here, we demonstrate that this region is composed of separable functional elements, the repeats themselves and a repeat proximal region, which are both required for efficient prion propagation. Changes in the numbers of these elements do not alter the physical properties of Sup35 amyloid, but their presence promotes amyloid fragmentation, and therefore maintenance, by molecular chaperones. Rather than acting redundantly, our observations suggest that these sequence elements make complementary contributions to prion propagation, with the repeat proximal region promoting chaperone binding to and the repeats promoting chaperone processing of Sup35 amyloid.

  12. Binding characteristics of swine erythrocyte insulin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieberg, G.; Bryan, G.S.; Sartin, J.L.; Williams, J.C.; Prince, T.J.; Kemppainen, R.J.

    1985-09-01

    Crossbred gilts had 8.8 +/- 1.1% maximum binding of ( SVI)insulin to insulin receptors on erythrocytes. The number of insulin-binding sites per cell was 137 +/- 19, with a binding affinity ranging from 7.4 X 10(7)M-1 to 11.2 X 10(7)M-1 and mean of 8.8 X 10(7)M-1. Pregnant sows had a significant increase in maximum binding due to an increase in number of receptor sites per cell. Lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet and a low-fiber diet did not develop a significant difference in maximum binding of insulin. Sows fed the low-fiber diet had a significantly higher number of binding sites and a significantly lower binding affinity than did sows fed a high-fiber diet. Receptor-binding affinity was lower in the low-fiber diet group than in cycling gilts, whereas data from sows fed the high-fiber diet did not differ from data for cycling gilts. Data from this study indicated that insulin receptors of swine erythrocytes have binding characteristics similar to those in other species. Pregnancy and diet will alter insulin receptor binding in swine.

  13. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded LANA recruits topoisomerase IIβ for latent DNA replication of the terminal repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Pravinkumar; McDowell, Maria E; McGuinness, James; Salas, Ruth; Rumjahn, Sharif M; Verma, Subhash C

    2012-09-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a major role in maintaining latency and is critical for the perpetual segregation of viral episomes to the progeny nuclei of newly divided cells. LANA binds to KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA and tethers the viral episomes to host chromosomes through the association of chromatin-bound cellular proteins. TR elements serve as potential origin sites of KSHV replication and have been shown to play important roles in latent DNA replication and transcription of adjacent genes. Affinity chromatography and proteomics analysis using KSHV TR DNA and the LANA binding site as the affinity column identified topoisomerase IIβ (TopoIIβ) as a LANA-interacting protein. Here, we show that TopoIIβ forms complexes with LANA that colocalize as punctuate bodies in the nucleus of KSHV-infected cells. The specific TopoIIβ binding region of LANA has been identified to its N terminus and the first 32 amino acid residues containing the nucleosome-binding region crucial for binding. Moreover, this region could also act as a dominant negative to disrupt association of TopoIIβ with LANA. TopoIIβ plays an important role in LANA-dependent latent DNA replication, as addition of ellipticine, a selective inhibitor of TopoII, negatively regulated replication mediated by the TR. DNA break labeling and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using biotin-16-dUTP and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase showed that TopoIIβ mediates a transient DNA break on viral DNA. These studies confirm that LANA recruits TopoIIβ at the origins of latent replication to unwind the DNA for replication.

  14. Short consensus repeat domains extend the E-selectin structure in order to grab cells out of flow

    KAUST Repository

    Aleisa, Fajr A

    2017-01-08

    Selectins are key adhesion molecules responsible for initiating a multistep process that leads a cell out of the blood circulation and into a tissue or organ. They are composed of an N-terminal extracellular C-type lectin like domain, followed by an Endothelial Growth Factor like domain (EGF), a defined number of short consensus repeats SCR (also called “sushi” domains), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. The adhesion of cells (expressing ligands) to the endothelium (expressing the selection i.e., E-selectin) occurs through the interaction between the lectin domain of selectins and sLeX presenting ligands. Structural/function studies to date have mainly focused on investigating the influence of the lectin domain of E-selectin on its ability to bind its ligands while other domains received less atention. We prepared a number of different recombinant E-selectin proteins with changes in the SCR units. Specifically we generated wild-type E-selectin proteins as monomeric or dimeric structures, mutant proteins with varied numbers of SCRs as well as proteins where strategic residues were mutated to change the conformation of the selectin. Using a novel real time immunoprecipitation surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based in vitro binding study developed in our lab, the interaction of recombinant E-selectin proteins with immunoprecipitated endogenous ligands (i.e. CD44) captured on a CM-5 chip was assessed. These studies provided quantitative binding kinetics with on and off rates of selectin-ligand interactions and suggested that robust binding is dependent on the presence of the SCRs and oligomerization. These results provide significant implications on the functional mechanism of E-selectin binding to its ligands.

  15. USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection: Kanab Creek, southern Utah and northern Arizona, 1872-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection (‘Collection’), formerly named the Desert Laboratory Repeat Photography Collection, is now housed by the Southwest...

  16. Applications of Engineered DNA-Binding Molecules Such as TAL Proteins and the CRISPR/Cas System in Biology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitsugu Fujita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered DNA-binding molecules such as transcription activator-like effector (TAL or TALE proteins and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas (CRISPR/Cas system have been used extensively for genome editing in cells of various types and species. The sequence-specific DNA-binding activities of these engineered DNA-binding molecules can also be utilized for other purposes, such as transcriptional activation, transcriptional repression, chromatin modification, visualization of genomic regions, and isolation of chromatin in a locus-specific manner. In this review, we describe applications of these engineered DNA-binding molecules for biological purposes other than genome editing.

  17. Actin binding proteins and spermiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruk, Dolores D

    2011-01-01

    Drebrin E, an actin-binding protein lacking intrinsic activity in the regulation of actin dynamics (e.g., polymerization, capping, nucleation, branching, cross-linking, bundling and severing), is known to recruit actin regulatory proteins to a specific cellular site. Herein, we critically evaluate recent findings in the field which illustrate that drebrin E works together with two other actin-binding proteins, namely Arp3 (actin-related protein 3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that simultaneously controls actin nucleation for polymerization and branching of actin filaments) and Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 that controls capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments, as well as actin filament bundling) to regulate the homeostasis of F-actin filament bundles at the ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific atypical adherens junction (AJ) in the seminiferous epithelium. This is mediated by the strict temporal and spatial expression of these three actin-binding proteins at the apical and basal ES at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (step 8–19) and Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, respectively, during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. In this Commentary, we put forth a possible model by which drebrin E may be acting as a platform upon which proteins (e.g., Arp3) that are needed to alter the conformation of actin filament bundles at the ES can be recruited to the site, thus facilitating changes in cell shape and cell position in the epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. In short, drebrin E may be acting as a “logistic” distribution center to manage different regulatory proteins at the apical ES, thereby regulating the dynamics of actin filament bundles and modulating the plasticity of the apical ES. This would allow adhesion to be altered continuously throughout the epithelial cycle to accommodate spermatid movement in the seminiferous epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. We also

  18. Effects of repeated MDMA administration on the motivation for palatable food and extinction of operant responding in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Viñals, Xavier; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces mainly dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice. However, the consequences of this exposure on the behavioural responses related to natural reinforcing stimuli are still largely unknown. We examined whether repeated treatment with neurotoxic and non-neurotoxic doses of MDMA could exert acute and long-lasting effects on the motivation of mice to obtain a highly palatable food and on the extinction and reinstatement of food-seeking behaviour. Food-deprived mice were first trained to acquire stable responding on fixed ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement and then treated twice daily with saline, 3 or 30 mg/kg MDMA during four consecutive days. The high dose of MDMA impaired instrumental responding on the first and third day of treatment, whilst no residual effects were apparent on FR5 responding at any of the doses studied 24 h after treatment withdrawal. Breaking points were decreased in mice treated with both doses of MDMA. This decrease in motivation for palatable food was not due to unspecific locomotor or coordination deficits. A resistance to extinction was observed only with the highest dose of MDMA, whilst all mice showed similar reinstatement of palatable food-seeking behaviour irrespective of previous treatment. Autoradiography of [3H]-mazindol binding revealed a decrease in striatal dopamine transporter binding only in mice treated with the highest dose of MDMA. This study demonstrates that repeated treatment with MDMA decreases the incentive motivation for a palatable food reward and that long-lasting MDMA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity increases the resistance to extinction of responding in the absence of reward.

  19. Unusually effective microRNA targeting within repeat-rich coding regions of mammalian mRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall-Levin, Michael; Rissland, Olivia S.; Johnston, Wendy K.; Perrimon, Norbert; Bartel, David P.; Berger, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous biological processes by base-pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), primarily through sites in 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), to direct the repression of these targets. Although miRNAs have sometimes been observed to target genes through sites in open reading frames (ORFs), large-scale studies have shown such targeting to be generally less effective than 3′ UTR targeting. Here, we show that several miRNAs each target significant groups of genes through multiple sites within their coding regions. This ORF targeting, which mediates both predictable and effective repression, arises from highly repeated sequences containing miRNA target sites. We show that such sequence repeats largely arise through evolutionary duplications and occur particularly frequently within families of paralogous C2H2 zinc-finger genes, suggesting the potential for their coordinated regulation. Examples of ORFs targeted by miR-181 include both the well-known tumor suppressor RB1 and RBAK, encoding a C2H2 zinc-finger protein and transcriptional binding partner of RB1. Our results indicate a function for repeat-rich coding sequences in mediating post-transcriptional regulation and reveal circumstances in which miRNA-mediated repression through ORF sites can be reliably predicted. PMID:21685129

  20. Molecular identification and characterization of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene cluster in Taylorella equigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yasushi; Hayashi, Kyohei; Nakajima, Takuya; Kagawa, Shizuko; Tazumi, Akihiro; Moore, John E; Matsuda, Motoo

    2013-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), of approximately 10,000 base pairs (bp) in length, were shown to occur in the Japanese Taylorella equigenitalis strain, EQ59. The locus was composed of the putative CRISPRs-associated with 5 (cas5), RAMP csd1, csd2, recB, cas1, a leader region, 13 CRISPR consensus sequence repeats (each 32 bp; 5'-TCAGCCACGTTCGCGTGGCTGTGTGTTTAAAG-3'). These were in turn separated by 12 non repetitive unique spacer regions of similar length. In addition, a leader region, a transposase/IS protein, a leader region, and cas3 were also seen. All seven putative open reading frames carry their ribosome binding sites. Promoter consensus sequences at the -35 and -10 regions and putative intrinsic ρ-independent transcription terminator regions also occurred. A possible long overlap of 170 bp in length occurred between the recB and cas1 loci. Positive reverse transcription PCR signals of cas5, RAMP csd1, csd2-recB/cas1, and cas3 were generated. A putative secondary structure of the CRISPR consensus repeats was constructed. Following this, CRISPR results of the T. equigenitalis EQ59 isolate were subsequently compared with those from the Taylorella asinigenitalis MCE3 isolate.

  1. Mitigation of prion infectivity and conversion capacity by a simulated natural process--repeated cycles of drying and wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Eckland, Thomas; Telling, Glenn; Bartz, Jason; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    Prions enter the environment from infected hosts, bind to a wide range of soil and soil minerals, and remain highly infectious. Environmental sources of prions almost certainly contribute to the transmission of chronic wasting disease in cervids and scrapie in sheep and goats. While much is known about the introduction of prions into the environment and their interaction with soil, relatively little is known about prion degradation and inactivation by natural environmental processes. In this study, we examined the effect of repeated cycles of drying and wetting on prion fitness and determined that 10 cycles of repeated drying and wetting could reduce PrP(Sc) abundance, PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period of disease. Importantly, prions bound to soil were more susceptible to inactivation by repeated cycles of drying and wetting compared to unbound prions, a result which may be due to conformational changes in soil-bound PrP(Sc) or consolidation of the bonding between PrP(Sc) and soil. This novel finding demonstrates that naturally-occurring environmental process can degrade prions.

  2. Synthetic LPS-Binding Polymer Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tian

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the principal components of most gram-negative bacteria's outer membrane, is a type of contaminant that can be frequently found in recombinant DNA products. Because of its strong and even lethal biological effects, selective LPS removal from bioproducts solution is of particular importance in the pharmaceutical and health care industries. In this thesis, for the first time, a proof-of-concept study on preparing LPS-binding hydrogel-like NPs through facile one-step free-radical polymerization was presented. With the incorporation of various hydrophobic (TBAm), cationic (APM, GUA) monomers and cross-linkers (BIS, PEG), a small library of NPs was constructed. Their FITC-LPS binding behaviors were investigated and compared with those of commercially available LPS-binding products. Moreover, the LPS binding selectivity of the NPs was also explored by studying the NPs-BSA interactions. The results showed that all NPs obtained generally presented higher FITC-LPS binding capacity in lower ionic strength buffer than higher ionic strength. However, unlike commercial poly-lysine cellulose and polymyxin B agarose beads' nearly linear increase of FITC-LPS binding with particle concentration, NPs exhibited serious aggregation and the binding quickly saturated or even decreased at high particle concentration. Among various types of NPs, higher FITC-LPS binding capacity was observed for those containing more hydrophobic monomers (TBAm). However, surprisingly, more cationic NPs with higher content of APM exhibited decreased FITC-LPS binding in high ionic strength conditions. Additionally, when new cationic monomer and cross-linker, GUA and PEG, were applied to replace APM and BIS, the obtained NPs showed improved FITC-LPS binding capacity at low NP concentration. But compared with APM- and BIS-containing NPs, the FITC-LPS binding capacity of GUA- and PEG-containing NPs saturated earlier. To investigate the NPs' binding to proteins, we tested the NPs

  3. Repeatability estimates of growth traits in arbor acre broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) Arbor Acre broiler chickens fed four different diets containing 0 (control), 4, 6, and 8% (unconventional) probiotics enhanced Moringa Oleifera seed meal (PEMOSM) were used to estimate repeatability (R) of growth traits during the starter (0-4 weeks) and finisher phases (5-7weeks). The traits considered ...

  4. Benefits of Repeated Book Readings in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Ceurremans, Josefa; Horst, Jessica S.

    2018-01-01

    In this pilot study, we ask whether repeated storybook reading is also beneficial for word learning in children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI). We compared 3-year-old German learning children diagnosed with SLI to typically developing children matched on age and socioeconomic status (SES). One week later, children with SLI…

  5. Analysis of B-genome derived simple sequence repeat (SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the genetic variability between 40 Musa genotypes maintained at the Musa germplasm collection of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan using nine B-genome derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The nine primers produced reproducible and discrete ...

  6. On Entropy Production of Repeated Quantum Measurements I. General Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, T.; Jakšić, V.; Pautrat, Y.; Pillet, C.-A.

    2018-01-01

    We study entropy production (EP) in processes involving repeated quantum measurements of finite quantum systems. Adopting a dynamical system approach, we develop a thermodynamic formalism for the EP and study fine aspects of irreversibility related to the hypothesis testing of the arrow of time. Under a suitable chaoticity assumption, we establish a Large Deviation Principle and a Fluctuation Theorem for the EP.

  7. Simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based genetic variability among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare if simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers could correctly identify peanut genotypes with difference in specific leaf weight (SLW) and relative water content (RWC). Four peanut genotypes and two water regimes (FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were arranged in factorial ...

  8. Complexity of repeated game model in electric power triopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Junhai; Ji Weizhuo

    2009-01-01

    According to the repeated game model in electric power duopoly, a triopoly outputs game model is presented. On the basis of some hypotheses, the dynamic characters are demonstrated with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The results show that the triopoly model is a chaotic system and it is better than the duopoly model in applications.

  9. Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in Turkish population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    RESEARCH NOTE. Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in Turkish population. ÜNER ÜLKÜER 1 * , MELAHAT KURTULU Ş -ÜLKÜER 2 , CÜNEYT ELMA 1 ,. TAHS İ N KES İ C İ 3 and SEVDA MENEV Ş E 4. 1General Directory of Security, Criminal Police Laboratories, Biyoloji Bölümü,. Aniteppe, Ankara, Turkey.

  10. The breathing of webs under repeated partial edge loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie; Urushadze, Shota

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2012), s. 463-468 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Steel structures and bridges. Podbanske, 26.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1340 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : slender webs * breathing * fatigue limit state * design * repeated partial edge loading Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  11. Development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers were developed through data mining of 3,803 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) previously published. A total of 144 di- to penta-type SSRs were identified and they were screened for polymorphism between two turnip cultivars, 'Tsuda' and 'Yurugi Akamaru'. Out of 90 EST-SSRs for ...

  12. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive ( Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits. ... The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, ...

  13. Repfinder: Finding approximately repeated scene elements for image editing

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming-Ming

    2010-07-26

    Repeated elements are ubiquitous and abundant in both manmade and natural scenes. Editing such images while preserving the repetitions and their relations is nontrivial due to overlap, missing parts, deformation across instances, illumination variation, etc. Manually enforcing such relations is laborious and error-prone. We propose a novel framework where user scribbles are used to guide detection and extraction of such repeated elements. Our detection process, which is based on a novel boundary band method, robustly extracts the repetitions along with their deformations. The algorithm only considers the shape of the elements, and ignores similarity based on color, texture, etc. We then use topological sorting to establish a partial depth ordering of overlapping repeated instances. Missing parts on occluded instances are completed using information from other instances. The extracted repeated instances can then be seamlessly edited and manipulated for a variety of high level tasks that are otherwise difficult to perform. We demonstrate the versatility of our framework on a large set of inputs of varying complexity, showing applications to image rearrangement, edit transfer, deformation propagation, and instance replacement. © 2010 ACM.

  14. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  15. Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...

  16. Beyond Repeat after Me: Teaching Pronunciation to English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Marla Tritch

    2016-01-01

    This engaging text clearly presents essential concepts that teachers need to guide their students toward clearly intelligible pronunciation and more effective communication skills. Based on a sound theoretical background, the book presents practical, imaginative ways to teach and practice pronunciation that go beyond simple "Repeat after…

  17. Monitoring selective logging in western Amazonia with repeat lidar flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Andersen; S.E. Reutebuch; R.J. McGaughey; M.V.N. d' Oliveira; M. Keller

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the use of repeat flight, airborne laser scanning data (lidar) for estimating changes associated with low-impact selective logging (approx. 10-15 m3 ha−1 = 5-7% of total standing volume harvested) in natural tropical forests in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, we investigated change in area...

  18. The repeatability of reproduction rate in the Tygerboek Merino Dock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The repeatability of reproduction rate at 2 years or up to 3 years of age was investigated by regression methods considering subsequent reproduction ... low to supply replacement requirements. Differences in the subsequent rearing ... estimates obtained from the regression method can also be used to estimate gains in ...

  19. The repeatability of reproduction rate in the Tygerboek Merino Dock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The repeatability of reproduction rate at 2 years or up to 3 years of age was investigated by regression methods considering subsequent reproduction ... would not improve Lb/Em in the current flock sUbstantially, whereas the proportion of ewes bearing multiples at 2 years was too low to supply replacement requirements.

  20. Repeated Measures Analysis of Means in Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, James; Ackerman, Lee

    1985-01-01

    Notes assumptions for analyzing treatment means in repeated measures designs. The traditional F test has been shown to have limitations, given violations of the assumption of sphericity. This assumption is probably infrequently satisfied in clinical applications. Discusses analytic alternatives based on a three-step Geisser-Greenhouse approach.…