WorldWideScience

Sample records for binding protein encoded

  1. IL-18 binding and inhibition of interferon γ induction by human poxvirus-encoded proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Yan; Moss, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a common, human poxvirus that causes small papular skin lesions that persist for long periods without signs of inflammation. Previous studies revealed that MCV encodes a family of proteins with homology to mammalian IL-18 binding proteins. IL-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that induces synthesis of interferon γ, activates NK cells, and is required for a T-lymphocyte helper type 1 response. We expressed and purified the proteins encoded by the MC53L and M...

  2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens virE operon encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A

    1988-05-01

    The virulence (vir) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid are essential for transformation of plant cells. Overproduction of a virE-encoded gene product in Escherichia coli was achieved by construction of an operon fusion with the E. coli tryptophan (trp) operon. The virE2 gene product in E. coli partitioned into the insoluble membrane fraction. The protein was solubilized by treatment with 4 M urea at 0 degree C. DNA-protein binding experiments showed that a strong single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding activity was present in protein fractions containing the virE2 gene product. The binding was highly specific with little or no binding observed with either double-stranded DNA or ssRNA. No significant binding to Ti plasmid DNA sequences was observed. Protein blotting studies indicated that the ssDNA-binding activity was associated with the 68-kDa virE2 polypeptide. PMID:2452439

  3. Identification of Genes Encoding the Folate- and Thiamine-Binding Membrane Proteins in Firmicutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Erkens, Guus B.; Slotboom, Dirk J.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Naponelli, Valeria; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Genes encoding high-affinity folate- and thiamine-binding proteins (FolT, ThiT) were identified in the Lactobacillus casei genome, expressed in Lactococcus lactis, and functionally characterized. Similar genes occur in many Firmicutes, sometimes next to folate or thiamine salvage genes. Most thiT ge

  4. EWS and FUS bind a subset of transcribed genes encoding proteins enriched in RNA regulatory functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Friis, Jenny Blechingberg; Fernandes, Ana Miguel;

    2015-01-01

    IP-seq). Our results show that FUS and EWS bind to a subset of actively transcribed genes, that binding often is downstream the poly(A)-signal, and that binding overlaps with RNA polymerase II. Functional examinations of selected target genes identified that FUS and EWS can regulate gene expression...... at different levels. Gene Ontology analyses showed that FUS and EWS target genes preferentially encode proteins involved in regulatory processes at the RNA level. Conclusions The presented results yield new insights into gene interactions of EWS and FUS and have identified a set of FUS and EWS target genes...

  5. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  6. Resistance to β-Lactams in Neisseria ssp Due to Chromosomally Encoded Penicillin-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Zapun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are human pathogens that cause a variety of life-threatening systemic and local infections, such as meningitis or gonorrhoea. The treatment of such infection is becoming more difficult due to antibiotic resistance. The focus of this review is on the mechanism of reduced susceptibility to penicillin and other β-lactams due to the modification of chromosomally encoded penicillin-binding proteins (PBP, in particular PBP2 encoded by the penA gene. The variety of penA alleles and resulting variant PBP2 enzymes is described and the important amino acid substitutions are presented and discussed in a structural context.

  7. Isolation of osRACD gene encoding a small GTP-binding protein from rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using an improved version of mRNA differential display technology, we have obtained a differentially displayed fragment RDP-8. Homologous comparison indicated that the fragment RDP-8 has high homology with the gene encoding maize small GTP-binding protein. By screening cDNA library of the rice Nongken 58N pan icle using the newly obtained fragment RDP-8 as probe, we further found the full-length cDNA of osRACD gene that encodes a rice small GTP-binding protein. Asco mpared with maize RACD gene, the osRACD of rice shows remarkable homology in both nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence, 88% and 97% respectively. Evidence from RT-PCR study indicates that osRACD gene is related to photoperiod fertility conversion of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterility (PSGMS) rice.

  8. Characterization of two genes encoding distinct transferrin-binding proteins in different Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, G F; Klashinsky, S; Anderson, C.; Potter, A A; Willson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The gene encoding the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 transferrin-binding protein (tfbA) was cloned, and the carboxy-terminal 70% of the protein was expressed as an aggregate protein in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequences of the tfbA genes from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 7 (G.-F. Gerlach, C. Anderson, A. A. Potter, S. Klashinsky, and P. J. Willson, Infect. Immun. 60:892-898, 1992) and 1 were determined, and a comparison revealed that they had 65% sequence identity. The de...

  9. Chicken genome analysis reveals novel genes encoding biotin-binding proteins related to avidin family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Henri R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A chicken egg contains several biotin-binding proteins (BBPs, whose complete DNA and amino acid sequences are not known. In order to identify and characterise these genes and proteins we studied chicken cDNAs and genes available in the NCBI database and chicken genome database using the reported N-terminal amino acid sequences of chicken egg-yolk BBPs as search strings. Results Two separate hits showing significant homology for these N-terminal sequences were discovered. For one of these hits, the chromosomal location in the immediate proximity of the avidin gene family was found. Both of these hits encode proteins having high sequence similarity with avidin suggesting that chicken BBPs are paralogous to avidin family. In particular, almost all residues corresponding to biotin binding in avidin are conserved in these putative BBP proteins. One of the found DNA sequences, however, seems to encode a carboxy-terminal extension not present in avidin. Conclusion We describe here the predicted properties of the putative BBP genes and proteins. Our present observations link BBP genes together with avidin gene family and shed more light on the genetic arrangement and variability of this family. In addition, comparative modelling revealed the potential structural elements important for the functional and structural properties of the putative BBP proteins.

  10. Characterization of dacC, which encodes a new low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding protein in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Murray, T; Popham, D L;

    1998-01-01

    The pbp gene (renamed dacC), identified by the Bacillus subtilis genome sequencing project, encodes a putative 491-residue protein with sequence homology to low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding proteins. Use of a transcriptional dacC-lacZ fusion revealed that dacC expression (i) is initiated at...... sporulated identically to wild-type cells, and dacC and wild-type spores had the same heat resistance, cortex structure, and germination and outgrowth kinetics. Expression of dacC in Escherichia coli showed that this gene encodes an approximately 59-kDa membrane-associated penicillin-binding protein which is...

  11. Characterization of the single stranded DNA binding protein SsbB encoded in the Gonoccocal Genetic Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta Jain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae carry a Gonococcal Genetic Island which encodes a type IV secretion system involved in the secretion of ssDNA. We characterize the GGI-encoded ssDNA binding protein, SsbB. Close homologs of SsbB are located within a conserved genetic cluster found in genetic islands of different proteobacteria. This cluster encodes DNA-processing enzymes such as the ParA and ParB partitioning proteins, the TopB topoisomerase, and four conserved hypothetical proteins. The SsbB homologs found in these clusters form a family separated from other ssDNA binding proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In contrast to most other SSBs, SsbB did not complement the Escherichia coli ssb deletion mutant. Purified SsbB forms a stable tetramer. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and fluorescence titration assays, as well as atomic force microscopy demonstrate that SsbB binds ssDNA specifically with high affinity. SsbB binds single-stranded DNA with minimal binding frames for one or two SsbB tetramers of 15 and 70 nucleotides. The binding mode was independent of increasing Mg(2+ or NaCl concentrations. No role of SsbB in ssDNA secretion or DNA uptake could be identified, but SsbB strongly stimulated Topoisomerase I activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that these novel SsbBs play an unknown role in the maintenance of genetic islands.

  12. Cloning of a down-regulated gene encoding small GTP binding protein in hybrid wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yingyin; NI Zhongfu; CHEN Rongmin; WU Limin; SUN Qixin

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies showed that differential gene expression between wheat hybrids and their parents was responsible for the heterosis. To provide an insight into the molecular basis of wheat heterosis, one cDNA, designated TaRab, was identified from the cDNA library of wheat seedling leaves. The sequence comparison in GenBank revealed that TaRab is homologous to a group of genes encoding Rab-GTP binding protein. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that TaRab was expressed in all plant tissues examined,but at slightly higher level in leaves. Further analysis exhibited that TaRab displayed lower expression in hybrid than in its patents in both roots and leaves, which was in agreement with the original results of suppression subtractive hybridization. TaRab was located on chromosome 7B and C-7DS5-0.36 by in silico mapping. The relationship between differential expression of TaRab and the molecular basis of wheat heterosis was also discussed.

  13. Draft genome sequences of 18 oral streptococcus strains that encode amylase-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Haase, Elaine M; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    A number of commensal oral streptococcal species produce a heterogeneous group of proteins that mediate binding of salivary α-amylase. This interaction likely influences streptococcal colonization of the oral cavity. Here, we present draft genome sequences of several strains of oral streptococcal species that bind human salivary amylase. PMID:25999552

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of 18 Oral Streptococcus Strains That Encode Amylase-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Haase, Elaine M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of commensal oral streptococcal species produce a heterogeneous group of proteins that mediate binding of salivary α-amylase. This interaction likely influences streptococcal colonization of the oral cavity. Here, we present draft genome sequences of several strains of oral streptococcal species that bind human salivary amylase.

  15. The stem rust resistance gene Rpg5 encodes a protein with nucleotide-binding-site, leucine-rich, and protein kinase domains

    OpenAIRE

    Brueggeman, R.; Druka, A.; Nirmala, J.; Cavileer, T.; Drader, T.; Rostoks, N.; Mirlohi, A.; Bennypaul, H.; Gill, U; Kudrna, D.; Whitelaw, C.; Kilian, A.; Han, F.; Sun, Y; Gill, K.

    2008-01-01

    We isolated the barley stem rust resistance genes Rpg5 and rpg4 by map-based cloning. These genes are colocalized on a 70-kb genomic region that was delimited by recombination. The Rpg5 gene consists of an unusual structure encoding three typical plant disease resistance protein domains: nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat, and serine threonine protein kinase. The predicted RPG5 protein has two putative transmembrane sites possibly involved in membrane binding. The gene is expressed ...

  16. Obesity risk gene TMEM18 encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana M Jurvansuu

    Full Text Available Transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18 has previously been connected to cell migration and obesity. However, the molecular function of the protein has not yet been described. Here we show that TMEM18 localises to the nuclear membrane and binds to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The protein binds DNA with its positively charged C-terminus that contains also a nuclear localisation signal. Increase in the amount of TMEM18 in cells suppresses expression from a reporter vector with the TMEM18 target sequence. TMEM18 is a small protein of 140 residues and is predicted to be mostly alpha-helical with three transmembrane parts. As a consequence the DNA binding by TMEM18 would bring the chromatin very near to nuclear membrane. We speculate that this closed perinuclear localisation of TMEM18-bound DNA might repress transcription from it.

  17. Regulatory elements in the promoter region of the rat gene encoding the acyl-CoA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, M; Bjerking, G; Knudsen, J;

    1996-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is an ubiquitously expressed 10-kDa protein which is present in high amounts in cells involved in solute transport or secretion. Rat ACBP is encoded by a gene containing the typical hallmarks of a housekeeping gene. Analysis of the promoter region of the rat ACBP...... gene by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed specific binding of proteins from rat liver nuclear extracts to potential recognition sequences of NF-1/CTF, Sp1, AP-1, C/EBP and HNF-3. In addition, specific binding to a DR-1 type element was observed. By using in vitro translated...... for the ACBP DR-1 element. Addition of peroxisome proliferators (PP) to H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells led to an increase in the ACBP mRNA level, indicating that the DR-1 element could be a functional peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE). Analysis of the ACBP promoter by transient transfection showed...

  18. Exploring the interactions between bacteriophage-encoded glycan binding proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David J; Sacher, Jessica C; Szymanski, Christine M

    2015-10-01

    There is an unprecedented interest in glycobiology due to the increasing appreciation of its impact on all aspects of life. Likewise, bacteriophage biology is enjoying a new renaissance as the post-antibiotic era fuels the search for novel ways to control harmful bacteria. Phages have spent the last 3 billion years developing ways of recognizing and manipulating bacterial surface glycans. Therefore, phages comprise a massive reservoir of glycan-binding and -hydrolyzing proteins with the potential to be exploited for glycan analysis, bacterial diagnostics and therapeutics. We discuss phage tail proteins that recognize bacterial surface polysaccharides, endolysins that bind and cleave peptidoglycan, Ig-like proteins that attach to mucin glycans, and phage effector proteins that recognize both bacterial and eukaryotic oligosaccharides.

  19. A distinct single-stranded DNA-binding protein encoded by the Lactococcus lactis bacteriophage bIL67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Agnieszka K; Bidnenko, Elena; Płochocka, Danuta; McGovern, Stephen; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Bardowski, Jacek; Polard, Patrice; Chopin, Marie-Christine

    2007-06-20

    Single-stranded binding proteins (SSBs) are found to participate in various processes of DNA metabolism in all known organisms. We describe here a SSB protein encoded by the Lactococcus lactis phage bIL67 orf14 gene. It is the first noted attempt at characterizing a SSB protein from a lactococcal phage. The purified Orf14(bIL67) binds unspecifically to ssDNA with the same high affinity as the canonical Bacillus subtilis SSB. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays performed with mutagenized Orf14(bIL67) protein derivatives suggest that ssDNA-binding occurs via a putative OB-fold structure predicted by three-dimensional modeling. The native Orf14(bIL67) forms homotetramers as determined by gel filtration studies. These results allow distinguishing the first lactococcal phage protein with single-strand binding affinity, which defines a novel cluster of phage SSBs proteins. The possible role of Orf14(bIL67) in phage multiplication cycle is also discussed.

  20. A cDNA encoding a pRB-binding protein with properties of the transcription factor E2F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Lees, J A; Vidal, M;

    1992-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) plays an important role in the control of cell proliferation, apparently by binding to and regulating cellular transcription factors such as E2F. Here we describe the characterization of a cDNA clone that encodes a protein with properties of E2F. This clone, RBP3......, was identified by the ability of its gene product to interact with pRB. RBP3 bound to pRB both in vitro and in vivo, and this binding was competed by viral proteins known to disrupt pRB-E2F association. RBP3 bound to E2F recognition sequences in a sequence-specific manner. Furthermore, transient expression...

  1. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatt, C.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Cohn, V.H.; Zollman, S.; Fournier, R.E.K.; Mohandas, L.T.; Nesbitt, M.; Lugo, T.; Jones, D.T.; Reed, R.R.; Weiner, L.P.; Sparkes, R.S.; Simon, M.I. (Weizmann Institute, Rehovoth (Israel))

    1988-10-01

    A variety of genes have been identified that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Eight different guanine nucleotide-binding {alpha}-subunit proteins, two different {beta} subunits, and one {gamma} subunit have been described. Hybridization of cDNA clones with DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids was used to assign many of these genes to human chromosomes. The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and 20. The {beta} subunits were also assigned-GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to map the homologues of some of these genes in the mouse. GNAT1 and GNAI2 were found to map adjacent to each other on mouse chromosome 9 and GNAT2 was mapped on chromosome 17. The mouse GNB1 gene was assigned to chromosome 19. These mapping assignments will be useful in defining the extend of the G{alpha} gene family and may help in attempts to correlate specific genetic diseases and with genes corresponding to G proteins.

  2. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, C; Eversole-Cire, P; Cohn, V H; Zollman, S; Fournier, R E; Mohandas, L T; Nesbitt, M; Lugo, T; Jones, D T; Reed, R R

    1988-10-01

    A variety of genes have been identified that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Eight different guanine nucleotide-binding alpha-subunit proteins, two different beta subunits, and one gamma subunit have been described. Hybridization of cDNA clones with DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids was used to assign many of these genes to human chromosomes. The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and 20. The beta subunits were also assigned--GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to map the homologues of some of these genes in the mouse. GNAT1 and GNAI2 were found to map adjacent to each other on mouse chromosome 9 and GNAT2 was mapped on chromosome 17. The mouse GNB1 gene was assigned to chromosome 19. These mapping assignments will be useful in defining the extent of the G alpha gene family and may help in attempts to correlate specific genetic diseases with genes corresponding to G proteins. PMID:2902634

  3. Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a cDNA encoding a novel insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-2).

    OpenAIRE

    Binkert, C; Landwehr, J; Mary, J L; J. Schwander; Heinrich, G

    1989-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors bind with high affinity to specific binding proteins in extracellular fluids. To identify structural characteristics of IGF-binding proteins that might define their physiological roles, we determined the complete primary structure of a novel human IGF-binding protein (IGFBP-2) from a cloned cDNA. The cDNA encodes a 328 amino acid IGF-binding protein precursor which contains a 39-residue signal peptide. The mature 289 amino acid IGFBP-2 has a predicted Mr of 31,325....

  4. Identification and characterization of RNA-binding activity in the ORF1-encoded replicase protein of Pelargonium flower break virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; Hernández, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) belongs to the genus Carmovirus (family Tombusviridae) and, as with the remaining members of the group, possesses a monopartite genome of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA that contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs (ORFs 1 and 2) encode two polypeptides of 27 and 86 kDa (p27 and p86), respectively, that show homology with replication proteins. The p27 does not present any motif to explain its presumed involvement in replication, while p86 has the motifs conserved in RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. In this work, we have confirmed the necessity of p27 and p86 for PFBV replication. To gain insights into the function(s) of p27, we have expressed and purified the protein from Escherichia coli and tested its ability to bind RNA in vitro. The results have shown that p27 is able to bind ssRNA with high affinity and in a cooperative fashion and that it is also capable of binding other types of nucleic acids, though to a lesser extent. Additionally, competition experiments suggest that p27 has a preference for PFBV-derived ssRNAs. Using truncated forms of p27, it can be concluded that several regions of the protein contribute to its RNA-binding properties and that this contribution is additive. This study is the first to show nucleic acid-binding ability of the ORF1 product of a carmovirus and the data obtained suggest that this product plays an essential role in selection and recruitment of viral RNA replication templates.

  5. Hermes RNA-binding protein targets RNAs-encoding proteins involved in meiotic maturation, early cleavage, and germline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hye-Won; Cauffman, Karen; Chan, Agnes P; Zhou, Yi; King, Mary Lou; Etkin, Laurence D; Kloc, Malgorzata

    2007-07-01

    The early development of metazoans is mainly regulated by differential translation and localization of maternal mRNAs in the embryo. In general, these processes are orchestrated by RNA-binding proteins interacting with specific sequence motifs in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of their target RNAs. Hermes is an RNA-binding protein, which contains a single RNA recognition motif (RRM) and is found in various vertebrate species from fish to human. In Xenopus laevis, Hermes mRNA and protein are localized in the vegetal region of oocytes. A subpopulation of Hermes protein is concentrated in a specific structure in the vegetal cortex, called the germ plasm (believed to contain determinants of the germ cell fate) where Hermes protein co-localizes with Xcat2 and RINGO/Spy mRNAs. The level of total Hermes protein decreases during maturation. The precocious depletion of Hermes protein by injection of Hermes antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (HE-MO) accelerates the process of maturation and results in cleavage defects in vegetal blastomeres of the embryo. It is known that several maternal mRNAs including RINGO/Spy and Mos are regulated at the translational level during meiotic maturation and early cleavage in Xenopus. The ectopic expression of RINGO/Spy or Mos causes resumption of meiotic maturation and cleavage arrests, which resemble the loss of Hermes phenotypes. We found that the injection of HE-MO enhances the acceleration of maturation caused by the injection of RINGO/Spy mRNA, and that Hermes protein is present as mRNP complex containing RINGO/Spy, Mos, and Xcat2 mRNAs in vivo. We propose that as an RNA-binding protein, Hermes may be involved in maturation, cleavage events at the vegetal pole and germ cell development by negatively regulating the expression of RINGO/Spy, Mos, and Xcat2 mRNAs. PMID:17309605

  6. The stability region of the Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 encodes a DNA-binding protein recognizing a highly conserved short palindromic sequence motif

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Lina; Sepulveda, Edgardo; Latus, Annette; Muth, Günther

    2014-01-01

    Conjugation is a driving force in the evolution and shaping of bacterial genomes. In antibiotic producing streptomycetes even small plasmids replicating via the rolling-circle mechanism are conjugative. Although they encode only genes involved in replication and transfer, the molecular function of most plasmid encoded proteins is unknown. In this work we show that the conjugative plasmid pIJ101 encodes an overlooked protein, SpdA2. We show that SpdA2 is a DNA binding protein which specificall...

  7. Expression of cbsA encoding the collagen-binding S-protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Sillanpää, J.; Smit, E.; Korhonen, T.K.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The cbsA gene encoding the collagen-binding S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 was expressed in L. casei ATCC 393T. The S-protein was not retained on the surface of the recombinant bacteria but was secreted into the medium. By translational fusion of CbsA to the cell wall sorting sig

  8. Expression and inducibility in Staphylococcus aureus of the mecA gene, which encodes a methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific penicillin-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, K; Nonoguchi, R; Matsuhashi, M; Konno, M

    1989-01-01

    A beta-lactam-sensitive strain of Staphylococcus aureus could be converted to methicillin resistance by the introduction of a plasmid carrying the 4.3-kilobase HindIII chromosomal DNA fragment which encoded the mecA gene from a methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Transformant cells produced methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific penicillin-binding protein constitutively, and additional insertion of an inducible penicillinase plasmid caused production of the pencillin-binding protein to become ...

  9. Encoded loop-lanthanide-binding tags for long-range distance measurements in proteins by NMR and EPR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmes, Dominic [Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (Germany); Gränz, Markus [Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (Germany); Barthelmes, Katja [Technical University Munich, Department of Chemistry, Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science and Chair Biomolecular NMR (Germany); Allen, Karen N. [Boston University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Imperiali, Barbara [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Departments of Chemistry and Biology (United States); Prisner, Thomas, E-mail: prisner@prisner.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (Germany); Schwalbe, Harald, E-mail: Schwalbe@nmr.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We recently engineered encodable lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) into proteins and demonstrated their applicability in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and luminescence studies. Here, we engineered two-loop-LBTs into the model protein interleukin-1β (IL1β) and measured {sup 1}H, {sup 15}N-pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) by NMR spectroscopy. We determined the Δχ-tensors associated with each Tm{sup 3+}-loaded loop-LBT and show that the experimental PCSs yield structural information at the interface between the two metal ion centers at atomic resolution. Such information is very valuable for the determination of the sites of interfaces in protein–protein-complexes. Combining the experimental PCSs of the two-loop-LBT construct IL1β-S2R2 and the respective single-loop-LBT constructs IL1β-S2, IL1β-R2 we additionally determined the distance between the metal ion centers. Further, we explore the use of two-loop LBTs loaded with Gd{sup 3+} as a novel tool for distance determination by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy and show the NMR-derived distances to be remarkably consistent with distances derived from Pulsed Electron–Electron Dipolar Resonance.

  10. The yeast CDP1 gene encodes a triple-helical DNA-binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, Marco; Bianchi-Scarrà, Giovanna; Van Dyke, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of triple-helical DNA has been implicated in several cellular processes, including transcription, replication and recombination. While there is no direct evidence for triplexes in vivo, cellular proteins that specifically recognize triplex DNA have been described. Using a purine-motif triplex probe and southwestern library screening, we isolated five independent clones expressing the same C-terminal 210 amino acids of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Cdp1p fused with β-galac...

  11. Two SusD-like proteins encoded within a polysaccharide utilization locus of an uncultured ruminant Bacteroidetes phylotype bind strongly to cellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, A.K.; Pope, P.B.; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg;

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that two characteristic Sus-like proteins encoded within a polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) bind strongly to cellulosic substrates and interact with plant primary cell walls. This shows associations between uncultured Bacteroidetes-affiliated lineages and cellulose in the rum...

  12. Expression of cbsA Encoding the Collagen-Binding S-Protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393T

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Beatriz; Sillanpää, Jouko; Smit, Egbert,; Korhonen, Timo K.; Pouwels, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    The cbsA gene encoding the collagen-binding S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 was expressed in L. casei ATCC 393T. The S-protein was not retained on the surface of the recombinant bacteria but was secreted into the medium. By translational fusion of CbsA to the cell wall sorting signal of the proteinase, PrtP, of L. casei, CbsA was presented at the surface, rendering the transformants able to bind to immobilized collagens.

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of hctB encoding a strain-variant chlamydial histone-like protein with DNA-binding activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Brickman, T J; Barry, C E; Hackstadt, T

    1993-01-01

    Two DNA-binding proteins with similarity to eukaryotic histone H1 have been described in Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition to the 18-kDa histone H1 homolog Hc1, elementary bodies of C. trachomatis possess an antigenically related histone H1 homolog, which we have termed Hc2, that varies in apparent molecular mass among strains. We report the molecular cloning, expression, and nucleotide sequence of the hctB gene encoding Hc2 and present evidence for in vivo DNA-binding activity of the expres...

  14. Isolation of a gene encoding a developmentally regulated T cell-specific protein with a guanine nucleotide triphosphate-binding motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlow, D.A.; Teh, H.S.; Marth, J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-02-15

    In this study, we describe a novel full length cDNA clone designated Tgtp that encodes a predicted 415-amino acid a T cell-specific guanine nucleotide triphosphate-binding protein (TGTP) bearing the characteristic motifs of a guanine nucleotide triphosphate (GTP) binding protein. Tgtp is expressed preferentially, if not exclusively, in T cells, and is up-regulated in both unfractionated and in purified CD4{sup +}8{sup +} thymocytes upon TCR cross-linking. In contrast, expression of Tgtp in peripheral T cells is maintained at relatively high levels and is not grossly affected by TCR cross-linking. Antiserum generated against synthetic peptides from the predicted TGTP amino acid sequence recognized a single protein with a molecular mass of {approx}50 kDa, corresponding well with the computed molecular mass of 47 kDa. The only known relative of Tgtp is MUSGTP, which is reportedly expressed in B cells and bears a GTP binding motif. Thus, the discovery of Tgtp resolves a subfamily of molecules with GTP binding motifs and apparent lymphoid lineage-restricted expression. Given the restricted expression pattern in T cells, the up-regulated expression observed in response to TCR signaling in immature thymocytes, and the presence of the motifs characteristic of GTP binding proteins, we suggest that TGTP may have an important function in T cell development and/or T cell activation. 51 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Cloning, sequencing, and recombinational analysis with bacteriophage BF23 of the bacteriophage T5 oad gene encoding the receptor-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Krauel, V; Heller, K J

    1991-01-01

    Binding of bacteriophage T5 to its receptor, the Escherichia coli FhuA protein, is mediated by tail protein pb5. In this article we confirm that pb5 is encoded by the T5 oad gene and describe the isolation, expression, and sequencing of this gene. In order to locate oad precisely, we analyzed recombinants between BF23, a T5-related phage with a different host range, and plasmid clones containing segments of the T5 chromosome. This analysis also showed that oad has little or no homology with h...

  16. A Legionella pneumophila effector protein encoded in a region of genomic plasticity binds to Dot/Icm-modified vacuoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Ninio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. In the environment, L. pneumophila is found in fresh water reservoirs in a large spectrum of environmental conditions, where the bacteria are able to replicate within a variety of protozoan hosts. To survive within eukaryotic cells, L. pneumophila require a type IV secretion system, designated Dot/Icm, that delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm. In recent years, a number of Dot/Icm substrate proteins have been identified; however, the function of most of these proteins remains unknown, and it is unclear why the bacterium maintains such a large repertoire of effectors to promote its survival. Here we investigate a region of the L. pneumophila chromosome that displays a high degree of plasticity among four sequenced L. pneumophila strains. Analysis of GC content suggests that several genes encoded in this region were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Protein translocation studies establish that this region of genomic plasticity encodes for multiple Dot/Icm effectors. Ectopic expression studies in mammalian cells indicate that one of these substrates, a protein called PieA, has unique effector activities. PieA is an effector that can alter lysosome morphology and associates specifically with vacuoles that support L. pneumophila replication. It was determined that the association of PieA with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila requires modifications to the vacuole mediated by other Dot/Icm effectors. Thus, the localization properties of PieA reveal that the Dot/Icm system has the ability to spatially and temporally control the association of an effector with vacuoles containing L. pneumophila through activities mediated by other effector proteins.

  17. Cloning and molecular characterization of the salt-regulated jojoba ScRab cDNA encoding a small GTP-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi-Aviv, Ela; Mills, David; Benzioni, Aliza; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2002-10-01

    Salt stress results in a massive change in gene expression. An 837 bp cDNA designated ScRab was cloned from shoot cultures of the salt tolerant jojoba (Simmondsia chinesis). The cloned cDNA encodes a full length 200 amino acid long polypeptide that bears high homology to the Rab subfamily of small GTP binding proteins, particularly, the Rab5 subfamily. ScRab expression is reduced in shoots grown in the presence of salt compared to shoots from non-stressed cultures. His6-tagged ScRAB protein was expressed in E. coli, and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein bound radiolabelled GTP. The unlabelled guanine nucleotides GTP, GTP gamma S and GDP but not ATP, CTP or UTP competed with GTP binding.

  18. ATP-binding site of adenylate kinase: mechanistic implications of its homology with ras-encoded p21, F1-ATPase, and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D C; Kuby, S A; Mildvan, A S

    1986-02-01

    The MgATP binding site of adenylate kinase, located by a combination of NMR and x-ray diffraction, is near three protein segments, five to seven amino acids in length, that are homologous in sequence to segments found in other nucleotide-binding phosphotransferases, such as myosin and F1-ATPase, ras p21 and transducin GTPases, and cAMP-dependent and src protein kinases, suggesting equivalent mechanistic roles of these segments in all of these proteins. Segment 1 is a glycine-rich flexible loop that, on adenylate kinase, may control access to the ATP-binding site by changing its conformation. Segment 2 is an alpha-helix containing two hydrophobic residues that interact with the adenine-ribose moiety of ATP, and a lysine that may bind to the beta- and gamma-phosphates of ATP. Segment 3 is a hydrophobic strand of parallel beta-pleated sheet, terminated by a carboxylate, that flanks the triphosphate binding site. The various reported mutations of ras p21 that convert it to a transforming agent all appear to involve segment 1, and such substitutions may alter the properties of p21 by hindering a conformational change at this segment. In F1-ATPase, the flexible loop may, by its position, control both the accessibility and the ATP/ADP equilibrium constant on the enzyme.

  19. Overproduction, purification and crystallization of a chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL domain from a Plasmodium falciparum var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Matthew K., E-mail: mkh20@cam.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-01

    A chondroitin sulfate A-binding DBL important in placental malaria has been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The PfEMP1 proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are inserted into the membrane of infected red blood cells, where they mediate adhesion to a variety of human receptors. The DBL domains of the var2csa-encoded PfEMP1 protein play a critical role in malaria of pregnancy, tethering infected cells to the surface of the placenta through interactions with the glycosaminoglycan carbohydrate chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). A CSA-binding DBL domain has been overproduced in a bacterial expression system, purified and crystallized. Native data sets extending to 1.9 Å resolution have been collected and phasing is under way.

  20. The gene therapy of collagen-induced arthritis in rats by intramuscular administration of the plasmid encoding TNF-binding domain of variola virus CrmB protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelkunov, S N; Taranov, O S; Tregubchak, T V; Maksyutov, R A; Silkov, A N; Nesterov, A E; Sennikov, S V

    2016-07-01

    Wistar rats with collagen-induced arthritis were intramuscularly injected with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA/sTNF-BD encoding the sequence of the TNF-binding protein domain of variola virus CrmB protein (VARV sTNF-BD) or the pcDNA3.1 vector. Quantitative analysis showed that the histopathological changes in the hind-limb joints of rats were most severe in the animals injected with pcDNA3.1 and much less severe in the group of rats injected with pcDNA/sTNF-BD, which indicates that gene therapy of rheumatoid arthritis is promising in the case of local administration of plasmids governing the synthesis of VARV immunomodulatory proteins. PMID:27599513

  1. Smoking and polymorphisms of genes encoding mannose-binding lectin and surfactant protein-D in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Malthe; Frisch, Morten; Madsen, Hans Ole;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether polymorphisms in genes coding for mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and surfactant protein-D (SP-D) are associated directly or by interaction with smoking with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) positive RA, and erosive RA. MBL2 genotypes, SFTPD...... genotype at codon 11, and HLA-shared epitope were determined in 456 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 533 sex- and age-matched controls. Patients were grouped according to the presence of ACPA antibodies and RA-associated bone erosions and sub-stratified according to smoking status as never or ever...... smokers. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for shared epitope. The low-producing SFTPD genotype was not associated with risk of RA or ACPA positive RA, but with erosive disease in the RA patients (OR = 1.8; 95% CI...

  2. Isolation of cDNAs encoding a human protein that binds selectively to DNA modified by the anticancer drug cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA modified by the antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP or cisplatin) was used to identify a factor in mammalian cells that binds to cis-DDP-damaged DNA and hence may play a role in repair. This factor selectivity recognizes double-stranded DNA fragments modified by cis-DDP or [Pt(en)Cl2] (en, ethylenediamine). Little or no binding occurs to unmodified double-stranded DNA or to DNA modified with the clinically ineffective compounds trans-DDP and [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl (dien, diethylenetriamine). Low levels of binding to single-stranded DNA modified by cis-DDP are observed. The apparent molecular mass of the factor in a variety of mammalian cells is ∼ 100 kDa, as determined by modified Western blotting. Two recombinant phage have been isolated from a human B-cell λgt11 library by using a cis-DDP-modified DNA restriction fragments as a probe. The two clones have insert sizes of 1.88 and 1.44 kilobases and are aligned at their 5' ends. The polypeptides encoded by the recombinant phage exhibit DNA binding properties similar to those of the cellular factor identified in crude extracts prepared from mammalian cells. Northern analysis with one of the clones revealed an mRNA of 2.8 kilobases that is conserved in humans and rodents. The methods used here should be applicable in studies of other damage-specific DNA binding proteins

  3. Antisense expression of a gene encoding a calcium-binding protein in transgenic tobacco leads to altered morphology and enhanced chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Girdhar K Pandey; Amita Pandey; Vanga Siva Reddy; Renu Deswal; Alok Bhattacharya; Kailash C Upadhyaya; Sudhir K Sopory

    2007-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica contains a novel calcium-binding protein like calmodulin, which was discovered earlier, and we have reported the presence of its homologue(s) and a dependent protein kinase in plants. To understand the functions of these in plants, a cDNA encoding a calcium-binding protein isolated from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP) was cloned into vector pBI121 in antisense orientation and transgenic tobacco plants were raised. These plants showed variation in several phenotypic characters, of which two distinct features, more greenness and leaf thickness, were inherited in subsequent generations. The increase in the level of total chlorophyll in different plants ranged from 60% to 70%. There was no major change in chloroplast structure and in the protein level of D1, D2, LHCP and RuBP carboxylase. These morphological changes were not seen in antisense calmodulin transgenic tobacco plants, nor was the calmodulin level altered in EhCaBP antisense plants.

  4. A possible role of DNA methylation in functional divergence of a fast evolving duplicate gene encoding odorant binding protein 11 in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, R; Maleszka, J; Maleszka, R

    2016-06-29

    Although gene duplication is seen as the main path to evolution of new functions, molecular mechanisms by which selection favours the gain versus loss of newly duplicated genes and minimizes the fixation of pseudo-genes are not well understood. Here, we investigate in detail a duplicate honeybee gene obp11 belonging to a fast evolving insect gene family encoding odorant binding proteins (OBPs). We report that obp11 is expressed only in female bees in rare antennal sensilla basiconica in contrast to its tandem partner obp10 that is expressed in the brain in both females and males (drones). Unlike all other obp genes in the honeybee, obp11 is methylated suggesting that functional diversification of obp11 and obp10 may have been driven by an epigenetic mechanism. We also show that increased methylation in drones near one donor splice site that correlates with higher abundance of a transcript variant encoding a truncated OBP11 protein is one way of controlling its contrasting expression. Our data suggest that like in mammals and plants, DNA methylation in insects may contribute to functional diversification of proteins produced from duplicated genes, in particular to their subfunctionalization by generating complementary patterns of expression. PMID:27358363

  5. Polymorphism rs11085226 in the gene encoding polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 negatively affects glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1 promotes stability and translation of mRNAs coding for insulin secretion granule proteins and thereby plays a role in β-cells function. We studied whether common genetic variations within the PTBP1 locus influence insulin secretion, and/or proinsulin conversion. METHODS: We genotyped 1,502 healthy German subjects for four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the PTBP1 locus (rs351974, rs11085226, rs736926, and rs123698 covering 100% of genetic variation with an r(2≥0.8. The subjects were metabolically characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test with insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide measurements. A subgroup of 320 subjects also underwent an IVGTT. RESULTS: PTBP1 SNP rs11085226 was nominally associated with lower insulinogenic index and lower cleared insulin response in the OGTT (p≤0.04. The other tested SNPs did not show any association with the analyzed OGTT-derived secretion parameters. In the IVGTT subgroup, SNP rs11085226 was accordingly associated with lower insulin levels within the first ten minutes following glucose injection (p = 0.0103. Furthermore, SNP rs351974 was associated with insulin levels in the IVGTT (p = 0.0108. Upon interrogation of MAGIC HOMA-B data, our rs11085226 result was replicated (MAGIC p = 0.018, but the rs351974 was not. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that common genetic variation in PTBP1 influences glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This underlines the importance of PTBP1 for beta cell function in vivo.

  6. Complementary DNA encoding the human T-cell FK506-binding protein, a peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase distinct from cyclophilin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Noboru; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Miwa, Keiko; Hayano, Toshiya; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Masanori (Corporate Research and Development Laboratory, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    The recently discovered macrolide FK506 has been demonstrated to have potent immunosuppressive activity at concentrations 100-fold lower than cyclosporin A, a cyclic undecapeptide that is used to prevent rejection after transplantation of bone marrow and organs, such as kidney, heart, and liver. After the recent discovery that the cylcosporin A-binding protein cyclophilin is identical to peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase, a cellular binding protein for FK506 was found to be distinct from cyclophilin but to have the same enzymatic activity. In this study, the authors isolated a cDNA coding for FK506-binding protein (FKBP) from human peripheral blood T cells by using mixed 20-mer oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of the sequence, Glu-Asp-Gly-Lys-Lys-Phe-Asp, reported for bovine FKBP. The DNA isolated contained an open reading frame encoding 108 amino acid residues. The first 40 residues of the deduced amino acid sequence were identical to those of the reported amino-terminal sequence of bovine FKBP, indicating that the DNA sequence isolated represents the gene coding for FKBP. This result suggests that two catalytically similar proteins, cyclophilin and FKBP, evolved independently. In Northern blot analysis, mRNA species of {approx}1.8 kilobases that hybridized with human FKBP cDNA were detected in poly(A){sup +} RNAs from brain, lung, liver, and placental cells and leukocytes. Induction of Jurkat leukemic T cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin did not affect the level of FKBP mRNA.

  7. Transcription factor IID in the Archaea: sequences in the Thermococcus celer genome would encode a product closely related to the TATA-binding protein of eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. L.; Reich, C. I.; Whitelock, R. B.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The first step in transcription initiation in eukaryotes is mediated by the TATA-binding protein, a subunit of the transcription factor IID complex. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for a presumptive homolog of this eukaryotic protein from Thermococcus celer, a member of the Archaea (formerly archaebacteria). The protein encoded by the archaeal gene is a tandem repeat of a conserved domain, corresponding to the repeated domain in its eukaryotic counterparts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the two halves of the repeat are consistent with the duplication occurring before the divergence of the archael and eukaryotic domains. In conjunction with previous observations of similarity in RNA polymerase subunit composition and sequences and the finding of a transcription factor IIB-like sequence in Pyrococcus woesei (a relative of T. celer) it appears that major features of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus were well-established before the origin of eukaryotic cellular organization. The divergence between the two halves of the archael protein is less than that between the halves of the individual eukaryotic sequences, indicating that the average rate of sequence change in the archael protein has been less than in its eukaryotic counterparts. To the extent that this lower rate applies to the genome as a whole, a clearer picture of the early genes (and gene families) that gave rise to present-day genomes is more apt to emerge from the study of sequences from the Archaea than from the corresponding sequences from eukaryotes.

  8. Characterization, Evolution and Tissue-specific Expression of AmphiCalbin, a Novel Gene Encoding EF-hand Calcium-binding Protein in Amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LUAN; Shicui ZHANG; Zhenhui LIU; Chunxin FAN; Guangdong JI; Lei LI

    2007-01-01

    An amphioxus full-length cDNA, AmphiCalbin, encoding a novel EF-hand calcium-binding protein (EFCaBP), was isolated from the gut cDNA library of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri. It consists of 1321 bp with a 636 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 211 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 24.5 kDa. The phylogenetic analysis offers two interesting inferences. First, AmphiCalbin clusters with a group of unnamed EFCaBPs that are differentiated from other identified EFCaBPs. Second,AmphiCalbin falls at the base of the vertebrate unnamed EFCaBPs clade, probably representing their prototype.This is also corroborated by the fact that AmphiCalbin has an exon-intron organization identical to that of vertebrate unnamed EFCaBP genes. Both tissue-section in situ hybridization and whole-mount in situ hybridization prove a tissue-specific expression pattern of AmphiCalbin, with high levels of expression in the digestive system and gonads. It is proposed that AmphiCalbin might play a role in the digestive system and gonads. These observations lay the foundation for further understanding of the function of the unnamed EFCaBPs.

  9. Molecular analysis of two cDNAs encoding Xa1 and oxysterol binding proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and subsequent microarray analysis, expression profiles of sorghum genes responsive to greenbug phloem-feeding were obtained and identified. Among the profiles, two cDNAs designated to MM73 and MM95 were identified to encode Xa1 (Xa1) and oxysterol ...

  10. Comparative analysis and molecular characterization of a gene BANF1 encoded a DNA-binding protein during mitosis from the Giant Panda and Black Bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yichun; Hou, Yi-Ling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wan-Ru; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Barrier to autointegration factor 1 (BANF1) is a DNA-binding protein found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that functions to establish nuclear architecture during mitosis. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of BANF1 were cloned from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus mupinensis) using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. The cDNA of the BANF1 cloned from Giant Panda and Black Bear is 297 bp in size, containing an open reading frame of 270 bp encoding 89 amino acids. The length of the genomic sequence from Giant Panda is 521 bp, from Black Bear is 536 bp, which were found both to possess 2 exons. Alignment analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence are highly conserved to some mammalian species studied. Topology prediction showed there is one Protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one Casein kinase II phosphorylation site, one Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, one N-myristoylation site, and one Amidation site in the BANF1 protein of the Giant Panda, and there is one Protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, one N-myristoylation site, and one Amidation site in the BANF1 protein of the Black Bear. The BANF1 gene can be readily expressed in E. coli. Results showed that the protein BANF1 fusion with the N-terminally His-tagged form gave rise to the accumulation of an expected 14 kD polypeptide that formed inclusion bodies. The expression products obtained could be used to purify the proteins and study their function further. PMID:25009988

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tomato cDNA encoding a systemically wound-inducible bZIP DNA-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, B.; Vian, A.; Henry-Vian, C.; Davies, E.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wounding of one leaf in intact tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants triggers rapid systemic transcriptional responses that might be involved in defense. To better understand the mechanism(s) of intercellular signal transmission in wounded tomatoes, and to identify the array of genes systemically up-regulated by wounding, a subtractive cDNA library for wounded tomato leaves was constructed. A novel cDNA clone (designated LebZIP1) encoding a DNA-binding protein was isolated and identified. This clone appears to be encoded by a single gene, and belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper domain (bZIP) transcription factors shown to be up-regulated by cold and dark treatments. Analysis of the mRNA levels suggests that the transcript for LebZIP1 is both organ-specific and up-regulated by wounding. In wounded wild-type tomatoes, the LebZIP1 mRNA levels in distant tissue were maximally up-regulated within only 5 min following localized wounding. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) prevented the rapid wound-induced increase in LebZIP1 mRNA levels, while the basal levels of LebZIP1 transcripts were higher in the ABA mutants notabilis (not), sitiens (sit), and flacca (flc), and wound-induced increases were greater in the ABA-deficient mutants. Together, these results suggest that ABA acts to curtail the wound-induced synthesis of LebZIP1 mRNA.

  12. An encodable lanthanide binding tag with reduced size and flexibility for measuring residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts in large proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barb, Adam W., E-mail: abarb@iastate.edu; Subedi, Ganesh P. [Iowa State University, Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Metal ions serve important roles in structural biology applications from long-range perturbations seen in magnetic resonance experiments to electron-dense signatures in X-ray crystallography data; however, the metal ion must be secured in a molecular framework to achieve the maximum benefit. Polypeptide-based lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) represent one option that can be directly encoded within a recombinant protein expression construct. However, LBTs often exhibit significant mobility relative to the target molecule. Here we report the characterization of improved LBTs sequences for insertion into a protein loop. These LBTs were inserted to connect two parallel alpha helices of an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding Z domain platform. Variants A and B bound Tb{sup 3+} with high affinity (0.70 and 0.13 μM, respectively) and displayed restricted LBT motion. Compared to the parent construct, the metal-bound A experienced a 2.5-fold reduction in tag motion as measured by magnetic field-induced residual dipolar couplings and was further studied in a 72.2 kDa complex with the human IgG1 fragment crystallizable (IgG1 Fc) glycoprotein. The appearance of both pseudo-contact shifts (−0.221 to 0.081 ppm) and residual dipolar couplings (−7.6 to 14.3 Hz) of IgG1 Fc resonances in the IgG1 Fc:(variant A:Tb{sup 3+}){sub 2} complex indicated structural restriction of the LBT with respect to the Fc. These studies highlight the applicability of improved LBT sequences with reduced mobility to probe the structure of macromolecular systems.

  13. An encodable lanthanide binding tag with reduced size and flexibility for measuring residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts in large proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb, Adam W; Subedi, Ganesh P

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions serve important roles in structural biology applications from long-range perturbations seen in magnetic resonance experiments to electron-dense signatures in X-ray crystallography data; however, the metal ion must be secured in a molecular framework to achieve the maximum benefit. Polypeptide-based lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) represent one option that can be directly encoded within a recombinant protein expression construct. However, LBTs often exhibit significant mobility relative to the target molecule. Here we report the characterization of improved LBTs sequences for insertion into a protein loop. These LBTs were inserted to connect two parallel alpha helices of an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding Z domain platform. Variants A and B bound Tb(3+) with high affinity (0.70 and 0.13 μM, respectively) and displayed restricted LBT motion. Compared to the parent construct, the metal-bound A experienced a 2.5-fold reduction in tag motion as measured by magnetic field-induced residual dipolar couplings and was further studied in a 72.2 kDa complex with the human IgG1 fragment crystallizable (IgG1 Fc) glycoprotein. The appearance of both pseudo-contact shifts (-0.221 to 0.081 ppm) and residual dipolar couplings (-7.6 to 14.3 Hz) of IgG1 Fc resonances in the IgG1 Fc:(variant A:Tb(3+))2 complex indicated structural restriction of the LBT with respect to the Fc. These studies highlight the applicability of improved LBT sequences with reduced mobility to probe the structure of macromolecular systems. PMID:26728077

  14. An encodable lanthanide binding tag with reduced size and flexibility for measuring residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts in large proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ions serve important roles in structural biology applications from long-range perturbations seen in magnetic resonance experiments to electron-dense signatures in X-ray crystallography data; however, the metal ion must be secured in a molecular framework to achieve the maximum benefit. Polypeptide-based lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) represent one option that can be directly encoded within a recombinant protein expression construct. However, LBTs often exhibit significant mobility relative to the target molecule. Here we report the characterization of improved LBTs sequences for insertion into a protein loop. These LBTs were inserted to connect two parallel alpha helices of an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding Z domain platform. Variants A and B bound Tb3+ with high affinity (0.70 and 0.13 μM, respectively) and displayed restricted LBT motion. Compared to the parent construct, the metal-bound A experienced a 2.5-fold reduction in tag motion as measured by magnetic field-induced residual dipolar couplings and was further studied in a 72.2 kDa complex with the human IgG1 fragment crystallizable (IgG1 Fc) glycoprotein. The appearance of both pseudo-contact shifts (−0.221 to 0.081 ppm) and residual dipolar couplings (−7.6 to 14.3 Hz) of IgG1 Fc resonances in the IgG1 Fc:(variant A:Tb3+)2 complex indicated structural restriction of the LBT with respect to the Fc. These studies highlight the applicability of improved LBT sequences with reduced mobility to probe the structure of macromolecular systems

  15. Construction of eukaryotic expression vector encoding ATP synthase lipid-binding protein-like protein gene of Sj and its expression in HeLa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Danming; Hu Yongxuan; Li Mulan; Zeng Xiaojun; He Zhixiong; Yuan Caijia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To clone and construct the recombinant plasmid containing ATP synthase lipid-binding protein-like protein gene of Schistosoma japonicum,(SjAslp) and transfer it into mammalian cells to express the objective protein. Methods: By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, SjAslp was amplified from the constructed recombinant plasmid pBCSK+/SjAslp, and inserted into cloning vector pUCm-T. Then, SjAslp was subcloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). After identifying it by PCR, restrictive enzymes digestion and DNA sequencing, the recombinant plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells using electroporation, and the expression of the recombinant protein was analyzed by immunocytochemical assay. Resnlts: The specific gene fragment of 558 bp was successfully amplified. The DNA vaccine of SjAslp was successfully constructed. Immunocytochemical assay showed that SjAslp was expressed in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. Conclusion: SjAslp gene can be expressed in eukaryotic system, which lays the foundation for development of the SjAslp DNA vaccine against schitosomiasis.

  16. DNA binding sites recognised in vitro by a knotted class 1 homeodomain protein encoded by the hooded gene, k, in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, L; Rasmussen, I; Gausing, K

    1997-01-01

    The homeodomain of the knotted classes of transcription factors from plants differs from the well characterized Antp/En type homeodomains from Drosophila at key amino acid residues contributing to the DNA binding. A cDNA, Hvh21, derived from the hooded gene and encoding a full length homolog...

  17. EgRBP42 encoding an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is responsive to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Wan-Chin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2012-10-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated as regulatory proteins involved in the post-transcriptional processes of gene expression in plants under various stress conditions. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a gene, designated as EgRBP42, encoding a member of the plant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like RBP family from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). EgRBP42 consists of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a glycine-rich domain at the C-terminus. The upstream region of EgRBP42 has multiple light-responsive, stress-responsive regulatory elements and regulatory elements associated with flower development. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of EgRBP42 showed that EgRBP42 was expressed in oil palm tissues tested, including leaf, shoot apical meristem, root, female inflorescence, male inflorescence and mesocarp with the lowest transcript level in the roots. EgRBP42 protein interacted with transcripts associated with transcription, translation and stress responses using pull-down assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The accumulation of EgRBP42 and its interacting transcripts were induced by abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, submergence, cold and heat stresses in leaf discs. Collectively, the data suggested that EgRBP42 is a RBP, which responds to various abiotic stresses and could be advantageous for oil palm under stress conditions. Key message EgRBP42 may be involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes important for plant stress response and adaptation. PMID:22699852

  18. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  19. A high-affinity inhibitor of yeast carboxypeptidase Y is encoded by TFS1 and shows homology to a family of lipid binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, A W; Svendsen, I; Sørensen, S O;

    1998-01-01

    degree of specificity, showing a 200-fold higher Ki toward a carboxypeptidase from Candida albicans which is highly homologous to carboxypeptidase Y. The TFS1 gene product shows extensive similarity to a class of proteins termed "21-23-kDa lipid binding proteins", members of which are found in several...

  20. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  1. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα-encoding (GNAS genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486 were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646 was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656 was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646 is associated (P ≤ 0.05 with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01 with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size was also observed at the rs

  2. Cloning, characterization, and heterologous expression of the Saccharopolyspora erythraea (Streptomyces erythraeus) gene encoding an EF-hand calcium-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, D G; Cortes, J; Hale, R S; Leadlay, P F

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory effects of Ca2+ in eucaryotic cells are mostly mediated by a superfamily of Ca2+-binding proteins (CABs) that contain one or more characteristic Ca2+-binding structural motifs, referred to as EF hands. We have cloned and sequenced the structural gene for an authentic EF-hand CAB from the spore-forming gram-positive bacterium Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythraeus). When the gene was introduced into Streptomyces lividans on the high-copy plasmid vector pIJ...

  3. Chromosomal localization of the human gene encoding c-myc promoter-binding protein (MPB1) to chromosome 1p35-pter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.A.; Dowler, L.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adkison, L.R. [Mercer Univ. School of Medicine, Macon, GA (United States); Ray, R.B. [St. Louis Univ. Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-02-01

    We report the mapping of the human gene MPB1 (c-myc promoter binding protein), a recently identified gene regulatory protein. MPB1 binds to the c-myc P2 promoter and exerts a negative regulatory role on c-myc transcription. Since exogenous expression from transfection of the MPB1 gene suppresses the tumorigenic property of breast cancer cells, there was interest in determining the chromosomal location of this gene. The human MPB1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p35-pter using Southern blot analyses of genomic DNAs from rodent-human somatic hybrid cell lines. A specific human genomic fragment was observed only in the somatic cell lines containing human chromosome 1 or the p35-pter region of the chromosome. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Enhanced expression of lmb gene encoding laminin-binding protein in Streptococcus agalactiae strains harboring IS1548 in scpB-lmb intergenic region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Al Safadi

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS is the main cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Bacterial surface proteins play a major role in GBS binding to and invasion of different host surfaces. The scpB and lmb genes, coding for fibronectin-binding and laminin-binding surface proteins, are present in almost all human GBS isolates. The scpB-lmb intergenic region is a hot spot for integration of two mobile genetic elements (MGEs: the insertion element IS1548 or the group II intron GBSi1. We studied the structure of scpB-lmb intergenic region in 111 GBS isolates belonging to the intraspecies major clonal complexes (CCs. IS1548 was mostly found (72.2% in CC19 serotype III strains recovered more specifically (92.3% from neonatal meningitis. GBSi1 was principally found (70.6% in CC17 strains, mostly (94.4% of serotype III, but also (15.7% in CC19 strains, mostly (87.5% of serotype II. No MGE was found in most strains of the other CCs (76.0%, notably CC23, CC10 and CC1. Twenty-six strains representing these three genetic configurations were selected to investigate the transcription and expression levels of scpB and lmb genes. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that lmb transcripts were 5.0- to 9.6-fold higher in the group of strains with IS1548 than in the other two groups of strains (P<0.001. Accordingly, the binding ability to laminin was 3.8- to 6.6-fold higher in these strains (P< or =0.001. Moreover, Lmb amount expressed on the cell surface was 2.4- to 2.7-fold greater in these strains (P<0.001. By contrast, scpB transcript levels and fibronectin binding ability were similar in the three groups of strains. Deletion of the IS1548 sequence between scpB and lmb genes in a CC19 serotype III GBS strain substantially reduced the transcription of lmb gene (13.5-fold, the binding ability to laminin (6.2-fold, and the expression of Lmb protein (5.0-fold. These data highlight the importance of MGEs in bacterial virulence and demonstrate the up-regulation of lmb gene by IS

  5. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of EgTCTP, encoding a calcium binding protein, enhances the growth of callus in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Nakkaew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP has now been identified in evolutionarily diverse organisms and isthought to play an important role in cell growth and cell division. We have identified an EgTCTP gene from Elaeis guineensisJacq. It is a putative protein of 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19.2 kDa. EgTCTP has a high homology(84% - 91% identity at the amino acid level to other plant TCTPs from Hevea brasiliensis, Arachis hypogaea and Glycinemax. The recombinant EgTCTP protein is a calcium binding protein. Transgenic embryonic calli overexpressing EgTCTP havea faster growth rate than non-transformed and empty vector transformed calli. The results show that the enhancement ofEgTCTP gene expression in oil palm embryogenic calli may result in faster multiplication of the embryogenic calli. EgTCTPacts as another Ca2+-modulated protein that is involved in the cell cycle progression.

  7. T(lys), a newly identified Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 transcript expressed in the lysogenic state, encodes a DNA-binding protein interacting at the promoters of the early genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Salvatore; She, Qunxin; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Contursi, Patrizia

    2013-05-01

    While studying the gene expression of the Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) in Sulfolobus solfataricus lysogenic cells, a novel viral transcript (T(lys)) was identified. Transcriptional analysis revealed that T(lys) is expressed only in the absence of UV irradiation and is downregulated during the growth of the lysogenic host. The correponding gene f55 lies between two transcriptional units (T6 and T(ind)) that are upregulated upon UV irradiation. The open reading frame f55 encodes a 6.3-kDa protein which shows sequence identity with negative regulators that fold into the ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding motif. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that the recombinant F55, purified from Escherichia coli, is indeed a putative transcription factor able to recognize site specifically target sequences in the promoters of the early induced T5, T6, and T(ind) transcripts, as well as of its own promoter. Binding sites of F55 are included within a tandem-repeated sequence overlapping the transcription start sites and/or the B recognition element of the pertinent genes. The strongest binding was observed with the promoters of T5 and T6, and an apparent cooperativity in binding was observed with the T(ind) promoter. Taking together the transcriptional analysis data and the biochemical evidences, we surmise that the protein F55 is involved in the regulation of the lysogenic state of SSV1. PMID:23514883

  8. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  9. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer's disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer's disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer's disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  10. Tlys, a newly identified Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 transcript expressed in the lysogenic state, encodes a DNA-binding protein interacting at the promoters of the early genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusco, Salvatore; She, Qunxin; Bartolucci, Simonetta;

    2013-01-01

    sites of F55 are included within a tandem-repeated sequence overlapping the transcription start sites and/or the B recognition element of the pertinent genes. The strongest binding was observed with the promoters of T5 and T6, and an apparent cooperativity in binding was observed with the Tind promoter......While studying the gene expression of the Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) in Sulfolobus solfataricus lysogenic cells, a novel viral transcript (Tlys) was identified. Transcriptional analysis revealed that Tlys is expressed only in the absence of UV irradiation and is downregulated during...... the growth of the lysogenic host. The correponding gene f55 lies between two transcriptional units (T6 and Tind) that are upregulated upon UV irradiation. The open reading frame f55 encodes a 6.3-kDa protein which shows sequence identity with negative regulators that fold into the ribbon-helix-helix DNA...

  11. OsDREB4 Genes in Rice Encode AP2-Containing Proteins that Bind Specifically to the Dehydration-Responsive Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Hong TIAN; Xue-Ping LI; Hua-Lin ZHOU; Jin-Song ZHANG; Zhi-Zhong GONG; Shou-Yi CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Most dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) factors interact specifically with the dehydration-responsive element (DRE) and control the expression of many stress-inducible genes in Arabidopsis. In rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Lansheng), we cloned three DREB homologs: OsDREB1-1, OsDREB4- 1, and OsDREB4-2. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed that each protein contained a potential nuclear localization signal, an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a possible acidic activation domain. The yeast one-hybrid assay indicated that both OsDREB4-1 and OsDREB4-2 proteins specifically bound to DRE and activated expression of the dual reporter genes of histidine (HIS3) and galactosidase (LacZ). In rice seedlings,expression of OsDREB4-1 was induced by dehydration and high salt, whereas OsDREB1-1 and OsDREB4-2 were expressed constitutively. Under normal growth conditions, OsDREB1-1 was expressed strongly in the leaf, sheath, and spike, was expressed relatively weak in the stem and only faintly expressed in the roots,whereas expression of transcripts of OsDREB4-1 and OsDREB4-2 was higher in the roots, stem, and spike,lower in the leaf, and undetectable in the sheath. Together, these results imply that expression of the OsDREB genes could be controlled by specific aspects of differentiation or development. Thus, OsDREB4-1 could function as a trans-acting factor in the DRE/DREB regulated stress-responsive pathway.

  12. Mutational analysis of a predicted zinc-binding motif in the 26-kilodalton protein encoded by the vaccinia virus A2L gene: correlation of zinc binding with late transcriptional transactivation activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Keck, J G; Feigenbaum, F; B. Moss

    1993-01-01

    Transient transfection assays indicated that A2L is one of three vaccinia virus intermediate genes that are required for the transcriptional transactivation of viral late genes. We have expressed the A2L open reading frame in Escherichia coli and shown by blotting experiments that the 26-kDa protein binds zinc, a property predicted by the presence of a CX2CX13CX2C zinc finger motif. The specificity for zinc binding was demonstrated by competition with other metals. The role of the sequence mo...

  13. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jingna; Cui, Jing; Cheng, Jin; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%-8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein-RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein-RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions.

  14. The highly conserved serine threonine kinase StkP of Streptococcus pneumoniae contributes to penicillin susceptibility independently from genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ricardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serine/threonine kinase StkP of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major virulence factor in the mouse model of infection. StkP is a modular protein with a N-terminal kinase domain a C-terminal PASTA domain carrying the signature of penicillin-binding protein (PBP and prokaryotic serine threonine kinase. In laboratory cultures, one target of StkP is the phosphoglucosamine mutase GlmM involved in the first steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. In order to further elucidate the importance of StkP in S. pneumoniae, its role in resistance to β-lactams has been assessed by mutational analysis in laboratory cultures and its genetic conservation has been investigated in isolates from infected sites (virulent, asymptomatic carriers, susceptible and non-susceptible to β-lactams. Results Deletion replacement mutation in stkP conferred hypersensitivity to penicillin G and was epistatic on mutations in PBP2X, PBP2B and PBP1A from the resistant 9V clinical isolate URA1258. Genetic analysis of 55 clinical isolates identified 11 StkP alleles differing from the reference R6 allele. None relevant mutation in the kinase or the PASTA domains were found to account for susceptibility of the isolates. Rather the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the strains appeared to be determined by their PBP alleles. Conclusion The results of genetic dissection analysis in lab strain Cp1015 reveal that StkP is involved in the bacterial response to penicillin and is epistatic on mutations PBP 2B, 2X and 1A. However analysis of the clinical isolates did not allow us to find the StkP alleles putatively involved in determining the virulence or the resistance level of a given strain, suggesting a strong conservation of StkP in clinical isolates.

  15. A HIV-Tat/C4-binding protein chimera encoded by a DNA vaccine is highly immunogenic and contains acute EcoHIV infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomusange, Khamis; Wijesundara, Danushka; Gummow, Jason; Garrod, Tamsin; Li, Yanrui; Gray, Lachlan; Churchill, Melissa; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Gowans, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccines are cost-effective to manufacture on a global scale and Tat-based DNA vaccines have yielded protective outcomes in preclinical and clinical models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), highlighting the potential of such vaccines. However, Tat-based DNA vaccines have been poorly immunogenic, and despite the administration of multiple doses and/or the addition of adjuvants, these vaccines are not in general use. In this study, we improved Tat immunogenicity by fusing it with the oligomerisation domain of a chimeric C4-binding protein (C4b-p), termed IMX313, resulting in Tat heptamerisation and linked Tat to the leader sequence of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) to ensure that the bulk of heptamerised Tat is secreted. Mice vaccinated with secreted Tat fused to IMX313 (pVAX-sTat-IMX313) developed higher titres of Tat-specific serum IgG, mucosal sIgA and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and showed superior control of EcoHIV infection, a surrogate murine HIV challenge model, compared with animals vaccinated with other test vaccines. Given the crucial contribution of Tat to HIV-1 pathogenesis and the precedent of Tat-based DNA vaccines in conferring some level of protection in animal models, we believe that the virologic control demonstrated with this novel multimerised Tat vaccine highlights the promise of this vaccine candidate for humans. PMID:27358023

  16. A HIV-Tat/C4-binding protein chimera encoded by a DNA vaccine is highly immunogenic and contains acute EcoHIV infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomusange, Khamis; Wijesundara, Danushka; Gummow, Jason; Garrod, Tamsin; Li, Yanrui; Gray, Lachlan; Churchill, Melissa; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Gowans, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA vaccines are cost-effective to manufacture on a global scale and Tat-based DNA vaccines have yielded protective outcomes in preclinical and clinical models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), highlighting the potential of such vaccines. However, Tat-based DNA vaccines have been poorly immunogenic, and despite the administration of multiple doses and/or the addition of adjuvants, these vaccines are not in general use. In this study, we improved Tat immunogenicity by fusing it with the oligomerisation domain of a chimeric C4-binding protein (C4b-p), termed IMX313, resulting in Tat heptamerisation and linked Tat to the leader sequence of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) to ensure that the bulk of heptamerised Tat is secreted. Mice vaccinated with secreted Tat fused to IMX313 (pVAX-sTat-IMX313) developed higher titres of Tat-specific serum IgG, mucosal sIgA and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and showed superior control of EcoHIV infection, a surrogate murine HIV challenge model, compared with animals vaccinated with other test vaccines. Given the crucial contribution of Tat to HIV-1 pathogenesis and the precedent of Tat-based DNA vaccines in conferring some level of protection in animal models, we believe that the virologic control demonstrated with this novel multimerised Tat vaccine highlights the promise of this vaccine candidate for humans. PMID:27358023

  17. Protein interaction analysis of senataxin and the ALS4 L389S mutant yields insights into senataxin post-translational modification and uncovers mutant-specific binding with a brain cytoplasmic RNA-encoded peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L Bennett

    Full Text Available Senataxin is a large 303 kDa protein linked to neuron survival, as recessive mutations cause Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2, and dominant mutations cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4. Senataxin contains an amino-terminal protein-interaction domain and a carboxy-terminal DNA/RNA helicase domain. In this study, we focused upon the common ALS4 mutation, L389S, by performing yeast two-hybrid screens of a human brain expression library with control senataxin or L389S senataxin as bait. Interacting clones identified from the two screens were collated, and redundant hits and false positives subtracted to yield a set of 13 protein interactors. Among these hits, we discovered a highly specific and reproducible interaction of L389S senataxin with a peptide encoded by the antisense sequence of a brain-specific non-coding RNA, known as BCYRN1. We further found that L389S senataxin interacts with other proteins containing regions of conserved homology with the BCYRN1 reverse complement-encoded peptide, suggesting that such aberrant protein interactions may contribute to L389S ALS4 disease pathogenesis. As the yeast two-hybrid screen also demonstrated senataxin self-association, we confirmed senataxin dimerization via its amino-terminal binding domain and determined that the L389S mutation does not abrogate senataxin self-association. Finally, based upon detection of interactions between senataxin and ubiquitin-SUMO pathway modification enzymes, we examined senataxin for the presence of ubiquitin and SUMO monomers, and observed this post-translational modification. Our senataxin protein interaction study reveals a number of features of senataxin biology that shed light on senataxin normal function and likely on senataxin molecular pathology in ALS4.

  18. The gene encoding acyl-CoA-binding protein is subject to metabolic regulation by both sterol regulatory element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in hepatocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Maria B; Bloksgaard, Maria; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel;

    2005-01-01

    gene in hepatocytes. Members of the SREBP family activate the rat ACBP gene through binding sites for SREBP and the auxiliary factors Sp1 and nuclear factor Y in the proximal promoter. In addition, we show that ACBP is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha target gene in cultured...

  19. Computational Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins and Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingna Si

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteins and RNA interaction have vital roles in many cellular processes such as protein synthesis, sequence encoding, RNA transfer, and gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Approximately 6%–8% of all proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs. Distinguishing these RBPs or their binding residues is a major aim of structural biology. Previously, a number of experimental methods were developed for the determination of protein–RNA interactions. However, these experimental methods are expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. Alternatively, researchers have developed many computational approaches to predict RBPs and protein–RNA binding sites, by combining various machine learning methods and abundant sequence and/or structural features. There are three kinds of computational approaches, which are prediction from protein sequence, prediction from protein structure, and protein-RNA docking. In this paper, we review all existing studies of predictions of RNA-binding sites and RBPs and complexes, including data sets used in different approaches, sequence and structural features used in several predictors, prediction method classifications, performance comparisons, evaluation methods, and future directions.

  20. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene. PMID:26529408

  1. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1 and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Lima

    Full Text Available TATA-box binding protein (TBP is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1. Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5 and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  2. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1) and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lima, Oscar; García-Gutierrez, Ponciano; Jiménez, Lucía; Zarain-Herzberg, Ángel; Lazzarini, Roberto; Landa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1). Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5) and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx) gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  3. Characterization of a gene family encoding SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain proteins with lectin-like and heme-binding properties from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristus Chibunna Mbanefo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified a novel gene family dispersed in the genome of Schistosoma japonicum by retrotransposon-mediated gene duplication mechanism. Although many transcripts were identified, no homolog was readily identifiable from sequence information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we utilized structural homology modeling and biochemical methods to identify remote homologs, and characterized the gene products as SEA (sea-urchin sperm protein, enterokinase and agrin-domain containing proteins. A common extracellular domain in this family was structurally similar to SEA-domain. SEA-domain is primarily a structural domain, known to assist or regulate binding to glycans. Recombinant proteins from three members of this gene family specifically interacted with glycosaminoglycans with high affinity, with potential implication in ligand acquisition and immune evasion. Similar approach was used to identify a heme-binding site on the SEA-domain. The heme-binding mode showed heme molecule inserted into a hydrophobic pocket, with heme iron putatively coordinated to two histidine axial ligands. Heme-binding properties were confirmed using biochemical assays and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, which showed high affinity heme-binding (K D = 1.605×10(-6 M and cognate spectroscopic attributes of hexa-coordinated heme iron. The native proteins were oligomers, antigenic, and are localized on adult worm teguments and gastrodermis; major host-parasite interfaces and site for heme detoxification and acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest potential role, at least in the nucleation step of heme crystallization (hemozoin formation, and as receptors for heme uptake. Survival strategies exploited by parasites, including heme homeostasis mechanism in hemoparasites, are paramount for successful parasitism. Thus, assessing prospects for application in disease intervention is warranted.

  4. BINDING ISOTHERMS SURFACTANT-PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Irina Moater; Cristiana Radulescu; Ionica Ionita

    2011-01-01

    The interactions between surfactants and proteins shows some similarities with interactions between surfactants and polymers, but the hydrophobic amphoteric nature of proteins and their secondary and tertiary structure components make them different from conventional polymer systems. Many studies from the past about surfactant - proteins bonding used the dialysis techniques. Other techniques used to determine the binding isotherm, included ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, potentiometry, ...

  5. Landscape of protein-small ligand binding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kota; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms of specific small-molecule (ligand) recognition by proteins is a long-standing conundrum. While the structures of these molecules, proteins and ligands, have been extensively studied, protein-ligand interactions, or binding modes, have not been comprehensively analyzed. Although methods for assessing similarities of binding site structures have been extensively developed, the methods for the computational treatment of binding modes have not been well established. Here, we developed a computational method for encoding the information about binding modes as graphs, and assessing their similarities. An all-against-all comparison of 20,040 protein-ligand complexes provided the landscape of the protein-ligand binding modes and its relationships with protein- and chemical spaces. While similar proteins in the same SCOP Family tend to bind relatively similar ligands with similar binding modes, the correlation between ligand and binding similarities was not very high (R(2)  = 0.443). We found many pairs with novel relationships, in which two evolutionally distant proteins recognize dissimilar ligands by similar binding modes (757,474 pairs out of 200,790,780 pairs were categorized into this relationship, in our dataset). In addition, there were an abundance of pairs of homologous proteins binding to similar ligands with different binding modes (68,217 pairs). Our results showed that many interesting relationships between protein-ligand complexes are still hidden in the structure database, and our new method for assessing binding mode similarities is effective to find them.

  6. Landscape of protein-small ligand binding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kota; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms of specific small-molecule (ligand) recognition by proteins is a long-standing conundrum. While the structures of these molecules, proteins and ligands, have been extensively studied, protein-ligand interactions, or binding modes, have not been comprehensively analyzed. Although methods for assessing similarities of binding site structures have been extensively developed, the methods for the computational treatment of binding modes have not been well established. Here, we developed a computational method for encoding the information about binding modes as graphs, and assessing their similarities. An all-against-all comparison of 20,040 protein-ligand complexes provided the landscape of the protein-ligand binding modes and its relationships with protein- and chemical spaces. While similar proteins in the same SCOP Family tend to bind relatively similar ligands with similar binding modes, the correlation between ligand and binding similarities was not very high (R(2)  = 0.443). We found many pairs with novel relationships, in which two evolutionally distant proteins recognize dissimilar ligands by similar binding modes (757,474 pairs out of 200,790,780 pairs were categorized into this relationship, in our dataset). In addition, there were an abundance of pairs of homologous proteins binding to similar ligands with different binding modes (68,217 pairs). Our results showed that many interesting relationships between protein-ligand complexes are still hidden in the structure database, and our new method for assessing binding mode similarities is effective to find them. PMID:27327045

  7. Grafting of protein-protein binding sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A strategy for grafting protein-protein binding sites is described. Firstly, key interaction residues at the interface of ligand protein to be grafted are identified and suitable positions in scaffold protein for grafting these key residues are sought. Secondly, the scaffold proteins are superposed onto the ligand protein based on the corresponding Ca and Cb atoms. The complementarity between the scaffold protein and the receptor protein is evaluated and only matches with high score are accepted. The relative position between scaffold and receptor proteins is adjusted so that the interface has a reasonable packing density. Then the scaffold protein is mutated to corresponding residues in ligand protein at each candidate position. And the residues having bad steric contacts with the receptor proteins, or buried charged residues not involved in the formation of any salt bridge are mutated. Finally, the mutated scaffold protein in complex with receptor protein is co-minimized by Charmm. In addition, we deduce a scoring function to evaluate the affinity between mutated scaffold protein and receptor protein by statistical analysis of rigid binding data sets.

  8. Structural studies of sugar binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani

    2010-01-01

    Binding proteins, which are themselves non-enzymatic, play an important role in enzymatic reactions as well as non-enzymatic processes by providing a binding platform for the specific recognition of particular molecules. For example, periplasmic binding proteins play a vital role in nutrient uptake in Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, three sugar binding proteins, including two periplasmic binding proteins and a β-glucan binding protein, are described. The glucose/galactose bindin...

  9. Probing protein phosphatase substrate binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlys-Larsen, Kim B.; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Jensen, Knud Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    profile of the integrin-linked kinase associated phosphatase (ILKAP), a member of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family. Phosphatases can potentially dephosphorylate these phosphopeptide substrates but, interestingly, performing the binding studies at 4 °C allowed efficient binding to phosphopeptides...... around the phosphorylated residue are important for the binding affinity of ILKAP. We conclude that solid-phase affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures can be applied in phosphoproteomics and systems biology.......Proteomics and high throughput analysis for systems biology can benefit significantly from solid-phase chemical tools for affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures. Here we report the application of solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides for pull-down and analysis of the affinity...

  10. Deoxyribonucleic-binding homeobox proteins are augmented in human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Mercurio, A M; Chung, S Y;

    1990-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression during embryonic development. In this study, we examined the expression of homeobox proteins in human cancer. Antiserum was obtained against a synthetic peptide derived from the hig...

  11. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  12. Human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H; Nielsen, B B;

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin (TN) and the C-type lectin CRD of this protein (TN3) have been crystallized. TN3 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(2)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = b = 64.0, c = 75.7 A and with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals...... to at least 2.5 A. A full data set has been collected to 3.0 A. The asymmetric unit contains one monomer of TN. Molecular replacement solutions for TN3 and TN have been obtained using the structure of the C-type lectin CRD of rat mannose-binding protein as search model. The rhombohedral space group indicates...

  13. Protein Binding between PcrG-PcrV and PcrH-PopB/PopD Encoded by the pcrGVH-popBD Operon of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretion System

    OpenAIRE

    Allmond, Leonard R.; Karaca, Timur J.; Nguyen, Vinh N.; Nguyen, Thong; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.; Sawa, Teiji

    2003-01-01

    Of the proteins encoded by the pcrGVH-popBD operon of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system, PcrG bound to PcrV and PcrH bound to PopB/PopD. In addition, Yersinia LcrG bound to PcrV, and Yersinia LcrH bound to PopD. The results imply a highly functional conservation of type III secretion between P. aeruginosa and Yersinia species.

  14. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  15. Calmodulin Binding Proteins and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Day, Danton H.; Eshak, Kristeen; Myre, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The small, calcium-sensor protein, calmodulin, is ubiquitously expressed and central to cell function in all cell types. Here the literature linking calmodulin to Alzheimer’s disease is reviewed. Several experimentally-verified calmodulin-binding proteins are involved in the formation of amyloid-β plaques including amyloid-β protein precursor, β-secretase, presenilin-1, and ADAM10. Many others possess potential calmodulin-binding domains that remain to be verified. Three calmodulin binding proteins are associated with the formation of neurofibrillary tangles: two kinases (CaMKII, CDK5) and one protein phosphatase (PP2B or calcineurin). Many of the genes recently identified by genome wide association studies and other studies encode proteins that contain putative calmodulin-binding domains but only a couple (e.g., APOE, BIN1) have been experimentally confirmed as calmodulin binding proteins. At least two receptors involved in calcium metabolism and linked to Alzheimer’s disease (mAchR; NMDAR) have also been identified as calmodulin-binding proteins. In addition to this, many proteins that are involved in other cellular events intimately associated with Alzheimer’s disease including calcium channel function, cholesterol metabolism, neuroinflammation, endocytosis, cell cycle events, and apoptosis have been tentatively or experimentally verified as calmodulin binding proteins. The use of calmodulin as a potential biomarker and as a therapeutic target is discussed. PMID:25812852

  16. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan;

    2005-01-01

    Folate is an essential vitamin involved in a number of biological processes. High affinity folate binding proteins (FBPs) exist both as glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked, membrane associated folate binding proteins and as soluble FBPs in plasma and some secretory fluids such as milk, saliva...... to bind and mediate cellular uptake of FBP. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows binding of bovine and human milk FBP to immobilized megalin, but not to low density lipoprotein receptor related protein. Binding of (125)I-labeled folate binding protein (FBP) to sections of kidney proximal tubule, known...... to express high levels of megalin, is inhibitable by excess unlabeled FBP and by receptor associated protein, a known inhibitor of binding to megalin. Immortalized rat yolk sac cells, representing an established model for studying megalin-mediated uptake, reveal (125)I-labeled FBP uptake which is inhibited...

  17. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  18. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, Gisela K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described.

  19. Selection for Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins and Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robert D.; Gu, Qimin; Goddard, Audrey; Rosenthal, Arnon

    1996-07-01

    Extracellular proteins play an essential role in the formation, differentiation, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Despite that, the systematic identification of genes encoding these proteins has not been possible. We describe here a highly efficient method to isolate genes encoding secreted and membrane-bound proteins by using a single-step selection in yeast. Application of this method, termed signal peptide selection, to various tissues yielded 559 clones that appear to encode known or novel extracellular proteins. These include members of the transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor protein families, endocrine hormones, tyrosine kinase receptors, serine/threonine kinase receptors, seven transmembrane receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, plasma proteins, and ion channels. The eventual identification of most, or all, extracellular signaling molecules will advance our understanding of fundamental biological processes and our ability to intervene in disease states.

  20. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. The genes that encode the gonococcal transferrin binding proteins, TbpB and TbpA, are differentially regulated by MisR under iron-replete and iron-depleted conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Justin L; Acevedo, Rosuany Vélez; Dickinson, Mary Kathryne; Cash, Devin R; Shafer, William M; Cornelissen, Cynthia Nau

    2016-10-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces two transferrin binding proteins, TbpA and TbpB, which together enable efficient iron transport from human transferrin. We demonstrate that expression of the tbp genes is controlled by MisR, a response regulator in the two-component regulatory system that also includes the sensor kinase MisS. The tbp genes were up-regulated in the misR mutant under iron-replete conditions but were conversely down-regulated in the misR mutant under iron-depleted conditions. The misR mutant was capable of transferrin-iron uptake at only 50% of wild-type levels, consistent with decreased tbp expression. We demonstrate that phosphorylated MisR specifically binds to the tbpBA promoter and that MisR interacts with five regions upstream of the tbpB start codon. These analyses confirm that MisR directly regulates tbpBA expression. The MisR binding sites in the gonococcus are only partially conserved in Neisseria meningitidis, which may explain why tbpBA was not MisR-regulated in previous studies using this related pathogen. This is the first report of a trans-acting protein factor other than Fur that can directly contribute to gonococcal tbpBA regulation.

  2. Identification of a mammalian nuclear factor and human cDNA-encoded proteins that recognize DNA containing apurinic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage to DNA can have lethal or mutagenic consequences for cells unless it is detected and repaired by cellular proteins. Repair depends on the ability of cellular factors to distinguish the damaged sites. Electrophoretic binding assays were used to identify a factor from the nuclei of mammalian cells that bound to DNA containing apurinic sites. A binding assay based on the use of β-galactosidase fusion proteins was subsequently used to isolate recombinant clones of human cDNAs that encoded apurinic DNA-binding proteins. Two distinct human cDNAs were identified that encoded proteins that bound apurinic DNA preferentially over undamaged, methylated, or UV-irradiated DNA. These approaches may offer a general method for the detection of proteins that recognize various types of DNA damage and for the cloning of genes encoding such proteins

  3. Characterization of a calmodulin binding protein kinase from Arabidopsis thalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A full-length calmodulin binding protein kinase cDNA, AtCBK1, from Arabidopsis has been isolated by screening of an Arabidopsis cDNA library and by 5′-RACE. Northern blot and in situ hybridization indicated that the expression of AtCBK1 was more abundant in the vascular bundles and the meristems than in other tissues. The phylogenetic analyses reveal that AtCBK1 is different from animal CaMKs and it falls into CRK subgroup, indicating that they may come from different ancestors. The result suggests that AtCBK1 encodes a CaM-binding serine/threonine protein kinase.

  4. Advances on Plant Pathogenic Mycotoxin Binding Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao-hua; DONG Jin-gao

    2002-01-01

    Toxin-binding protein is one of the key subjects in plant pathogenic mycotoxin research. In this paper, new advances in toxin-binding proteins of 10 kinds of plant pathogenic mycotoxins belonging to Helminthosporium ,Alternaria ,Fusicoccum ,Verticillium were reviewed, especially the techniques and methods of toxin-binding proteins of HS-toxin, HV-toxin, HMT-toxin, HC-toxin. It was proposed that the isotope-labeling technique and immunological chemistry technique should be combined together in research of toxin-binding protein, which will be significant to study the molecular recognition mechanism between host and pathogenic fungus.

  5. The early UL31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the C-terminus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongman; Chul Ahn, Byung; O' Callaghan, Dennis J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States); Kim, Seong Kee, E-mail: skim1@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    The amino acid sequence of the UL31 protein (UL31P) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has homology to that of the ICP8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Here we show that the UL31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the IEP and the UL5P (EICP27). Detection of the UL31 RNA transcript and the UL31P in EHV-1-infected cells at 6 h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that UL31 is an early gene. The UL31P preferentially bound to single-stranded DNA over double-stranded DNA in gel shift assays. Subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-UL31 fusion proteins revealed that the C-terminal 32 amino acid residues of the UL31P are responsible for the nuclear localization. These findings may contribute to defining the role of the UL31P single-stranded DNA-binding protein in EHV-1 DNA replication.

  6. Retinoid-binding proteins: similar protein architectures bind similar ligands via completely different ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoids are a class of compounds that are chemically related to vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in vision, cell growth and differentiation. In vivo, retinoids must bind with specific proteins to perform their necessary functions. Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and epididymal retinoic acid binding protein (ERABP carry retinoids in bodily fluids, while cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs carry retinoids within cells. Interestingly, although all of these transport proteins possess similar structures, the modes of binding for the different retinoid ligands with their carrier proteins are different. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we analyzed the various retinoid transport mechanisms using structure and sequence comparisons, binding site analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that in the same family of proteins and subcellular location, the orientation of a retinoid molecule within a binding protein is same, whereas when different families of proteins are considered, the orientation of the bound retinoid is completely different. In addition, none of the amino acid residues involved in ligand binding is conserved between the transport proteins. However, for each specific binding protein, the amino acids involved in the ligand binding are conserved. The results of this study allow us to propose a possible transport model for retinoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the differences in the binding modes between the different retinoid-binding proteins.

  7. Penicillin-Binding Protein Imaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Carlson, Erin E.

    2013-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are membrane-associated proteins involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (PG), the main component of bacterial cell walls. These proteins were discovered and named for their affinity to bind the β-lactam antibiotic penicillin. The importance of the PBPs has long been appreciated; however, the apparent functional redundancy of the ~5–15 proteins that most bacteria possess makes determination of their individual roles difficult. Existing techniques to st...

  8. Genetically encoded cleavable protein photo-cross-linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shixian; He, Dan; Long, Teng; Zhang, Shuai; Meng, Rong; Chen, Peng R

    2014-08-27

    We have developed a genetically encoded, selenium-based cleavable photo-cross-linker that allows for the separation of bait and prey proteins after protein photo-cross-linking. We have further demonstrated the efficient capture of the in situ generated selenenic acid on the cleaved prey proteins. Our strategy involves tagging the selenenic acid with an alkyne-containing dimethoxyaniline molecule and subsequently labeling with an azide-bearing fluorophore or biotin probe. This cleavage-and-capture after protein photo-cross-linking strategy allows for the efficient capture of prey proteins that are readily accessible by two-dimensional gel-based proteomics and mass spectrometry analysis.

  9. RNA-binding proteins in plants: the tip of an iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.; Federoff, N. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins, which are involved in the synthesis, processing, transport, translation, and degradation of RNA, are emerging as important, often multifunctional, cellular regulatory proteins. Although relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been studied in plants, they are being identified with increasing frequency, both genetically and biochemically. RNA-binding proteins that regulate chloroplast mRNA stability and translation in response to light and that have been elegantly analyzed in Clamydomonas reinhardtii have counterparts with similar functions in higher plants. Several recent reports describe mutations in genes encoding RNA-binding proteins that affect plant development and hormone signaling.

  10. Characterization of the CI Repressor Protein Encoded by the Temperate Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Ligowska, Malgorzata Anna; Hammer, Karin

    2010-01-01

    The gene regulatory mechanism determining the developmental pathway of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1 is regulated by two phage-encoded proteins, CI and MOR. Functional domains of the CI repressor were investigated by introducing linkers of 15 bp at various positions in cI and by limited...... proteolysis of purified CI protein. We show that insertions of five amino acids at positions in the N-terminal half of CI resulted in mutant proteins that could no longer repress transcription from the lytic promoter, P-L. We confirmed that the N-terminal domain of CI contains the DNA binding site, and we...... showed that this part of the protein is tightly folded, whereas the central part and the C-terminal part of CI seem to contain more flexible structures. Furthermore, insertions at several different positions in the central part of the CI protein reduced the cooperative binding of CI to the operator sites...

  11. pipsqueak Encodes a Factor Essential for Sequence-Specific Targeting of a Polycomb Group Protein Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Der-HwaHuang; Yuh-LongChang; Chih-ChaoYang; I-ChingPan; BalasKing

    2005-01-01

    The Polycomb (Pc) group (Pc-G) of repressors is essential for transcriptional silencing of homeotic genes that determine the axial development of metazoan animals. It is generally believed that the multimeric complexes formed by these proteins nucleate certain chromatin structures to silence promoter activity upon binding to Pc-G response elements (PRE). Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanism involved in sequence-specific binding of these complexes. Here, we show that an immunoa ffinity-purified Pc protein complex contains a DNA binding activity specific to the (GA), motif in a PRE from the bithoraxoid region. We found that this activity can be attributed primarily to the large protein isoform encoded by pipsqueak (psq) instead of to the well-characterized GAGA factor. The functional relevance ofpsq to the silencing mechanismis strongly supported by its synergistic interactions with a subset of Pc-G that cause misexpression of homeotic genes.

  12. Genetically encoded protein photocrosslinker with a transferable mass spectrometry-identifiable label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Song, Haiping; He, Dan; Zhang, Shuai; Dai, Shizhong; Lin, Shixian; Meng, Rong; Wang, Chu; Chen, Peng R.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling photocrosslinking reagents with mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for studying protein–protein interactions in living systems, but it still suffers from high rates of false-positive identifications as well as the lack of information on interaction interface due to the challenges in deciphering crosslinking peptides. Here we develop a genetically encoded photo-affinity unnatural amino acid that introduces a mass spectrometry-identifiable label (MS-label) to the captured prey proteins after photocrosslinking and prey–bait separation. This strategy, termed IMAPP (In-situ cleavage and MS-label transfer After Protein Photocrosslinking), enables direct identification of photo-captured substrate peptides that are difficult to uncover by conventional genetically encoded photocrosslinkers. Taking advantage of the MS-label, the IMAPP strategy significantly enhances the confidence for identifying protein–protein interactions and enables simultaneous mapping of the binding interface under living conditions. PMID:27460181

  13. A Venom Gland Extracellular Chitin-Binding-Like Protein from Pupal Endoparasitoid Wasps, Pteromalus Puparum, Selectively Binds Chitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin-binding proteins (CBPs are present in many species and they act in a variety of biological processes. We analyzed a Pteromalus puparum venom apparatus proteome and transcriptome and identified a partial gene encoding a possible CBP. Here, we report cloning a full-length cDNA of a sequence encoding a chitin-binding-like protein (PpCBP from P. puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae. The cDNA encoded a 96-amino-acid protein, including a secretory signal peptide and a chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain. Phylogenetic analysis of chitin binding domains (CBDs of cuticle proteins and peritrophic matrix proteins in selected insects revealed that the CBD of PpCBP clustered with the CBD of Nasonia vitripennis. The PpCBP is specifically expressed in the venom apparatus of P. puparum, mostly in the venom gland. PpCBP expression was highest at day one after adult eclosion and much lower for the following five days. We produced a recombinant PpCBP and binding assays showed the recombinant protein selectively binds chitin but not cellulose in vitro. We infer that PpCBP serves a structural role in the venom reservoir, or may be injected into the host to help wound healing of the host exoskeleton.

  14. Alcohol Binding to the Odorant Binding Protein LUSH: Multiple Factors Affecting Binding Affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Ader, Lauren; Jones, David N. M.; Lin, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Density function theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out to investigate the binding of alcohols to the odorant binding protein LUSH from Drosophila melanogaster. LUSH is one of the few proteins known to bind to ethanol at physiologically relevant concentrations and where high-resolution structural information is available for the protein bound to alcohol at these concentrations. The structures of the LUSH–alcohol complexes identify a set of specific hydrogen-bonding interactions as cr...

  15. Expression cloning of a cDNA encoding the murine interleukin 4 receptor based on ligand binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, N.; Castle, B.E.; Gorman, D.M.; Itoh, A.; Schreurs, J.; Barrett, R.L.; Howard, M.; Miyajima, A. (DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a potent mediator of growth and differentiation for various lymphoid and myeloid cells. To isolate a cDNA encoding the murine IL-4 receptor, the authors have developed an expression cloning method that uses biotinylated ligand as a probe and that may be generally applicable to cloning of receptor genes. COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the cloned full-length cDNA bind murine IL-4 specifically with a K{sub d} = 165 pM. Crosslinking of {sup 125}I-labeled IL-4 to COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA reveals binding to proteins of 120-140 kDa. IL-4-responsive cells also express IL-4-binding proteins of 120-140 kDa but show additional bands at 60-70 kDa; the relationship of the smaller proteins to the larger ones is unclear. The nucleotide sequence indicates that the full-length cDNA encodes 810 amino acids including the signal sequence. While no consensus sequence for protein kinases is present in the cytoplasmic domain, a sequence comparison with the erythropoietin receptor, the IL-6 receptor, and the {beta} chain of the IL-2 receptor reveals a significant homology in the extracellular domain, indicating that the IL-4 receptor is a member of a cytokine receptor family.

  16. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Knudsen, J; Poulsen, F M

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein...... and of the complex with palmitoyl-CoA using NMR spectroscopy. In the four alpha-helix bundle structure, a set of 21 highly conserved residues present in more that 90% of all known sequences of acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins constitutes three separate mini-cores. These residues are predominantly located...... at the helix-helix interfaces. From studies of a large set of mutant proteins the role of the conserved residues has been related to structure, function, folding and stability....

  17. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein, ACBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; Knudsen, J.; Poulsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein...... and of the complex with palmitoyl-CoA using NMR spectroscopy. In the four a-helix bundle structure, a set of 21 highly conserved residues present in more that 90% of all known sequences of acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins constitutes three separate mini-cores. These residues are predominantly located at the helix......-helix interfaces. From studies of a large set of mutant proteins the role of the conserved residues has been related to structure, function, folding and stability....

  18. ParA encoded on chromosome II of Deinococcus radiodurans binds to nucleoid and inhibits cell division in Escherichia coli

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijaya Kumar Charaka; Kruti P Mehta; H S Misra

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial genome segregation and cell division has been studied mostly in bacteria harbouring single circular chromosome and low-copy plasmids. Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation-resistant bacterium, harbours multipartite genome system. Chromosome I encodes majority of the functions required for normal growth while other replicons encode mostly the proteins involved in secondary functions. Here, we report the characterization of putative P-loop ATPase (ParA2) encoded on chromosome II of D. radiodurans. Recombinant ParA2 was found to be a DNA-binding ATPase. E. coli cells expressing ParA2 showed cell division inhibition and mislocalization of FtsZ-YFP and those expressing ParA2-CFP showed multiple CFP foci formation on the nucleoid. Although, in trans expression of ParA2 failed to complement SlmA loss per se, it could induce unequal cell division in slmAminCDE double mutant. These results suggested that ParA2 is a nucleoid-binding protein, which could inhibits cell division in E. coli by affecting the correct localization of FtsZ and thereby cytokinesis. Helping slmAminCDE mutant to produce minicells, a phenotype associated with mutations in the `Min’ proteins, further indicated the possibility of ParA2 regulating cell division by bringing nucleoid compaction at the vicinity of septum growth.

  19. Cloning and characterization of a human c-myc promoter-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, R; Miller, D M

    1991-01-01

    A human cDNA clone encoding a c-myc promoter-binding protein was detected by screening a HeLa cell lambda phage expression cDNA library. The library was screened by using an XhoI-NaeI human c-myc P2 promoter fragment as a probe. The recombinant phage encoded a fusion protein, myc-binding protein 1 (MBP-1), which had an apparent molecular size of 40 kDa. A corresponding protein with a molecular size of 35 kDa was present in a HeLa cell extract. Sequence analysis of the cloned gene reveals an o...

  20. Calcineurin homologous protein: a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein family

    OpenAIRE

    Di Sole, Francesca; Vadnagara, Komal; MOE, ORSON W.; Babich, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) belongs to an evolutionarily conserved Ca2+-binding protein subfamily. The CHP subfamily is composed of CHP1, CHP2, and CHP3, which in vertebrates share significant homology at the protein level with each other and between other Ca2+-binding proteins. The CHP structure consists of two globular domains containing from one to four EF-hand structural motifs (calcium-binding regions composed of two helixes, E and F, joined by a loop), the myristoylation, a...

  1. Lipid Binding Proteins from Parasitic Platyhelmithes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela eAlvite

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs. Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesise their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms.HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates.Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organisation, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localisation, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment.

  2. Structure and characterization of a novel chicken biotin-binding protein A (BBP-A)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Mark S; Rissanen Kari; Nordlund Henri R; Halling Katrin K; Helttunen Kaisa J; Huuskonen Juhani; Niskanen Einari A; Määttä Juha AE; Hytönen Vesa P; Salminen Tiina A; Kulomaa Markku S; Laitinen Olli H; Airenne Tomi T

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The chicken genome contains a BBP-A gene showing similar characteristics to avidin family genes. In a previous study we reported that the BBP-A gene may encode a biotin-binding protein due to the high sequence similarity with chicken avidin, especially at regions encoding residues known to be located at the ligand-binding site of avidin. Results Here, we expand the repertoire of known macromolecular biotin binders by reporting a novel biotin-binding protein A (BBP-A) from ...

  3. Haptenation: Chemical Reactivity and Protein Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Chipinda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight chemical (LMW allergens are commonly referred to as haptens. Haptens must complex with proteins to be recognized by the immune system. The majority of occupationally related haptens are reactive, electrophilic chemicals, or are metabolized to reactive metabolites that form covalent bonds with nucleophilic centers on proteins. Nonelectrophilic protein binding may occur through disulfide exchange, coordinate covalent binding onto metal ions on metalloproteins or of metal allergens, themselves, to the major histocompatibility complex. Recent chemical reactivity kinetic studies suggest that the rate of protein binding is a major determinant of allergenic potency; however, electrophilic strength does not seem to predict the ability of a hapten to skew the response between Th1 and Th2. Modern proteomic mass spectrometry methods that allow detailed delineation of potential differences in protein binding sites may be valuable in predicting if a chemical will stimulate an immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. Chemical aspects related to both reactivity and protein-specific binding are discussed.

  4. Direct Pathogenic Effects of HERV-encoded Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Tranberg; Møller-Larsen, Anné; Petersen, Thor;

    and the possible direct pathogenic effects of HERV-encoded Env proteins on the CNS. Methods: Construction and characterization of a panel of recombinant Env-proteins is initiated and their pathogenic potential will be investigated: Fusiogenic potential analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Analysis...... of Env-induced apoptosis/necrosis in CNS cells will be performed by both DNA fragmentation ELISA and qPCR. Furthermore, the cellular localization of HERV-antigens on cells from patients with MS will be determined by confocal microscopy. A flow cytometric/confocal method has been optimized...

  5. Expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins: a macroarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futyma, Konrad; Miotła, Paweł; Różyńska, Krystyna; Zdunek, Małgorzata; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Wojcierowski, Jacek

    2014-12-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Poland, with well-established risk factors. Genetic instability and molecular alterations responsible for endometrial carcinogenesis have been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of cDNA macroarrays, the expression profiles of genes encoding extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in ECs. Tissue specimens were collected during surgical procedures from 40 patients with EC, and control tissue was collected from 9 patients with uterine leiomyomas. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR with radioisotope-labeled cDNA was performed. The levels of ECM protein gene expression in normal endometrial tissues were compared to the expression of these genes in EC specimens. Statistically significant differences in gene expression, stratified by clinical stage of the ECs, were detected for aggrecan, vitronectin, tenascin R, nidogen and two collagen proteins: type VIII chain α1 and type XI chain α2. All of these proteins were overexpressed in stage III endometrial carcinomas compared to levels in stage I and II uterine neoplasms. In conclusion, increased expression of genes encoding ECM proteins may play an important role in facilitating accelerated disease progression of human ECs.

  6. Protein Collapse is Encoded in the Folded State Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Himadri S; Hinczewski, Michael; Hori, Naoto; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Thirumalai, D

    2016-01-01

    Natural protein sequences that self-assemble to form globular structures are compact with high packing densities in the folded states. It is known that proteins unfold upon addition of denaturants, adopting random coil structures. The dependence of the radii of gyration on protein size in the folded and unfolded states obeys the same scaling laws as synthetic polymers. Thus, one might surmise that the mechanism of collapse in proteins and polymers ought to be similar. However, because the number of amino acids in single domain proteins is not significantly greater than about two hundred, it has not been resolved if the unfolded states of proteins are compact under conditions that favor the folded states - a problem at the heart of how proteins fold. By adopting a theory used to derive polymer-scaling laws, we find that the propensity for the unfolded state of a protein to be compact is universal and is encoded in the contact map of the folded state. Remarkably, analysis of over 2000 proteins shows that protei...

  7. A maize gene encoding an NADPH binding enzyme highly homologous to isoflavone reductases is activated in response to sulfur starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, S; Bolchi, A; Foroni, C; Percudani, R; Rossi, G L; Ottonello, S

    1996-01-01

    we isolated a novel gene that is selectively induced both in roots and shoots in response to sulfur starvation. This gene encodes a cytosolic, monomeric protein of 33 kD that selectively binds NADPH. The predicted polypeptide is highly homologous ( > 70%) to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but the maize protein (IRL for isoflavone reductase-like) belongs to a novel family of proteins present in a variety of plants. Anti-IRL antibodies specifically recognize IFR polypeptides, yet the maize protein is unable to use various isoflavonoids as substrates. IRL expression is correlated closely to glutathione availability: it is persistently induced in seedlings whose glutathione content is about fourfold lower than controls, and it is down-regulated rapidly when control levels of glutathione are restored. This glutathione-dependent regulation indicates that maize IRL may play a crucial role in the establishment of a thiol-independent response to oxidative stress under glutathione shortage conditions.

  8. Ancestral Protein Reconstruction Yields Insights into Adaptive Evolution of Binding Specificity in Solute-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Ben E; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-02-18

    The promiscuous functions of proteins are an important reservoir of functional novelty in protein evolution, but the molecular basis for binding promiscuity remains elusive. We used ancestral protein reconstruction to experimentally characterize evolutionary intermediates in the functional expansion of the polar amino acid-binding protein family, which has evolved to bind a variety of amino acids with high affinity and specificity. High-resolution crystal structures of an ancestral arginine-binding protein in complex with l-arginine and l-glutamine show that the promiscuous binding of l-glutamine is enabled by multi-scale conformational plasticity, water-mediated interactions, and selection of an alternative conformational substate productive for l-glutamine binding. Evolution of specialized glutamine-binding proteins from this ancestral protein was achieved by displacement of water molecules from the protein-ligand interface, reducing the entropic penalty associated with the promiscuous interaction. These results provide a structural and thermodynamic basis for the co-option of a promiscuous interaction in the evolution of binding specificity.

  9. Isolation and Primary Expression Analysis of a Full-Length cDNA Clone Encoding Small GTP-Binding Protein Gene CaRab8 in Pepper%辣椒小G蛋白CaRab8基因全长cDNA的分离及表达特征的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖燕; 肖翔; 林菁; 虞露; 陈桂信; 官德义; 何水林

    2011-01-01

    通过对辣椒均一化cDNA文库的筛选,分离获得了一个与烟草RAB8-2基因编码的蛋白有着高度同源性的cDNA阳性克隆,命名为CaR ab8.测序结果表明,该cDNA长度为961 bp,包含有651 bp的完整的开放阅读框,推测编码一个217个氨基酸的蛋白,该蛋白具有GTP/GDP结合活性必需的保守域和包括YYRGA在内的Rab家族成员特有的5个结构域.实时定量RT-PCR结果表明,CaRab8基因的表达水平在茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)的诱导下在短时间内呈上调表达,在相应时间点受水杨酸(SA)诱导下调表达.%One 961bp full -length cDNA clone was isolated from pepper normalized cDNA library, which containing a complete 651 bp open reading frame and encoding a putative protein composed of 217 amino acids. Amino acid sequence deduced by this cDNA clone showed high similarity to NtRAB8-2 protein from tobacco. The full-length cDNA was named CaRab8. The protein encoded by this cDNA clone included conserved domains for guanine nucleotide binding and GTPase activities and five domains specific to Rab family including YYRGA domain. Real time quantitative PCR analysis showed the expression level of CaRab8 was induced by MeJA while was repressed by SA.

  10. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Atshaves, B.P.; Martin, G G; Hostetler, H.A.; McIntosh, A.L.; Kier, A B; Schroeder, F.

    2010-01-01

    While low levels of unesterified long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are normal metabolic intermediates of dietary and endogenous fat, LCFAs are also potent regulators of key receptors/enzymes, and at high levels become toxic detergents within the cell. Elevated levels of LCFAs are associated with diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Consequently, mammals evolved fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind/sequester these potentially toxic free fatty acids in the cytosol and present them f...

  11. Aspects of Protein, Chemistry, Part II: Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Compares differences in function and behavior of two oxygen-binding proteins, myoglobin found in muscle and hemoglobin found in blood. Describes the mechanism of oxygen-binding and allosteric effect in hemoglobin; also describes the effect of pH on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. (CS)

  12. Tlys, a Newly Identified Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Transcript Expressed in the Lysogenic State, Encodes a DNA-Binding Protein Interacting at the Promoters of the Early Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Salvatore; She, Qunxin; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Contursi, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    While studying the gene expression of the Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1) in Sulfolobus solfataricus lysogenic cells, a novel viral transcript (Tlys) was identified. Transcriptional analysis revealed that Tlys is expressed only in the absence of UV irradiation and is downregulated during the growth of the lysogenic host. The correponding gene f55 lies between two transcriptional units (T6 and Tind) that are upregulated upon UV irradiation. The open reading frame f55 encodes a 6.3-kDa...

  13. Comparative study of methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropers H Hilger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation at CpG dinucleotides in genomic DNA is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism of gene expression control in vertebrates. Proteins with a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD can bind to single methylated CpGs and most of them are involved in transcription control. So far, five vertebrate MBD proteins have been described as MBD family members: MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MBD4 and MECP2. Results We performed database searches for new proteins containing an MBD and identified six amino acid sequences which are different from the previously described ones. Here we present a comparison of their MBD sequences, additional protein motifs and the expression of the encoding genes. A calculated unrooted dendrogram indicates the existence of at least four different groups of MBDs within these proteins. Two of these polypeptides, KIAA1461 and KIAA1887, were only present as predicted amino acid sequences based on a partial human cDNA. We investigated their expression by Northern blot analysis and found transcripts of ~8 kb and ~5 kb respectively, in all eight normal tissues studied. Conclusions Eleven polypeptides with a MBD could be identified in mouse and man. The analysis of protein domains suggests a role in transcriptional regulation for most of them. The knowledge of additional existing MBD proteins and their expression pattern is important in the context of Rett syndrome.

  14. Theoretical model of the three-dimensional structure of a disease resistance gene homolog encoding resistance protein in Vigna mungo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Jolly; Bahadur, Ranjit P

    2006-10-01

    Plant disease resistance (R) genes, the key players of innate immunity system in plants encode 'R' proteins. 'R' protein recognizes product of avirulance gene from the pathogen and activate downstream signaling responses leading to disease resistance. No three dimensional (3D) structural information of any 'R' proteins is available as yet. We have reported a 'R' gene homolog, the 'VMYR1', encoding 'R' protein in Vigna mungo. Here, we describe the homology modeling of the 'VMYR1' protein. The model was created by using the 3D structure of an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein from Vibrio cholerae as a template. The strategy for homology modeling was based on the high structural conservation in the superfamily of P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase in which target and template proteins belong. This is the first report of theoretical model structure of any 'R' proteins.

  15. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.;

    2004-01-01

    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article...... discusses the current knowledge on the structure and potential function of this protein. Several putative binding partners of ALG-2 have been identified hinting to functions of ALG-2 in apoptosis and possibly also in proliferation, endocytosis and transcriptional regulation during development. Gene deletion...

  16. Ice-Binding Proteins and Their Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Dolev, Maya; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) are a diverse class of proteins that assist organism survival in the presence of ice in cold climates. They have different origins in many organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, diatoms, plants, insects, and fish. This review covers the gamut of IBP structures and functions and the common features they use to bind ice. We discuss mechanisms by which IBPs adsorb to ice and interfere with its growth, evidence for their irreversible association with ice, and methods for enhancing the activity of IBPs. The applications of IBPs in the food industry, in cryopreservation, and in other technologies are vast, and we chart out some possibilities. PMID:27145844

  17. The chicken CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein alpha gene. Cloning, characterisation and tissue distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkhoven, CF; Gringhuis, SI; Ab, G

    1997-01-01

    We present the cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the chicken CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein alpha (cC/EBP alpha). The coding region and 1.5 kb of 5' flanking DNA form a CpG island. Comparison of the chicken C/EBP alpha sequence to the homologous proteins of other species reveals several ev

  18. The implications of alternative splicing in the ENCODE protein complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tress, Michael L.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Frankish, Adam;

    2007-01-01

    Alternative premessenger RNA splicing enables genes to generate more than one gene product. Splicing events that occur within protein coding regions have the potential to alter the biological function of the expressed protein and even to create new protein functions. Alternative splicing has been...... suggested as one explanation for the discrepancy between the number of human genes and functional complexity. Here, we carry out a detailed study of the alternatively spliced gene products annotated in the ENCODE pilot project. We find that alternative splicing in human genes is more frequent than has...... commonly been suggested, and we demonstrate that many of the potential alternative gene products will have markedly different structure and function from their constitutively spliced counterparts. For the vast majority of these alternative isoforms, little evidence exists to suggest they have a role...

  19. Information flow through calcium binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Ji Hyun; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous mode of biological communication, which regulates a great variety of vital processes in living systems. Such a signal typically begins with an elementary event, in which calcium ions bind to a protein, inducing a change in the protein's structure. Information can only be lost, from what was conveyed through this initial event, as the signal is further transduced through the downstream networks. In the present work we analyze and optimize the information flow in the calcium binding process. We explicitly calculate the mutual information between the calcium concentration and the states of the protein, using a simple model for allosteric regulation in a dimeric protein. The optimal solution depends on the dynamic range of the input as well as on the timescale of signal integration. According to our result, the optimizing strategy involves allowing the calcium-binding protein to be ``activated'' by a partial occupation of its sites, and tuning independently the strengths of cooperative interactions in the binding and unbinding processes.

  20. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  1. Separate Respiratory Phenotypes in Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (Mecp2) Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bissonnette, John M.; Knopp, Sharon J.

    2006-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) that encodes a DNA binding protein involved in gene silencing. Selective deletion of Mecp2 in post-mitotic neurons in mice results in a Rettlike phenotype characterized by disturbances in motor activity and body weight, suggesting that these symptoms are exclusively caused by neuronal deficiency. Included in the RTT phenotype are episodes of respiratory depression...

  2. AIdentification of encoding proteins related to SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Hu; SUN Lili; ZHOU Yuan; XIONG Qing; LI Zhiliang

    2004-01-01

    By sampling 100 encoding proteins from SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV, NC 004718) and other six coronaviruses and selecting 23 variables through stepwise multiple regression (SMR) from 172 variables, the multiple linear regression (MLR) model was established with good results of the quantitative modelling correlation coefficient R2 = 0.645 and the cross-validation correlation coefficient 0.375. After removing 4 outliers, the quantitative modelling and cross-validation correlation coefficients were R2 = 0.743 and R2CV=0.543, respectively.

  3. Structure and expression of major histocompatibility complex-binding protein 2, a 275-kDa zinc finger protein that binds to an enhancer of major histocompatibility complex class I genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, L.J. van 't; Lutz, P.M.; Isselbacher, K.J.; Bernards, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA encoding a transcription factor that binds to the enhancer of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes. MHC-binding protein 2 (MBP-2) is a 275-kDa protein, containing two sets of widely separated zinc fingers and a stretch of highly acidic amino acids, a putative

  4. Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, A M

    1987-01-01

    High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Subsets of this family include cytosolic initiation and elongation factors involved in protein synthesis, and cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin (Hughes, S.M. (1983) FEBS Lett. 164, 1-8). A distinct subset of guanine nucleotide binding proteins is membrane-associated; members of this subset include the ras gene products (Ellis, R.W. et al. (1981) Nature 292, 506-511) and the heterotrimeric G-proteins (also termed N-proteins) (Gilman, A.G. (1984) Cell 36, 577-579). Substantial evidence indicates that G-proteins act as signal transducers by coupling receptors (R) to effectors (E). A similar function has been suggested but not proven for the ras gene products. Known G-proteins include Gs and Gi, the G-proteins associated with stimulation and inhibition, respectively, of adenylate cyclase; transducin (TD), the G-protein coupling rhodopsin to cGMP phosphodiesterase in rod photoreceptors (Bitensky, M.W. et al. (1981) Curr. Top. Membr. Transp. 15, 237-271; Stryer, L. (1986) Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 9, 87-119), and Go, a G-protein of unknown function that is highly abundant in brain (Sternweis, P.C. and Robishaw, J.D. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 13806-13813; Neer, E.J. et al. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 14222-14229). G-proteins also participate in other signal transduction pathways, notably that involving phosphoinositide breakdown. In this review, I highlight recent progress in our understanding of the structure, function, and diversity of G-proteins. PMID:2435586

  5. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  6. Brain hyaluronan binding protein inhibits tumor growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋; 曹曼林; 王蕾

    2004-01-01

    Background Great efforts have been made to search for the angiogenic inhibitors in avascular tissues. Several proteins isolated from cartilage have been proved to have anti-angiogenic or anti-tumour effects. Because cartilage contains a great amount of hyaluronic acid (HA) oligosaccharides and abundant HA binding proteins (HABP), therefore, we speculated that HABP might be one of the factors regulating vascularization in cartilage or anti-angiogenesis in tumours. The purpose of this research was to evaluale the effects of hyaluronan binding protein on inhibiting tumour growth both in vivo and vitro. Methods A unique protein termed human brain hyaluronan (HA) binding protein (b-HABP) was cloned from human brain cDNA library. MDA-435 human breast cancer cell line was chosen as a transfectant. The in vitro underlying mechanisms were investigated by determining the possibilities of MDA-435/b-HABP colony formation on soft agar, the effects of the transfectant on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the expression levels of caspase 3 and FasL from MDA-435/b-HABP. The in vivo study included tumour growth on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos and nude mice. Results Colony formation assay revealed that the colonies formed by MDA-435/b-HABP were greatly reduced compared to mock transfectants. The conditioned media from MDA-435/b-HABP inhibited the growth of endothelial cells in culture. Caspase 3 and FasL expressions were induced by MDA-435/b-HABP. The size of tumours of MDA-435/b-HABP in both CAM and nude mice was much smaller than that of MDA-435 alone. Conclusions Human brain hyaluronan binding protein (b-HABP) may represent a new kind of naturally existing anti-tumour substance. This brain-derived glycoprotein may block tumour growth by inducing apoptosis of cancer cells or by decreasing angiogenesis in tumour tissue via inhibiting proliferation of endothelial cells.

  7. Properties of virion transactivator proteins encoded by primate cytomegaloviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus that causes severe disease in situations where the immune system is immature or compromised. HCMV immediate early (IE gene expression is stimulated by the virion phosphoprotein pp71, encoded by open reading frame (ORF UL82, and this transactivation activity is important for the efficient initiation of viral replication. It is currently recognized that pp71 acts to overcome cellular intrinsic defences that otherwise block viral IE gene expression, and that interactions of pp71 with the cell proteins Daxx and ATRX are important for this function. A further property of pp71 is the ability to enable prolonged gene expression from quiescent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 genomes. Non-human primate cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of pp71, but there is currently no published information that addresses their effects on gene expression and modes of action. Results The UL82 homolog encoded by simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV, strain Colburn, was identified and cloned. This ORF, named S82, was cloned into an HSV-1 vector, as were those from baboon, rhesus monkey and chimpanzee cytomegaloviruses. The use of an HSV-1 vector enabled expression of the UL82 homologs in a range of cell types, and permitted investigation of their abilities to direct prolonged gene expression from quiescent genomes. The results show that all UL82 homologs activate gene expression, and that neither host cell type nor promoter target sequence has major effects on these activities. Surprisingly, the UL82 proteins specified by non-human primate cytomegaloviruses, unlike pp71, did not direct long term expression from quiescent HSV-1 genomes. In addition, significant differences were observed in the intranuclear localization of the UL82 homologs, and in their effects on Daxx. Strikingly, S82 mediated the release of Daxx from nuclear domain 10 substructures much more rapidly than pp71 or the other proteins tested. All

  8. Regulation of adhE (Encoding Ethanol Oxidoreductase) by the Fis Protein in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrillo-Hernández, Jorge; Kwon, Ohsuk; De Wulf, Peter; Finkel, Steven E.; Lin, E. C. C.

    1999-01-01

    The adhE gene of Escherichia coli encodes a multifunctional ethanol oxidoreductase whose expression is 10-fold higher under anaerobic than aerobic conditions. Transcription of the gene is under the negative control of the Cra (catabolite repressor-activator) protein, whereas translation of the adhE mRNA requires processing by RNase III. In this report, we show that the expression of adhE also depends on the Fis (factor for inversion stimulation) protein. A strain bearing a fis::kan null allele failed to grow anaerobically on glucose solely because of inadequate adhE transcription. However, fis expression itself is not under redox control. Sequence inspection of the adhE promoter revealed three potential Fis binding sites. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis, using purified Fis protein and adhE promoter DNA, showed three different complexes. PMID:10572146

  9. A structural classification of substrate-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsson, Ronnie P. -A.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert; Rydström, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Substrate-binding proteins (SBP) are associated with a wide variety of protein complexes. The proteins are part of ATP-binding cassette transporters for substrate uptake, ion gradient driven transporters, DNA-binding proteins, as well as channels and receptors from both pro-and eukaryotes. A wealth

  10. Discovery, SAR, and X-ray Binding Mode Study of BCATm Inhibitors from a Novel DNA-Encoded Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongfeng; Zhou, Jingye; Sundersingh, Flora S; Summerfield, Jennifer; Somers, Don; Messer, Jeffrey A; Satz, Alexander L; Ancellin, Nicolas; Arico-Muendel, Christopher C; Sargent Bedard, Katie L; Beljean, Arthur; Belyanskaya, Svetlana L; Bingham, Ryan; Smith, Sarah E; Boursier, Eric; Carter, Paul; Centrella, Paolo A; Clark, Matthew A; Chung, Chun-Wa; Davie, Christopher P; Delorey, Jennifer L; Ding, Yun; Franklin, G Joseph; Grady, LaShadric C; Herry, Kenny; Hobbs, Clare; Kollmann, Christopher S; Morgan, Barry A; Pothier Kaushansky, Laura J; Zhou, Quan

    2015-08-13

    As a potential target for obesity, human BCATm was screened against more than 14 billion DNA encoded compounds of distinct scaffolds followed by off-DNA synthesis and activity confirmation. As a consequence, several series of BCATm inhibitors were discovered. One representative compound (R)-3-((1-(5-bromothiophene-2-carbonyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)oxy)-N-methyl-2'-(methylsulfonamido)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide (15e) from a novel compound library synthesized via on-DNA Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling showed BCATm inhibitory activity with IC50 = 2.0 μM. A protein crystal structure of 15e revealed that it binds to BCATm within the catalytic site adjacent to the PLP cofactor. The identification of this novel inhibitor series plus the establishment of a BCATm protein structure provided a good starting point for future structure-based discovery of BCATm inhibitors.

  11. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS gene encodes two secreted proteins required for genetic transformation of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Larry D; Lee, Lan-Ying; McNett, Henry; Gelvin, Stanton B; Ream, Walt

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are related pathogens that cause crown gall and hairy root diseases, which result from integration and expression of bacterial genes in the plant genome. Single-stranded DNA (T strands) and virulence proteins are translocated into plant cells by a type IV secretion system. VirD2 nicks a specific DNA sequence, attaches to the 5' end, and pilots the DNA into plant cells. A. tumefaciens translocates single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells where it likely binds T strands and may aid in targeting them into the nucleus. Although some A. rhizogenes strains lack VirE2, they transfer T strands efficiently due to the GALLS gene, which complements an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation. Unlike VirE2, full-length GALLS (GALLS-FL) contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. GALLS-FL and VirE2 contain nuclear localization signals (NLS) and secretion signals. Mutations in any of these domains abolish the ability of the GALLS gene to substitute for virE2. Here, we show that the GALLS gene encodes two proteins from one open reading frame: GALLS-FL and a protein comprised of the C-terminal domain, which initiates at an internal in-frame start codon. On some hosts, both GALLS proteins were required to substitute for VirE2. GALLS-FL tagged with yellow fluorescent protein localized to the nucleus of tobacco cells in an NLS-dependent manner. In plant cells, the GALLS proteins interacted with themselves, VirD2, and each other. VirD2 interacted with GALLS-FL and localized inside the nucleus, where its predicted helicase activity may pull T strands into the nucleus. PMID:18952790

  12. Cloning of cDNA Encoding GRA1 Protein of Tachyzoite Toxoplasma Gondii Local Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Sulistyaningsih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene encoding GRA1 protein is potent DNA-vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. The aim of the researchwas to clone the gene encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii local isolate by DNA recombinanttechnology. Tachyzoite was grown in Balb/c mice in vivo. Messenger RNA was isolated from total RNA and itwas used to synthesis cDNA. Complementary DNA encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii localisolate was amplified and cloned in a prokaryote cloning vector. The recombinant GRA1-encoding gene was thendigesting using EcoRI restriction endonuclease and sequencing. The result showed that the recombinant GRA1-encoding gene consisted of DNA sequences encoding all signal peptide and mature peptide of GRA1 protein.Alignment of recombinant GRA1 sequence to gene encoding GRA1 protein of Toxoplasma gondii RH isolate showed100% homologous.Keywords: GRA1 protein, Toxoplasma gondii, tachyzoite, cloning, cDNA

  13. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesi...

  14. Where metal ions bind in proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, M M; Wesson, L.; Eisenman, G.; Eisenberg, D.

    1990-01-01

    The environments of metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Ag+, Cs+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) in proteins and other metal-host molecules have been examined. Regardless of the metal and its precise pattern of ligation to the protein, there is a common qualitative feature to the binding site: the metal is ligated by a shell of hydrophilic atomic groups (containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms) and this hydrophilic shell is embedded within a larger shell of hydrophobic atomic groups (containing car...

  15. A unique bivalent binding and inhibition mechanism by the yatapoxvirus interleukin 18 binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Krumm

    Full Text Available Interleukin 18 (IL18 is a cytokine that plays an important role in inflammation as well as host defense against microbes. Mammals encode a soluble inhibitor of IL18 termed IL18 binding protein (IL18BP that modulates IL18 activity through a negative feedback mechanism. Many poxviruses encode homologous IL18BPs, which contribute to virulence. Previous structural and functional studies on IL18 and IL18BPs revealed an essential binding hot spot involving a lysine on IL18 and two aromatic residues on IL18BPs. The aromatic residues are conserved among the very diverse mammalian and poxviruses IL18BPs with the notable exception of yatapoxvirus IL18BPs, which lack a critical phenylalanine residue. To understand the mechanism by which yatapoxvirus IL18BPs neutralize IL18, we solved the crystal structure of the Yaba-Like Disease Virus (YLDV IL18BP and IL18 complex at 1.75 Å resolution. YLDV-IL18BP forms a disulfide bonded homo-dimer engaging IL18 in a 2∶2 stoichiometry, in contrast to the 1∶1 complex of ectromelia virus (ECTV IL18BP and IL18. Disruption of the dimer interface resulted in a functional monomer, however with a 3-fold decrease in binding affinity. The overall architecture of the YLDV-IL18BP:IL18 complex is similar to that observed in the ECTV-IL18BP:IL18 complex, despite lacking the critical lysine-phenylalanine interaction. Through structural and mutagenesis studies, contact residues that are unique to the YLDV-IL18BP:IL18 binding interface were identified, including Q67, P116 of YLDV-IL18BP and Y1, S105 and D110 of IL18. Overall, our studies show that YLDV-IL18BP is unique among the diverse family of mammalian and poxvirus IL-18BPs in that it uses a bivalent binding mode and a unique set of interacting residues for binding IL18. However, despite this extensive divergence, YLDV-IL18BP binds to the same surface of IL18 used by other IL18BPs, suggesting that all IL18BPs use a conserved inhibitory mechanism by blocking a putative receptor-binding

  16. Arabidopsis chloroplast chaperonin 10 is a calmodulin-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    Calcium regulates diverse cellular activities in plants through the action of calmodulin (CaM). By using (35)S-labeled CaM to screen an Arabidopsis seedling cDNA expression library, a cDNA designated as AtCh-CPN10 (Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast chaperonin 10) was cloned. Chloroplast CPN10, a nuclear-encoded protein, is a functional homolog of E. coli GroES. It is believed that CPN60 and CPN10 are involved in the assembly of Rubisco, a key enzyme involved in the photosynthetic pathway. Northern analysis revealed that AtCh-CPN10 is highly expressed in green tissues. The recombinant AtCh-CPN10 binds to CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Deletion mutants revealed that there is only one CaM-binding site in the last 31 amino acids of the AtCh-CPN10 at the C-terminal end. The CaM-binding region in AtCh-CPN10 has higher homology to other chloroplast CPN10s in comparison to GroES and mitochondrial CPN10s, suggesting that CaM may only bind to chloroplast CPN10s. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the calcium/CaM messenger system is involved in regulating Rubisco assembly in the chloroplast, thereby influencing photosynthesis. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Identification and characterization of the RNA binding surface of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Kawabata, Masuyo; Hisano, Keizo; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsuoka, Ken; Sugita, Mamoru; Nakamura, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The expressions of chloroplast and mitochondria genes are tightly controlled by numerous nuclear-encoded proteins, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Recent analyses have identified a large, plant-specific family of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif-containing proteins that are exclusively involved in RNA metabolism of organelle genes via sequence-specific RNA binding. A tandem array of PPR motifs within the protein is believed to facilitate the RNA interaction, although little is k...

  18. RNA binding properties of the US11 protein from four primate simplexviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohme Sarah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein encoded by the Us11 gene of herpes simplex viruses is a dsRNA binding protein which inhibits protein kinase R activity, thereby preventing the interferon-induced shut down of protein synthesis following viral infection. Us11 protein is not essential for infectivity in vitro and in mice in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1, however this virus has a second, and apparently more important, inhibitor of PKR activity, the γ134.5 protein. Recently sequenced simian simplexviruses SA8, HVP2 and B virus do not have an ORF corresponding to the γ134.5 protein, yet they have similar, or greater, infectivity as HSV1 and HSV2. Methods We have expressed the US11 proteins of the simplexviruses HSV1, HSV2, HVP2 and B virus and measured their abilities to bind dsRNA, in order to investigate possible differences that could complement the absence of the γ134.5 protein. We employed a filter binding technique that allows binding of the Us11 protein under condition of excess dsRNA substrate and therefore a measurement of the true Kd value of Us11-dsRNA binding. Results and Conclusions The results show a Kd of binding in the range of 0.89 nM to 1.82 nM, with no significant difference among the four Us11 proteins.

  19. Characteristics and phylogeny of light-harvesting complex gene encoded proteins from marine red alga Griffithsia japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chenlin; HUANG Xiaohang; LEE Yookyung; LEE Hongkum; LI Guangyou

    2005-01-01

    Six genes encoding light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein have been characterized in the multicellular red alga Griffithsia japonica EST analysis. Three of them were full sequences while others were partial sequences with 3'-UTRs. The cleavage sites between signal peptide and mature LHC protein were analyzed on these three full sequences. The sequence characteristics, calculated molecular weights and isoelectric point (pI) values and hydrophobieity of the mature proteins were deduced and analyzed. Comparing the LHC sequences of G. japonica with higher plant, Chlorophyta, chromophytes and other red algae, the high conservation of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding site among chromophytes and red algae were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis on LHC proteins from higher plant, green algae, euglena, brown algae, diatom, cryptomonad, Raphidophyte and red algae reveals that (1) there are two distinct groups of Chl a/b and Chl a/c -binding LHC; (2) Chl a binding proteins of red algae share greater similarities with the Chl a/c-binding proteins of the chromophytes and dinoflagellate than with the Chl a/b - binding proteins of the green algae and higher plants; (3) chromophyte' s LHC is supposed to be evolved from red algae LHC.

  20. Developmentally distinct MYB genes encode functionally equivalent proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M M; Schiefelbein, J

    2001-05-01

    The duplication and divergence of developmental control genes is thought to have driven morphological diversification during the evolution of multicellular organisms. To examine the molecular basis of this process, we analyzed the functional relationship between two paralogous MYB transcription factor genes, WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABROUS1 (GL1), in Arabidopsis. The WER and GL1 genes specify distinct cell types and exhibit non-overlapping expression patterns during Arabidopsis development. Nevertheless, reciprocal complementation experiments with a series of gene fusions showed that WER and GL1 encode functionally equivalent proteins, and their unique roles in plant development are entirely due to differences in their cis-regulatory sequences. Similar experiments with a distantly related MYB gene (MYB2) showed that its product cannot functionally substitute for WER or GL1. Furthermore, an analysis of the WER and GL1 proteins shows that conserved sequences correspond to specific functional domains. These results provide new insights into the evolution of the MYB gene family in Arabidopsis, and, more generally, they demonstrate that novel developmental gene function may arise solely by the modification of cis-regulatory sequences.

  1. Development of Deduced Protein Database Using Variable Bit Binary Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Parvathavarthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of biological data is semi-structured and stored in any one the following file formats such as flat, XML and relational files. These databases must be integrated with the structured data available in relational or object-oriented databases. The sequence matching process is difficult in such file format, because string comparison takes more computation cost and time. To reduce the memory storage size of amino acid sequence in protein database, a novel probability-based variable bit length encoding technique has been introduced. The number of mapping of triplet CODON for every amino acid evaluates the probability value. Then, a binary tree has been constructed to assign unique bits of binary codes to each amino acid. This derived unique bit pattern of amino acid replaces the existing fixed byte representation. The proof of reduced protein database space has been discussed and it is found to be reduced between 42.86 to 87.17%. To validate our method, we have collected few amino acid sequences of major organisms like Sheep, Lambda phage and etc from NCBI and represented them using proposed method. The comparison shows that of minimum and maximum reduction in storage space are 43.30% and 72.86% respectively. In future the biological data can further be reduced by applying lossless compression on this deduced data.

  2. RNA-binding protein RBM20 represses splicing to orchestrate cardiac pre-mRNA processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatz, H.; Jens, M.; Liss, M.; Schafer, S.; Heinig, M.; Kirchner, M.; Adami, E.; Rintisch, C.; Dauksaite, V.; Radke, M.H.; Selbach, M.; Barton, P.J.; Cook, S.A.; Rajewsky, N.; Gotthardt, M.; Landthaler, M.; Hubner, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the RNA-binding protein RBM20 have been implicated in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a major cause of chronic heart failure, presumably through altering cardiac RNA splicing. Here, we combined transcriptome-wide crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP-seq), RNA-seq, and

  3. Transcriptional Regulation in Mammalian Cells by Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Pamela J.; Tjian, Robert

    1989-07-01

    The cloning of genes encoding mammalian DNA binding transcription factors for RNA polymerase II has provided the opportunity to analyze the structure and function of these proteins. This review summarizes recent studies that define structural domains for DNA binding and transcriptional activation functions in sequence-specific transcription factors. The mechanisms by which these factors may activate transcriptional initiation and by which they may be regulated to achieve differential gene expression are also discussed.

  4. Activation of protein kinase C or cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases phosphorylation of the c-erbA-encoded thyroid hormone receptor and of the v-erbA-encoded protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Y; Glineur, C; Gesquière, J C;

    1988-01-01

    -v-erbA is enhanced 10-fold following treatment of cells with activators of either protein kinase C or cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Since cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates both p46c-erbA and P75gag-v-erbA in vitro at the same site as that observed in vivo, at least part of the c......, defined by the limit tryptic phosphopeptide 28SSQCLVK, is retained on the v-erbA-encoded P75gag-v-erbA protein. This site is located in the amino-terminal domain of these molecules, 21 amino acids upstream of the DNA-binding region. Phosphorylation of this site in both p46c-erbA and P75gag...

  5. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Brázda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc., the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGGn, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2 and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development.

  6. Nuclear factor-κB regulates the expression of multiple genes encoding liver transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Suchy, Frederick J

    2016-04-15

    In this study we identified the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of NF-κB on the expression of genes encoding multiple liver transport proteins. Well-conserved NF-κB binding sites were found in the promoters of farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-target genes. An electromobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated the specific interaction between the NF-κB p65 protein and a (32)P-labeled BSEP NF-κB response element (NF-κBE). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed binding of NF-κB p65 to the BSEP locus but not the FXRE in vitro. NF-κB p65 overexpression in Huh-7 cells markedly repressed FXR/RXR transactivation of the BSEP, ABCG5/G8, MRP2, and FXR promoters, which was totally reversed by expression of the IκBα super-repressor. NF-κB interacted directly with FXR on coimmunoprecipitation, suggesting another level for the inhibitory effects of NF-κB on FXR-target genes. In vivo ChIP analysis with liver nuclei obtained from mice after 3 days of common bile duct ligation (BDL) or 6 h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection showed a markedly increased recruitment of NF-κB p65 to the Bsep promoter compared with controls. There was also increased recruitment of the corepressor silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC)3 and HDAC2 to the NF-κB sites. We also found that NF-κB p65 was recruited to NF-κB binding sites in the promoters of organic solute transporter, OSTα and OSTβ, and unexpectedly activated rather than repressed gene expression. In mouse liver after BDL NF-κB recruitment to Ostα and Ostβ promoters was associated with increased binding of the potent coactivator cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 to the NF-κBE and depletion of CBP/p300 at the FXR element. Overall, these studies demonstrate a novel role for NF-κB in adaptation to obstructive and LPS-induced cholestasis acting through recruitment to specific NF-κB binding sites in

  7. Neural correlates of binding lyrics and melodies for the encoding of new songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Irene; Davachi, Lila; Valabrègue, Romain; Lambrecq, Virginie; Dupont, Sophie; Samson, Séverine

    2016-02-15

    Songs naturally bind lyrics and melody into a unified representation. Using a subsequent memory paradigm, we examined the neural processes associated with binding lyrics and melodies during song encoding. Participants were presented with songs in two conditions: a unified condition (melodies sung with lyrics), and a separate condition (melodies sung with the syllable "la"). In both cases, written lyrics were displayed and participants were instructed to memorize them by repeating them covertly or by generating mental images of the songs. We expected the unified condition to recruit the posterior superior temporal gyrus, known to be involved in perceptual integration of songs, as well as the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Conversely, we hypothesized that the separate condition would engage a larger network including the hippocampus to bind lyrics and melodies of songs, and the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to ensure the correct sequence coupling of verbal and musical information in time. Binding lyrics and melodies in the unified condition revealed activation of the left IFG, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left motor cortex, suggesting a strong linguistic processing for this condition. Binding in the separate compared to the unified condition revealed greater activity in the right hippocampus as well as other areas including the left caudate, left cerebellum, and right IFG. This study provides novel evidence for the role of the right hippocampus in binding lyrics and melodies in songs. Results are discussed in light of studies of binding in the visual domain and highlight the role of regions involved in timing and synchronization such as the basal ganglia and the cerebellum.

  8. Cobalamin and its binding protein in rat milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1989-01-01

    Cobalamin and its binding protein, haptocorrin, are present in rat milk throughout the lactation period. The concentration of cobalamin is approximately 0.3-times the concentration of the unsaturated binding protein. The concentration of the unsaturated cobalamin-binding protein varies between 18...... nmol l-1 and 16 nmol l-1. The binding protein has a Stokes radius of 2.49 nm when saturated with cobalamin and 2.61 nm when unsaturated. It binds cobalamin over a broad range of pH and is able to bind cobinamide also. With immunohistochemistry, we find haptocorrin immunoreactivity in the mammary glands...

  9. Protein and ligand adaptation in a retinoic acid binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayek, R.; Newcomer, M E

    1999-01-01

    A retinoic acid binding protein isolated from the lumen of the rat epididymis (ERABP) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily. ERABP binds both the all-trans and 9-cis isomers of retinoic acid, as well as the synthetic retinoid (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8)-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2 napthalenyl-1 propenyl]-benzoic acid (TTNPB), a structural analog of all-trans retinoic acid. The structure of ERABP with a mixture of all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid has previously been reported. To elucidate any ...

  10. Cloning of cDNA Encoding GRA1 Protein of Tachyzoite Toxoplasma Gondii Local Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Erma Sulistyaningsih; Sukarti Moeljopawiro; Jarot Subandono; Wayan T. Artama

    2015-01-01

    Gene encoding GRA1 protein is potent DNA-vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. The aim of the researchwas to clone the gene encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii local isolate by DNA recombinanttechnology. Tachyzoite was grown in Balb/c mice in vivo. Messenger RNA was isolated from total RNA and itwas used to synthesis cDNA. Complementary DNA encoding GRA1 protein of tachyzoite Toxoplasma gondii localisolate was amplified and cloned in a prokaryote cloning vector. The recom...

  11. Mechanical unfolding of ribose binding protein and its comparison with other periplasmic binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotamarthi, Hema Chandra; Narayan, Satya; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti

    2014-10-01

    Folding and unfolding studies on large, multidomain proteins are still rare despite their high abundance in genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we investigate the unfolding properties of a 271 residue, two-domain ribose binding protein (RBP) from the bacterial periplasm using single-molecule force spectroscopy. We observe that RBP predominately unfolds via a two-state pathway with an unfolding force of ∼80 pN and an unfolding contour length of ∼95 nm. Only a small population (∼15%) of RBP follows three-state pathways. The ligand binding neither increases the mechanical stability nor influences the unfolding flux of RBP through different pathways. The kinetic partitioning between two-state and three-state pathways, which has been reported earlier for other periplasmic proteins, is also observed in RBP, albeit to a lesser extent. These results provide important insights into the mechanical stability and unfolding processes of large two-domain proteins and highlight the contrasting features upon ligand binding. Protein structural topology diagrams are used to explain the differences in the mechanical unfolding behavior of RBP with other periplasmic binding proteins.

  12. Dissection of the Critical Binding Determinants of Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein II by Mutagenesis and Fluorescence Binding Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileiou, Chrysoula; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Crist, Rachael M.; Vaezeslami, Soheila; Goins, Sarah M.; Geiger, James H.; Borhan, Babak

    2009-01-01

    The binding of retinoic acid to mutants of Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein II (CRABPII) was evaluated to better understand the importance of the direct protein/ligand interactions. The important role of Arg111 for the correct structure and function of the protein was verified and other residues that directly affect retinoic acid binding have been identified. Furthermore, retinoic acid binding to CRABPII mutants that lack all previously identified interacting amino acids was rescued by ...

  13. An HIV-1 encoded peptide mimics the DNA binding loop of NF-{kappa}B and binds thioredoxin with high affinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Guoping [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2352 (United States)]. E-mail: gsu@u.washington.edu; Wang Min [Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8023 (United States)]. E-mail: wang.min@yale.edu; Taylor, Ethan Will [Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2352 (United States)]. E-mail: wtaylor@rx.uga.edu

    2005-11-11

    Pro-fs is a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)-encoded putative selenoprotein, predicted by a theoretical analysis of the viral genome; it is potentially expressed by a -1 frameshift from the protease coding region. Pro-fs has significant sequence similarity to the DNA binding loop of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), which is known to bind thioredoxin (Trx). We hypothesize that the putative HIV-1 pro-fs gene product functions by mimicry of NF-{kappa}B via binding to Trx. The hypothesis was tested in vitro by co-immunoprecipitation and GST-pull down assays, using a purified mutant pro-fs protein, in which the two potential selenocysteine residues were mutated to cysteines, in order to permit expression in bacteria. Both experiments showed that pro-fs binds to human wild type Trx (Trx-wt) with high affinity. Mutation of the two conserved cysteine residues in the Trx active site redox center to serine (Ser) (Trx-CS) weakened but failed to abolish the interaction. In pro-fs-transfected 293T cells, using confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we have observed that pro-fs localizes in cell nuclei and forms oligomers. Upon stimulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), Trx translocates into cell nuclei. Significant FRET efficiency was detected in the nuclei of PMA-stimulated 293T cells co-expressing fluorescence-tagged pro-fs and Trx-wt or Trx-CS. These results indicate that in living cells the double cysteine mutant of pro-fs binds to both Trx and Trx-CS with high affinity, suggesting that Trx-pro-fs binding is a structurally-specific interaction, involving more of the Trx molecule than just its active site cysteine residues. These results establish the capacity for functional mimicry of the Trx binding ability of the NF-{kappa}B/Rel family of transcription factors by the putative HIV-1 pro-fs protein.

  14. Predicting RNA-binding sites of proteins using support vector machines and evolutionary information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Emily

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA-protein interaction plays an essential role in several biological processes, such as protein synthesis, gene expression, posttranscriptional regulation and viral infectivity. Identification of RNA-binding sites in proteins provides valuable insights for biologists. However, experimental determination of RNA-protein interaction remains time-consuming and labor-intensive. Thus, computational approaches for prediction of RNA-binding sites in proteins have become highly desirable. Extensive studies of RNA-binding site prediction have led to the development of several methods. However, they could yield low sensitivities in trade-off for high specificities. Results We propose a method, RNAProB, which incorporates a new smoothed position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM encoding scheme with a support vector machine model to predict RNA-binding sites in proteins. Besides the incorporation of evolutionary information from standard PSSM profiles, the proposed smoothed PSSM encoding scheme also considers the correlation and dependency from the neighboring residues for each amino acid in a protein. Experimental results show that smoothed PSSM encoding significantly enhances the prediction performance, especially for sensitivity. Using five-fold cross-validation, our method performs better than the state-of-the-art systems by 4.90%~6.83%, 0.88%~5.33%, and 0.10~0.23 in terms of overall accuracy, specificity, and Matthew's correlation coefficient, respectively. Most notably, compared to other approaches, RNAProB significantly improves sensitivity by 7.0%~26.9% over the benchmark data sets. To prevent data over fitting, a three-way data split procedure is incorporated to estimate the prediction performance. Moreover, physicochemical properties and amino acid preferences of RNA-binding proteins are examined and analyzed. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that smoothed PSSM encoding scheme significantly enhances the performance of RNA-binding

  15. Identification and characterization of the gltK gene encoding a membrane-associated glucose transport protein of pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewoye, L O; Worobec, E A

    2000-08-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa oprB gene encodes the carbohydrate-selective OprB porin, which translocates substrate molecules across the outer membrane to the periplasmic glucose-binding protein. We identified and cloned two open reading frames (ORFs) flanking the oprB gene but are not in operonic arrangement with the oprB gene. The downstream ORF encodes a putative polypeptide homologous to members of a family of transcriptional repressors, whereas the oprB gene is preceded by an ORF encoding a putative product, which exhibits strong homology to several carbohydrate transport ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. The genomic copy of the upstream ORF was mutagenized by homologous recombination. Analysis of the deletion mutant in comparison with the wild type revealed a significant reduction in [14C] glucose transport activity in the mutant strain, suggesting that this ORF likely encodes the inner membrane component of the glucose ABC transporter. It is thus designated gltK gene to reflect its homology to the Pseudomona fluorescens mtlK and its involvement in the high-affinity glucose transport system. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the P. aeruginosa gltK gene product is a member of the MalK subfamily of ABC proteins. PMID:10940570

  16. PABPN1 overexpression leads to upregulation of genes encoding nuclear proteins that are sequestered in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy nuclear inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil-Girard, Louis-Philippe; Klein, Arnaud F; Sasseville, A Marie-Josée; Lavoie, Hugo; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Saint-Denis, Anik; Pagé, Martin; Duranceau, André; Codère, François; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Karpati, George; Rouleau, Guy A; Massie, Bernard; Langelier, Yves; Brais, Bernard

    2005-04-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disease caused by expanded (GCN)12-17 stretches encoding the N-terminal polyalanine domain of the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD is characterized by intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in skeletal muscle fibers, which contain PABPN1, molecular chaperones, ubiquitin, proteasome subunits, and poly(A)-mRNA. We describe an adenoviral model of PABPN1 expression that produces INIs in most cells. Microarray analysis revealed that PABPN1 overexpression reproducibly changed the expression of 202 genes. Sixty percent of upregulated genes encode nuclear proteins, including many RNA and DNA binding proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that all tested nuclear proteins encoded by eight upregulated genes colocalize with PABPN1 within the INIs: CUGBP1, SFRS3, FKBP1A, HMG2, HNRPA1, PRC1, S100P, and HSP70. In addition, CUGBP1, SFRS3, and FKBP1A were also found in OPMD muscle INIs. This study demonstrates that a large number of nuclear proteins are sequestered in OPMD INIs, which may compromise cellular function. PMID:15755682

  17. PABPN1 overexpression leads to upregulation of genes encoding nuclear proteins that are sequestered in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy nuclear inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil-Girard, Louis-Philippe; Klein, Arnaud F; Sasseville, A Marie-Josée; Lavoie, Hugo; Dicaire, Marie-Josée; Saint-Denis, Anik; Pagé, Martin; Duranceau, André; Codère, François; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Karpati, George; Rouleau, Guy A; Massie, Bernard; Langelier, Yves; Brais, Bernard

    2005-04-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disease caused by expanded (GCN)12-17 stretches encoding the N-terminal polyalanine domain of the poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD is characterized by intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in skeletal muscle fibers, which contain PABPN1, molecular chaperones, ubiquitin, proteasome subunits, and poly(A)-mRNA. We describe an adenoviral model of PABPN1 expression that produces INIs in most cells. Microarray analysis revealed that PABPN1 overexpression reproducibly changed the expression of 202 genes. Sixty percent of upregulated genes encode nuclear proteins, including many RNA and DNA binding proteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that all tested nuclear proteins encoded by eight upregulated genes colocalize with PABPN1 within the INIs: CUGBP1, SFRS3, FKBP1A, HMG2, HNRPA1, PRC1, S100P, and HSP70. In addition, CUGBP1, SFRS3, and FKBP1A were also found in OPMD muscle INIs. This study demonstrates that a large number of nuclear proteins are sequestered in OPMD INIs, which may compromise cellular function.

  18. Computational Design of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyme, Summer; Song, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the outcome of engineered and naturally occurring sequence perturbations to protein-DNA interfaces requires accurate computational modeling technologies. It has been well established that computational design to accommodate small numbers of DNA target site substitutions is possible. This chapter details the basic method of design used in the Rosetta macromolecular modeling program that has been successfully used to modulate the specificity of DNA-binding proteins. More recently, combining computational design and directed evolution has become a common approach for increasing the success rate of protein engineering projects. The power of such high-throughput screening depends on computational methods producing multiple potential solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes several protocols for increasing the diversity of designed output. Lastly, we describe an approach for building comparative models of protein-DNA complexes in order to utilize information from homologous sequences. These models can be used to explore how nature modulates specificity of protein-DNA interfaces and potentially can even be used as starting templates for further engineering. PMID:27094297

  19. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  20. Characterization of a Chitin-Binding Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Arora

    Full Text Available Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis produce insecticidal proteins. These strains have been isolated from diverse ecological niches, such as soil, phylloplane, insect cadavers and grain dust. To effectively propagate, these strains produce a range of molecules that facilitate its multiplication in a competing environment. In this report, we have examined synthesis of a chitin-binding protein and evaluated its effect on fungi encountered in environment and its interaction with insecticidal proteins synthesized by B. thuringiensis. The gene encoding chitin-binding protein has been cloned and expressed. The purified protein has been demonstrated to interact with Cry insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac by Circular Dichrosim spectroscopy (CD and in vitro pull down assays. The chitin-binding protein potentiates insecticidal activity of bacillar insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. Further, chitin-binding protein was fungistatic against several soil fungi. The chitin binding protein is expressed in spore mother cell and deposited along with insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. It interacts with Cry1Ac to potentiate its insecticidal activity and facilitate propagation of Bacillus strain in environment by inhibiting growth of certain fungi.

  1. Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis:Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutz W. Weber; Meinrad Boll; Andreas Stampfl

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at least 30 genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and lipids. SREBPs are synthesized as precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they form a complex with another protein, SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP).The SCAP molecule contains a sterol sensory domain. In the presence of high cellular sterol concentrations SCAP confines SREBP to the ER. With low cellular concentrations, SCAP escorts SREBP to activation in the Golgi. There, SREBP undergoes two proteolytic cleavage steps to release the mature, biologically active transcription factor, nuclear SREBP (nSREBP). nSREBP translocates to the nucleus and binds to sterol response elements (SRE) in the promoter/enhancer regions of target genes. Additional transcription factors are required to activate transcription of these genes. Three different SREBPs are known, SREBPs-1a, -1c and -2. SREBP-1a and -1c are isoforms produced from a single gene by alternate splicing. SREBP-2is encoded by a different gene and does not display any isoforms. It appears that SREBPs alone, in the sequence described above, can exert complete control over cholesterol synthesis, whereas many additional factors (hormones,cytokines, etc.) are required for complete control of lipid metabolism. Medicinal manipulation of the SREBP/SCAP system is expected to prove highly beneficial in the management of cholesterol-related disease.

  2. The ubiquitous octamer-binding protein(s) is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D G; Carayannopoulos, L; Capra, J D; Tucker, P W; Hanke, J H

    1990-03-01

    All immunoglobulin genes contain a conserved octanucleotide promoter element, ATGCAAAT, which has been shown to be required for their normal B-cell-specific transcription. Proteins that bind this octamer have been purified, and cDNAs encoding octamer-binding proteins have been cloned. Some of these proteins (referred to as OTF-2) are lymphoid specific, whereas at least one other, and possibly more (referred to as OTF-1), is found ubiquitously in all cell types. The exact role of these different proteins in directing the tissue-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes is unclear. We have identified two human pre-B-cell lines that contain extremely low levels of OTF-2 yet still express high levels of steady-state immunoglobulin heavy-chain mRNA in vivo and efficiently transcribe an immunoglobulin gene in vitro. Addition of a highly enriched preparation of OTF-1 made from one of these pre-B cells or from HeLa cells specifically stimulated in vitro transcription of an immunoglobulin gene. Furthermore, OFT-1 appeared to have approximately the same transactivation ability as OTF-2 when normalized for binding activity. These results suggest that OTF-1, without OTF-2, is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes and that OTF-2 alone is not responsible for the B-cell-specific regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression.

  3. The ubiquitous octamer-binding protein(s) is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.G.; Carayannopoulos, L.; Capra, J.D.; Tucker, P.W. (Dept. of Microbiology, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (US)); Hanke, J.H. (Central Research, Dept. of Molecular Genetics, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT (US))

    1990-03-01

    All immunoglobulin genes contain a conserved octanucleotide promoter element, ATGCAAAT, which has been shown to be required for their normal B-cell-specific transcription. Proteins that bind this octamer have been purified, and cDNAs encoding octamer-binding proteins have been cloned. Some of these proteins (referred to as OTF-2) are lymphoid specific, whereas at least one other, and possibly more (referred to as OTF-1), is found ubiquitously in all cell types. The exact role of these different proteins in directing the tissue-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes is unclear. The authors have identified two human pre-B-cell lines that contain extremely low levels of OTF-2 yet still express high levels of steady-state immunoglobulin heavy-chain mRNA in vivo and efficiently transcribe an immunoglobulin gene in vitro. Addition of a highly enriched preparation of OTF-1 made from one of these pre-B cells or from HeLa cells specifically stimulated in vitro transcription of an immunoglobulin gene. Furthermore, OFT-1 appeared to have approximately the same transactivation ability as OTF-2 when normalized for binding activity. These results suggest that OTF-1, without OTF-2, is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes and that OTF-2 alone is not responsible for the B-cell-specific regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression.

  4. Alternative polyadenylation and RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of the extent of microRNA-based gene regulation has expanded in an impressive pace over the past decade. Now, we are beginning to better appreciate the role of 3'-UTR (untranslated region) cis-elements which harbor not only microRNA but also RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites that have significant effect on the stability and translational rate of mRNAs. To add further complexity, alternative polyadenylation (APA) emerges as a widespread mechanism to regulate gene expression by producing shorter or longer mRNA isoforms that differ in the length of their 3'-UTRs or even coding sequences. Resulting shorter mRNA isoforms generally lack cis-elements where trans-acting factors bind, and hence are differentially regulated compared with the longer isoforms. This review focuses on the RBPs involved in APA regulation and their action mechanisms on APA-generated isoforms. A better understanding of the complex interactions between APA and RBPs is promising for mechanistic and clinical implications including biomarker discovery and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27208003

  5. Novel RepA-MCM proteins encoded in plasmids pTAU4, pORA1 and pTIK4 from Sulfolobus neozealandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bo Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    . Plasmids pORA1 and pTIK4 encode RepA proteins, only the former of which carries the novel polymerase–primase domain of other known Sulfolobus plasmids. Plasmid pTAU4 encodes a mini-chromosome maintenance protein homolog and no RepA protein; the implications for DNA replication are considered. Plasmid pORA1......Three plasmids isolated from the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus neozealandicus were characterized. Plasmids pTAU4 (7,192 bp), pORA1 (9,689 bp) and pTIK4 (13,638 bp) show unusual properties that distinguish them from previously characterized cryptic plasmids of the genus Sulfolobus...... is the first Sulfolobus plasmid to be characterized that does not encode the otherwise highly conserved DNA-binding PlrA protein. Another encoded protein appears to be specific for the New Zealand plasmids. The three plasmids should provide useful model systems for functional studies of these...

  6. RNAcontext: a new method for learning the sequence and structure binding preferences of RNA-binding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Kazan

    Full Text Available Metazoan genomes encode hundreds of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs. These proteins regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and have critical roles in numerous cellular processes including mRNA splicing, export, stability and translation. Despite their ubiquity and importance, the binding preferences for most RBPs are not well characterized. In vitro and in vivo studies, using affinity selection-based approaches, have successfully identified RNA sequence associated with specific RBPs; however, it is difficult to infer RBP sequence and structural preferences without specifically designed motif finding methods. In this study, we introduce a new motif-finding method, RNAcontext, designed to elucidate RBP-specific sequence and structural preferences with greater accuracy than existing approaches. We evaluated RNAcontext on recently published in vitro and in vivo RNA affinity selected data and demonstrate that RNAcontext identifies known binding preferences for several control proteins including HuR, PTB, and Vts1p and predicts new RNA structure preferences for SF2/ASF, RBM4, FUSIP1 and SLM2. The predicted preferences for SF2/ASF are consistent with its recently reported in vivo binding sites. RNAcontext is an accurate and efficient motif finding method ideally suited for using large-scale RNA-binding affinity datasets to determine the relative binding preferences of RBPs for a wide range of RNA sequences and structures.

  7. Comparison of the Folding Mechanism of Highly Homologous Proteins in the Lipid-binding Protein Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The folding mechanism of two closely related proteins in the intracellular lipid binding protein family, human bile acid binding protein (hBABP) and rat bile acid binding protein (rBABP) were examined. These proteins are 77% identical (93% similar) in sequence Both of these singl...

  8. The Novel Fibrinogen-Binding Protein FbsB Promotes Streptococcus agalactiae Invasion into Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gutekunst, Heike; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

    2004-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in human newborns. The interaction of S. agalactiae with host proteins and the entry into host cells thereby represent important virulence traits of these bacteria. The present report describes the identification of the fbsB gene, encoding a novel fibrinogen-binding protein that plays a crucial role in the invasion of S. agalactiae into human cells. In Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) exper...

  9. Phylogenetic and functional analysis of the bacteriophage P1 single-stranded DNA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Nilsson, A.S.; Lehnherr, H.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriophage P1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB-P1), which shows 66% amino acid sequence identity to the SSB protein of the host bacterium Escherichia coli. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that the P1 ssb gene coexists with its E. coli counterpart as an independent unit...... phase. These results reconciled the observed evolutionary conservation with the seemingly redundant presence of ssb genes in many bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids....

  10. Isolation of a Thiamine-binding Protein from Rice Germ and Distribution of Similar Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Yoshida, T; Toda, T; Iwashima, A; Mitsunaga, T

    1996-01-01

    A thiamine-binding protein was purified from rice germ (Oryza sativa L.) by extraction, salting-out with ammonium sulfate, and column chromatography. From the results of molecular mass, Kd and Bmax values for thiamine-binding, binding specificity for thiamine phosphates and analog, the protein was suggested to be identical to the thiamine-binding protein in rice bran. The thiamine-binding protein w as more efficiently purified from rice germ than from rice bran. The protein was rich in glutamic acid (and/or glutamine) and glycine. The protein did not show immunological similarity to thiamine-binding proteins in buckwheat and sesame seeds. However proteins similar to the thiamine-binding protein from rice germ existed in gramineous seeds. They were suggested to have thiamine-binding activity and to be of the same molecular mass as the thiamine-binding protein. PMID:27299548

  11. Multifunctionality and mechanism of ligand binding in a mosquito antiinflammatory protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Eric; Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Andersen, John F.; (NIH)

    2009-04-07

    The mosquito D7 salivary proteins are encoded by a multigene family related to the arthropod odorant-binding protein (OBP) superfamily. Forms having either one or two OBP domains are found in mosquito saliva. Four single-domain and one two-domain D7 proteins from Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (AeD7), respectively, were shown to bind biogenic amines with high affinity and with a stoichiometry of one ligand per protein molecule. Sequence comparisons indicated that only the C-terminal domain of AeD7 is homologous to the single-domain proteins from A. gambiae, suggesting that the N-terminal domain may bind a different class of ligands. Here, we describe the 3D structure of AeD7 and examine the ligand-binding characteristics of the N- and C-terminal domains. Isothermal titration calorimetry and ligand complex crystal structures show that the N-terminal domain binds cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) with high affinities (50-60 nM) whereas the C-terminal domain binds biogenic amines. The lipid chain of the cysLT binds in a hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain, whereas binding of norepinephrine leads to an ordering of the C-terminal portion of the C-terminal domain into an alpha-helix that, along with rotations of Arg-176 and Glu-268 side chains, acts to bury the bound ligand.

  12. Heterodimer formation between c-Jun and Jun B proteins mediated by Epstein Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Xin; TAO; Yongguang; TAN; Yunnian; Leo; M.; Lee; DENG

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) may trigger the transcription factor AP-1 including c-Jun and c-fos. In this report, using a Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line which is a dual-stable LMP1 integrated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line and the expression of LMP1 in which could be regulated by the Tet-on system, we show that Jun B can efficiently form a new heterodimeric complex with the c-Jun protein under the regulation of LMP1, phosphorylation of c-Jun (ser 63, ser 73) and Jun B is involved in the process of the new heterodimeric formation. We also find that this heterodimeric form can bind to the AP-1 consensus sequence. Transfection studies suggest that JNK interaction protein (JIP) could inhibit the heterodimer formation of c-Jun and Jun B through blocking the AP-1 signaling pathway triggered by LMP1. The interaction and function between c-Jun protein and Jun B protein increase the repertoire of possible regulatory complexes by LMP1 that could play an important role in the regulation of transcription of specific cellular genes in the process of genesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel calmodulin-binding protein from potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anireddy S N.; Day, Irene S.; Narasimhulu, S. B.; Safadi, Farida; Reddy, Vaka S.; Golovkin, Maxim; Harnly, Melissa J.

    2002-01-01

    Tuberization in potato is controlled by hormonal and environmental signals. Ca(2+), an important intracellular messenger, and calmodulin (CaM), one of the primary Ca(2+) sensors, have been implicated in controlling diverse cellular processes in plants including tuberization. The regulation of cellular processes by CaM involves its interaction with other proteins. To understand the role of Ca(2+)/CaM in tuberization, we have screened an expression library prepared from developing tubers with biotinylated CaM. This screening resulted in isolation of a cDNA encoding a novel CaM-binding protein (potato calmodulin-binding protein (PCBP)). Ca(2+)-dependent binding of the cDNA-encoded protein to CaM is confirmed by (35)S-labeled CaM. The full-length cDNA is 5 kb long and encodes a protein of 1309 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant similarity with a hypothetical protein from another plant, Arabidopsis. However, no homologs of PCBP are found in nonplant systems, suggesting that it is likely to be specific to plants. Using truncated versions of the protein and a synthetic peptide in CaM binding assays we mapped the CaM-binding region to a 20-amino acid stretch (residues 1216-1237). The bacterially expressed protein containing the CaM-binding domain interacted with three CaM isoforms (CaM2, CaM4, and CaM6). PCBP is encoded by a single gene and is expressed differentially in the tissues tested. The expression of CaM, PCBP, and another CaM-binding protein is similar in different tissues and organs. The predicted protein contained seven putative nuclear localization signals and several strong PEST motifs. Fusion of the N-terminal region of the protein containing six of the seven nuclear localization signals to the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase targeted the reporter gene to the nucleus, suggesting a nuclear role for PCBP.

  14. A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Herrmann, Christin; Kulej, Katarzyna; Pancholi, Neha J; Sekulic, Nikolina; Petrescu, Joana; Molden, Rosalynn C; Blumenthal, Daniel; Paris, Andrew J; Reyes, Emigdio D; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Hearing, Patrick; Seeholzer, Steven H; Worthen, G Scott; Black, Ben E; Garcia, Benjamin A; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Viral proteins mimic host protein structure and function to redirect cellular processes and subvert innate defenses. Small basic proteins compact and regulate both viral and cellular DNA genomes. Nucleosomes are the repeating units of cellular chromatin and play an important part in innate immune responses. Viral-encoded core basic proteins compact viral genomes, but their impact on host chromatin structure and function remains unexplored. Adenoviruses encode a highly basic protein called protein VII that resembles cellular histones. Although protein VII binds viral DNA and is incorporated with viral genomes into virus particles, it is unknown whether protein VII affects cellular chromatin. Here we show that protein VII alters cellular chromatin, leading us to hypothesize that this has an impact on antiviral responses during adenovirus infection in human cells. We find that protein VII forms complexes with nucleosomes and limits DNA accessibility. We identified post-translational modifications on protein VII that are responsible for chromatin localization. Furthermore, proteomic analysis demonstrated that protein VII is sufficient to alter the protein composition of host chromatin. We found that protein VII is necessary and sufficient for retention in the chromatin of members of the high-mobility-group protein B family (HMGB1, HMGB2 and HMGB3). HMGB1 is actively released in response to inflammatory stimuli and functions as a danger signal to activate immune responses. We showed that protein VII can directly bind HMGB1 in vitro and further demonstrated that protein VII expression in mouse lungs is sufficient to decrease inflammation-induced HMGB1 content and neutrophil recruitment in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Together, our in vitro and in vivo results show that protein VII sequesters HMGB1 and can prevent its release. This study uncovers a viral strategy in which nucleosome binding is exploited to control extracellular immune signaling.

  15. Binding properties of HABA-type azo derivatives to avidin and avidin-related protein 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Susanna; Paldanius, Tiina A; Hytönen, Vesa P; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Halling, Katrin K; Huuskonen, Juhani; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Rissanen, Kari; Slotte, J Peter; Airenne, Tomi T; Salminen, Tiina A; Kulomaa, Markku S; Johnson, Mark S

    2006-10-01

    The chicken genome encodes several biotin-binding proteins, including avidin and avidin-related protein 4 (AVR4). In addition to D-biotin, avidin binds an azo dye compound, 4-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA), but the HABA-binding properties of AVR4 are not yet known. Differential scanning calorimetry, UV/visible spectroscopy, and molecular modeling were used to analyze the binding of 15 azo molecules to avidin and AVR4. Significant differences are seen in azo compound preferences for the two proteins, emphasizing the importance of the loop between strands beta3 and beta4 for azo ligand recognition; information on these loops is provided by the high-resolution (1.5 A) X-ray structure for avidin reported here. These results may be valuable in designing improved tools for avidin-based life science and nanobiotechnology applications.

  16. Structural and binding properties of two paralogous fatty acid binding proteins of Taenia solium metacestode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA binding proteins (FABPs of helminths are implicated in acquisition and utilization of host-derived hydrophobic substances, as well as in signaling and cellular interactions. We previously demonstrated that secretory hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM, a causative agent of neurocysticercosis (NC, shuttle FAs in the surrounding host tissues and inwardly transport the FAs across the parasite syncytial membrane. However, the protein molecules responsible for the intracellular trafficking and assimilation of FAs have remained elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated two novel TsMFABP genes (TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2, which encoded 133- and 136-amino acid polypeptides with predicted molecular masses of 14.3 and 14.8 kDa, respectively. They shared 45% sequence identity with each other and 15-95% with other related-members. Homology modeling demonstrated a characteristic β-barrel composed of 10 anti-parallel β-strands and two α-helices. TsMFABP2 harbored two additional loops between β-strands two and three, and β-strands six and seven, respectively. TsMFABP1 was secreted into cyst fluid and surrounding environments, whereas TsMFABP2 was intracellularly confined. Partially purified native proteins migrated to 15 kDa with different isoelectric points of 9.2 (TsMFABP1 and 8.4 (TsMFABP2. Both native and recombinant proteins bound to 11-([5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl]aminoundecannoic acid, dansyl-DL-α-amino-caprylic acid, cis-parinaric acid and retinol, which were competitively inhibited by oleic acid. TsMFABP1 exhibited high affinity toward FA analogs. TsMFABPs showed weak binding activity to retinol, but TsMFABP2 showed relatively high affinity. Isolation of two distinct genes from an individual genome strongly suggested their paralogous nature. Abundant expression of TsMFABP1 and TsMFABP2 in the canal region of worm matched well with the histological distributions

  17. Glycan masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for probing protein binding function and vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Sampath

    Full Text Available Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development.

  18. Functional recruitment of human complement inhibitor C4B-binding protein to outer membrane protein Rck of Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek K Ho

    Full Text Available Resistance to complement mediated killing, or serum resistance, is a common trait of pathogenic bacteria. Rck is a 17 kDa outer membrane protein encoded on the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. When expressed in either E. coli or S. enterica Typhimurium, Rck confers LPS-independent serum resistance as well as the ability to bind to and invade mammalian cells. Having recently shown that Rck binds the inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement, factor H (fH, we hypothesized that Rck can also bind the inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways, C4b-binding protein (C4BP. Using flow cytometry and direct binding assays, we demonstrate that E. coli expressing Rck binds C4BP from heat-inactivated serum and by using the purified protein. No binding was detected in the absence of Rck expression. C4BP bound to Rck is functional, as we observed factor I-mediated cleavage of C4b in cofactor assays. In competition assays, binding of radiolabeled C4BP to Rck was reduced by increasing concentrations of unlabeled protein. No effect was observed by increasing heparin or salt concentrations, suggesting mainly non-ionic interactions. Reduced binding of C4BP mutants lacking complement control protein domains (CCPs 7 or 8 was observed compared to wt C4BP, suggesting that these CCPs are involved in Rck binding. While these findings are restricted to Rck expression in E. coli, these data suggest that C4BP binding may be an additional mechanism of Rck-mediated complement resistance.

  19. Methyl-CpG binding proteins in the nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping FAN; Leah HUTNICK

    2005-01-01

    Classical methyl-CpG binding proteins contain the conserved DNA binding motif methyl-cytosine binding domain (MBD), which preferentially binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides. These proteins serve as transcriptional repressors,mediating gene silencing via DNA cytosine methylation. Mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) have been linked to the human mental retardation disorder Rett syndrome, suggesting an important role for methyl-CpG binding proteins in brain development and function. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in studying the diverse functions of MeCP2 as a prototype for other methyl-CpG binding proteins in the development and function of the vertebrate nervous system.

  20. Protein sequences insight into heavy metal tolerance in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 encoded by plasmid pESA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Navaneet; Kajsik, Michal; Forsythe, Stephen; Pandey, Paras Nath

    2015-12-01

    The recently annotated genome of the bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 suggests that the organism has the ability to bind heavy metals. This study demonstrates heavy metal tolerance in C. sakazakii, in which proteins with the heavy metal interaction were recognized by computational and experimental study. As the result, approximately one-fourth of proteins encoded on the plasmid pESA3 are proposed to have potential interaction with heavy metals. Interaction between heavy metals and predicted proteins was further corroborated using protein crystal structures from protein data bank database and comparison of metal-binding ligands. In addition, a phylogenetic study was undertaken for the toxic heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, which generated relatedness clustering for lead, cadmium and arsenic. Laboratory studies confirmed the organism's tolerance to tellurite, copper and silver. These experimental and computational study data extend our understanding of the genes encoding for proteins of this important neonatal pathogen and provide further insights into the genotypes associated with features that can contribute to its persistence in the environment. The information will be of value for future environmental protection from heavy toxic metals.

  1. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF PLANT CHITINASES AND CHITIN-BINDING PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEINTEMA, JJ

    1994-01-01

    Structural features of plant chitinases and chitin-binding proteins are discussed. Many of these proteins consist of multiple domains,of which the chitin-binding hevein domain is a predominant one. X-ray and NMR structures of representatives of the major classes of these proteins are available now,

  2. Protein function annotation by local binding site surface similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Russell; Cleves, Ann E; Varela, Rocco; Jain, Ajay N

    2014-04-01

    Hundreds of protein crystal structures exist for proteins whose function cannot be confidently determined from sequence similarity. Surflex-PSIM, a previously reported surface-based protein similarity algorithm, provides an alternative method for hypothesizing function for such proteins. The method now supports fully automatic binding site detection and is fast enough to screen comprehensive databases of protein binding sites. The binding site detection methodology was validated on apo/holo cognate protein pairs, correctly identifying 91% of ligand binding sites in holo structures and 88% in apo structures where corresponding sites existed. For correctly detected apo binding sites, the cognate holo site was the most similar binding site 87% of the time. PSIM was used to screen a set of proteins that had poorly characterized functions at the time of crystallization, but were later biochemically annotated. Using a fully automated protocol, this set of 8 proteins was screened against ∼60,000 ligand binding sites from the PDB. PSIM correctly identified functional matches that predated query protein biochemical annotation for five out of the eight query proteins. A panel of 12 currently unannotated proteins was also screened, resulting in a large number of statistically significant binding site matches, some of which suggest likely functions for the poorly characterized proteins.

  3. ANDROGEN REGULATION OF PROSTATIC STEROID BINDING PROTEIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYong-Lian; ZHOUZong-Xun; ZHANGYou-Duan; PARKERMalcolmG

    1989-01-01

    Prostatic steroid binding protein (PSBP) is a major protein secreted in the rat ventral prostate (V.P.) and also one of the components in seminal fluid, The potential importance of this protein in male fertility emerged from its ability of binding cholesterol which might modulate the proportion of phospholipids and cholesterol in sperm making it suitable

  4. The divergently transcribed genes encoding yeast ribosomal proteins L46 and S24 are activated by shared RPG-boxes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, L.S.; Mager, W H; Maurer, K T; Nieuwint, R T; Planta, R J

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of the majority of the ribosomal protein (rp) genes in yeast is activated through common cis-acting elements, designated RPG-boxes. These elements have been shown to act as specific binding sites for the protein factor TUF/RAP1/GRF1 in vitro. Two such elements occur in the intergenic region separating the divergently transcribed genes encoding L46 and S24. To investigate whether the two RPG-boxes mediate transcription activation of both the L46 and S24 gene, two experimental str...

  5. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, R Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L; Saini, Harpreet K; Tickle, Ian J; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-12-29

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets.

  6. Improving Binding Affinity and Selectivity of Computationally Designed Ligand-Binding Proteins Using Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinberg, Christine E; Khare, Sagar D

    2016-01-01

    The ability to de novo design proteins that can bind small molecules has wide implications for synthetic biology and medicine. Combining computational protein design with the high-throughput screening of mutagenic libraries of computationally designed proteins is emerging as a general approach for creating binding proteins with programmable binding modes, affinities, and selectivities. The computational step enables the creation of a binding site in a protein that otherwise does not (measurably) bind the intended ligand, and targeted mutagenic screening allows for validation and refinement of the computational model as well as provides orders-of-magnitude increases in the binding affinity. Deep sequencing of mutagenic libraries can provide insights into the mutagenic binding landscape and enable further affinity improvements. Moreover, in such a combined computational-experimental approach where the binding mode is preprogrammed and iteratively refined, selectivity can be achieved (and modulated) by the placement of specified amino acid side chain groups around the ligand in defined orientations. Here, we describe the experimental aspects of a combined computational-experimental approach for designing-using the software suite Rosetta-proteins that bind a small molecule of choice and engineering, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and high-throughput yeast surface display, high affinity and ligand selectivity. We illustrated the utility of this approach by performing the design of a selective digoxigenin (DIG)-binding protein that, after affinity maturation, binds DIG with picomolar affinity and high selectivity over structurally related steroids. PMID:27094290

  7. Minimalistic predictor of protein binding energy: contribution of solvation factor to protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Mo; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Murphy, Sean; Lucarelli, Dennis; Lofranco, Leo L; Feldman, Andrew; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2015-02-17

    It has long been known that solvation plays an important role in protein-protein interactions. Here, we use a minimalistic solvation-based model for predicting protein binding energy to estimate quantitatively the contribution of the solvation factor in protein binding. The factor is described by a simple linear combination of buried surface areas according to amino-acid types. Even without structural optimization, our minimalistic model demonstrates a predictive power comparable to more complex methods, making the proposed approach the basis for high throughput applications. Application of the model to a proteomic database shows that receptor-substrate complexes involved in signaling have lower affinities than enzyme-inhibitor and antibody-antigen complexes, and they differ by chemical compositions on interfaces. Also, we found that protein complexes with components that come from the same genes generally have lower affinities than complexes formed by proteins from different genes, but in this case the difference originates from different interface areas. The model was implemented in the software PYTHON, and the source code can be found on the Shakhnovich group webpage: http://faculty.chemistry.harvard.edu/shakhnovich/software. PMID:25692584

  8. CDNA cloning and mRNA expression of the six mouse insulin-like growth factor binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.P. Schuller (Alwin); C. Groffen (Cora); J.W. van Neck (Han); E.C. Zwarthoff (Ellen); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) comprise a family of six distinct proteins which modulate insulin-like growth factor action. We have isolated cDNAs encoding the six mouse IGFBPs (mIGFBPs). In addition, we studied the mRNA expression of the six mIGFBPs during deve

  9. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

  10. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Figueroa-Angulo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  11. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  12. Inhibition of tristetraprolin deadenylation by poly(A) binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Rowlett, Robert M.; Chrestensen, Carol A.; Schroeder, Melanie J.; Harp, Mary G.; Pelo, Jared W.; Shabanowitz, Jeffery; DeRose, Robert; Hunt, Donald F.; Sturgill, Thomas W.; Worthington, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype for a family of RNA binding proteins that bind the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) messenger RNA AU-rich element (ARE), causing deadenylation of the TNF poly(A) tail, RNA decay, and silencing of TNF protein production. Using mass spectrometry sequencing we identified poly(A) binding proteins-1 and -4 (PABP1 and PABP4) in high abundance and good protein coverage from TTP immunoprecipitates. PABP1 significantly enhanced TNF ARE binding by RNA EMSA and prevente...

  13. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-11-01

    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level.

  14. Discovery of binding proteins for a protein target using protein-protein docking-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changsheng; Tang, Bo; Wang, Qian; Lai, Luhua

    2014-10-01

    Target structure-based virtual screening, which employs protein-small molecule docking to identify potential ligands, has been widely used in small-molecule drug discovery. In the present study, we used a protein-protein docking program to identify proteins that bind to a specific target protein. In the testing phase, an all-to-all protein-protein docking run on a large dataset was performed. The three-dimensional rigid docking program SDOCK was used to examine protein-protein docking on all protein pairs in the dataset. Both the binding affinity and features of the binding energy landscape were considered in the scoring function in order to distinguish positive binding pairs from negative binding pairs. Thus, the lowest docking score, the average Z-score, and convergency of the low-score solutions were incorporated in the analysis. The hybrid scoring function was optimized in the all-to-all docking test. The docking method and the hybrid scoring function were then used to screen for proteins that bind to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), which is a well-known therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. A protein library containing 677 proteins was used for the screen. Proteins with scores among the top 20% were further examined. Sixteen proteins from the top-ranking 67 proteins were selected for experimental study. Two of these proteins showed significant binding to TNFα in an in vitro binding study. The results of the present study demonstrate the power and potential application of protein-protein docking for the discovery of novel binding proteins for specific protein targets.

  15. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  16. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  17. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  18. Topological Analyses of Protein-Ligand Binding: a Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Proteins can be conveniently represented as networks of interacting residues, thus allowing the study of several network parameters that can shed light onto several of their structural and functional aspects. With respect to the binding of ligands, which are central for the function of many proteins, network analysis may constitute a possible route to assist the identification of binding sites. As the bulk of this review illustrates, this has generally been easier for enzymes than for non-enzyme proteins, perhaps due to the different topological nature of the binding sites of the former over those of the latter. The article also illustrates how network representations of binding sites can be used to search PDB structures in order to identify proteins that bind similar molecules and, lastly, how codifying proteins as networks can assist the analysis of the conformational changes consequent to ligand binding.

  19. Repertoire of Protein Kinases Encoded in the Genome of Takifugu rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rakshambikai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Takifugu rubripes is teleost fish widely used in comparative genomics to understand the human system better due to its similarities both in number of genes and structure of genes. In this work we survey the fugu genome, and, using sensitive computational approaches, we identify the repertoire of putative protein kinases and classify them into groups and subfamilies. The fugu genome encodes 519 protein kinase-like sequences and this number of putative protein kinases is comparable closely to that of human. However, in spite of its similarities to human kinases at the group level, there are differences at the subfamily level as noted in the case of KIS and DYRK subfamilies which contribute to differences which are specific to the adaptation of the organism. Also, certain unique domain combination of galectin domain and YkA domain suggests alternate mechanisms for immune response and binding to lipoproteins. Lastly, an overall similarity with the MAPK pathway of humans suggests its importance to understand signaling mechanisms in humans. Overall the fugu serves as a good model organism to understand roles of human kinases as far as kinases such as LRRK and IRAK and their associated pathways are concerned.

  20. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin. PMID:25916847

  1. Evolutionary conservation and DNA binding properties of the Ssh7 proteins from Sulfolobus shibatae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae synthesizes a large amount of the 7-ku DNA binding proteins known as Ssh7. Our hybridization experiments showed that two Ssh7-encoding genes existed in the genome of S. Shibatae. These two genes, designated ssh7a and ssh7b, have been cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The two Ssh7 proteins differ only at three amino acid positions. In addition, the cis-regulatory sequences of the ssh7a and ssh7b genes are highly conserved. These results suggest the presence of a selective pressure to maintain not only the sequence but also the expression of the two genes. We have also found that there are two genes encoding the 7-ku protein in Sulfolobus solfataricus. Based on this and other studies, we suggest that the gene encoding the 7-ku protein underwent duplication before the separation of Sulfolobus species. Binding of native Ssh7 and recombinant (r)Ssh7 to short duplex DNA fragments was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Both native and recombinant forms of the protein behaved in a similar fashion in the assays, suggesting that the interaction of Ssh7 with DNA is not affected either by specific lysine methylation found in the native Ssh7 proteins or by the difference between the two Ssh7 isomers in amino acid sequence. Our data show that Ssh7 binds duplex DNA fragments with a binding size of ~ 6.6 base pairs and an apparent dissociation constant of (0.7-1.0)×10-7 mol/L under the assay conditions employed in the present study. In addition, Ssh7 binds more tightly to negatively supercoiled DNA than to linear or relaxed DNA.

  2. A Novel Kinesin-Like Protein with a Calmodulin-Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Narasimhulu, S. B.; Reddy, A. S. N.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    Calcium regulates diverse developmental processes in plants through the action of calmodulin. A cDNA expression library from developing anthers of tobacco was screened with S-35-labeled calmodulin to isolate cDNAs encoding calmodulin-binding proteins. Among several clones isolated, a kinesin-like gene (TCK1) that encodes a calmodulin-binding kinesin-like protein was obtained. The TCK1 cDNA encodes a protein with 1265 amino acid residues. Its structural features are very similar to those of known kinesin heavy chains and kinesin-like proteins from plants and animals, with one distinct exception. Unlike other known kinesin-like proteins, TCK1 contains a calmodulin-binding domain which distinguishes it from all other known kinesin genes. Escherichia coli-expressed TCK1 binds calmodulin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In addition to the presence of a calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminal, it also has a leucine zipper motif in the stalk region. The amino acid sequence at the carboxyl terminal of TCK1 has striking homology with the mechanochemical motor domain of kinesins. The motor domain has ATPase activity that is stimulated by microtubules. Southern blot analysis revealed that TCK1 is coded by a single gene. Expression studies indicated that TCKI is expressed in all of the tissues tested. Its expression is highest in the stigma and anther, especially during the early stages of anther development. Our results suggest that Ca(2+)/calmodulin may play an important role in the function of this microtubule-associated motor protein and may be involved in the regulation of microtubule-based intracellular transport.

  3. Genetic characterization of psp encoding the DING protein in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue-Xian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DING proteins constitute a conserved and broadly distributed set of proteins found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals (including humans. Characterization of DING proteins from animal and plant tissues indicated ligand-binding ability suggesting a role for DING proteins in cell signaling and biomineralization. Surprisingly, the genes encoding DING proteins in eukaryotes have not been identified in the eukaryotic genome or EST databases. Recent discovery of a DING homologue (named Psp here in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the physiological roles of DING proteins. P. fluorescens SBW25 is a model bacterium that can efficiently colonize plant surfaces and enhance plant health. In this report we genetically characterize Psp with a focus on conditions under which psp is expressed and the protein exported. Results Psp is closely related to the periplasmic Pi binding component of the ABC-type phosphate transporter system (Pst. psp is flanked by a gene cluster predicted to function as a type II protein secretion system (Hxc. Deletion analysis combined with chromosomally integrated 'lacZ fusions showed that both psp and pstC are induced by Pi limitation and that pstC is required for competitive growth of the bacterium in Pi limited medium. hxcR is not regulated by Pi limitation. Psp was detected (using anti-DING serum in the supernatant of wild-type culture but was greatly reduced in the supernatant of an isogenic strain carrying an hxcR mutation (ΔhxcR. A promoter fusion between hxcR and a promoterless copy of a gene ('dapB essential for growth in the plant environment showed that expression of hxcR is elevated during colonization of sugar beet seedlings. A similar analysis of psp showed that it is not induced in the plant environment. Conclusion Psp gene is expressed under conditions of Pi limitation. It is an exoprotein secreted mainly via the Hxc type II secretion

  4. O-demethylase from Acetobacterium dehalogenans--cloning, sequencing, and active expression of the gene encoding the corrinoid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, F; Wohlfarth, G; Diekert, G

    1998-10-15

    The ether-cleaving O-demethylase from the strictly anaerobic homoacetogen Acetobacterium dehalogenans catalyses the methyltransfer from 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoate (vanillate) to tetrahydrofolate. In the first step a vanillate :corrinoid protein methyltransferase (methyltransferase I) mediates the methylation of a 25-kDa corrinoid protein with the cofactor reduced to cob(I)alamin. The methyl group is then transferred to tetrahydrofolate by the action of a methylcorrinoid protein:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase (methyltransferase II). Using primers derived from the amino-terminal sequences of the corrinoid protein and the vanillate:corrinoid protein methyltransferase (methyltransferase I), a 723-bp fragment was amplified by PCR, which contained the gene odmA encoding the corrinoid protein of O-demethylase. Downstream of odmA, part of the odmB gene encoding methyltransferase I was identified. The amino acid sequence deduced from odmA showed about 60% similarity to the cobalamin-binding domain of methionine synthase from Escherichia coli (MetH) and to corrinoid proteins of methyltransferase systems involved in methanogenesis from methanol and methylamines. The sequence contained the DXHXXG consensus sequence typical for displacement of the dimethylbenzimidazole base of the corrinoid cofactor by a histidine from the protein. Heterologous expression of odmA in E. coli yielded a colourless, oxygen-insensitive apoprotein, which was able to bind one mol cobalamin or methylcobalamin/mol protein. Both of these reconstituted forms of the protein were active in the overall O-demethylation reaction. OdmA reconstituted with hydroxocobalamin and reduced by titanium(III) citrate to the cob(I)alamin form was methylated with vanillate by methyltransferase I in an irreversible reaction. Methylcobalamin carrying OdmA served as methyl group donor for the methylation of tetrahydrofolate by methyltransferase II. This reaction was found to be reversible, since methyltranSferase II

  5. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC transporter HI1470/71 through its cognate molybdate periplasmic binding protein, MolA

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C.; Pinkett, Heather W.

    2011-01-01

    molA(HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB2C2 (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7-Å resolution, respectively. The MolA binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate binding protein structurally solved. The ~100 μM binding affinity...

  6. Structure and characterization of a novel chicken biotin-binding protein A (BBP-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Mark S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chicken genome contains a BBP-A gene showing similar characteristics to avidin family genes. In a previous study we reported that the BBP-A gene may encode a biotin-binding protein due to the high sequence similarity with chicken avidin, especially at regions encoding residues known to be located at the ligand-binding site of avidin. Results Here, we expand the repertoire of known macromolecular biotin binders by reporting a novel biotin-binding protein A (BBP-A from chicken. The BBP-A recombinant protein was expressed using two different expression systems and purified with affinity chromatography, biochemically characterized and two X-ray structures were solved – in complex with D-biotin (BTN and in complex with D-biotin D-sulfoxide (BSO. The BBP-A protein binds free biotin with high, "streptavidin-like" affinity (Kd ~ 10-13 M, which is about 50 times lower than that of chicken avidin. Surprisingly, the affinity of BBP-A for BSO is even higher than the affinity for BTN. Furthermore, the solved structures of the BBP-A – BTN and BBP-A – BSO complexes, which share the fold with the members of the avidin and lipocalin protein families, are extremely similar to each other. Conclusion BBP-A is an avidin-like protein having a β-barrel fold and high affinity towards BTN. However, BBP-A differs from the other known members of the avidin protein family in thermal stability and immunological properties. BBP-A also has a unique ligand-binding property, the ability to bind BTN and BSO at comparable affinities. BBP-A may have use as a novel material in, e.g. modern bio(nanotechnological applications.

  7. In silicio search for genes encoding peroxisomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, A J; Hettema, E H; van den Berg, M; Koerkamp, M G; van Ijlst, L; Distel, B; Tabak, H F

    2000-01-01

    The biogenesis of peroxisomes involves the synthesis of new proteins that after, completion of translation, are targeted to the organelle by virtue of peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS). Two types of PTSs have been well characterized for import of matrix proteins (PTS1 and PTS2). Induction of the genes encoding these matrix proteins takes place in oleate-containing medium and is mediated via an oleate response element (ORE) present in the region preceding these genes. The authors have searched the yeast genome for OREs preceding open reading frames (ORFs), and for ORFs that contain either a PTS1 or PTS2. Of the ORFs containing an ORE, as well as either a PTS1 or a PTS2, many were known to encode bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins. In addition, candidate genes were identified as encoding putative new peroxisomal proteins. For one case, subcellular location studies validated the in silicio prediction. This gene encodes a new peroxisomal thioesterase.

  8. Rapid determination of thyroxine binding proteins of human serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima,Terukatsu

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is described for determing thyroxine binding proteins in human serum by electrophoresis at pH 8.6, using cellulose acetate membrane as the supporting medium. The procedure had high reliability in sera of normal subjects, pregnant women and patients with decreased thyroxine binding capacity of thyroxine binding globulin.

  9. Thermodynamics of ligand binding to acyl-coenzyme A binding protein studied by titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Sigurskjold, B W; Kragelund, B B;

    1996-01-01

    Ligand binding to recombinant bovine acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) was examined using isothermal microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements confirm that the binding affinity of acyl-CoA esters for ACBP is strongly dependent on the length of the acyl chain with a clear preference for acyl-...

  10. A β-hairpin-binding protein for three different disease-related amyloidogenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhalishahi, Hamed; Mirecka, Ewa A; Gauhar, Aziz; Grüning, Clara S R; Willbold, Dieter; Härd, Torleif; Stoldt, Matthias; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Amyloidogenic proteins share a propensity to convert to the β-structure-rich amyloid state that is associated with the progression of several protein-misfolding disorders. Here we show that a single engineered β-hairpin-binding protein, the β-wrapin AS10, binds monomers of three different amyloidogenic proteins, that is, amyloid-β peptide, α-synuclein, and islet amyloid polypeptide, with sub-micromolar affinity. AS10 binding inhibits the aggregation and toxicity of all three proteins. The results demonstrate common conformational preferences and related binding sites in a subset of the amyloidogenic proteins. These commonalities enable the generation of multispecific monomer-binding agents.

  11. Expression of genes encoding multi-transmembrane proteins in specific primate taste cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan D Moyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds isolated by laser capture microdissection and analyzed using gene arrays, we previously constructed a comprehensive database of gene expression in primates, which revealed over 2,300 taste bud-associated genes. Bioinformatics analyses identified hundreds of genes predicted to encode multi-transmembrane domain proteins with no previous association with taste function. A first step in elucidating the roles these gene products play in gustation is to identify the specific taste cell types in which they are expressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using double label in situ hybridization analyses, we identified seven new genes expressed in specific taste cell types, including sweet, bitter, and umami cells (TRPM5-positive, sour cells (PKD2L1-positive, as well as other taste cell populations. Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44, a protein with seven predicted transmembrane domains with no homology to GPCRs, is expressed in a TRPM5-negative and PKD2L1-negative population that is enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds and may represent developmentally immature taste cells. Calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1, a component of a novel calcium channel, along with family members CALHM2 and CALHM3; multiple C2 domains; transmembrane 1 (MCTP1, a calcium-binding transmembrane protein; and anoctamin 7 (ANO7, a member of the recently identified calcium-gated chloride channel family, are all expressed in TRPM5 cells. These proteins may modulate and effect calcium signalling stemming from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2B (SV2B, a regulator of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, is expressed in PKD2L1 cells, suggesting that this taste cell population transmits tastant information to gustatory afferent nerve fibers via exocytic neurotransmitter release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of genes encoding multi-transmembrane domain proteins

  12. Posttranscriptional control of the hypoxic response by RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam eGorospe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian gene expression patterns change profoundly in response to low oxygen levels. These changes in gene expression programs are strongly influenced by post-transcriptional mechanisms mediated by mRNA-binding factors: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs and microRNAs (miRNAs. Here, we review the RBPs and miRNAs that modulate mRNA turnover and translation in response to hypoxic challenge. RBPs such as HuR (human antigen R, PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs, tristetraprolin, nucleolin, iron-response element binding proteins (IRPs, and cytoplasmic polyadenylation-element-binding proteins (CPEBs, selectively bind to numerous hypoxia-regulated transcripts and play a major role in establishing hypoxic gene expression patterns. MiRNAs including miR-210, miR-373, and miR-21 associate with hypoxia-regulated transcripts and further modulate the levels of the encoded proteins to implement the hypoxic gene expression profile. We discuss the potent regulation of hypoxic gene expression by RBPs and miRNAs and their integrated actions in the cellular hypoxic response.

  13. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions

  14. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; D González; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using β-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-p...

  15. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  16. Clinical relevance of drug binding to plasma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Pallottini, Valentina; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Binding to plasma proteins highly influences drug efficacy, distribution, and disposition. Serum albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule that displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity, providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and most acidic drugs. α-1-Acid glycoprotein, the second main plasma protein, is a glycoprotein physiologically involved in the acute phase reaction and is the main carrier for basic and neutral drugs. High- and low-density lipoproteins play a limited role in drug binding and are natural drug delivery system only for few lipophilic drugs or lipid-based formulations. Several factors influence drug binding to plasma proteins, such as pathological conditions, concurrent administration of drugs, sex, and age. Any of these factors, in turn, influences drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnological aspects of drug binding to plasma proteins are reviewed.

  17. The ARF-like 2 (ARL2)-binding protein, BART. Purification, cloning, and initial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, J D; Kahn, R A

    1999-09-24

    ARF-like proteins (ARLs) comprise a functionally distinct group of incompletely characterized members in the ARF family of RAS-related GTPases. We took advantage of the GTP binding characteristics of human ARL2 to develop a specific, high affinity binding assay that allowed the purification of a novel ARL2-binding protein. A 19-kDa protein (BART, Binder of Arl Two) was identified and purified from bovine brain homogenate. BART binding is specific to ARL2.GTP with high affinity but does not interact with ARL2.GDP or activated ARF or RHO proteins. Based on peptide sequences of purified bovine BART, the human cDNA sequence was determined. The 489-base pair BART open reading frame encodes a novel 163-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 18,822 Da. Recombinant BART was found to bind ARL2.GTP in a manner indistinguishable from native BART. Northern and Western analyses indicated BART is expressed in all tissues sampled. The lack of detectable membrane association of ARL2 or BART upon activation of ARL2 is suggestive of actions quite distinct from those of the ARFs. The lack of ARL2 GTPase-activating protein activity in BART led us to conclude that the specific interaction with ARL2.GTP is most consistent with BART being the first identified ARL2-specific effector. PMID:10488091

  18. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia;

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although...... the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD-mDNA interface by two MBD arginines...

  19. Sequence analysis of the gene for the glucan-binding protein of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, J A; Russell, R R; Ferretti, J J

    1990-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gbp gene, which encodes the glucan-binding protein (GBP) of Streptococcus mutans, was determined. The reading frame for gbp was 1,689 bases. A ribosome-binding site and putative promoter preceded the start codon, and potential stem-loop structures were identified downstream from the termination codon. The deduced amino acid sequence of the GBP revealed the presence of a signal peptide of 35 amino acids. The molecular weight of the processed protein was calculated to be 59,039. Two series of repeats spanned three-quarters of the carboxy-terminal end of the protein. The repeats were 32 to 34 and 17 to 20 amino acids in length and shared partial identity within each series. The repeats were found to be homologous to sequences hypothesized to be involved in glucan binding in the GTF-I of S. downei and to sequences within the protein products encoded by gtfB and gtfC of S. mutans. The repeated sequences may represent peptide segments that are important to glucan binding and may be distributed among GBPs from other bacterial inhabitants of plaque or the oral cavity. PMID:2307516

  20. Sequence and structural features of binding site residues in protein-protein complexes: comparison with protein-nucleic acid complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj S; Jayaram B; Saranya N; Gromiha M; Fukui Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are important for several cellular processes. Understanding the mechanism of protein-protein recognition and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes are long standing goals in molecular and computational biology. Methods We have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding site residues in protein–protein complexes. The binding site residues have been analyzed with sequence and structure based parameters such...

  1. Global discovery of protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-09-01

    Nucleotide-binding proteins, such as protein kinases, ATPases and GTP-binding proteins, are among the most important families of proteins that are involved in a number of pivotal cellular processes. However, global study of the structure, function, and expression level of nucleotide-binding proteins as well as protein-nucleotide interactions can hardly be achieved with the use of conventional approaches owing to enormous diversity of the nucleotide-binding protein family. Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, coupled with a variety of nucleotide-binding protein enrichment methods, rendered MS-based proteomics a powerful tool for the comprehensive characterizations of the nucleotide-binding proteome, especially the kinome. Here, we review the recent developments in the use of mass spectrometry, together with general and widely used affinity enrichment approaches, for the proteome-wide capture, identification and quantification of nucleotide-binding proteins, including protein kinases, ATPases, GTPases, and other nucleotide-binding proteins. The working principles, advantages, and limitations of each enrichment platform in identifying nucleotide-binding proteins as well as profiling protein-nucleotide interactions are summarized. The perspectives in developing novel MS-based nucleotide-binding protein detection platform are also discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 35:601-619, 2016.

  2. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W P; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  3. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hassanpour

    Full Text Available Adseverin (Ads, a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG. Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion.

  4. Concentration-dependent Cu(II) binding to prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2008-03-01

    The prion protein plays a causative role in several neurodegenerative diseases, including mad cow disease in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The normal function of the prion protein is unknown, but it has been linked to its ability to bind copper ions. Experimental evidence suggests that copper can be bound in three distinct modes depending on its concentration, but only one of those binding modes has been fully characterized experimentally. Using a newly developed hybrid DFT/DFT method [1], which combines Kohn-Sham DFT with orbital-free DFT, we have examined all the binding modes and obtained their detailed binding geometries and copper ion binding energies. Our results also provide explanation for experiments, which have found that when the copper concentration increases the copper binding mode changes, surprisingly, from a stronger to a weaker one. Overall, our results indicate that prion protein can function as a copper buffer. 1. Hodak, Lu, Bernholc, JCP, in press.

  5. Cooperative binding modes of Cu(II) in prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Chisnell, Robin; Lu, Wenchang; Bernholc, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    The misfolding of the prion protein, PrP, is responsible for a group of neurodegenerative diseases including mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is known that the PrP can efficiently bind copper ions; four high-affinity binding sites located in the octarepeat region of PrP are now well known. Recent experiments suggest that at low copper concentrations new binding modes, in which one copper ion is shared between two or more binding sites, are possible. Using our hybrid Thomas-Fermi/DFT computational scheme, which is well suited for simulations of biomolecules in solution, we investigate the geometries and energetics of two, three and four binding sites cooperatively binding one copper ion. These geometries are then used as inputs for classical molecular dynamics simulations. We find that copper binding affects the secondary structure of the PrP and that it stabilizes the unstructured (unfolded) part of the protein.

  6. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Choromańska; Piotr Myśliwiec; Jacek Dadan; Hady Razak Hady; Adrian Chabowski

    2011-01-01

    Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum). So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first ...

  7. The androgen-binding protein gene is expressed in male and female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y M; Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E; Petrusz, P; Joseph, D R

    1990-12-01

    Extracellular androgen-binding proteins (ABP) are thought to modulate the regulatory functions of androgens and the trans-acting nuclear androgen receptor. Testicular ABP and plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which is produced in liver, are encoded by the same gene. We have now found that the ABP-SHBG gene is also expressed in male and female rat brain. Immunoreactive ABP was found to be present in neuronal cell bodies throughout the brain as well as in fibers of the hypothalamic median eminence. The highest concentrations of immunoreactive cell bodies were located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Likewise, ABP mRNA was present in all brain regions examined. Analysis of cDNA clones representing brain ABP mRNAs revealed amino acid sequence differences in brain and testicular ABPs. The protein encoded by an alternatively processed RNA has sequence characteristics suggesting that the protein could act as a competitior of ABP binding to cell surface receptors. These data and gene-sequencing experiments indicate that a specific ABP gene promoter is used for transcription initiation in brain. ABP may function in brain as an androgen carrier protein; however, in view of the widespread presence of ABP and ABP mRNA in brain, the protein may have a much broader, yet unknown, function. PMID:1701136

  8. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi SHEN; Lu WANG; Hui ZHOU; Hui-di JIANG; Lu-shan YU; Su ZENG

    2013-01-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body.The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity,which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles.In this review,the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA),α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)and lipoprotein,three most important proteins in human plasma,are detailed.Furthermore,the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed.Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding,enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described.Additionally,the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed.

  9. Inactivation of lmpA, Encoding a LIMPII-related Endosomal Protein, Suppresses the Internalization and Endosomal Trafficking Defects in Profilin-null Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Temesvari, Lesly; Zhang, Linyi; Fodera, Brent; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Schleicher, Michael; Cardelli, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Profilin is a key phosphoinositide and actin-binding protein connecting and coordinating changes in signal transduction pathways with alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. Using biochemical assays and microscopic approaches, we demonstrate that profilin-null cells are defective in macropinocytosis, fluid phase efflux, and secretion of lysosomal enzymes but are unexpectedly more efficient in phagocytosis than wild-type cells. Disruption of the lmpA gene encoding a protein (DdLIMP) belonging t...

  10. Sequence and structural features of binding site residues in protein-protein complexes: comparison with protein-nucleic acid complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are important for several cellular processes. Understanding the mechanism of protein-protein recognition and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes are long standing goals in molecular and computational biology. Methods We have developed an energy based approach for identifying the binding site residues in protein–protein complexes. The binding site residues have been analyzed with sequence and structure based parameters such as binding propensity, neighboring residues in the vicinity of binding sites, conservation score and conformational switching. Results We observed that the binding propensities of amino acid residues are specific for protein-protein complexes. Further, typical dipeptides and tripeptides showed high preference for binding, which is unique to protein-protein complexes. Most of the binding site residues are highly conserved among homologous sequences. Our analysis showed that 7% of residues changed their conformations upon protein-protein complex formation and it is 9.2% and 6.6% in the binding and non-binding sites, respectively. Specifically, the residues Glu, Lys, Leu and Ser changed their conformation from coil to helix/strand and from helix to coil/strand. Leu, Ser, Thr and Val prefer to change their conformation from strand to coil/helix. Conclusions The results obtained in this study will be helpful for understanding and predicting the binding sites in protein-protein complexes.

  11. Chorioallantoic Fusion Defects and Embryonic Lethality Resulting from Disruption of Zfp36L1, a Gene Encoding a CCCH Tandem Zinc Finger Protein of the Tristetraprolin Family

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpo, Deborah J.; Byrd, Noah A.; Phillips, Ruth S.; Ghosh, Sanjukta; Maronpot, Robert R.; Castranio, Trisha; Meyers, Erik N.; Mishina, Yuji; Blackshear, Perry J.

    2004-01-01

    The mouse gene Zfp36L1 encodes zinc finger protein 36-like 1 (Zfp36L1), a member of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of tandem CCCH finger proteins. TTP can bind to AU-rich elements within the 3′-untranslated regions of the mRNAs encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), leading to accelerated mRNA degradation. TTP knockout mice exhibit an inflammatory phenotype that is largely due to increased TNF secretion. Zfp36L1 has activities sim...

  12. Studies of the Interaction between Rad52 Protein and the Yeast Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein RPA

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Sharon L.; Firmenich, Antoine A.; Massey, Philip; Banerjee, Ronadip; Berg, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The RFA1 gene encodes the large subunit of the yeast trimeric single-stranded DNA binding protein replication protein A (RPA), which is known to play a critical role in DNA replication. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying the rfa1-44 allele displays a number of impaired recombination and repair phenotypes, all of which are suppressible by overexpression of RAD52. We demonstrate that a rad52 mutation is epistatic to the rfa1-44 mutation, placing RFA1 and RAD52 in the same genetic pathwa...

  13. Computational design of a PAK1 binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ramesh K; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Yin, Shuangye; Wu, Yibing; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Szyperski, Thomas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Kuhlman, Brian

    2010-07-01

    We describe a computational protocol, called DDMI, for redesigning scaffold proteins to bind to a specified region on a target protein. The DDMI protocol is implemented within the Rosetta molecular modeling program and uses rigid-body docking, sequence design, and gradient-based minimization of backbone and side-chain torsion angles to design low-energy interfaces between the scaffold and target protein. Iterative rounds of sequence design and conformational optimization were needed to produce models that have calculated binding energies that are similar to binding energies calculated for native complexes. We also show that additional conformation sampling with molecular dynamics can be iterated with sequence design to further lower the computed energy of the designed complexes. To experimentally test the DDMI protocol, we redesigned the human hyperplastic discs protein to bind to the kinase domain of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). Six designs were experimentally characterized. Two of the designs aggregated and were not characterized further. Of the remaining four designs, three bound to the PAK1 with affinities tighter than 350 muM. The tightest binding design, named Spider Roll, bound with an affinity of 100 muM. NMR-based structure prediction of Spider Roll based on backbone and (13)C(beta) chemical shifts using the program CS-ROSETTA indicated that the architecture of human hyperplastic discs protein is preserved. Mutagenesis studies confirmed that Spider Roll binds the target patch on PAK1. Additionally, Spider Roll binds to full-length PAK1 in its activated state but does not bind PAK1 when it forms an auto-inhibited conformation that blocks the Spider Roll target site. Subsequent NMR characterization of the binding of Spider Roll to PAK1 revealed a comparably small binding 'on-rate' constant (design the site of novel protein-protein interactions is an important step towards creating new proteins that are useful as therapeutics or molecular probes.

  14. Zygotic Expression of the Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motif Protein Drb2p Is Required for DNA Elimination in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Motl, Jason A.; Chalker, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA binding motif (DSRM)-containing proteins play many roles in the regulation of gene transcription and translation, including some with tandem DSRMs that act in small RNA biogenesis. We report the characterization of the genes for double-stranded RNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (DRB1 and DRB2), two genes encoding nuclear proteins with tandem DSRMs in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Both proteins are expressed throughout growth and development but exhibit distinct peaks of ...

  15. A deep learning framework for modeling structural features of RNA-binding protein targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Jingtian; Hu, Hailin; Gong, Haipeng; Chen, Ligong; Cheng, Chao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-02-29

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the post-transcriptional control of RNAs. Identifying RBP binding sites and characterizing RBP binding preferences are key steps toward understanding the basic mechanisms of the post-transcriptional gene regulation. Though numerous computational methods have been developed for modeling RBP binding preferences, discovering a complete structural representation of the RBP targets by integrating their available structural features in all three dimensions is still a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a general and flexible deep learning framework for modeling structural binding preferences and predicting binding sites of RBPs, which takes (predicted) RNA tertiary structural information into account for the first time. Our framework constructs a unified representation that characterizes the structural specificities of RBP targets in all three dimensions, which can be further used to predict novel candidate binding sites and discover potential binding motifs. Through testing on the real CLIP-seq datasets, we have demonstrated that our deep learning framework can automatically extract effective hidden structural features from the encoded raw sequence and structural profiles, and predict accurate RBP binding sites. In addition, we have conducted the first study to show that integrating the additional RNA tertiary structural features can improve the model performance in predicting RBP binding sites, especially for the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), which also provides a new evidence to support the view that RBPs may own specific tertiary structural binding preferences. In particular, the tests on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) segments yield satisfiable results with experimental support from the literature and further demonstrate the necessity of incorporating RNA tertiary structural information into the prediction model. The source code of our approach can be found in https

  16. A deep learning framework for modeling structural features of RNA-binding protein targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhou, Jingtian; Hu, Hailin; Gong, Haipeng; Chen, Ligong; Cheng, Chao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in the post-transcriptional control of RNAs. Identifying RBP binding sites and characterizing RBP binding preferences are key steps toward understanding the basic mechanisms of the post-transcriptional gene regulation. Though numerous computational methods have been developed for modeling RBP binding preferences, discovering a complete structural representation of the RBP targets by integrating their available structural features in all three dimensions is still a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a general and flexible deep learning framework for modeling structural binding preferences and predicting binding sites of RBPs, which takes (predicted) RNA tertiary structural information into account for the first time. Our framework constructs a unified representation that characterizes the structural specificities of RBP targets in all three dimensions, which can be further used to predict novel candidate binding sites and discover potential binding motifs. Through testing on the real CLIP-seq datasets, we have demonstrated that our deep learning framework can automatically extract effective hidden structural features from the encoded raw sequence and structural profiles, and predict accurate RBP binding sites. In addition, we have conducted the first study to show that integrating the additional RNA tertiary structural features can improve the model performance in predicting RBP binding sites, especially for the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), which also provides a new evidence to support the view that RBPs may own specific tertiary structural binding preferences. In particular, the tests on the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) segments yield satisfiable results with experimental support from the literature and further demonstrate the necessity of incorporating RNA tertiary structural information into the prediction model. The source code of our approach can be found in https

  17. Further biochemical characterization of Mycobacterium leprae laminin-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Marques

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the alpha2 chain of laminin-2 present on the surface of Schwann cells is involved in the process of attachment of Mycobacterium leprae to these cells. Searching for M. leprae laminin-binding molecules, in a previous study we isolated and characterized the cationic proteins histone-like protein (Hlp and ribosomal proteins S4 and S5 as potential adhesins involved in M. leprae-Schwann cell interaction. Hlp was shown to bind alpha2-laminins and to greatly enhance the attachment of mycobacteria to ST88-14 Schwann cells. In the present study, we investigated the laminin-binding capacity of the ribosomal proteins S4 and S5. The genes coding for these proteins were PCR amplified and their recombinant products were shown to bind alpha2-laminins in overlay assays. However, when tested in ELISA-based assays and in adhesion assays with ST88-14 cells, in contrast to Hlp, S4 and S5 failed to bind laminin and act as adhesins. The laminin-binding property and adhesin capacity of two basic host-derived proteins were also tested, and only histones, but not cytochrome c, were able to increase bacterial attachment to ST88-14 cells. Our data suggest that the alanine/lysine-rich sequences shared by Hlp and eukaryotic H1 histones might be involved in the binding of these cationic proteins to laminin.

  18. Convergent evolution among immunoglobulin G-binding bacterial proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, I M; Wikström, M.; Forsén, S.; Drakenberg, T; Gomi, H.; Sjöbring, U; Björck, L

    1992-01-01

    Protein G, a bacterial cell-wall protein with high affinity for the constant region of IgG (IgGFc) antibodies, contains homologous repeats responsible for the interaction with IgGFc. A synthetic peptide corresponding to an 11-amino acid-long sequence in the COOH-terminal region of the repeats was found to bind to IgGFc and block the interaction with protein G. Moreover, two other IgGFc-binding bacterial proteins (proteins A and H), which do not contain any sequences homologous to the peptide,...

  19. Identification of AOSC-binding proteins in neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; NIE Qin; XIN Xianliang; GENG Meiyu

    2008-01-01

    Acidic oligosaccharide sugar chain (AOSC), a D-mannuronic acid oligosaccharide, derived from brown algae polysaccharide, has been completed Phase I clinical trial in China as an anti-Alzheimer's Disease (AD) drug candidate. The identification of AOSC-binding protein(s) in neurons is very important for understanding its action mechanism. To determine the binding protein(s) of AOSC in neurons mediating its anti-AD activities, confocal microscopy, affinity chromatography, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis were used. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that AOSC binds to SH-SY5Y cells in concentration-, time-, and temperature-dependent fashions. The AOSC binding proteins were purified by affinity chromatography and identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. The results showed that there are 349 proteins binding AOSC, including clathrin, adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP). These results suggest that the binding/entrance of AOSC to neurons is probably responsible for anti-AD activities.

  20. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes.

  1. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  2. DNA bending is induced in an enhancer by the DNA-binding domain of the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskaluk, C; Bastia, D

    1988-01-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 has been shown to encode a DNA-binding protein and to trans-activate the viral enhancer. We have localized the DNA-binding domain of the E2 protein to the carboxyl-terminal 126 amino acids of the E2 open reading frame. The DNA-binding domain has been expressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Gel retardation and DNase I "footprinting" on the bovine papillomavirus type 1 enhancer identify the sequence motif ACCN6GGT (in which N = any nucle...

  3. Helical propensity in an intrinsically disordered protein accelerates ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Dogan, Jakob; Jemth, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Many intrinsically disordered proteins fold upon binding to other macromolecules. The secondary structure present in the well-ordered complex is often formed transiently in the unbound state. The consequence of such transient structure for the binding process is, however, not clear. The activation...... domain of the activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) is intrinsically disordered and folds upon binding to the nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of the CREB binding protein. A number of mutants was designed that selectively perturbs the amount of secondary structure...... in unbound ACTR without interfering with the intermolecular interactions between ACTR and NCBD. Using NMR spectroscopy and fluorescence-monitored stopped-flow kinetic measurements we show that the secondary structure content in helix 1 of ACTR indeed influences the binding kinetics. The results thus support...

  4. Niobium Uptake and Release by Bacterial Ferric Ion Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferric ion binding proteins (Fbps transport FeIII across the periplasm and are vital for the virulence of many Gram negative bacteria. Iron(III is tightly bound in a hinged binding cleft with octahedral coordination geometry involving binding to protein side chains (including tyrosinate residues together with a synergistic anion such as phosphate. Niobium compounds are of interest for their potential biological activity, which has been little explored. We have studied the binding of cyclopentadienyl and nitrilotriacetato NbV complexes to the Fbp from Neisseria gonorrhoeae by UV-vis spectroscopy, chromatography, ICP-OES, mass spectrometry, and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These data suggest that NbV binds strongly to Fbp and that a dinuclear NbV centre can be readily accommodated in the interdomain binding cleft. The possibility of designing niobium-based antibiotics which block iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria is discussed.

  5. Properties of the periplasmic ModA molybdate-binding protein of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, S; Wolin, C; Gunsalus, R P

    1996-02-01

    The modABCD operon, located at 17 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome, encodes the protein components of a high affinity molybdate uptake system. Sequence analysis of the modA gene (GenBank L34009) predicts that it encodes a periplasmic binding protein based on the presence of a leader-like sequence at its N terminus. To examine the properties of the ModA protein, the modA structural gene was overexpressed, and its product was purified. The ModA protein was localized to the periplasmic space of the cell, and it was released following a gentle osmotic shock. The N-terminal sequence of ModA confirmed that a leader region of 24 amino acids was removed upon export from the cell. The apparent size of ModA is 31.6 kDa as determined by gel sieve chromatography, whereas it is 22.5 kDa when examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A ligand-dependent protein mobility shift assay was devised using a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protocol to examine binding of molybdate and other anions to the ModA periplasmic protein. Whereas molybdate and tungstate were bound with high affinity (approximately 5 microM), sulfate, chromate, selenate, phosphate, and chlorate did not bind even when tested at 2 mM. A UV spectral assay revealed apparent Kd values of binding for molybdate and tungstate of 3 and 7 microM, respectively. Strains defective in the modA gene were unable to transport molybdate unless high levels of the anion were supplied in the medium. Therefore the modA gene product is essential for high affinity molybdate uptake by the cell. Tungstate interference of molybdate acquisition by the cell is apparently due in part to the high affinity of the ModA protein for this anion.

  6. Investigation of the Relationship between Lactococcal Host Cell Wall Polysaccharide Genotype and 936 Phage Receptor Binding Protein Phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahony, Jennifer; Kot, Witold Piotr; Murphy, James;

    2013-01-01

    Comparative genomics of 11 lactococcal 936-type phages combined with host range analysis allowed subgrouping of these phage genomes, particularly with respect to their encoded receptor binding proteins. The so-called pellicle or cell wall polysaccharide of Lactococcus lactis, which has been impli...

  7. Evolutionary Characteristics of Missing Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Human Chromosomes Related to Missing-Protein-Encoding Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aishi; Li, Guang; Yang, Dong; Wu, Songfeng; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Xu, Ping; He, Fuchu

    2015-12-01

    Although the "missing protein" is a temporary concept in C-HPP, the biological information for their "missing" could be an important clue in evolutionary studies. Here we classified missing-protein-encoding genes into two groups, the genes encoding PE2 proteins (with transcript evidence) and the genes encoding PE3/4 proteins (with no transcript evidence). These missing-protein-encoding genes distribute unevenly among different chromosomes, chromosomal regions, or gene clusters. In the view of evolutionary features, PE3/4 genes tend to be young, spreading at the nonhomology chromosomal regions and evolving at higher rates. Interestingly, there is a higher proportion of singletons in PE3/4 genes than the proportion of singletons in all genes (background) and OTCSGs (organ, tissue, cell type-specific genes). More importantly, most of the paralogous PE3/4 genes belong to the newly duplicated members of the paralogous gene groups, which mainly contribute to special biological functions, such as "smell perception". These functions are heavily restricted into specific type of cells, tissues, or specific developmental stages, acting as the new functional requirements that facilitated the emergence of the missing-protein-encoding genes during evolution. In addition, the criteria for the extremely special physical-chemical proteins were first set up based on the properties of PE2 proteins, and the evolutionary characteristics of those proteins were explored. Overall, the evolutionary analyses of missing-protein-encoding genes are expected to be highly instructive for proteomics and functional studies in the future.

  8. Yeast two hybrid analyses reveal novel binary interactions between human cytomegalovirus-encoded virion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron To

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the largest human herpesvirus and its virion contains many viral encoded proteins found in the capsid, tegument, and envelope. In this study, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid (YTH analysis to study potential binary interactions among 56 HCMV-encoded virion proteins. We have tested more than 3,500 pairwise combinations for binary interactions in the YTH analysis, and identified 79 potential interactions that involve 37 proteins. Forty five of the 79 interactions were also identified in human cells expressing the viral proteins by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP experiments. To our knowledge, 58 of the 79 interactions revealed by YTH analysis, including those 24 that were also identified in co-IP experiments, have not been reported before. Novel potential interactions were found between viral capsid proteins and tegument proteins, between tegument proteins, between tegument proteins and envelope proteins, and between envelope proteins. Furthermore, both the YTH and co-IP experiments have identified 9, 7, and 5 interactions that were involved with UL25, UL24, and UL89, respectively, suggesting that these "hub" proteins may function as the organizing centers for connecting multiple virion proteins in the mature virion and for recruiting other virion proteins during virion maturation and assembly. Our study provides a framework to study potential interactions between HCMV proteins and investigate the roles of protein-protein interactions in HCMV virion formation or maturation process.

  9. The virally encoded killer proteins from Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several strains of Ustilago maydis, a causal agent of corn smut disease, exhibit a 'killer' phenotype that is due to persistent infection by double-stranded RNA Totiviruses. These viruses produce potent killer proteins that are secreted by the host. This is a rare example of virus/host symbiosis in ...

  10. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V;

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  11. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shan-Ho; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms.

  12. A maize cDNA encoding a member of the retinoblastoma protein family: involvement in endoreduplication.

    OpenAIRE

    Grafi, G; R.J. Burnett; Helentjaris, T; Larkins, B A; DeCaprio, J A; Sellers, W R; Kaelin, W G

    1996-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB-1) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a 105-kDa nuclear phosphoprotein. To date, RB genes have been isolated only from metazoans. We have isolated a cDNA from maize endosperm whose predicted protein product (ZmRb) shows homology to the "pocket" A and B domains of the Rb protein family. We found ZmRb behaves as a pocket protein based on its ability to specifically interact with oncoproteins encoded by DNA tumor viruses (E7, T-Ag, E1A). ZmRb can interact in vitro and in ...

  13. Mnemons: encoding memory by protein super-assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Caudron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Memory is mainly understood as the recollection of past events. The human brain and its simplest unit, the synapse, belong to the places in which such memories are physically stored. From an experimental point of view, memory can be tested in humans by recall. However, in other organisms, memory is reflected in its use by individuals to learn about and adapt their behavior to their environment. Under this criterion, even unicellular organisms are able to learn from their environments and show the ability to adapt their responses to repeating stimuli. This indicates that they are able to keep track of their histories and use these traces to elaborate adapted responses, making these traces akin to memory encodings. Understanding these phenomena may even help us to dissect part of the rather complex molecular orchestration happening in our synapses. When exposed unsuccessfully to mating pheromone, i.e. when mating does not happen, budding yeast cells become refractory to the mating signal. This refractory state is restricted to the mother cell and not inherited by the daughter cells, even though it is stable for most if not the entire life span of the mother cell. Interestingly, both stability and asymmetric segregation of the acquired state are explained by the molecular mechanism underlying its establishment, which shows important analogies and distinctions to prions. Here we discuss these similarities and differences

  14. Structure-specific tRNA-binding protein from the extreme thermophile Aquifex aeolicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, A. J; Swairjo, M A; Schimmel, P

    1999-01-01

    The genome of the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus encodes a polypeptide which is related to a small portion of a sequence found in one prokaryotic and two eukaryotic tRNA synthetases. It also is related to a portion of Arc1p, a tRNA-binding protein believed to be important for nuclear trafficking of tRNAs. Here we cloned, expressed and purified the 111 amino acid polypeptide (designated Trbp111) and showed by ultracentrifugation analysis that it is a stable dimer in solution. The protein was also ...

  15. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Y-box Binding Protein Gene in Min Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dong-jie; Liu Di; Wang Liang; He Xin-miao; Wang Wen-tao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the gene sequence of Min pig Y-box binding protein (YB-1) gene, the complete coding sequence of Min pig YB-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR, the sequence features were analyzed by some software and online website. The results showed that the complete CDS of Min pig Y-box was found to be 975 bp long, encoding 324 amino acids. It contained a conserved cold shock domain and several phosphorylation sites, but had no transmembrane domains, and was consistent with a protein found in the cytoplasm. Min pig YB-1 nucleotides shared high similarity (61.37%-97.66%) with other mammals.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2536 protein implicated in specific binding to human cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    García, Javier; Puentes, Alvaro; Rodríguez, Luis; Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Vera, Ricardo; Lopez, Ramses; Valbuena, John; Cortes, Jimena; Vanegas, Magnolia; Barrero, Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Urquiza, Mauricio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    The gene encoding the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2536 protein is present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (as assayed by PCR) and transcribed (as determined by RT-PCR) in M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. bovis BCG, and M. africanum strains. Rabbits immunized with synthetic polymer peptides from this protein produced antibodies specifically recognizing a 25-kDa band in mycobacterial sonicate. U937 and A549 cells were used in binding assays involving 20-amino-acid-lon...

  17. Lsa63, a newly identified surface protein of Leptospira interrogans binds laminin and collagen IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Monica L; de Morais, Zenaide M; Gonçales, Amane P; Romero, Eliete C; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2010-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that affects populations worldwide. We have identified in proteomic studies a protein that is encoded by the gene LIC10314 and expressed in virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar Pomona. This protein was predicted to be surface exposed by PSORT program and contains a p83/100 domain identified by BLAST analysis that is conserved in protein antigens of several strains of Borrelia and Treponema spp. The proteins containing this domain have been claimed antigen candidates for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Thus, we have cloned the LIC10314 and expressed the protein in Escherichia coli BL21-SI strain by using the expression vector pAE. The recombinant protein tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine was purified by metal-charged chromatography and characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. This protein is conserved among several species of pathogenic Leptospira and absent in the saprophytic strain L. biflexa. We confirm by liquid-phase immunofluorescence assays with living organisms that this protein is most likely a new surface leptospiral protein. The ability of the protein to mediate attachment to ECM components was evaluated by binding assays. The leptospiral protein encoded by LIC10314, named Lsa63 (Leptospiral surface adhesin of 63kDa), binds strongly to laminin and collagen IV in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion. In addition, Lsa63 is probably expressed during infection since it was recognized by antibodies of serum samples of confirmed-leptospirosis patients in convalescent phase of the disease. Altogether, the data suggests that this novel identified surface protein may be involved in leptospiral pathogenesis.

  18. Cell-Binding Assays for Determining the Affinity of Protein-Protein Interactions: Technologies and Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S A; Cochran, J R

    2016-01-01

    Determining the equilibrium-binding affinity (Kd) of two interacting proteins is essential not only for the biochemical study of protein signaling and function but also for the engineering of improved protein and enzyme variants. One common technique for measuring protein-binding affinities uses flow cytometry to analyze ligand binding to proteins presented on the surface of a cell. However, cell-binding assays require specific considerations to accurately quantify the binding affinity of a protein-protein interaction. Here we will cover the basic assumptions in designing a cell-based binding assay, including the relevant equations and theory behind determining binding affinities. Further, two major considerations in measuring binding affinities-time to equilibrium and ligand depletion-will be discussed. As these conditions have the potential to greatly alter the Kd, methods through which to avoid or minimize them will be provided. We then outline detailed protocols for performing direct- and competitive-binding assays against proteins displayed on the surface of yeast or mammalian cells that can be used to derive accurate Kd values. Finally, a comparison of cell-based binding assays to other types of binding assays will be presented. PMID:27586327

  19. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovir

  20. Conformational thermodynamics of metal-ion binding to a protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit; Chakrabarti, J.; Ghosh, Mahua

    2013-08-01

    Conformational changes in proteins induced by metal-ions play extremely important role in various cellular processes and technological applications. Dihedral angles are suitable conformational variables to describe microscopic conformations of a biomacromolecule. Here, we use the histograms of the dihedral angles to study the thermodynamics of conformational changes of a protein upon metal-ion binding. Our method applied to Ca2+ ion binding to an important metalloprotein, Calmodulin, reveals different thermodynamic changes in different metal-binding sites. The ligands coordinating to Ca2+ ions also play different roles in stabilizing the metal-ion coordinated protein-structure. Metal-ion binding induce remarkable thermodynamic changes in distant part of the protein via modification of secondary structural elements.

  1. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hampel

    Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR, a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors.

  2. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) Regulator Cib1 Controls Expression of Genes Encoding Secreted Virulence Factors in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Martin; Jakobi, Mareike; Schmitz, Lara; Meyer, Ute; Finkernagel, Florian; Doehlemann, Gunther; Heimel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR), a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway to ensure protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), coordinates biotrophic development in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Exact timing of UPR activation is required for virulence and presumably connected to the elevated expression of secreted effector proteins during infection of the host plant Zea mays. In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of UPR target genes is induced upon binding of the central regulator Hac1 to unfolded protein response elements (UPREs) in their promoters. While a role of the UPR in effector secretion has been described previously, we investigated a potential UPR-dependent regulation of genes encoding secreted effector proteins. In silico prediction of UPREs in promoter regions identified the previously characterized effector genes pit2 and tin1-1, as bona fide UPR target genes. Furthermore, direct binding of the Hac1-homolog Cib1 to the UPRE containing promoter fragments of both genes was confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP) analysis. Targeted deletion of the UPRE abolished Cib1-dependent expression of pit2 and significantly affected virulence. Furthermore, ER stress strongly increased Pit2 expression and secretion. This study expands the role of the UPR as a signal hub in fungal virulence and illustrates, how biotrophic fungi can coordinate cellular physiology, development and regulation of secreted virulence factors.

  3. Natural ligand binding and transfer from liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) to membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Hagan, Robert M; Wilton, David C; Córsico, Betina

    2010-09-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) is distinctive among fatty acid-binding proteins because it binds more than one molecule of long-chain fatty acid and a variety of diverse ligands. Also, the transfer of fluorescent fatty acid analogues to model membranes under physiological ionic strength follows a different mechanism compared to most of the members of this family of intracellular lipid binding proteins. Tryptophan insertion mutants sensitive to ligand binding have allowed us to directly measure the binding affinity, ligand partitioning and transfer to model membranes of natural ligands. Binding of fatty acids shows a cooperative mechanism, while acyl-CoAs binding presents a hyperbolic behavior. Saturated fatty acids seem to have a stronger partition to protein vs. membranes, compared to unsaturated fatty acids. Natural ligand transfer rates are more than 200-fold higher compared to fluorescently-labeled analogues. Interestingly, oleoyl-CoA presents a markedly different transfer behavior compared to the rest of the ligands tested, probably indicating the possibility of specific targeting of ligands to different metabolic fates. PMID:20541621

  4. The interrelationship between ligand binding and self-association of the folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jan; Schou, Christian; Babol, Linnea N.;

    2011-01-01

    The folate binding protein (FBP) regulates homeostasis and intracellular trafficking of folic acid, a vitamin of decisive importance in cell division and growth. We analyzed whether interrelationship between ligand binding and self-association of FBP plays a significant role in the physiology...

  5. Autoinhibition of Mint1 adaptor protein regulates amyloid precursor protein binding and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Maria F.; Xu, Yibin; Dulubova, Irina; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Richardson, John M.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Rizo, Josep; Ho, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Mint adaptor proteins bind to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and regulate APP processing associated with Alzheimer’s disease; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Mint regulation in APP binding and processing remain unclear. Biochemical, biophysical, and cellular experiments now show that the Mint1 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that binds to APP is intramolecularly inhibited by the adjacent C-terminal linker region. The crystal structure of a C-terminally extended Mint1 PT...

  6. Expected and unexpected features of protein-binding RNA aptamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    RNA molecules with high affinity to specific proteins can be isolated from libraries of up to 10(16) different RNA sequences by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). These so-called protein-binding RNA aptamers are often interesting, e.g., as modulators of protein...... function for therapeutic use, for probing the conformations of proteins, for studies of basic aspects of nucleic acid-protein interactions, etc. Studies on the interactions between RNA aptamers and proteins display a number of expected and unexpected features, including the chemical nature of the...... interacting RNA-protein surfaces, the conformation of protein-bound aptamer versus free aptamer, the conformation of aptamer-bound protein versus free protein, and the effects of aptamers on protein function. Here, we review current insights into the details of RNA aptamer-protein interactions. For further...

  7. Binding of fluorescent lanthanides to rat liver mitochondrial membranes and calcium ion-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, R B; Wallach, D F

    1976-05-21

    (1) Tb3+ binding to mitochondrial membranes can be monitored by enhanced ion fluorescence at 545 nm with excitation at 285 nm. At low protein concentrations (less than 30 mug/ml) no inner filter effects are observed. (2) This binding is localized at the external surface of the inner membrane and is unaffected by inhibitors of respiration or oxidative phosphorylation. (3) A soluble Ca2+ binding protein isolated according to Lehninger, A.L. ((1971) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 42, 312-317) also binds Tb3+ with enhanced ion fluorescence upon excitation at 285 nm. The excitation spectrum of the isolated protein and of the intact mitochondria are indicative of an aromatic amino acid at the cation binding site. (4) Further characterization of the Tb3+-protein interaction revealed that there is more than one binding site per protein molecule and that these sites are clustered (less than 20 A). Neuraminidase treatment or organic solvent extraction of the protein did not affect fluorescent Tb3+ binding. (5) pH dependency studies of Tb3+ binding to the isolated protein or intact mitochondria demonstrated the importance of an ionizable group of pK greater than 6. At pH less than 7.5 the amount of Tb3+ bound to the isolated protein decreased with increase in pH as monitored by Tb3+ fluorescence. With intact mitochondria the opposite occurred with a large increase in Tb3+ fluorescence at higher pH. This increase was not observed when the mitochondria were preincubated with antimycin A and rotenone. PMID:6061

  8. The 17-Gene Ethanolamine (eut) Operon of Salmonella typhimurium Encodes Five Homologues of Carboxysome Shell Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Kofoid, Eric; Rappleye, Chad; Stojiljkovic, Igor; Roth, John

    1999-01-01

    The eut operon of Salmonella typhimurium encodes proteins involved in the cobalamin-dependent degradation of ethanolamine. Previous genetic analysis revealed six eut genes that are needed for aerobic use of ethanolamine; one (eutR), encodes a positive regulator which mediates induction of the operon by vitamin B12 plus ethanolamine. The DNA sequence of the eut operon included 17 genes, suggesting a more complex pathway than that revealed genetically. We have correlated an open reading frame i...

  9. Identification of lectin-binding proteins in Chlamydia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, A F; Kuo, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Lectin-binding proteins of chlamydiae were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. All three Chlamydia species tested expressed two proteins when whole-elementary-body lysates were reacted with the biotinylated lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin. The protein with a molecular mass of 18 kilodaltons (kDa) responded strongly compared with a higher-molecular-mass protein that varied from 27 to 32 kDa with each chlamydia strain tested. Among six l...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5765 - Retinol-binding protein immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retinol-binding protein immunological test system....5765 Retinol-binding protein immunological test system. (a) Identification. A retinol-binding protein... the retinol-binding protein that binds and transports vitamin A in serum and urine. Measurement...

  11. The Cobalamin-binding Protein in Zebrafish is an Intermediate Between the Three Cobalamin-binding Proteins in Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva Holm; Fedosov, Sergey; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    In humans, three soluble extracellular cobalamin-binding proteins; transcobalamin (TC), intrinsic factor (IF), and haptocorrin (HC), are involved in the uptake and transport of cobalamin. In this study, we investigate a cobalamin-binding protein from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and summarize current...... knowledge concerning the phylogenetic evolution of kindred proteins. We identified a cobalamin binding capacity in zebrafish protein extracts (8.2 pmol/fish) and ambient water (13.5 pmol/fish) associated with a single protein. The protein showed resistance toward degradation by trypsin and chymotrypsin...... (like human IF, but unlike human HC and TC). The cobalamin analogue, cobinamide, bound weaker to the zebrafish cobalamin binder than to human HC, but stronger than to human TC and IF. Affinity for another analogue, adenosyl-pseudo-cobalamin was low compared with human HC and TC, but high compared...

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF EXTRACTABLE PROTEIN BINDING USING MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thirawan Nipithakul; Ladawan Watthanachote; Nanticha Kalapat

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study of using maleic anhydride copolymer for protein binding has been carried out.The polymeric films were prepared by compression of the purified resin and annealing the film to induce efficient back formation of the anhydride groups.The properties of the film surface were analyzed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements.The protein content was determined by Bradford assay.To obtain optimum conditions,immersion time for protein binding was examined.Results revealed that proteins can be successfully immobilized onto the film surface via covalent linkage.The efficiency of the covalent binding of the extractable protein to maleic anhydride-polyethylene film was estimated at 69.87 μtg/cm2,although the film had low anhydride content (3%) on the surface.

  13. Rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordhoff, E; Krogsdam, A M; Jorgensen, H F;

    1999-01-01

    We report a protocol for the rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins. Immobilized DNA probes harboring a specific sequence motif are incubated with cell or nuclear extract. Proteins are analyzed directly off the solid support by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass...... spectrometry. The determined molecular masses are often sufficient for identification. If not, the proteins are subjected to mass spectrometric peptide mapping followed by database searches. Apart from protein identification, the protocol also yields information on posttranslational modifications. The protocol...... was validated by the identification of known prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins, and its use provided evidence that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase exhibits DNA sequence-specific binding to DNA....

  14. Characterization of cap binding proteins associated with the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucaryotic mRNAs a carry 7-methylguanosine triphosphate residue (called cap structure) at their 5' terminus. The cap plays an important role in RNA recognition. Cap binding proteins (CBP) of HeLa cells were identified by photoaffinity labelling using the cap analogue γ-(32P)-(4-(benzoyl-phenyl)methylamido)-7-methylguanosine-5'-triphosphate (BP-m7GTP). Photoreaction of this cap analogue with HeLa cell initiation factors resulted in specific labelling of two polypeptides of Msub(r) 37000 and 26000. The latter was also labelled in crude initiation factors prepared from reticulocytes and is identical to the cap binding protein CBP I previously identified. These cap binding proteins were also affinity labelled in poliovirus infected cell extracts. Photoaffinity reaction with BP-m7GTP of whole HeLa cell homogenate showed three additional polypeptides with Msub(r) 120000, 89000 and 80000. These cap binding proteins were found to be associated with the nucleus and are therefore referred to as nuclear cap binding proteins, i.e. NCBP 1, NCBP 2 and NCBP 3. They were also present in splicing extracts. Photoaffinity labelling in these nuclear extracts was differentially inhibited by various cap analogues and capped mRNAs. Affinity chromatography on immobilized globin mRNA led to a partial separation of the three nuclear cap binding proteins. Chromatography on m7GTP-Sepharose resulted in a specific binding of NCBP 3. The different behaviour of the cap binding proteins suggests that they are functionally distinct and that they might be involved in different processes requiring cap recognition. (Author)

  15. Virulence Plasmid of Rhodococcus equi Contains Inducible Gene Family Encoding Secreted Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Barbara A.; Prescott, John F.; Palmer, Guy H.; Takai, Shinji; Nicholson, Vivian M.; Alperin, Debra C.; Hines, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi causes severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals. This facultative intracellular pathogen produces similar lesions in immunocompromised humans, particularly in AIDS patients. Virulent strains of R. equi bear a large plasmid that is required for intracellular survival within macrophages and for virulence in foals and mice. Only two plasmid-encoded proteins have been described previously; a 15- to 17-kDa surface protein designated virulence-associated protein A (VapA) and an a...

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Michael N.; Forte, Trudy M.

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  17. Innate immune suppression enables frequent transfection with RNA encoding reprogramming proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Angel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Generating autologous pluripotent stem cells for therapeutic applications will require the development of efficient DNA-free reprogramming techniques. Transfecting cells with in vitro-transcribed, protein-encoding RNA is a straightforward method of directly expressing high levels of reprogramming proteins without genetic modification. However, long-RNA transfection triggers a potent innate immune response characterized by growth inhibition and the production of inflammatory cytokines. As a result, repeated transfection with protein-encoding RNA causes cell death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RNA viruses have evolved methods of disrupting innate immune signaling by destroying or inhibiting specific proteins to enable persistent infection. Starting from a list of known viral targets, we performed a combinatorial screen to identify siRNA cocktails that could desensitize cells to exogenous RNA. We show that combined knockdown of interferon-beta (Ifnb1, Eif2ak2, and Stat2 rescues cells from the innate immune response triggered by frequent long-RNA transfection. Using this technique, we were able to transfect primary human fibroblasts every 24 hours with RNA encoding the reprogramming proteins Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Utf1. We provide evidence that the encoded protein is active, and we show that expression can be maintained for many days, through multiple rounds of cell division. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that suppressing innate immunity enables frequent transfection with protein-encoding RNA. This technique represents a versatile tool for investigating expression dynamics and protein interactions by enabling precise control over levels and timing of protein expression. Our finding also opens the door for the development of reprogramming and directed-differentiation methods based on long-RNA transfection.

  18. High-Fidelity DNA Sensing by Protein Binding Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Tlusty, Tsvi; Libchaber, Albert; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.258103

    2010-01-01

    One of the major functions of RecA protein in the cell is to bind single-stranded DNA exposed upon damage, thereby triggering the SOS repair response.We present fluorescence anisotropy measurements at the binding onset, showing enhanced DNA length discrimination induced by adenosine triphosphate consumption. Our model explains the observed DNA length sensing as an outcome of out-of equilibrium binding fluctuations, reminiscent of microtubule dynamic instability. The cascade architecture of the binding fluctuations is a generalization of the kinetic proofreading mechanism. Enhancement of precision by an irreversible multistage pathway is a possible design principle in the noisy biological environment.

  19. Discodermolide interferes with the binding of tau protein to microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Santwana; Florence, Gordon J; Paterson, Ian; Amos, Linda A

    2003-03-27

    We investigated whether discodermolide, a novel antimitotic agent, affects the binding to microtubules of tau protein repeat motifs. Like taxol, the new drug reduces the proportion of tau that pellets with microtubules. Despite their differing structures, discodermolide, taxol and tau repeats all bind to a site on beta-tubulin that lies within the microtubule lumen and is crucial in controlling microtubule assembly. Low concentrations of tau still bind strongly to the outer surfaces of preformed microtubules when the acidic C-terminal regions of at least six tubulin dimers are available for interaction with each tau molecule; otherwise binding is very weak.

  20. Screening of a Protein That Interacts with the Matrix Attachment Region-Binding Protein from Dunaliella salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated the matrix attachment region-binding protein (MBP DMBP-1 from Dunaliella salina in our previous studies. MBPs are part of the cis-acting protein family cluster. The regulatory function possibly works through the interaction of the MBPs with each other. In the present study, DMBP-1 was used as the bait in screening the D. salina cDNA library for DMBP-1 interactors that could potentially mediate the DMBP-1-regulated functions. A novel MBP, namely, DMBP-2, was identified as a DMBP-1 binding partner. The cDNA of DMBP-1 was 823 bp long and contained a 573 bp open reading frame, which encoded a polypeptide of 191 amino acids. The interaction between DMBP-2 and DMBP-1 was further confirmed through glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays.

  1. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M.; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the “fly-casting” hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  2. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M.; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the “fly-casting” hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context. PMID:27668217

  3. High-throughput analysis of protein-DNA binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Zorrilla, José M; Solano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions mediate most regulatory processes underlying gene expression, such as transcriptional regulation by transcription factors (TFs) or chromatin organization. Current knowledge about DNA-binding specificities of TFs is based mostly on low- to medium-throughput methodologies that are time-consuming and often fail to identify DNA motifs recognized by a TF with lower affinity but retaining biological relevance. The use of protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) offers a high-throughput alternative for the identification of protein-DNA specificities. PBM consists in an array of pseudorandomized DNA sequences that are optimized to include all the possible 10- or 11-mer DNA sequences, allowing the determination of binding specificities of most eukaryotic TFs. PBMs that can be synthesized by several manufacturing companies as single-stranded DNA are converted into double-stranded in a simple primer extension reaction. The protein of interest fused to an epitope tag is then incubated onto the PBM, and specific DNA-protein complexes are revealed in a series of immunological reactions coupled to a fluorophore. After scanning and quantifying PBMs, specific DNA motifs recognized by the protein are identified with ready-to-use scripts, generating comprehensive but accessible information about the DNA-binding specificity of the protein. This chapter describes detailed procedures for preparation of double-stranded PBMs, incubation with recombinant protein, and detection of protein-DNA complexes. Finally, we outline some cues for evaluating the biological role of DNA motifs obtained in vitro. PMID:24057393

  4. Structural Perspectives on the Evolutionary Expansion of Unique Protein-Protein Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncearenco, Alexander; Shaytan, Alexey K; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-09-15

    Structures of protein complexes provide atomistic insights into protein interactions. Human proteins represent a quarter of all structures in the Protein Data Bank; however, available protein complexes cover less than 10% of the human proteome. Although it is theoretically possible to infer interactions in human proteins based on structures of homologous protein complexes, it is still unclear to what extent protein interactions and binding sites are conserved, and whether protein complexes from remotely related species can be used to infer interactions and binding sites. We considered biological units of protein complexes and clustered protein-protein binding sites into similarity groups based on their structure and sequence, which allowed us to identify unique binding sites. We showed that the growth rate of the number of unique binding sites in the Protein Data Bank was much slower than the growth rate of the number of structural complexes. Next, we investigated the evolutionary roots of unique binding sites and identified the major phyletic branches with the largest expansion in the number of novel binding sites. We found that many binding sites could be traced to the universal common ancestor of all cellular organisms, whereas relatively few binding sites emerged at the major evolutionary branching points. We analyzed the physicochemical properties of unique binding sites and found that the most ancient sites were the largest in size, involved many salt bridges, and were the most compact and least planar. In contrast, binding sites that appeared more recently in the evolution of eukaryotes were characterized by a larger fraction of polar and aromatic residues, and were less compact and more planar, possibly due to their more transient nature and roles in signaling processes.

  5. Competing binding of metal ions with protein studied by microdialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明; 孔亮; 毛希琴; 历欣; 邹汉法

    2002-01-01

    A method has been established to study the competing binding of metal ions with protein by a combined technique of microdialysis with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Ni2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and human serum albumin (HSA) were chosen as model metal ions and protein. The experimental results show that Ni2+ and Cu2+ share a common primary binding site on HSA, and Zn2+ and Cd2+ share a different common primary binding site from them, but there is a common multi-metal binding site for all of those four metal ions. This method show advantages of fast sampling, easily to be operated and especially to be useful when ideal spectroscopic probes are not available for the study of interaction between protein and metal ions.

  6. Taperin (c9orf75, a mutated gene in nonsyndromic deafness, encodes a vertebrate specific, nuclear localized protein phosphatase one alpha (PP1α docking protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ferrar

    2012-02-01

    The promiscuous activity of protein phosphatase one (PP1 is controlled in the cell by associated proteins termed regulatory or targeting subunits. Using biochemical and proteomic approaches we demonstrate that the autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss gene, taperin (C9orf75, encodes a protein that preferentially docks the alpha isoform of PP1. Taperin associates with PP1 through a classic ‘RVxF’ motif and suppresses the general phosphatase activity of the enzyme. The steady-state localization of taperin is predominantly nuclear, however we demonstrate here that the protein can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm and that it is found complexed to PP1 in both of these cellular compartments. Although originally identified as a hearing loss gene, Western blot analyses with taperin-specific antibodies revealed that the protein is widely expressed across mammalian tissues as multiple splice variants. Taperin is a recent proteome addition appearing during the vertebrate lineage with the PP1 binding site embedded within the most conserved region of the protein. Taperin also shares an ancestral relationship with the cytosolic actin binding protein phostensin, another PP1 interacting partner. Quantitative Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Culture (SILAC-based mass spectrometry was employed to uncover additional taperin binding partners, and revealed an interaction with the DNA damage response proteins Ku70, Ku80, PARP and topoisomerases I and IIα. Consistent with this, we demonstrate the active recruitment of taperin to sites of DNA damage. This makes taperin a new addition to the family of PP1 targeting subunits involved in the DNA damage repair pathway.

  7. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T;

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...... by a simple two step protocol combining ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Dissociation constants for binding of oleic acid, arachidonic acid, oleoyl-CoA, lysophosphatidic acid and the peroxisomal proliferator bezafibrate to L-FABP have been determined by titration calorimetry. All ligands were...... bound in a 2:1 stoichiometry, the dissociation constants for the first ligand bound were all in the micro molar range. Oleic acid was bound with the highest affinity and a Kd of 0.26 microM. Furthermore, binding of cholesterol to L-FABP was investigated with the Lipidex assay, a liposome binding assay...

  8. Perturbation Approaches for Exploring Protein Binding Site Flexibility to Predict Transient Binding Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokh, Daria B; Czodrowski, Paul; Rippmann, Friedrich; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    Simulations of the long-time scale motions of a ligand binding pocket in a protein may open up new perspectives for the design of compounds with steric or chemical properties differing from those of known binders. However, slow motions of proteins are difficult to access using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and are thus usually neglected in computational drug design. Here, we introduce two nonequilibrium MD approaches to identify conformational changes of a binding site and detect transient pockets associated with these motions. The methods proposed are based on the rotamerically induced perturbation (RIP) MD approach, which employs perturbation of side-chain torsional motion for initiating large-scale protein movement. The first approach, Langevin-RIP (L-RIP), entails a series of short Langevin MD simulations, each starting with perturbation of one of the side-chains lining the binding site of interest. L-RIP provides extensive sampling of conformational changes of the binding site. In less than 1 ns of MD simulation with L-RIP, we observed distortions of the α-helix in the ATP binding site of HSP90 and flipping of the DFG loop in Src kinase. In the second approach, RIPlig, a perturbation is applied to a pseudoligand placed in different parts of a binding pocket, which enables flexible regions of the binding site to be identified in a small number of 10 ps MD simulations. The methods were evaluated for four test proteins displaying different types and degrees of binding site flexibility. Both methods reveal all transient pocket regions in less than a total of 10 ns of simulations, even though many of these regions remained closed in 100 ns conventional MD. The proposed methods provide computationally efficient tools to explore binding site flexibility and can aid in the functional characterization of protein pockets, and the identification of transient pockets for ligand design. PMID:27399277

  9. TALE proteins bind to both active and inactive chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James N F; Kupinski, Adam P; Kirkham, Christopher M; Tuma, Roman; Boyes, Joan

    2014-02-15

    TALE (transcription activator-like effector) proteins can be tailored to bind to any DNA sequence of choice and thus are of immense utility for genome editing and the specific delivery of transcription activators. However, to perform these functions, they need to occupy their sites in chromatin. In the present study, we have systematically assessed TALE binding to chromatin substrates and find that in vitro TALEs bind to their target site on nucleosomes at the more accessible entry/exit sites, but not at the nucleosome dyad. We show further that in vivo TALEs bind to transcriptionally repressed chromatin and that transcription increases binding by only 2-fold. These data therefore imply that TALEs are likely to bind to their target in vivo even at inactive loci.

  10. Nucleic acid encoding DS-CAM proteins and products related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenberg, Julie R.

    2005-11-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there are provided Down Syndrome-Cell Adhesion Molecule (DS-CAM) proteins. Nucleic acid sequences encoding such proteins and assays employing same are also disclosed. The invention DS-CAM proteins can be employed in a variety of ways, for example, for the production of anti-DS-CAM antibodies thereto, in therapeutic compositions and methods employing such proteins and/or antibodies. DS-CAM proteins are also useful in bioassays to identify agonists and antagonists thereto.

  11. Characterization of EhCaBP, a calcium-binding protein of Entamoeba histolytica and its binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, N; Chandok, M R; Prasad, J; Bhattacharya, S; Sopory, S K; Bhattacharya, A

    1997-01-01

    A novel calcium-binding protein (EhCaBP) has been recently identified and characterized from the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In order to decipher the function of this protein, a few basic properties were investigated and compared with the ubiquitous Ca(2+)-signal transducing protein calmodulin (CaM). Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses using specific antibodies against EhCaBP suggest that it is a soluble cytoplasmic protein with no major post-translational modification. EhCaBP did not stimulate cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity, differentiating it from all known CaMs. Affinity chromatography of [35S]methionine-labelled proteins of E. histolytica trophozoites using EhCaBP-sepharose column showed Ca(2+)-dependent binding of a group of proteins. Radiolabelled proteins from the same extract also bound to CaM-sepharose. However, the proteins bound to the two columns were different as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. At least one of the EhCaBP-binding proteins became phosphorylated as revealed by in vivo phosphorylation analysis. The binding-proteins could not be detected in E. invadens (a species that is pathogenic in reptiles) and E. moshkovskii (which is found in the human gut but is not pathogenic), two species in which EhCaBP-like protein has not been found. Two distinct Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, which get activated by EhCaBP and CaM respectively, were detected in E. histolytica. These kinases require different levels of Ca2+ for their maximal activities. Affinity chromatography also showed the binding of protein kinase(s) to EhCaBP in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Our data suggest that there may be novel Ca(2+)-signal transduction pathway in E. histolytica mediated by EhCaBP.

  12. Immune responses to plasmid DNA encoding the hepatitis C virus core protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagging, L M; K. Meyer; Hoft, D; Houghton, M.; Belshe, R B; Ray, R.

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. The genomic region encoding the virion-associated core protein is relatively conserved among HCV strains. To generate a DNA vaccine capable of expressing the HCV core protein, the genomic region encoding amino acid residues 1 to 191 of the HCV-1 strain was amplified and cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector. Intramuscular inoculation of recombinant plasmid DNA into BALB/c mice (H-2d) g...

  13. Theoretical studies of binding of mannose-binding protein to monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida-Hyugaji, Sachiko; Takano, Keiko; Takada, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Haruo; Kojima, Naoya; Mizuochi, Tsuguo; Inoue, Yasushi

    2004-11-01

    Binding properties of mannose-binding protein (MBP) to monosaccharides are discussed based on ab initio molecular orbital calculations for cluster models constructed. The calculated binding energies indicate that MBP has an affinity for N-acetyl- D-glucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, and D-glucose rather than D-galactose and N-acetyl- D-galactosamine, which is consistent with the biochemical experimental results. Electrostatic potential surfaces at the binding site of four monosaccharides having binding properties matched well with that of MBP. A vacant frontier orbital was found to be localized around the binding site of MBP, suggesting that MBP-monosaccharide interaction may occur through electrostatic and orbital interactions.

  14. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS protein contains domains for ATP binding, nuclear localization, and type IV secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Larry D; Vergunst, Annette C; Neal-McKinney, Jason; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Moyer, Deborah M; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Ream, Walt

    2006-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are closely related plant pathogens that cause different diseases, crown gall and hairy root. Both diseases result from transfer, integration, and expression of plasmid-encoded bacterial genes located on the transferred DNA (T-DNA) in the plant genome. Bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins necessary for infection are also translocated into plant cells. Transfer of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and Vir proteins requires a type IV secretion system, a protein complex spanning the bacterial envelope. A. tumefaciens translocates the ssDNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells, where it binds single-stranded T-DNA and helps target it to the nucleus. Although some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, they are pathogenic and transfer T-DNA efficiently. Instead, these bacteria express the GALLS protein, which is essential for their virulence. The GALLS protein can complement an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation, indicating that GALLS can substitute for VirE2. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. Both GALLS and VirE2 contain nuclear localization sequences and a C-terminal type IV secretion signal. Here we show that mutations in any of these domains abolished the ability of GALLS to substitute for VirE2. PMID:17012398

  15. Relating the shape of protein binding sites to binding affinity profiles: is there an association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitter István

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various pattern-based methods exist that use in vitro or in silico affinity profiles for classification and functional examination of proteins. Nevertheless, the connection between the protein affinity profiles and the structural characteristics of the binding sites is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between virtual drug screening results (calculated binding free energy values and the geometry of protein binding sites. Molecular Affinity Fingerprints (MAFs were determined for 154 proteins based on their molecular docking energy results for 1,255 FDA-approved drugs. Protein binding site geometries were characterized by 420 PocketPicker descriptors. The basic underlying component structure of MAFs and binding site geometries, respectively, were examined by principal component analysis; association between principal components extracted from these two sets of variables was then investigated by canonical correlation and redundancy analyses. Results PCA analysis of the MAF variables provided 30 factors which explained 71.4% of the total variance of the energy values while 13 factors were obtained from the PocketPicker descriptors which cumulatively explained 94.1% of the total variance. Canonical correlation analysis resulted in 3 statistically significant canonical factor pairs with correlation values of 0.87, 0.84 and 0.77, respectively. Redundancy analysis indicated that PocketPicker descriptor factors explain 6.9% of the variance of the MAF factor set while MAF factors explain 15.9% of the total variance of PocketPicker descriptor factors. Based on the salient structures of the factor pairs, we identified a clear-cut association between the shape and bulkiness of the drug molecules and the protein binding site descriptors. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate complex multivariate associations between affinity profiles and the geometric properties of protein binding sites. We found that

  16. Variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins in atopic dermatitis patients from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epplen Jörg T

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis (AD is believed to result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. A main feature of AD as well as other allergic disorders is serum and tissue eosinophilia. Human eosinophils contain high amounts of cationic granule proteins, including eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO and major basic protein (MBP. Recently, variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders. We therefore genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ECP, EDN, EPO and MBP genes in a cohort of 361 German AD patients and 325 healthy controls. Results Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between patients and controls for all polymorphisms investigated in this study. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any additional information. Conclusion We did not find evidence to support an influence of variation in genes encoding eosinophil granule proteins for AD pathogenesis in this German cohort.

  17. Yeast acyl-CoA-binding protein: acyl-CoA-binding affinity and effect on intracellular acyl-CoA pool size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, J; Faergeman, N J; Skøtt, H;

    1994-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa protein characterized in vertebrates. We have isolated two ACBP homologues from the yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, named yeast ACBP types 1 and 2. Both proteins contain 86 amino acid residues and are identical except for four conservative substitut...... resulted in a significant expansion of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool. Finally, Southern-blotting analysis of the two genes encoding ACBP types 1 and 2 in S. carlsbergensis strongly indicated that this species is a hybrid between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces monacensis....

  18. Imaging bacterial protein expression using genetically encoded sensors composed of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Wenjiao; Strack, Rita L.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2013-01-01

    We show that the difficulties in imaging the dynamics of protein expression in live bacterial cells can be overcome using fluorescent sensors based on Spinach, an RNA that activates the fluorescence of a small-molecule fluorophore. These RNAs selectively bind target proteins, and exhibit fluorescence increases that enable protein expression to be imaged in living cells. These sensors provide a general strategy to image protein expression in single bacteria in real-time.

  19. Architectural repertoire of ligand-binding pockets on protein surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Martin; Kriegl, Jan M; Schneider, Gisbert

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of ligand binding sites in proteins provides valuable information for computer-assisted drug design. We present a method for the automated extraction and classification of ligand binding site topologies, in which protein surface cavities are represented as branched frameworks. The procedure employs a growing neural gas approach for pocket topology assignment and pocket framework generation. We assessed the structural diversity of 623 known ligand binding site topologies based on framework cluster analysis. At a resolution of 5 A only 23 structurally distinct topology groups were formed; this suggests an overall limited structural diversity of ligand-accommodating protein cavities. Higher resolution allowed for identification of protein-family specific pocket features. Pocket frameworks highlight potentially preferred modes of ligand-receptor interactions and will help facilitate the identification of druggable subpockets suitable for ligand affinity and selectivity optimization. PMID:20069621

  20. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with β-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to β-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants

  1. DNA-binding protein prediction using plant specific support vector machines: validation and application of a new genome annotation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motion, Graham B; Howden, Andrew J M; Huitema, Edgar; Jones, Susan

    2015-12-15

    There are currently 151 plants with draft genomes available but levels of functional annotation for putative protein products are low. Therefore, accurate computational predictions are essential to annotate genomes in the first instance, and to provide focus for the more costly and time consuming functional assays that follow. DNA-binding proteins are an important class of proteins that require annotation, but current computational methods are not applicable for genome wide predictions in plant species. Here, we explore the use of species and lineage specific models for the prediction of DNA-binding proteins in plants. We show that a species specific support vector machine model based on Arabidopsis sequence data is more accurate (accuracy 81%) than a generic model (74%), and based on this we develop a plant specific model for predicting DNA-binding proteins. We apply this model to the tomato proteome and demonstrate its ability to perform accurate high-throughput prediction of DNA-binding proteins. In doing so, we have annotated 36 currently uncharacterised proteins by assigning a putative DNA-binding function. Our model is publically available and we propose it be used in combination with existing tools to help increase annotation levels of DNA-binding proteins encoded in plant genomes. PMID:26304539

  2. Protein-protein binding affinities calculated using the LIE method

    OpenAIRE

    Andberg, Tor Arne Heim

    2011-01-01

    Absolute binding free energies for the third domain of the turkey ovomucoid inhibitor in complex with Streptomyces griseus proteinase B and porcine pancreatic elastase has been calculated using the linear interaction energy method.

  3. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Joachim Haupt

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology - a drug's ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand

  4. Role of adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP) and acyl-coA binding protein (ACBP) in PPAR-mediated transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helledie, Torben; Jørgensen, Claus; Antonius, Marianne;

    2002-01-01

    lipid binding protein (ALBP), the keratinocyte lipid binding protein (KLBP) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) exhibit a prominent nuclear localization in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Similarly, ectopic expression of these proteins in CV-1 cells resulted in a primarily nuclear localization...

  5. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  6. DNA Bending is Induced in an Enhancer by the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskaluk, Christopher; Bastia, Deepak

    1988-03-01

    The E2 gene of bovine papillomavirus type 1 has been shown to encode a DNA-binding protein and to trans-activate the viral enhancer. We have localized the DNA-binding domain of the E2 protein to the carboxyl-terminal 126 amino acids of the E2 open reading frame. The DNA-binding domain has been expressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified. Gel retardation and DNase I ``footprinting'' on the bovine papillomavirus type 1 enhancer identify the sequence motif ACCN6GGT (in which N = any nucleotide) as the E2 binding site. Using electrophoretic methods we have shown that the DNA-binding domain changes conformation of the enhancer by inducing significant DNA bending.

  7. Characterization of the hormone-binding domain of the chicken c-erbA/thyroid hormone receptor protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Zenke, M; Gehring, U;

    1988-01-01

    To identify and characterize the hormone-binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor, we analyzed the ligand-binding capacities of proteins representing chimeras between the normal receptor and P75gag-v-erbA, the retrovirus-encoded form deficient in binding ligand. Our results show that severa......gag-v-erbA and that renders it biologically inactive fails to affect hormone binding by the c-erbA protein. These results suggest that the mutation changed the ability of P75gag-v-erbA to affect transcription since it also had no effect on DNA binding. Our data also suggest that hormone......-independent activity of P75gag-v-erbA provided a selective advantage to the avian erythroblastosis virus during the original selection for a highly oncogenic strain of the virus....

  8. The Role Stress Granules and RNA Binding Proteins in Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderweyde, Tara; Youmans, Katie; Liu-Yesucevitz, Liqun; Wolozin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic stress response involves translational suppression of non-housekeeping proteins and the sequestration of unnecessary mRNA transcripts into stress granules (SGs). This process is dependent on mRNA binding proteins (RBPs) that interact with capped mRNA transcripts through RNA recognition motifs, and exhibit reversible aggregation through hydrophobic poly-glycine domains, some of which are homologous to yeast prion proteins. The activity and aggregation of RBPs appears to be impor...

  9. Computational design of a PAK1 binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Ramesh K; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Yin, Shuangye; Wu, YiBing; Butterfoss, Glenn L.; Szyperski, Thomas; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Kuhlman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We describe a computational protocol, called DDMI, for redesigning scaffold proteins to bind to a specified region on a target protein. The DDMI protocol is implemented within the Rosetta molecular modeling program and uses rigid-body docking, sequence design, and gradient-based minimization of backbone and side chain torsion angles to design low energy interfaces between the scaffold and target protein. Iterative rounds of sequence design and conformational optimization were needed to produc...

  10. Pentatricopeptide repeats: Modular blocks for building RNA-binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Filipovska, Aleksandra; Rackham, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins control diverse aspects of RNA metabolism across the eukaryotic domain. Recent computational and structural studies have provided new insights into how they recognize RNA, and show that the recognition is sequence-specific and modular. The modular code for RNA-binding by PPR proteins holds great promise for the engineering of new tools to target RNA and identifying RNAs bound by natural PPR proteins.

  11. Natural history of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushegian Arcady R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S-adenosylmethionine is a source of diverse chemical groups used in biosynthesis and modification of virtually every class of biomolecules. The most notable reaction requiring S-adenosylmethionine, transfer of methyl group, is performed by a large class of enzymes, S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases, which have been the focus of considerable structure-function studies. Evolutionary trajectories of these enzymes, and especially of other classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins, nevertheless, remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by computational comparison of sequences and structures of various S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Results Two widespread folds, Rossmann fold and TIM barrel, have been repeatedly used in evolution for diverse types of S-adenosylmethionine conversion. There were also cases of recruitment of other relatively common folds for S-adenosylmethionine binding. Several classes of proteins have unique unrelated folds, specialized for just one type of chemistry and unified by the theme of internal domain duplications. In several cases, functional divergence is evident, when evolutionarily related enzymes have changed the mode of binding and the type of chemical transformation of S-adenosylmethionine. There are also instances of functional convergence, when biochemically similar processes are performed by drastically different classes of S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins. Comparison of remote sequence similarities and analysis of phyletic patterns suggests that the last universal common ancestor of cellular life had between 10 and 20 S-adenosylmethionine-binding proteins from at least 5 fold classes, providing for S-adenosylmethionine formation, polyamine biosynthesis, and methylation of several substrates, including nucleic acids and peptide chain release factor. Conclusion We have observed several novel relationships between families that were not known to be

  12. Selective elimination of high constitutive activity or chemokine binding in the human herpesvirus 8 encoded seven transmembrane oncogene ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Holst, Peter Johannes;

    2000-01-01

    Open reading frame 74 (ORF74) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 is a highly constitutively active seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor stimulated by angiogenic chemokines, e.g. growth-related oncogene-alpha, and inhibited by angiostatic chemokines e.g. interferon-gamma-inducible protein. Transgenic mice...... either agonist or inverse agonist modulation as well as high constitutive activity of the virally encoded oncogene ORF74 and that these mutant forms presumably can be used in transgenic animals to identify the molecular mechanism of its transforming activity....

  13. Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes*

    OpenAIRE

    Villamor, J. G.; Kaschani, F.; Colby, T; Oeljeklaus, J.; Zhao, D; Kaiser, M.; Patricelli, M. P.; R. A. L. van der Hoorn

    2013-01-01

    Many protein activities are driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Here, we explore the ATP binding proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using acyl-ATP (AcATP)1 probes. These probes target ATP binding sites and covalently label lysine residues in the ATP binding pocket. Gel-based profiling using biotinylated AcATP showed that labeling is dependent on pH and divalent ions and can be competed by nucleotides. The vast majority of these AcATP-labeled proteins are known ATP binding prot...

  14. PRBP: Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using a Random Forest Algorithm Combined with an RNA-Binding Residue Predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is an incredibly challenging problem in computational biology. Although great progress has been made using various machine learning approaches with numerous features, the problem is still far from being solved. In this study, we attempt to predict RNA-binding proteins directly from amino acid sequences. A novel approach, PRBP predicts RNA-binding proteins using the information of predicted RNA-binding residues in conjunction with a random forest based method. For a given protein, we first predict its RNA-binding residues and then judge whether the protein binds RNA or not based on information from that prediction. If the protein cannot be identified by the information associated with its predicted RNA-binding residues, then a novel random forest predictor is used to determine if the query protein is a RNA-binding protein. We incorporated features of evolutionary information combined with physicochemical features (EIPP) and amino acid composition feature to establish the random forest predictor. Feature analysis showed that EIPP contributed the most to the prediction of RNA-binding proteins. The results also showed that the information from the RNA-binding residue prediction improved the overall performance of our RNA-binding protein prediction. It is anticipated that the PRBP method will become a useful tool for identifying RNA-binding proteins. A PRBP Web server implementation is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/PRBP/.

  15. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC transporter HI1470/71 through its cognate molybdate periplasmic binding protein, MolA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C; Pinkett, Heather W

    2011-11-01

    molA (HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB(2)C(2) (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7 Å resolution, respectively. The MolA-binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate, but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate-binding protein structurally solved. The ∼100 μM binding affinity for tungstate and molybdate is significantly lower than observed for the class II ModA molybdate-binding proteins that have nanomolar to low micromolar affinity for molybdate. The presence of two molybdate loci in H. influenzae suggests multiple transport systems for one substrate, with molABC constituting a low-affinity molybdate locus. PMID:22078568

  16. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC Transporter HI1470/71 through Its Cognate Molybdate Periplasmic Binding Protein, MolA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C.; Pinkett, Heather W. (CIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    molA (HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB{sub 2}C{sub 2} (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. The MolA-binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate, but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate-binding protein structurally solved. The {approx}100 {mu}M binding affinity for tungstate and molybdate is significantly lower than observed for the class II ModA molybdate-binding proteins that have nanomolar to low micromolar affinity for molybdate. The presence of two molybdate loci in H. influenzae suggests multiple transport systems for one substrate, with molABC constituting a low-affinity molybdate locus.

  17. Tetrapyrrole binding affinity of the murine and human p22HBP heme-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micaelo, Nuno M; Macedo, Anjos L; Goodfellow, Brian J; Félix, Vítor

    2010-11-01

    We present the first systematic molecular modeling study of the binding properties of murine (mHBP) and human (hHBP) p22HBP protein (heme-binding protein) with four tetrapyrrole ring systems belonging to the heme biosynthetic pathway: iron protoporphyrin IX (HEMIN), protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), coproporphyrin III (CPIII), coproporphyrin I (CPI). The relative binding affinities predicted by our computational study were found to be similar to those observed experimentally, providing a first rational structural analysis of the molecular recognition mechanism, by p22HBP, toward a number of different tetrapyrrole ligands. To probe the structure of these p22HBP protein complexes, docking, molecular dynamics and MM-PBSA methodologies supported by experimental NMR ring current shift data have been employed. The tetrapyrroles studied were found to bind murine p22HBP with the following binding affinity order: HEMIN> PPIX> CPIII> CPI, which ranged from -22.2 to -6.1 kcal/mol. In general, the protein-tetrapyrrole complexes are stabilized by non-bonded interactions between the tetrapyrrole propionate groups and basic residues of the protein, and by the preferential solvation of the complex compared to the unbound components. PMID:20800521

  18. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS protein substitutes for Agrobacterium tumefaciens single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Larry D; Cuperus, Josh; Ream, Walt

    2004-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes transfer plasmid-encoded genes and virulence (Vir) proteins into plant cells. The transferred DNA (T-DNA) is stably inherited and expressed in plant cells, causing crown gall or hairy root disease. DNA transfer from A. tumefaciens into plant cells resembles plasmid conjugation; single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is exported from the bacteria via a type IV secretion system comprised of VirB1 through VirB11 and VirD4. Bacteria also secrete certain Vir proteins into plant cells via this pore. One of these, VirE2, is an ssDNA-binding protein crucial for efficient T-DNA transfer and integration. VirE2 binds incoming ssT-DNA and helps target it into the nucleus. Some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, but they still transfer T-DNA efficiently. We isolated a novel gene from A. rhizogenes that restored pathogenicity to virE2 mutant A. tumefaciens. The GALLS gene was essential for pathogenicity of A. rhizogenes. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains a nucleoside triphosphate binding motif similar to one in TraA, a strand transferase conjugation protein. Despite their lack of similarity, GALLS substituted for VirE2. PMID:15126468

  19. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein.

  20. Nucleomorphin. A novel, acidic, nuclear calmodulin-binding protein from dictyostelium that regulates nuclear number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2002-05-31

    Probing of Dictyostelium discoideum cell extracts after SDS-PAGE using (35)S-recombinant calmodulin (CaM) as a probe has revealed approximately three-dozen Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin binding proteins. Here, we report the molecular cloning, expression, and subcellular localization of a gene encoding a novel calmodulin-binding protein (CaMBP); we have called nucleomorphin, from D. discoideum. A lambdaZAP cDNA expression library of cells from multicellular development was screened using a recombinant calmodulin probe ((35)S-VU1-CaM). The open reading frame of 1119 nucleotides encodes a polypeptide of 340 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 38.7 kDa and is constitutively expressed throughout the Dictyostelium life cycle. Nucleomorphin contains a highly acidic glutamic/aspartic acid inverted repeat (DEED) with significant similarity to the conserved nucleoplasmin domain and a putative transmembrane domain in the carboxyl-terminal region. Southern blotting reveals that nucleomorphin exists as a single copy gene. Using gel overlay assays and CaM-agarose we show that bacterially expressed nucleomorphin binds to bovine CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Amino-terminal fusion to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) showed that GFP-NumA localized to the nucleus as distinct arc-like patterns similar to heterochromatin regions. GFP-NumA lacking the acidic DEED repeat still showed arc-like accumulations at the nuclear periphery, but the number of nuclei in these cells was increased markedly compared with control cells. Cells expressing GFP-NumA lacking the transmembrane domain localized to the nuclear periphery but did not affect nuclear number or gross morphology. Nucleomorphin is the first nuclear CaMBP to be identified in Dictyostelium. Furthermore, these data present the first identification of a member of the nucleoplasmin family as a calmodulin-binding protein and suggest nucleomorphin has a role in nuclear structure in Dictyostelium. PMID:11919178

  1. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, D P; Kubiniec, M A; Yoshimura, F; Genco, R J

    1988-01-01

    The gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis 381, fimbrilin, has been cloned and sequenced. The gene was present as a single copy on the bacterial chromosome, and the codon usage in the gene conformed closely to that expected for an abundant protein. The predicted size of the mature protein was 35,924 daltons, and the secretory form may have had a 10-amino-acid, hydrophilic leader sequence similar to the leader sequences of the MePhe fimbriae family. The protein se...

  2. Cooperative binding of copper(I) to the metal binding domains in Menkes disease protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P Y; Bonander, N; Møller, L B;

    1999-01-01

    We have optimised the overexpression and purification of the N-terminal end of the Menkes disease protein expressed in Escherichia coli, containing one, two and six metal binding domains (MBD), respectively. The domain(s) have been characterised using circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence...... spectroscopy, and their copper(I) binding properties have been determined. Structure prediction derived from far-UV CD indicates that the secondary structure is similar in the three proteins and dominated by beta-sheet. The tryptophan fluorescence maximum is blue-shifted in the constructs containing two...... and six MBDs relative to the monomer, suggesting more structurally buried tryptophan(s), compared to the single MBD construct. Copper(I) binding has been studied by equilibrium dialysis under anaerobic conditions. We show that the copper(I) binding to constructs containing two and six domains...

  3. A new zinc binding fold underlines the versatility of zinc binding modules in protein evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Belinda K; Matthews, Jacqueline M; Kwan, Ann H Y; Newton, Anthea; Gell, David A; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P

    2002-05-01

    Many different zinc binding modules have been identified. Their abundance and variety suggests that the formation of zinc binding folds might be relatively common. We have determined the structure of CH1(1), a 27-residue peptide derived from the first cysteine/histidine-rich region (CH1) of CREB binding protein (CBP). This peptide forms a highly ordered zinc-dependent fold that is distinct from known folds. The structure differs from a subsequently determined structure of a larger region from the CH3 region of CBP, and the CH1(1) fold probably represents a nonphysiologically active form. Despite this, the fold is thermostable and tolerant to both multiple alanine mutations and changes in the zinc-ligand spacing. Our data support the idea that zinc binding domains may arise frequently. Additionally, such structures may prove useful as scaffolds for protein design, given their stability and robustness.

  4. Variants within the yeast Ty sequence family encode a class of structurally conserved proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, A.M.; Mellor, J; Dobson, M J; J. Chester; Warmington, J R; Indge, K J; Oliver, S. G.; de la Paz, P; Wilson, W; Kingsman, A J

    1985-01-01

    The Ty transposable elements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a heterogeneous family within which two broad structural classes (I and II) exist. The two classes differ by two large substitutions and many restriction sites. We show that, like class I elements a class II element, Tyl-17, also appears to contain at least two major protein coding regions, designated TYA and TYB, and the organisational relationship of these regions has been conserved. The TYA genes of both classes encode proteins,...

  5. Ribosome Profiling Provides Evidence that Large Noncoding RNAs Do Not Encode Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Guttman, Mitchell; Russell, Pamela; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Lander, Eric S.; Lander, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Large noncoding RNAs are emerging as an important component in cellular regulation. Considerable evidence indicates that these transcripts act directly as functional RNAs rather than through an encoded protein product. However, a recent study of ribosome occupancy reported that many large intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs) are bound by ribosomes, raising the possibility that they are translated into proteins. Here, we show that classical noncoding RNAs and 5′ UTRs show the same ribosome occupancy a...

  6. SdrI, a serine-aspartate repeat protein identified in Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain 7108, is a collagen-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakinc, Türkan; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2006-08-01

    A gene encoding a serine-aspartate repeat protein of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an important cause of urinary tract infections in young women, has been cloned and sequenced. In contrast to other SD repeat proteins, SdrI carries 21 additional N-terminal repeats with a consensus sequence of (P/A)ATKE(K/E)A(A/V)(T/I)(A/T/S)EE and has the longest SD(AD)(1-5) repetitive region (854 amino acids) described so far. This highly repetitive sequence contains only the amino acids serine, asparagine, and a distinctly greater amount of alanine (37%) than all other known SD repeat proteins (2.3 to 4.4%). In addition, it is a collagen-binding protein of S. saprophyticus and the second example in this organism of a surface protein carrying the LPXTG motif. We constructed an isogenic sdrI knockout mutant that showed decreased binding to immobilized collagen compared with wild-type S. saprophyticus strain 7108. Binding could be reconstituted by complementation. Collagen binding is specifically caused by SdrI, and the recently described UafA protein, the only LPXTG-containing protein in the genome sequence of the type strain, is not involved in this trait. Our experiments suggest that, as in other staphylococci, the presence of different LPXTG-anchored cell wall proteins is common in S. saprophyticus and support the notion that the presence of matrix-binding surface proteins is common in staphylococci.

  7. Predicting the binding patterns of hub proteins: a study using yeast protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson M Andorf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interactions are critical to elucidating the role played by individual proteins in important biological pathways. Of particular interest are hub proteins that can interact with large numbers of partners and often play essential roles in cellular control. Depending on the number of binding sites, protein hubs can be classified at a structural level as singlish-interface hubs (SIH with one or two binding sites, or multiple-interface hubs (MIH with three or more binding sites. In terms of kinetics, hub proteins can be classified as date hubs (i.e., interact with different partners at different times or locations or party hubs (i.e., simultaneously interact with multiple partners. METHODOLOGY: Our approach works in 3 phases: Phase I classifies if a protein is likely to bind with another protein. Phase II determines if a protein-binding (PB protein is a hub. Phase III classifies PB proteins as singlish-interface versus multiple-interface hubs and date versus party hubs. At each stage, we use sequence-based predictors trained using several standard machine learning techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Our method is able to predict whether a protein is a protein-binding protein with an accuracy of 94% and a correlation coefficient of 0.87; identify hubs from non-hubs with 100% accuracy for 30% of the data; distinguish date hubs/party hubs with 69% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.68; and SIH/MIH with 89% accuracy and area under ROC curve of 0.84. Because our method is based on sequence information alone, it can be used even in settings where reliable protein-protein interaction data or structures of protein-protein complexes are unavailable to obtain useful insights into the functional and evolutionary characteristics of proteins and their interactions. AVAILABILITY: We provide a web server for our three-phase approach: http://hybsvm.gdcb.iastate.edu.

  8. The liver fatty acid binding protein--comparison of cavity properties of intracellular lipid-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J; Ory, J; Reese-Wagoner, A; Banaszak, L

    1999-02-01

    The crystal and solution structures of all of the intracellular lipid binding proteins (iLBPs) reveal a common beta-barrel framework with only small local perturbations. All existing evidence points to the binding cavity and a poorly delimited 'portal' region as defining the function of each family member. The importance of local structure within the cavity appears to be its influence on binding affinity and specificity for the lipid. The portal region appears to be involved in the regulation of ligand exchange. Within the iLBP family, liver fatty acid binding protein or LFABP, has the unique property of binding two fatty acids within its internalized binding cavity rather than the commonly observed stoichiometry of one. Furthermore, LFABP will bind hydrophobic molecules larger than the ligands which will associate with other iLBPs. The crystal structure of LFABP contains two bound oleate molecules and provides the explanation for its unusual stoichiometry. One of the bound fatty acids is completely internalized and has its carboxylate interacting with an arginine and two serines. The second oleate represents an entirely new binding mode with the carboxylate on the surface of LFABP. The two oleates also interact with each other. Because of this interaction and its inner location, it appears the first oleate must be present before the second more external molecule is bound. PMID:10331654

  9. Development of a Novel Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Binding Assay to Study the Association of Plakins with Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Bertrand; Begré, Nadja; Bouameur, Jamal-Eddine; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for most biological processes, such as the formation of cellular structures and enzymatic complexes or in signaling pathways. The identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions are therefore essential for understanding the mechanisms and regulation of biological systems. The organization and dynamics of the cytoskeleton, as well as its anchorage to specific sites in the plasma membrane and organelles, are regulated by the plakins. These structurally related proteins anchor different cytoskeletal networks to each other and/or to other cellular structures. The association of several plakins with intermediate filaments (IFs) is critical for maintenance of the cytoarchitecture. Pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding different plakins can lead to dramatic manifestations, occurring principally in the skin, striated muscle, and/or nervous system, due to cytoskeletal disorganization resulting in abnormal cell fragility. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how plakins bind to IFs, although some general rules are slowly emerging. We here describe in detail a recently developed protein-protein fluorescence binding assay, based on the production of recombinant proteins tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and their use as fluid-phase fluorescent ligands on immobilized IF proteins. Using this method, we have been able to assess the ability of C-terminal regions of GFP-tagged plakin proteins to bind to distinct IF proteins and IF domains. This simple and sensitive technique, which is expected to facilitate further studies in this area, can also be potentially employed for any kind of protein-protein interaction studies.

  10. A general approach to visualize protein binding and DNA conformation without protein labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Graham, Thomas G W; Loparo, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation methods, such as magnetic tweezers and flow stretching, generally use the measurement of changes in DNA extension as a proxy for examining interactions between a DNA-binding protein and its substrate. These approaches are unable to directly measure protein-DNA association without fluorescently labelling the protein, which can be challenging. Here we address this limitation by developing a new approach that visualizes unlabelled protein binding on DNA with changes in DNA conformation in a relatively high-throughput manner. Protein binding to DNA molecules sparsely labelled with Cy3 results in an increase in fluorescence intensity due to protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE), whereas DNA length is monitored under flow of buffer through a microfluidic flow cell. Given that our assay uses unlabelled protein, it is not limited to the low protein concentrations normally required for single-molecule fluorescence imaging and should be broadly applicable to studying protein-DNA interactions.

  11. EBV noncoding RNA EBER2 interacts with host RNA-binding proteins to regulate viral gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nara; Yario, Therese A; Gao, Jessica S; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-03-22

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) produces a highly abundant noncoding RNA called EBV-encoded RNA 2 (EBER2) that interacts indirectly with the host transcription factor paired box protein 5 (PAX5) to regulate viral latent membrane protein 1/2 (LMP1/2) gene expression as well as EBV lytic replication. To identify intermediary proteins, we isolated EBER2-PAX5-containing complexes and analyzed the protein components by mass spectrometry. The top candidates include three host proteins splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ), non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO), and RNA binding motif protein 14 (RBM14), all reported to be components of nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. In vivo RNA-protein crosslinking indicates that SFPQ and RBM14 contact EBER2 directly. Binding studies using recombinant proteins demonstrate that SFPQ and NONO associate with PAX5, potentially bridging its interaction with EBER2. Similar to EBER2 or PAX5 depletion, knockdown of any of the three host RNA-binding proteins results in the up-regulation of viral LMP2A mRNA levels, supporting a physiologically relevant interaction of these newly identified factors with EBER2 and PAX5. Identification of these EBER2-interacting proteins enables the search for cellular noncoding RNAs that regulate host gene expression in a manner similar to EBER2.

  12. EBV noncoding RNA EBER2 interacts with host RNA-binding proteins to regulate viral gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nara; Yario, Therese A; Gao, Jessica S; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-03-22

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) produces a highly abundant noncoding RNA called EBV-encoded RNA 2 (EBER2) that interacts indirectly with the host transcription factor paired box protein 5 (PAX5) to regulate viral latent membrane protein 1/2 (LMP1/2) gene expression as well as EBV lytic replication. To identify intermediary proteins, we isolated EBER2-PAX5-containing complexes and analyzed the protein components by mass spectrometry. The top candidates include three host proteins splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ), non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO), and RNA binding motif protein 14 (RBM14), all reported to be components of nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. In vivo RNA-protein crosslinking indicates that SFPQ and RBM14 contact EBER2 directly. Binding studies using recombinant proteins demonstrate that SFPQ and NONO associate with PAX5, potentially bridging its interaction with EBER2. Similar to EBER2 or PAX5 depletion, knockdown of any of the three host RNA-binding proteins results in the up-regulation of viral LMP2A mRNA levels, supporting a physiologically relevant interaction of these newly identified factors with EBER2 and PAX5. Identification of these EBER2-interacting proteins enables the search for cellular noncoding RNAs that regulate host gene expression in a manner similar to EBER2. PMID:26951683

  13. A putative amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, NMB1612, from Neisseria meningitidis, induces murine bactericidal antibodies against meningococci expressing heterologous NMB1612 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Miao-Chiu; Humbert, María Victoria; Laver, Jay R; Phillips, Renee; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

    2015-08-26

    The nmb1612 (NEIS1533) gene encoding the ~27-kDa putative amino acid ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, periplasmic substrate-binding protein from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) strain MC58 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant (r)NMB1612 was used for animal immunization studies. Immunization of mice with rNMB1612 adsorbed to Al(OH)3 and in liposomes with and without MPLA, induced antiserum with bactericidal activity in an assay using baby rabbit complement, against the homologous strain MC58 (encoding protein representative of Allele 62) and killed heterologous strains encoding proteins of three other alleles (representative of Alleles 1, 64 and 68), with similar SBA titres. However, strain MC58 was not killed (titre protein was killed (median titres of 16-64 in the hSBA). Analysis of the NMB1612 amino acid sequences from 4351 meningococcal strains in the pubmlst.org/Neisseria database and a collection of 13 isolates from colonized individuals and from patients, showed that antibodies raised against rNMB1612 could potentially kill at least 72% of the MenB strains in the complete sequence database. For MenB disease occurring specifically in the UK from 2013 to 2015, >91% of the isolates causing disease in this recent period expressed NMB1612 protein encoded by Allele 1 and could be potentially killed by sera raised to the recombinant antigen in the current study. The NMB1612 protein was surface-accessible and expressed by different meningococcal strains. In summary, the properties of (i) NMB1612 protein conservation and expression, (ii) limited amino acid sequence variation between proteins encoded by different alleles, and (iii) the ability of a recombinant protein to induce cross-strain bactericidal antibodies, would all suggest a promising antigen for consideration for inclusion in new meningococcal vaccines.

  14. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhou J.; Mortimer, Gysell; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2009-11-01

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO2, the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  15. The chromatin-binding protein HMGN1 regulates the expression of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) and affects the behavior of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhatzira, Liron; Shamir, Alon; Schones, Dustin E; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Bustin, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High mobility group N1 protein (HMGN1), a nucleosomal-binding protein that affects the structure and function of chromatin, is encoded by a gene located on chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in Down syndrome, one of the most prevalent genomic disorders. Misexpression of HMGN1 affects the cellular transcription profile; however, the biological function of this protein is still not fully understood. We report that HMGN1 modulates the expression of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a DNA-binding protein known to affect neurological functions including autism spectrum disorders, and whose alterations in HMGN1 levels affect the behavior of mice. Quantitative PCR and Western analyses of cell lines and brain tissues from mice that either overexpress or lack HMGN1 indicate that HMGN1 is a negative regulator of MeCP2 expression. Alterations in HMGN1 levels lead to changes in chromatin structure and histone modifications in the MeCP2 promoter. Behavior analyses by open field test, elevated plus maze, Reciprocal Social Interaction, and automated sociability test link changes in HMGN1 levels to abnormalities in activity and anxiety and to social deficits in mice. Targeted analysis of the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange genotype collection reveals a non-random distribution of genotypes within 500 kbp of HMGN1 in a region affecting its expression in families predisposed to autism spectrum disorders. Our results reveal that HMGN1 affects the behavior of mice and suggest that epigenetic changes resulting from altered HMGN1 levels could play a role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  16. High-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip supports for AFP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqun; Yan, Huan; Yang, Jiumin; Wu, Yudong; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Yingyi; Liu, Ping; Wang, Huiquan; Hu, Zhidong; Chang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads (FEMMs), with the fluorescence encoding ability of quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic enrichment and separation functions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, have been widely used for multiple biomolecular detection as microfluidic protein chip supports. However, the preparation of FEMMs with long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability is still a challenge. In this work, we designed a novel high-temperature chemical swelling strategy. The QDs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were effectively packaged into microbeads via the thermal motion of the polymer chains and the hydrophobic interaction between the nanoparticles and microbeads. The FEMMs obtained a highly uniform fluorescent property and long-term encoding and immunodetection stability and could be quickly magnetically separated and enriched. Then, the QD-encoded magnetic microbeads were applied to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection via sandwich immunoreaction. The properties of the encoded microspheres were characterized using a self-designed detecting apparatus, and the target molecular concentration in the sample was also quantified. The results suggested that the high-performance FEMMs have great potential in the field of biomolecular detection. PMID:27639146

  17. High-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip supports for AFP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqun; Yan, Huan; Yang, Jiumin; Wu, Yudong; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Yingyi; Liu, Ping; Wang, Huiquan; Hu, Zhidong; Chang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads (FEMMs), with the fluorescence encoding ability of quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic enrichment and separation functions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, have been widely used for multiple biomolecular detection as microfluidic protein chip supports. However, the preparation of FEMMs with long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability is still a challenge. In this work, we designed a novel high-temperature chemical swelling strategy. The QDs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were effectively packaged into microbeads via the thermal motion of the polymer chains and the hydrophobic interaction between the nanoparticles and microbeads. The FEMMs obtained a highly uniform fluorescent property and long-term encoding and immunodetection stability and could be quickly magnetically separated and enriched. Then, the QD-encoded magnetic microbeads were applied to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection via sandwich immunoreaction. The properties of the encoded microspheres were characterized using a self-designed detecting apparatus, and the target molecular concentration in the sample was also quantified. The results suggested that the high-performance FEMMs have great potential in the field of biomolecular detection.

  18. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  19. Oxypred: Prediction and Classification of Oxygen-Binding Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; Muthukrishnan; Aarti; Garg; G.P.S.; Raghava

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a method for predicting and classifying oxygen-binding pro- teins. Firstly, support vector machine (SVM) modules were developed using amino acid composition and dipeptide composition for predicting oxygen-binding pro- teins, and achieved maximum accuracy of 85.5% and 87.8%, respectively. Sec- ondly, an SVM module was developed based on amino acid composition, classify- ing the predicted oxygen-binding proteins into six classes with accuracy of 95.8%, 97.5%, 97.5%, 96.9%, 99.4%, and 96.0% for erythrocruorin, hemerythrin, hemo- cyanin, hemoglobin, leghemoglobin, and myoglobin proteins, respectively. Finally, an SVM module was developed using dipeptide composition for classifying the oxygen-binding proteins, and achieved maximum accuracy of 96.1%, 98.7%, 98.7%, 85.6%, 99.6%, and 93.3% for the above six classes, respectively. All modules were trained and tested by five-fold cross validation. Based on the above approach, a web server Oxypred was developed for predicting and classifying oxygen-binding proteins(available from http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/oxypred/).

  20. Syntax compensates for poor binding sites to encode tissue specificity of developmental enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are short segments of DNA that switch genes on and off in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Despite the discovery of the first enhancer more than 30 y ago, the relationship between primary DNA sequence and enhancer activity remains obscure. In particular, the importance of "syntax" (the order, orientation, and spacing of binding sites) is unclear. A high-throughput screen identified synthetic notochord enhancers that are activated by the combination of ZicL and ETS transcription factors in Ciona embryos. Manipulation of these enhancers elucidated a "regulatory code" of sequence and syntax features for notochord-specific expression. This code enabled in silico discovery of bona fide notochord enhancers, including those containing low-affinity binding sites that would be excluded by standard motif identification methods. One of the newly identified enhancers maps upstream of the known enhancer that regulates Brachyury (Ci-Bra), a key determinant of notochord specification. This newly identified Ci-Bra shadow enhancer contains binding sites with very low affinity, but optimal syntax, and therefore mediates surprisingly strong expression in the notochord. Weak binding sites are compensated by optimal syntax, whereas enhancers containing high-affinity binding affinities possess suboptimal syntax. We suggest this balance has obscured the importance of regulatory syntax, as noncanonical binding motifs are typically disregarded by enhancer detection methods. As a result, enhancers with low binding affinities but optimal syntax may be a vastly underappreciated feature of the regulatory genome.

  1. Rat prostatic steroid binding protein: characterisation of the Alu element upstream of the C3 genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, H C; Parker, M G

    1984-01-01

    We have characterised an Alu-like repetitive element found about 400 bp upstream of the gene encoding the C3 component of rat prostatic steroid binding protein and suggest, from comparisons with other published sequences, that it is an example of a third class of rodent Alu-equivalent sequences. Members of this class are 80-90 bp long, share greater than 90% sequence homology, and contain sequences resembling the RNA polymerase III bipartite promoter. The Alu type III element within the C3 ge...

  2. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced gallstones in liver fatty acid binding protein knockout mices⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yan; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Kennedy, Susan M; Luo, Jianyang; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait mapping identified a locus colocalizing with L-Fabp, encoding liver fatty acid binding protein, as a positional candidate for murine gallstone susceptibility. When fed a lithogenic diet (LD) for 2 weeks, L-Fabp−/− mice became hypercholesterolemic with increased hepatic VLDL cholesterol secretion. Seventy-five percent of L-Fabp−/− mice developed solid gallstones compared with 6% of wild-type mice with an increased gallstone score (3.29 versus 0.62, respectively; P < 0.01). H...

  3. Novel RepA-MCM proteins encoded in plasmids pTAU4, pORA1 and pTIK4 from Sulfolobus neozealandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, B.; Jensen, S.; Phan, H.;

    2005-01-01

    . Plasmids pORA1 and pTIK4 encode RepA proteins, only the former of which carries the novel polymerase-primase domain of other known Sulfolobus plasmids. Plasmid pTAU4 encodes a mini-chromosome maintenance protein homolog and no RepA protein; the implications for DNA replication are considered. Plasmid pORA1......Three plasmids isolated from the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus neozealandicus were characterized. Plasmids pTAU4 (7,192 bp), pORA1 (9,689 bp) and pTIK4 (13,638 bp) show unusual properties that distinguish them from previously characterized cryptic plasmids of the genus Sulfolobus...... is the first Sulfolobus plasmid to be characterized that does not encode the otherwise highly conserved DNA-binding PlrA protein. Another encoded protein appears to be specific for the New Zealand plasmids. The three plasmids should provide useful model systems for functional studies of these...

  4. LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins and their encoding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hincha Dirk K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LEA (late embryogenesis abundant proteins have first been described about 25 years ago as accumulating late in plant seed development. They were later found in vegetative plant tissues following environmental stress and also in desiccation tolerant bacteria and invertebrates. Although they are widely assumed to play crucial roles in cellular dehydration tolerance, their physiological and biochemical functions are largely unknown. Results We present a genome-wide analysis of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified 51 LEA protein encoding genes in the Arabidopsis genome that could be classified into nine distinct groups. Expression studies were performed on all genes at different developmental stages, in different plant organs and under different stress and hormone treatments using quantitative RT-PCR. We found evidence of expression for all 51 genes. There was only little overlap between genes expressed in vegetative tissues and in seeds and expression levels were generally higher in seeds. Most genes encoding LEA proteins had abscisic acid response (ABRE and/or low temperature response (LTRE elements in their promoters and many genes containing the respective promoter elements were induced by abscisic acid, cold or drought. We also found that 33% of all Arabidopsis LEA protein encoding genes are arranged in tandem repeats and that 43% are part of homeologous pairs. The majority of LEA proteins were predicted to be highly hydrophilic and natively unstructured, but some were predicted to be folded. Conclusion The analyses indicate a wide range of sequence diversity, intracellular localizations, and expression patterns. The high fraction of retained duplicate genes and the inferred functional diversification indicate that they confer an evolutionary advantage for an organism under varying stressful environmental conditions. This comprehensive analysis will be an important starting point for

  5. Evolution of the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Mark; Rose, Timothy M; Faergeman, Nils J;

    2005-01-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa protein that binds C12-C22 acyl-CoA esters with high affinity. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that it is involved in multiple cellular tasks including modulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, enzyme regulation, regulation of the intracellular ac......-specific paralogues have evolved altered functions. The appearance of ACBP very early on in evolution points towards a fundamental role of ACBP in acyl-CoA metabolism, including ceramide synthesis and in signalling....

  6. Identification of cDNA clones encoding HMG 2, a major protein of the mexican axolotl hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guerra, A; Guillet, F; Charlemagne, J; Fellah, J S

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and analyzed cDNA clones encoding a major 26 kDa protein of the HMG1-2 family which is abundant in the cytoplasm and nucleus of axolotl hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes. The axolotl HMG2 protein is very similar to proteins belonging to the HMG1-2 family, from teleost fish to mammals. All the molecular features of the HMG1-2 proteins are conserved, including the high proportion of basic and aromatic residues, and the characteristic acidic C-terminus tail. The 3'-untranslated region of the HMG2 axolotl cDNA is also similar to the avian and mammalian HMG2 3'-UT sequences, suggesting that some selective events have acted at the DNA level to conserve this region, which could be important in the differential expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes. The axolotl HMG2 protein contains the two well conserved HMG boxes which are thought to be the DNA-binding domains of the molecule. Axolotl thymocytes and spleen cells contain almost identical amounts of HMG2 mRNAs but HMG2 polypeptide is undetectable in spleen cells using anti-26 kDa antibodies. The reason for the accumulation of HMG1-2 molecules in vertebrate hydrocortisone-sensitive thymocytes is discussed, as well as their possible role in apoptosis. PMID:8654668

  7. Maize homologs of HCT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, bind the NLR Rp1 proteins to modulate the defense response

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plants, most disease resistance (R) genes encode nucleotide binding leucine-rich-repeat 42 (NLR) proteins that trigger a rapid localized cell death called a hypersensitive response (HR) 43 upon pathogen recognition. The maize NLR protein Rp1-D21 derives from an intragenic 44 recombination between...

  8. Two Chlamydomonas OPR proteins stabilize chloroplast mRNAs encoding small subunits of photosystem II and cytochrome b6 f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Johnson, Xenie; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Nickelsen, Joerg; Vallon, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In plants and algae, chloroplast gene expression is controlled by nucleus-encoded proteins that bind to mRNAs in a specific manner, stabilizing mRNAs or promoting their splicing, editing, or translation. Here, we present the characterization of two mRNA stabilization factors of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which both belong to the OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) family. MCG1 is necessary to stabilize the petG mRNA, encoding a small subunit of the cytochrome b6 f complex, while MBI1 stabilizes the psbI mRNA, coding for a small subunit of photosystem II. In the mcg1 mutant, the small RNA footprint corresponding to the 5'-end of the petG transcript is reduced in abundance. In both cases, the absence of the small subunit perturbs assembly of the cognate complex. Whereas PetG is essential for formation of a functional cytochrome b6 f dimer, PsbI appears partly dispensable as a low level of PSII activity can still be measured in its absence. Thus, nuclear control of chloroplast gene expression is not only exerted on the major core subunits of the complexes, but also on small subunits with a single transmembrane helix. While OPR proteins have thus far been involved in translation or trans-splicing of plastid mRNAs, our results expand the potential roles of this repeat family to their stabilization. PMID:25898982

  9. Rabphilin-3A, a putative target protein for smg p25A/rab3A p25 small GTP-binding protein related to synaptotagmin.

    OpenAIRE

    Shirataki, H; Kaibuchi, K; Sakoda, T.; Kishida, S; Yamaguchi, T.; Wada, K.; Miyazaki, M.; Takai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study (H. Shirataki, K. Kaibuchi, T. Yamaguchi, K. Wada, H. Horiuchi, and Y. Takai, J. Biol. Chem. 267:10946-10949, 1992), we highly purified from bovine brain crude membranes the putative target protein for smg p25A/rab3A p25, a ras p21-related small GTP-binding protein implicated in neurotransmitter release. In this study, we have isolated and sequenced the cDNA of this protein from a bovine brain cDNA library. The cDNA had an open reading frame encoding a protein of 704 amino...

  10. Arabidopsis sigma factor binding proteins are activators of the WRKY33 transcription factor in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhibing; Li, Ying; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Yuan; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2011-10-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens are important plant pathogens that cause many devastating plant diseases. Despite their impact, our understanding of the plant defense response to necrotrophic pathogens is limited. The WRKY33 transcription factor is important for plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens; therefore, elucidation of its functions will enhance our understanding of plant immunity to necrotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of two WRKY33-interacting proteins, nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2, which also interact with plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase SIGMA FACTOR1. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain an N-terminal chloroplast targeting signal and a putative nuclear localization signal, suggesting that they are dual targeted. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation indicates that WRKY33 interacts with SIBs in the nucleus of plant cells. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain a short VQ motif that is important for interaction with WRKY33. The two VQ motif-containing proteins recognize the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulate the DNA binding activity of WRKY33. Like WRKY33, both SIB1 and SIB2 are rapidly and strongly induced by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to B. cinerea is compromised in the sib1 and sib2 mutants but enhanced in SIB1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that dual-targeted SIB1 and SIB2 function as activators of WRKY33 in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens.

  11. Binding-regulated click ligation for selective detection of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya; Han, Peng; Wang, Zhuxin; Chen, Weiwei; Shu, Yongqian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Herein, a binding-regulated click ligation (BRCL) strategy for endowing selective detection of proteins is developed with the incorporation of small-molecule ligand and clickable DNA probes. The fundamental principle underlying the strategy is the regulating capability of specific protein-ligand binding against the ligation between clickable DNA probes, which could efficiently combine the detection of particular protein with enormous DNA-based sensing technologies. In this work, the feasibly of the BRCL strategy is first verified through agarose gel electrophoresis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, and then confirmed by transferring it to a nanomaterial-assisted fluorescence assay. Significantly, the BRCL strategy-based assay is able to respond to target protein with desirable selectivity, attributing to the specific recognition between small-molecule ligand and its target. Further experiments validate the general applicability of the sensing method by tailoring the ligand toward different proteins (i.e., avidin and folate receptor), and demonstrate its usability in complex biological samples. To our knowledge, this work pioneers the practice of click chemistry in probing specific small-molecule ligand-protein binding, and therefore may pave a new way for selective detection of proteins.

  12. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2016-07-11

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses.

  13. All-Purpose Containers? Lipid-Binding Protein - Drug Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Beringhelli

    Full Text Available The combined use of in vitro (19F-NMR and in silico (molecular docking procedures demonstrates the affinity of a number of human calycins (lipid-binding proteins from ileum, liver, heart, adipose tissue and epidermis, and retinol-binding protein from intestine for different drugs (mainly steroids and vastatins. Comparative evaluations on the complexes outline some of the features relevant for interaction (non-polar character of the drugs; amino acids and water molecules in the protein calyx most often involved in binding. Dissociation constants (Ki for drugs typically lie in the same range as Ki for natural ligands; in most instances (different proteins and docking conditions, vastatins are the strongest interactors, with atorvastatin ranking top in half of the cases. The affinity of some calycins for some of the vastatins is in the order of magnitude of the drug Cmax after systemic administration in humans. The possible biological implications of this feature are discussed in connection with drug delivery parameters (route of administration, binding to carrier proteins, distribution to, and accumulation in, human tissues.

  14. Drug-drug plasma protein binding interactions of ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elena K; Huang, Johnny X; Carbone, Vincenzo; Baker, Mark; Azad, Mohammad A K; Cooper, Matthew A; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Ivacaftor is a novel cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for patients with CF bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs may compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This, in turn, could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This biochemical study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site-selective probes. Because of their ability to strongly compete for the ivacaftor binding sites on HSA and AGP, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole, and loratadine. The significance of these plasma protein drug-drug interactions is also interpreted in terms of molecular docking simulations. This in vitro study provides valuable insights into the plasma protein drug-drug interactions of ivacaftor with co-administered CF drugs. The data may prove useful in future clinical trials for a staggered treatment that aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor. PMID:25707701

  15. Isolation and characterization of Dictyostelium thymidine kinase 1 as a calmodulin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Chatterjee-Chakraborty, Munmun; Wagler, Stephanie; Myre, Michael A

    2005-06-17

    Probing of a cDNA expression library from multicellular development of Dictyostelium discoideum using a recombinant radiolabelled calmodulin probe (35S-VU1-CaM) led to the isolation of a cDNA encoding a putative CaM-binding protein (CaMBP). The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 951 bp encoding a 227aa polypeptide (25.5 kDa). Sequence comparisons led to highly significant matches with cytosolic thymidine kinases (TK1; EC 2.7.1.21) from a diverse number of species including humans (7e-56; 59% Identities; 75% Positives) indicating that the encoded protein is D. discoideum TK1 (DdTK1; ThyB). DdTK1 has not been previously characterized in this organism. In keeping with its sequence similarity with DdTK1, antibodies against humanTK1 recognize DdTK1, which is expressed during growth but decreases in amount after starvation. A CaM-binding domain (CaMBD; 20GKTTELIRRIKRFNFANKKC30) was identified and wild type DdTK1 plus two constructs (DdTK deltaC36, DdTK deltaC75) possessing the domain were shown to bind CaM in vitro but only in the presence of calcium while a construct (DdTK deltaN72) lacking the region failed to bind to CaM. Thus, DdTK1 is a Ca2+-dependent CaMBP. Sequence alignments against TK1 from vertebrates to viruses show that CaM-binding region is highly conserved. The identified CaMBD overlaps the ATP-binding (P-loop) domain suggesting CaM might affect the activity of this kinase. Recombinant DdTK is enzymatically active and showed stimulation by CaM (113+/-0.5%) an in vitro enhancement that was prevented by co-addition of the CaM antagonists W7 (91.2+/-0.8%) and W13 (96.6+/-0.6%). The discovery that TK1 from D. discoideum, and possibly other species including humans and a large number of human viruses, is a Ca2+-dependent CaMBP opens up new avenues for research on this medically relevant protein. PMID:15883042

  16. Reduction of a 4q35-encoded nuclear envelope protein in muscle differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, Cecilia [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Guan, Tinglu [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Figlewicz, Denise A. [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hays, Arthur P. [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Gerace, Larry [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Schirmer, Eric C., E-mail: e.schirmer@ed.ac.uk [Department of Cell Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JR (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-13

    Muscular dystrophy and peripheral neuropathy have been linked to mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unresolved. Nuclear envelope protein p19A is a protein of unknown function encoded by a gene at chromosome 4q35. p19A levels are significantly reduced in human muscle as cells differentiate from myoblasts to myotubes; however, its levels are not similarly reduced in all differentiation systems tested. Because 4q35 has been linked to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and some adjacent genes are reportedly misregulated in the disorder, levels of p19A were analyzed in muscle samples from patients with FSHD. Although p19A was increased in most cases, an absolute correlation was not observed. Nonetheless, p19A downregulation in normal muscle differentiation suggests that in the cases where its gene is inappropriately re-activated it could affect muscle differentiation and contribute to disease pathology.

  17. SLIDE, the Protein Interacting Domain of Imitation Switch Remodelers, Binds DDT-Domain Proteins of Different Subfamilies in Chromatin Remodeling Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqiang Dong; Zheng Gao; Shujing Liu; Guang Li; Zhongnan Yang; Hai Huang; Lin Xu

    2013-01-01

    The Imitation Switch (ISWI) type adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling factors are conserved proteins in eukaryotes, and some of them are known to form stable remodeling complexes with members from a family of proteins, termed DDT-domain proteins. Although it is well documented that ISWIs play important roles in different biological processes in many eukaryotic species, the molecular basis for protein interactions in ISWI complexes has not been fully addressed. Here, we report the identification of interaction domains for both ISWI and DDT-domain proteins. By analyzing CHROMATIN REMODELING11 (CHR11) and RINGLET1 (RLT1), an Arabidopsis thaliana ISWI (AtISWI) and AtDDT-domain protein, respectively, we show that the SLIDE domain of CHR11 and the DDT domain together with an adjacent sequence of RLT1 are responsible for their binding. The Arabidopsis genome contains at least 12 genes that encode DDT-domain proteins, which could be grouped into five subfamilies based on the sequence similarity. The SLIDE domain of AtISWI is able to bind members from different AtDDT subfamilies. Moreover, a human ISWI protein SNF2H is capable of binding AtDDT-domain proteins through its SLIDE domain, suggesting that binding to DDT-domain proteins is a conserved biochemical function for the SLIDE domain of ISWIs in eukaryotes.

  18. Open reading frame 2 of porcine circovirus type 2 encodes a major capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawagitgul, P; Morozov, I; Bolin, S R; Harms, P A; Sorden, S D; Paul, P S

    2000-09-01

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), a single-stranded DNA virus associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome of swine, has two potential open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, greater than 600 nucleotides in length. ORF1 is predicted to encode a replication-associated protein (Rep) essential for replication of viral DNA, while ORF2 contains a conserved basic amino acid sequence at the N terminus resembling that of the major structural protein of chicken anaemia virus. Thus far, the structural protein(s) of PCV2 have not been identified. In this study, a viral structural protein of 30 kDa was identified in purified PCV2 particles. ORF2 of PCV2 was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector and the gene product was expressed in insect cells. The expressed ORF2 gene product had a molecular mass of 30 kDa, similar to that detected in purified virus particles. The recombinant ORF2 protein self-assembled to form capsid-like particles when viewed by electron microscopy. Antibodies against the ORF2 protein were detected in samples of sera obtained from pigs as early as 3 weeks after experimental infection with PCV2. These results show that the major structural protein of PCV2 is encoded by ORF2 and has a molecular mass of 30 kDa. PMID:10950986

  19. Newly identified RNAs of raspberry leaf blotch virus encoding a related group of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuwen; McGavin, Wendy; Cock, Peter J A; Schnettler, Esther; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Members of the genus Emaravirus, including Raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), are enveloped plant viruses with segmented genomes of negative-strand RNA, although the complete genome complement for any of these viruses is not yet clear. Currently, wheat mosaic virus has the largest emaravirus genome comprising eight RNAs. Previously, we identified five genomic RNAs for RLBV; here, we identify a further three RNAs (RNA6-8). RNA6-8 encode proteins that have clear homologies to one another, but not to any other emaravirus proteins. The proteins self-interacted in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments, and the P8 protein interacted with the virus nucleocapsid protein (P3) using BiFC. Expression of two of the proteins (P6 and P7) using potato virus X led to an increase in virus titre and symptom severity, suggesting that these proteins may play a role in RLBV pathogenicity; however, using two different tests, RNA silencing suppression activity was not detected for any of the RLBV proteins encoded by RNA2-8. PMID:26358478

  20. Newly identified RNAs of raspberry leaf blotch virus encoding a related group of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuwen; McGavin, Wendy; Cock, Peter J A; Schnettler, Esther; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    Members of the genus Emaravirus, including Raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), are enveloped plant viruses with segmented genomes of negative-strand RNA, although the complete genome complement for any of these viruses is not yet clear. Currently, wheat mosaic virus has the largest emaravirus genome comprising eight RNAs. Previously, we identified five genomic RNAs for RLBV; here, we identify a further three RNAs (RNA6-8). RNA6-8 encode proteins that have clear homologies to one another, but not to any other emaravirus proteins. The proteins self-interacted in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments, and the P8 protein interacted with the virus nucleocapsid protein (P3) using BiFC. Expression of two of the proteins (P6 and P7) using potato virus X led to an increase in virus titre and symptom severity, suggesting that these proteins may play a role in RLBV pathogenicity; however, using two different tests, RNA silencing suppression activity was not detected for any of the RLBV proteins encoded by RNA2-8.

  1. Conserved Cysteine Residue in the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Confers Redox Regulation of the DNA- Binding Activity in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Alison A.; Klausner, Richard D.; Howley, Peter M.

    1992-08-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 open reading frame encodes three proteins involved in viral DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. These polypeptides share a carboxyl-terminal domain with a specific DNA-binding activity; through this domain the E2 polypeptides form dimers. In this study, we demonstrate the inhibition of E2 DNA binding in vitro by reagents that oxidize or otherwise chemically modify the free sulfydryl groups of reactive cysteine residues. However, these reagents had no effect on DNA-binding activity when the E2 polypeptide was first bound to DNA, suggesting that the free sulfydryl group(s) may be protected by DNA binding. Sensitivity to sulfydryl modification was mapped to a cysteine residue at position 340 in the E2 DNA-binding domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. Replacement of this residue with other amino acids abrogated the sensitivity to oxidation-reduction changes but did not affect the DNA-binding property of the E2 protein. These results suggest that papillomavirus DNA replication and transcriptional regulation could be modulated through the E2 proteins by changes in the intracellular redox environment. Furthermore, a motif consisting of a reactive cysteine residue carboxyl-terminal to a lysine residue in a basic region of the DNA-binding domain is a feature common to a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins that, like E2, are subject to redox regulation. Thus, posttranslational regulation of the activity of these proteins by the intracellular redox environment may be a general phenomenon.

  2. Genetically Encoded FRET-Sensor Based on Terbium Chelate and Red Fluorescent Protein for Detection of Caspase-3 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Goryashchenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the genetically encoded caspase-3 FRET-sensor based on the terbium-binding peptide, cleavable linker with caspase-3 recognition site, and red fluorescent protein TagRFP. The engineered construction performs two induction-resonance energy transfer processes: from tryptophan of the terbium-binding peptide to Tb3+ and from sensitized Tb3+ to acceptor—the chromophore of TagRFP. Long-lived terbium-sensitized emission (microseconds, pulse excitation source, and time-resolved detection were utilized to eliminate directly excited TagRFP fluorescence and background cellular autofluorescence, which lasts a fraction of nanosecond, and thus to improve sensitivity of analyses. Furthermore the technique facilitates selective detection of fluorescence, induced by uncleaved acceptor emission. For the first time it was shown that fluorescence resonance energy transfer between sensitized terbium and TagRFP in the engineered construction can be studied via detection of microsecond TagRFP fluorescence intensities. The lifetime and distance distribution between donor and acceptor were calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. Using this data, quantum yield of terbium ions with binding peptide was estimated.

  3. Use of native gels to measure protein binding to SSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jin; Mikawa, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    We describe a procedure to detect protein binding to SSB by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. As an example, we show the interaction of Thermus thermophilus (Tth) SSB with its cognate RecO protein. The interaction is detected as decay of the band corresponding to SSB by addition of RecO. We also demonstrate analysis of the RecO-RecR interaction as another example of this method. PMID:22976186

  4. Insights into the mechanism of DNA recognition by the methylated LINE binding protein EhMLBP of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Tal; Siman-Tov, Rama; Ankri, Serge

    2009-08-01

    EhMLBP is an essential Entamoeba histolytica protein that binds preferentially to methylated long interspersed nuclear elements and rDNA. In an effort to identify more EhMLBP DNA substrates, we developed an affinity-based technique in which the C-terminal DNA binding domain of EhMLBP (GST-CterEhMLBP) was used as the ligand. Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequences that were isolated by this affinity method revealed the presence of a 29-nucleotide consensus motif that includes a stretch of ten adenines. Gel retardation analysis showed that EhMLBP binds to the consensus motif with a preference for its methylated form. Four DNA sequences, namely those that encoded either dihydrouridine synthetase, RAP GTPase activating protein, serine/threonine protein kinase or leucine-rich repeat containing protein (LRPP) were then selected for further analysis. In vivo binding of EhMLBP to these genes was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The presence of methylated cytosines was detected in DNA encoding LRPP and to a lower extent in the other genes. EhMLBP binds preferentially to the methylated forms of these DNA targets. The ability of the consensus motif to compete with EhMLBP binding to its DNA substrates indicates that the adenine stretch is involved in the mechanism of DNA recognition. The results of this investigation extend our existing knowledge on the number of DNA sequences that are recognized by EhMLBP and reinforce the notion that this protein is an innate methylated DNA binding protein in E. histolytica.

  5. The canine papillomavirus and gamma HPV E7 proteins use an alternative domain to bind and destabilize the retinoblastoma protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Wang

    Full Text Available The high-risk HPV E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize primary human cervical cells and the E7 protein can independently transform fibroblasts in vitro, primarily due to its ability to associate with and degrade the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, pRb. The binding of E7 to pRb is mediated by a conserved Leu-X-Cys-X-Glu (LXCXE motif in the conserved region 2 (CR2 of E7 and this domain is both necessary and sufficient for E7/pRb association. In the current study, we report that the E7 protein of the malignancy-associated canine papillomavirus type 2 encodes an E7 protein that has serine substituted for cysteine in the LXCXE motif. In HPV, this substitution in E7 abrogates pRb binding and degradation. However, despite variation at this critical site, the canine papillomavirus E7 protein still bound and degraded pRb. Even complete deletion of the LXSXE domain of canine E7 failed to interfere with binding to pRb in vitro and in vivo. Rather, the dominant binding site for pRb mapped to the C-terminal domain of canine E7. Finally, while the CR1 and CR2 domains of HPV E7 are sufficient for degradation of pRb, the C-terminal region of canine E7 was also required for pRb degradation. Screening of HPV genome sequences revealed that the LXSXE motif of the canine E7 protein was also present in the gamma HPVs and we demonstrate that the gamma HPV-4 E7 protein also binds pRb in a similar way. It appears, therefore, that the type 2 canine PV and gamma-type HPVs not only share similar properties with respect to tissue specificity and association with immunosuppression, but also the mechanism by which their E7 proteins interact with pRb.

  6. Chimeric Plant Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Gene with a Neural Visinin-Like Calcium-Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shameekumar; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium, a universal second messenger, regulates diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. Ca-2(+) and Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphorylation play a pivotal role in amplifying and diversifying the action of Ca-2(+)- mediated signals. A chimeric Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) gene with a visinin-like Ca-2(+)- binding domain was cloned and characterized from lily. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 520 amino acids. The predicted structure of CCaMK contains a catalytic domain followed by two regulatory domains, a calmodulin-binding domain and a visinin-like Ca-2(+)-binding domain. The amino-terminal region of CCaMK contains all 11 conserved subdomains characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinases. The calmodulin-binding region of CCaMK has high homology (79%) to alpha subunit of mammalian Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. The calmodulin-binding region is fused to a neural visinin-like domain that contains three Ca-2(+)-binding EF-hand motifs and a biotin-binding site. The Escherichia coli-expressed protein (approx. 56 kDa) binds calmodulin in a Ca-2(+)-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ca-45-binding assays revealed that CCaMK directly binds Ca-2(+). The CCaMK gene is preferentially expressed in developing anthers. Southern blot analysis revealed that CCaMK is encoded by a single gene. The structural features of the gene suggest that it has multiple regulatory controls and could play a unique role in Ca-2(+) signaling in plants.

  7. The saci_2123 gene of the hyperthermoacidophile Sulfolobus acidocaldarius encodes an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Nuan; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters are capable of secreting structurally and functionally unrelated toxic compounds from the cell. Among this group are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These membrane proteins are typically arranged as either hetero- or homo-dimers of ABC half-transporte

  8. DNA-Binding Proteins Regulating pIP501 Transfer and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently detected in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR. RepR is similar to RepE of related streptococcal plasmid pAMβ1, which has been shown to possess RNase activity cleaving free RNA molecules in close proximity of the initiation site of DNA synthesis. Replication of pIP501 is controlled by the concerted action of a small protein, CopR, and an antisense RNA, RNAIII. CopR has a dual function: It acts as transcriptional repressor at the repR promoter and, in addition, prevents convergent transcription of RNAIII and repR mRNA (RNAII), which indirectly increases RNAIII synthesis. CopR binds asymmetrically as a dimer at two consecutive binding sites upstream of and overlapping with the repR promoter. RNAIII induces transcriptional attenuation within the leader region of the repR mRNA (RNAII). Deletion of either control component causes a 10- to 20-fold increase of plasmid copy number, while simultaneous deletions have no additional effect. Conjugative transfer of pIP501 depends on a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded in a single operon. Its transfer host-range is considerably broad, as it has been transferred to virtually all Gram-positive bacteria including Streptomyces and even the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Expression of the 15 genes encoding the T4SS is tightly controlled by binding of the relaxase TraA, the transfer initiator protein, to the operon promoter overlapping with the origin of transfer (oriT). The T4SS operon encodes the DNA-binding proteins TraJ (VirD4-like coupling

  9. DNA-Binding Proteins Regulating pIP501 Transfer and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently detected in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR. RepR is similar to RepE of related streptococcal plasmid pAMβ1, which has been shown to possess RNase activity cleaving free RNA molecules in close proximity of the initiation site of DNA synthesis. Replication of pIP501 is controlled by the concerted action of a small protein, CopR, and an antisense RNA, RNAIII. CopR has a dual function: It acts as transcriptional repressor at the repR promoter and, in addition, prevents convergent transcription of RNAIII and repR mRNA (RNAII), which indirectly increases RNAIII synthesis. CopR binds asymmetrically as a dimer at two consecutive binding sites upstream of and overlapping with the repR promoter. RNAIII induces transcriptional attenuation within the leader region of the repR mRNA (RNAII). Deletion of either control component causes a 10- to 20-fold increase of plasmid copy number, while simultaneous deletions have no additional effect. Conjugative transfer of pIP501 depends on a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded in a single operon. Its transfer host-range is considerably broad, as it has been transferred to virtually all Gram-positive bacteria including Streptomyces and even the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Expression of the 15 genes encoding the T4SS is tightly controlled by binding of the relaxase TraA, the transfer initiator protein, to the operon promoter overlapping with the origin of transfer (oriT). The T4SS operon encodes the DNA-binding proteins TraJ (VirD4-like coupling

  10. Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile hormone-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Met mutant of Drosophila melanogaster is highly resistant to juvenile hormone III (JH III) or its chemical analog, methoprene, an insect growth regulator. Five major mechanisms of insecticide resistance were examined in Met and susceptible Met+ flies. These two strains showed only minor differences when penetration, excretion, tissue sequestration, or metabolism of [3H]JH III was measured. In contrast, when we examined JH III binding by a cytosolic binding protein from a JH target tissue, Met strains had a 10-fold lower binding affinity than did Met+ strains. Studies using deficiency-bearing chromosomes provide strong evidence that the Met locus controls the binding protein characteristics and may encode the protein. These studies indicate that resistance in Met flies results from reduced binding affinity of a cytosolic binding protein for JH III

  11. Characterization of the comparative drug binding to intra- (liver fatty acid binding protein) and extra- (human serum albumin) cellular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Andrew; Hallifax, David; Nussio, Matthew R; Shapter, Joseph G; Mackenzie, Peter I; Brian Houston, J; Knights, Kathleen M; Miners, John O

    2015-01-01

    1. This study compared the extent, affinity, and kinetics of drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) using ultrafiltration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). 2. Binding of basic and neutral drugs to both HSA and LFABP was typically negligible. Binding of acidic drugs ranged from minor (fu > 0.8) to extensive (fu LFABP was observed for the acidic drugs torsemide and sulfinpyrazone, and for β-estradiol (a polar, neutral compound). 3. The extent of binding of acidic drugs to HSA was up to 40% greater than binding to LFABP. SPR experiments demonstrated comparable kinetics and affinity for the binding of representative acidic drugs (naproxen, sulfinpyrazone, and torsemide) to HSA and LFABP. 4. Simulations based on in vitro kinetic constants derived from SPR experiments and a rapid equilibrium model were undertaken to examine the impact of binding characteristics on compartmental drug distribution. Simulations provided mechanistic confirmation that equilibration of intracellular unbound drug with the extracellular unbound drug is attained rapidly in the absence of active transport mechanisms for drugs bound moderately or extensively to HSA and LFABP. PMID:25801059

  12. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Measurements of Metal Ions Binding to Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Colette F; Carpenter, Margaret C; Croteau, Molly L; Wilcox, Dean E

    2016-01-01

    ITC measurements involving metal ions are susceptible to a number of competing reactions (oxidation, precipitation, and hydrolysis) and coupled reactions involving the buffer and protons. Stabilization and delivery of the metal ion as a well-defined and well-characterized complex with the buffer, or a specific ligand, can suppress undesired solution chemistry and, depending on the stability of the metal complex, allow accurate measurements of higher affinity protein-binding sites. This requires, however, knowledge of the thermodynamics of formation of the metal complex and accounting for its contribution to the experimentally measured values (KITC and ΔHITC) through a post hoc analysis that provides the condition-independent binding thermodynamics (K, ΔG(o), ΔH, ΔS, and ΔCP). This analysis also quantifies the number of protons that are displaced when the metal ion binds to the protein.

  13. Flexibility of PCNA-protein interface accommodates differential binding partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Pedley

    Full Text Available The expanding roles of PCNA in functional assembly of DNA replication and repair complexes motivated investigation of the structural and dynamic properties guiding specificity of PCNA-protein interactions. A series of biochemical and computational analyses were combined to evaluate the PIP Box recognition features impacting complex formation. The results indicate subtle differences in topological and molecular descriptors distinguishing both affinity and stoichiometry of binding among PCNA-peptide complexes through cooperative effects. These features were validated using peptide mimics of p85α and Akt, two previously unreported PCNA binding partners. This study characterizes for the first time a reverse PIP Box interaction with PCNA. Small molecule ligand binding at the PIP Box interaction site confirmed the adaptive nature of the protein in dictating overall shape and implicates allosterism in transmitting biological effects.

  14. Calcium-binding ability of soy protein hydrolysates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lan Bao; Mei Song; Jing Zhang; Yang Chen; Shun Tang Guo

    2007-01-01

    This present study investigated the ability of various soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) in binding calcium. It was demonstrated that the amount of Ca-bound depended greatly on the SPHs obtained using different proteases, which included: neutrase,flavourzyme, protease M and pepsin. The maximum level of Ca-bound (66.9 mg/g) occurred when protease M was used to hydrolyze soy protein. Peptide fragments exhibiting high Ca-binding capacity had molecular weights of either 14.4 or 8-9 kDa. The level of Ca-bound increased linearly with the increment of carboxyl content in SPHs, and further deamidation on SPHs from protease M improved Ca-binding of the hydrolysate.

  15. Identification and regulation of expression of a gene encoding a filamentous hemagglutinin-related protein in Bordetella holmesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross Roy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella holmesii is a human pathogen closely related to B. pertussis, the etiological agent of whooping cough. It is able to cause disease in immunocompromised patients, but also whooping cough-like symptoms in otherwise healthy individuals. However, virtually nothing was known so far about the underlying virulence mechanisms and previous attempts to identify virulence factors related to those of B. pertussis were not successful. Results By use of a PCR approach we were able to identify a B. holmesii gene encoding a protein with significant sequence similarities to the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA of B. avium and to a lesser extent to the FHA proteins of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica. For these human and animal pathogens FHA is a crucial virulence factor required for successful colonization of the host. Interestingly, the B. holmesii protein shows a relatively high overall sequence similarity with the B. avium protein, while sequence conservation with the FHA proteins of the human and mammalian pathogens is quite limited and is most prominent in signal sequences required for their export to the cell surface. In the other Bordetellae expression of the fhaB gene encoding FHA was shown to be regulated by the master regulator of virulence, the BvgAS two-component system. Recently, we identified orthologs of BvgAS in B. holmesii, and here we show that this system also contributes to regulation of fhaB expression in B. holmesii. Accordingly, the purified BvgA response regulator of B. holmesii was shown to bind specifically in the upstream region of the fhaB promoter in vitro in a manner similar to that previously described for the BvgA protein of B. pertussis. Moreover, by deletion analysis of the fhaB promoter region we show that the BvgA binding sites are relevant for in vivo transcription from this promoter in B. holmesii. Conclusion The data reported here show that B. holmesii is endowed with a

  16. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. Capacitance-modulated transistor detects odorant binding protein chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Tuccori, Elena; Magliulo, Maria; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Palazzo, Gerardo; Persaud, Krishna; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral events in olfaction involve odorant binding proteins (OBPs) whose role in the recognition of different volatile chemicals is yet unclear. Here we report on the sensitive and quantitative measurement of the weak interactions associated with neutral enantiomers differentially binding to OBPs immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer to the gate of an organic bio-electronic transistor. The transduction is remarkably sensitive as the transistor output current is governed by the small capacitance of the protein layer undergoing minute changes as the ligand-protein complex is formed. Accurate determination of the free-energy balances and of the capacitance changes associated with the binding process allows derivation of the free-energy components as well as of the occurrence of conformational events associated with OBP ligand binding. Capacitance-modulated transistors open a new pathway for the study of ultra-weak molecular interactions in surface-bound protein-ligand complexes through an approach that combines bio-chemical and electronic thermodynamic parameters.

  18. RNA-protein binding kinetics in an automated microfluidic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, William K; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Phillips, Rob; Williamson, James R

    2009-11-01

    Microfluidic chips can automate biochemical assays on the nanoliter scale, which is of considerable utility for RNA-protein binding reactions that would otherwise require large quantities of proteins. Unfortunately, complex reactions involving multiple reactants cannot be prepared in current microfluidic mixer designs, nor is investigation of long-time scale reactions possible. Here, a microfluidic 'Riboreactor' has been designed and constructed to facilitate the study of kinetics of RNA-protein complex formation over long time scales. With computer automation, the reactor can prepare binding reactions from any combination of eight reagents, and is optimized to monitor long reaction times. By integrating a two-photon microscope into the microfluidic platform, 5-nl reactions can be observed for longer than 1000 s with single-molecule sensitivity and negligible photobleaching. Using the Riboreactor, RNA-protein binding reactions with a fragment of the bacterial 30S ribosome were prepared in a fully automated fashion and binding rates were consistent with rates obtained from conventional assays. The microfluidic chip successfully combines automation, low sample consumption, ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection and a high degree of reproducibility. The chip should be able to probe complex reaction networks describing the assembly of large multicomponent RNPs such as the ribosome.

  19. Crystal Structure of Menin Reveals Binding Site for Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Marcelo J.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Reddy, Gireesh; Grembecka, Jolanta; Cierpicki, Tomasz (Michigan); (UV)

    2014-10-02

    Menin is a tumor suppressor protein that is encoded by the MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia 1) gene and controls cell growth in endocrine tissues. Importantly, menin also serves as a critical oncogenic cofactor of MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) fusion proteins in acute leukemias. Direct association of menin with MLL fusion proteins is required for MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemogenesis in vivo, and this interaction has been validated as a new potential therapeutic target for development of novel anti-leukemia agents. Here, we report the first crystal structure of menin homolog from Nematostella vectensis. Due to a very high sequence similarity, the Nematostella menin is a close homolog of human menin, and these two proteins likely have very similar structures. Menin is predominantly an {alpha}-helical protein with the protein core comprising three tetratricopeptide motifs that are flanked by two {alpha}-helical bundles and covered by a {beta}-sheet motif. A very interesting feature of menin structure is the presence of a large central cavity that is highly conserved between Nematostella and human menin. By employing site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that this cavity constitutes the binding site for MLL. Our data provide a structural basis for understanding the role of menin as a tumor suppressor protein and as an oncogenic co-factor of MLL fusion proteins. It also provides essential structural information for development of inhibitors targeting the menin-MLL interaction as a novel therapeutic strategy in MLL-related leukemias.

  20. Absence of repellents in Ustilago maydis induces genes encoding small secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teertstra, Wieke R; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Wösten, Han A B

    2011-08-01

    The rep1 gene of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis encodes a pre-pro-protein that is processed in the secretory pathway into 11 peptides. These so-called repellents form amphipathic amyloid fibrils at the surface of aerial hyphae. A SG200 strain in which the rep1 gene is inactivated (∆rep1 strain) is affected in aerial hyphae formation. We here assessed changes in global gene expression as a consequence of the inactivation of the rep1 gene. Microarray analysis revealed that only 31 genes in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain had a fold change in expression of ≥2. Twenty-two of these genes were up-regulated and half of them encode small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown functions. Seven of the SSP genes and two other genes that are over-expressed in the ∆rep1 SG200 strain encode proteins that can be classified as secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SCRPs). Interestingly, most of the SCRPs are predicted to form amyloids. The SCRP gene um00792 showed the highest up-regulation in the ∆rep1 strain. Using GFP as a reporter, it was shown that this gene is over-expressed in the layer of hyphae at the medium-air interface. Taken together, it is concluded that inactivation of rep1 hardly affects the expression profile of U. maydis, despite the fact that the mutant strain has a strong reduced ability to form aerial hyphae.

  1. The distribution of ligand-binding pockets around protein-protein interfaces suggests a general mechanism for pocket formation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Mu; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions are ubiquitous in a biological cell. Here, we report a comprehensive study of the distribution of protein-ligand interaction sites, namely ligand-binding pockets, around protein-protein interfaces where protein-protein interactions occur. We inspected a representative set of 1,611 representative protein-protein complexes and identified pockets with a potential for binding small molecule ligands. The majority of these pockets are within a 6 Å dis...

  2. Ha83, a Chitin Binding Domain Encoding Gene, Is Important to Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus Budded Virus Production and Occlusion Body Assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Xu, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Tong-Xian; Wang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Helicoerpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) ha83 is a late expressed gene that encodes a chitin binding protein. Chitin domain truncation studies revealed that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position probably played an important role in both chitin binding ability and protein transmission of Ha83. In order to study the function of ha83 in the HearNPV infection cycle, an ha83 knockout HearNPV (Ha83KO) was constructed via homologous recombination. Viral growth and viral DNA replication curves showed that fewer budded virions were produced in Ha83KO transfected cells, while viral DNA replication was increased. Electron microscopy revealed that fewer nucleocapsids were transmitted from virogenic stroma in the Ha83KO transfected cell nucleus, and the morphology of occlusion bodies was prominently larger and cube-shaped. Furthermore, DNA quantity in occlusion bodies of Ha83KO was significantly lower than the occlusion bodies of HaWT. The transcription analysis indicated that these changes may be due to the decreased expression level of viral structural associated genes, such as polyhedrin, p10, pif-2, or cg30 in Ha83KO infected cells. Above results demonstrated that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position in Ha83 might be the key amino acid, and Ha83 plays an important role in BVs production and OBs assembling. PMID:26057202

  3. Genome-wide identification and evolutionary analysis of nucleotide-binding site-encoding resistance genes in Lotus japonicus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H; Wang, P F; Li, T T; Xia, H; Zhao, S Z; Hou, L; Zhao, C Z

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site (NBS) disease resistance genes play a crucial role in plant defense responses against pathogens and insect pests. Many NBS-encoding genes have been detected in Lotus japonicus, an important forage crop in many parts of the world. However, most NBS genes identified so far in L. japonicus were only partial sequences. We identified 45 full-length NBS-encoding genes in the L. japonicus genome, and analyzed gene duplications, motifs, and the molecular phylogeny to further understand the NBS gene family. We found that gene duplication events rarely occur in L. japonicus NBS-encoding (LjNBS) genes. In addition, LjNBS genes were subjected to selection pressure, and codon usage bias was evident. We tested for purifying selection (specifically in the CC-NBS-LRR and TIR-NBS-LRR groups), and found strong purifying selection in the TIR-domain-containing sequences, indicating that the CC-NBS-LRR group is more likely to undergo expansion than the TIR-NBS-LRR group. Moreover, our results showed that both selection and mutation contributed to LjNBS codon usage bias, but mutational bias was the major influence on codon usage. PMID:26662396

  4. Sequence diversity in the A domain of Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speziale Pietro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA mediates adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to fibronectin, fibrinogen and elastin. We previously reported that S. aureus strain P1 encodes an FnBPA protein where the fibrinogen/elastin-binding domain (A domain is substantially divergent in amino acid sequence from the archetypal FnBPA of S. aureus NCTC8325, and that these variations created differences in antigenicity. In this study strains from multilocus sequence types (MLST that spanned the genetic diversity of S.aureus were examined to determine the extent of FnBPA A domain variation within the S. aureus population and its effect on ligand binding and immuno-crossreactivity. Results Seven different isotype forms (I – VII of the FnBPA A domain were identified which were between 66 to 76% identical in amino acid sequence in any pair-wise alignment. The fnbA allelic variants in strains of different multilocus sequence type were identified by DNA hybridization using probes specific for sequences encoding the highly divergent N3 sub-domain of different isotypes. Several isotypes were not restricted to specific clones or clonal complexes but were more widely distributed. It is highly likely that certain fnbA genes have been transferred horizontally. Residues lining the putative ligand-binding trench were conserved, which is consistent with the ability of each A domain isotype to bind immobilized fibrinogen and elastin by the dock-latch-lock mechanism. Variant amino acid residues were mapped on a three-dimensional model of the FnBPA A domain and were predicted to be surface-exposed. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant isotype I A domain bound that protein with a 4 – 7 fold higher apparent affinity compared to the A domains of isotypes II – VII, while some monoclonal antibodies generated against the isotype I A domain showed reduced or no binding to the other isotypes. Conclusion The FnBPA A domain occurs in at least 7

  5. Identification of glycosaminoglycan binding regions in the Plasmodium falciparum encoded placental sequestration ligand, VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Dahlbaeck, Madeleine;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes binding the placental receptor chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). This results in accumulation of parasites in the placenta with severe clinical consequences for the mother and her unborn child. Women become resistan...

  6. Modulation of CRISPR locus transcription by the repeat-binding protein Cbp1 in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Peng, Xu;

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR loci are essential components of the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria. They consist of long arrays of repeats separated by DNA spacers encoding guide RNAs (crRNA), which target foreign genetic elements. Cbp1 (CRISPR DNA repeat binding protein) binds specifically to the multiple...... direct repeats of CRISPR loci of members of the acidothermophilic, crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales. cbp1 gene deletion from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A produced a strong reduction in pre-crRNA yields from CRISPR loci but did not inhibit the foreign DNA targeting capacity of the CRISPR/Cas system....... Conversely, overexpression of Cbp1 in S. islandicus generated an increase in pre-crRNA yields while the level of reverse strand transcripts from CRISPR loci remained unchanged. It is proposed that Cbp1 modulates production of longer pre-crRNA transcripts from CRISPR loci. A possible mechanism...

  7. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features. PMID:26382005

  8. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  9. Engineering periplasmic ligand binding proteins as glucose nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance J. Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes affects over 100 million people worldwide. Better methods for monitoring blood glucose levels are needed for improving disease management. Several labs have previously made glucose nanosensors by modifying members of the periplasmic ligand binding protein superfamily. This minireview summarizes recent developments in constructing new versions of these proteins that are responsive within the physiological range of blood glucose levels, employ new reporter groups, and/or are more robust. These experiments are important steps in the development of novel proteins that have the characteristics needed for an implantable glucose nanosensor for diabetes management: specificity for glucose, rapid response, sensitivity within the physiological range of glucose concentrations, reproducibility, and robustness.

  10. Characterization of DNA-binding proteins from pea mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzack, F.A.; Dombrowski, S.; Brennicke, A.;

    1998-01-01

    unknown. Proteins binding to double-stranded oligonucleotides representing different parts of the pea (Pisum sativum) mitochondrial atp9 were analyzed by denaturation-renaturation chromatography and mobility-shift experiments. Two DNA-protein complexes were detected, which appeared to be sequence specific...... in competition experiments. Purification by hydroxyapatite, phosphocellulose, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography separated two polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 32 and 44 kD. Both proteins bound to conserved structures of the pea atp9 and the heterologous Oenothera berteriana atp...

  11. Predicting protein ligand binding motions with the conformation explorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Samuel C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the structure of proteins bound to known or potential ligands is crucial for biological understanding and drug design. Often the 3D structure of the protein is available in some conformation, but binding the ligand of interest may involve a large scale conformational change which is difficult to predict with existing methods. Results We describe how to generate ligand binding conformations of proteins that move by hinge bending, the largest class of motions. First, we predict the location of the hinge between domains. Second, we apply an Euler rotation to one of the domains about the hinge point. Third, we compute a short-time dynamical trajectory using Molecular Dynamics to equilibrate the protein and ligand and correct unnatural atomic positions. Fourth, we score the generated structures using a novel fitness function which favors closed or holo structures. By iterating the second through fourth steps we systematically minimize the fitness function, thus predicting the conformational change required for small ligand binding for five well studied proteins. Conclusions We demonstrate that the method in most cases successfully predicts the holo conformation given only an apo structure.

  12. Treponema pallidum receptor binding proteins interact with fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Baseman, J.B.; Alderete, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    Analysis of plasma proteins avidly bound to T. pallidum surfaces revealed the ability of T. pallidum to acquire numerous host macromolecules. No acquisition was evident by the avirulent spirochete, T. phagedenis biotype Reiter. Western blotting technology using hyperimmune antifibronectin serum as a probe revealed the ability of virulent treponemes to avidly bind fibronectin from a complex medium such as plasma. The specificity of the tiplike adherence of motile T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and to fibronectin on HEp-2 cells was reinforced by the observation that pretreatment of coverslips or cell monolayers with monospecific antiserum against fibronectin substantially reduced T. pallidum attachment. The stoichiometric binding of T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated coverslips and the inability of unlabeled or /sup 35/S-radiolabeled treponemes to interact with glass surfaces treated with other plasma proteins further established the specific nature of the interaction between virulent T. pallidum and fibronectin. The avid association between three outer envelope proteins of T. pallidum and fibronectin was also demonstrated. These treponemal surface proteins have been previously identified as putative receptor-binding proteins responsible for T. pallidum parasitism of host cells. The data suggest that surface fibronectin mediates tip-oriented attachment of T. pallidum to host cells via a receptor-ligand mechanism of recognition.

  13. Goodpasture Antigen-binding Protein (GPBP) Directs Myofibril Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revert-Ros, Francisco; López-Pascual, Ernesto; Granero-Moltó, Froilán; Macías, Jesús; Breyer, Richard; Zent, Roy; Hudson, Billy G.; Saadeddin, Anas; Revert, Fernando; Blasco, Raül; Navarro, Carmen; Burks, Deborah; Saus, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Goodpasture antigen-binding protein-1 (GPBP-1) is an exportable non-conventional Ser/Thr kinase that regulates glomerular basement membrane collagen organization. Here we provide evidence that GPBP-1 accumulates in the cytoplasm of differentiating mouse myoblasts prior to myosin synthesis. Myoblasts deficient in GPBP-1 display defective myofibril formation, whereas myofibrils assemble with enhanced efficiency in those overexpressing GPBP-1. We also show that GPBP-1 targets the previously unidentified GIP130 (GPBP-interacting protein of 130 kDa), which binds to myosin and promotes its myofibrillar assembly. This report reveals that GPBP-1 directs myofibril formation, an observation that expands its reported role in supramolecular organization of structural proteins to the intracellular compartment. PMID:21832087

  14. Thrombolamban, the 22-kDa platelet substrate of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, is immunologically homologous with the Ras family of GTP-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet inhibition by agents that increase intracellular levels of cAMP is associated with cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of specific intracellular proteins, including a membrane-associated 22-kDa microsomal protein called thrombolamban. In view of recent studies suggesting that platelets also contain 22-kDa GTP-binding proteins that are homologous with ras-encoded p21 proteins, the present work was undertaken to examine the possibility that thrombolamban and the Ras-like proteins were the same. Platelet microsomes were labeled with [γ-32P]ATP and the labeled proteins were examined by autoradiography of sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. On Western blots of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels, thrombolamban immunoreacted with M90, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the GTP-binding domain of Ras p21 proteins, but not with Y13-259, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes another domain and is specific for Ras proteins. Overlay experiments with unlabeled platelet microsomes demonstrated numerous low molecular weight proteins that bound [α-32P]GTP, although none could be identified as thrombolamban. Finally, thrombolamban was immunoprecipitated by M90. These studies show that thrombolamban is a low molecular weight protein that is immunologically related to the Ras family of GTP-binding proteins

  15. Genes encoding Cher-TPR fusion proteins are predominantly found in gene clusters encoding chemosensory pathways with alternative cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Martínez, Francisco; García-Fontana, Cristina; Rico-Jiménez, Miriam; Alfonso, Carlos; Krell, Tino

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory pathways correspond to major signal transduction mechanisms and can be classified into the functional families flagellum-mediated taxis, type four pili-mediated taxis or pathways with alternative cellular functions (ACF). CheR methyltransferases are core enzymes in all of these families. CheR proteins fused to tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains have been reported and we present an analysis of this uncharacterized family. We show that CheR-TPRs are widely distributed in GRAM-negative but almost absent from GRAM-positive bacteria. Most strains contain a single CheR-TPR and its abundance does not correlate with the number of chemoreceptors. The TPR domain fused to CheR is comparatively short and frequently composed of 2 repeats. The majority of CheR-TPR genes were found in gene clusters that harbor multidomain response regulators in which the REC domain is fused to different output domains like HK, GGDEF, EAL, HPT, AAA, PAS, GAF, additional REC, HTH, phosphatase or combinations thereof. The response regulator architectures coincide with those reported for the ACF family of pathways. Since the presence of multidomain response regulators is a distinctive feature of this pathway family, we conclude that CheR-TPR proteins form part of ACF type pathways. The diversity of response regulator output domains suggests that the ACF pathways form a superfamily which regroups many different regulatory mechanisms, in which all CheR-TPR proteins appear to participate. In the second part we characterize WspC of Pseudomonas putida, a representative example of CheR-TPR. The affinities of WspC-Pp for S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were comparable to those of prototypal CheR, indicating that WspC-Pp activity is in analogy to prototypal CheRs controlled by product feed-back inhibition. The removal of the TPR domain did not impact significantly on the binding constants and consequently not on the product feed-back inhibition. WspC-Pp was found to be

  16. Genes encoding Cher-TPR fusion proteins are predominantly found in gene clusters encoding chemosensory pathways with alternative cellular functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Muñoz-Martínez

    Full Text Available Chemosensory pathways correspond to major signal transduction mechanisms and can be classified into the functional families flagellum-mediated taxis, type four pili-mediated taxis or pathways with alternative cellular functions (ACF. CheR methyltransferases are core enzymes in all of these families. CheR proteins fused to tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domains have been reported and we present an analysis of this uncharacterized family. We show that CheR-TPRs are widely distributed in GRAM-negative but almost absent from GRAM-positive bacteria. Most strains contain a single CheR-TPR and its abundance does not correlate with the number of chemoreceptors. The TPR domain fused to CheR is comparatively short and frequently composed of 2 repeats. The majority of CheR-TPR genes were found in gene clusters that harbor multidomain response regulators in which the REC domain is fused to different output domains like HK, GGDEF, EAL, HPT, AAA, PAS, GAF, additional REC, HTH, phosphatase or combinations thereof. The response regulator architectures coincide with those reported for the ACF family of pathways. Since the presence of multidomain response regulators is a distinctive feature of this pathway family, we conclude that CheR-TPR proteins form part of ACF type pathways. The diversity of response regulator output domains suggests that the ACF pathways form a superfamily which regroups many different regulatory mechanisms, in which all CheR-TPR proteins appear to participate. In the second part we characterize WspC of Pseudomonas putida, a representative example of CheR-TPR. The affinities of WspC-Pp for S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were comparable to those of prototypal CheR, indicating that WspC-Pp activity is in analogy to prototypal CheRs controlled by product feed-back inhibition. The removal of the TPR domain did not impact significantly on the binding constants and consequently not on the product feed-back inhibition. WspC-Pp was

  17. Characterization of the retinoblastoma binding proteins RBP1 and RBP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattaey, A R; Helin, K; Dembski, M S;

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product, pRB, regulates cell proliferation by binding to and inhibiting the activity of key growth promoting proteins. Several cellular proteins have been shown to bind directly to pRB and the genes encoding a number of them have been isolated. The protein product of one...... of these genes is the transcription factor E2F. We have now isolated cDNA clones that contain the full-length coding sequence of two other proteins, RBP1 and RBP2, cloned originally by their interaction with pRB. The products of the RBP1 and RBP2 genes are ubiquitously expressed, large (200 kDa for RBP1 and 195...... kDa for RBP2) nuclear phosphoproteins with structural motifs that suggest a role in transcriptional regulation. In addition we have been able to identify complexes of pRB and RBP1 in vivo that are dissociated in the presence of purified human papillomavirus E7 protein....

  18. The binding of in vitro synthesized adenovirus DNA binding protein to single-stranded DNA is stimulated by zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.L.; Lee, F.M. van der; Sussenbach, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have synthesized wild type DNA binding protein (DBP) of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and several truncated forms of this protein by a combination of in vitro transcription and translation. The proteins obtained were tested for binding to a single-stranded DNA-cellulose column. It could be shown that f

  19. The QKI-6 and QKI-7 RNA binding proteins block proliferation and promote Schwann cell myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Larocque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The quaking viable (qk(v mice have uncompacted myelin in their central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS. The qk gene encodes 3 major alternatively spliced isoforms that contain unique sequence at their C-terminus dictating their cellular localization. QKI-5 is a nuclear isoform, whereas QKI-6 and QKI-7 are cytoplasmic isoforms. The qk(v mice harbor an enhancer/promoter deletion that prevents the expression of isoforms QKI-6 and QKI-7 in myelinating cells resulting in a dysmyelination phenotype. It was shown that QKI regulates the differentiation of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, however, little is known about the role of the QKI proteins, or RNA binding proteins in PNS myelination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To define the role of the QKI proteins in PNS myelination, we ectopically expressed QKI-6 and QKI-7 in primary rat Schwann cell/neuron from dorsal root ganglia cocultures. We show that the QKI isoforms blocked proliferation and promoted Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. In addition, these events were coordinated with elevated proteins levels of p27(KIP1 and myelin basic protein (MBP, markers of Schwann cell differentiation. QKI-6 and QKI-7 expressing co-cultures contained myelinated fibers that had directionality and contained significantly thicker myelin, as assessed by electron microscopy. Moreover, QKI-deficient Schwann cells had reduced levels of MBP, p27(KIP1 and Krox-20 mRNAs, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the QKI-6 and QKI-7 RNA binding proteins are positive regulators of PNS myelination and show that the QKI RNA binding proteins play a key role in Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

  20. EhNCABP166: a nucleocytoplasmic actin-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Parra, A D; Hernández-Cuevas, N A; Hernandez-Rivas, R; Vargas, M

    2010-07-01

    The actin cytoskeleton consists of multiple actin binding proteins (ABPs) that participate cooperatively in different cellular functions such as the maintenance of polarity and cell motility as well as the invasion of target cells and regulation of gene expression, among others. Due to the important role of ABPs in the pathogenesis of Entamoeba histolytica, the role of a new nucleocytoplasmic ABP from E. histolytica named EhNCABP166 was investigated. The EhNCABP166 gene encodes a protein with an estimated molecular weight of 166kDa. Structurally, this peptide is composed of two CH domains arranged in tandem at the N-terminus of the protein, followed by an alpha-helical region containing a number of different domains with a low level of homology. Two (Bin1/Amphiphysin/Rvs167) (BAR) domains, one GTPase-binding/formin 3 homology (GBD/FH3) domain, three Bcl2-associated athanogene (BAG) domains, one basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and one poly(A)-binding protein C-terminal (PABC) domain were also present. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the EhNCABP166 protein is transcribed and translated in trophozoites of E. histolytica. It was also shown that the CH domains are functional and bind to F-actin, whereas the BAR and GBD/FH3 domains interact in vitro and in vivo with different families of GTPases such as Rho and Ras, and with different phosphoinositides. These findings suggest that these domains have the conserved functional properties described in other eukaryotic systems. These domains also interacted with additional GTPase and lipid targets that have not been previously described. Finally, cellular studies showed that EhNCABP166 is localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus of E. histolytica and that it has an important role in phagocytosis, proliferation, and motility of E. histolytica.

  1. Development of an Assay for the Identification of Receptor Binding Proteins from Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David J.; Sacher, Jessica C.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a large number of new technologies have been developed that exploit the unique properties of bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs). These include their use in diagnostic applications that selectively capture bacteria and as therapeutics that reduce bacterial colonization in vivo. RBPs exhibit comparable, and in many cases superior, stability, receptor specificity, and affinity to other carbohydrate binding proteins such as antibodies or lectins. In order to further exploit the use of RBPs, we have developed an assay for discovering RBPs using phage genome expression libraries and protein screens to identify binding partners that recognize the host bacterium. When phage P22 was screened using this assay, Gp9 was the only RBP discovered, confirming previous predictions that this is the sole RBP encoded by this phage. We then examined the Escherichia coli O157:H7 typing phage 1 in our assay and identified a previously undescribed RBP. This general approach has the potential to assist in the identification of RBPs from other bacteriophages. PMID:26761028

  2. Development of an Assay for the Identification of Receptor Binding Proteins from Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Simpson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a large number of new technologies have been developed that exploit the unique properties of bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs. These include their use in diagnostic applications that selectively capture bacteria and as therapeutics that reduce bacterial colonization in vivo. RBPs exhibit comparable, and in many cases superior, stability, receptor specificity, and affinity to other carbohydrate binding proteins such as antibodies or lectins. In order to further exploit the use of RBPs, we have developed an assay for discovering RBPs using phage genome expression libraries and protein screens to identify binding partners that recognize the host bacterium. When phage P22 was screened using this assay, Gp9 was the only RBP discovered, confirming previous predictions that this is the sole RBP encoded by this phage. We then examined the Escherichia coli O157:H7 typing phage 1 in our assay and identified a previously undescribed RBP. This general approach has the potential to assist in the identification of RBPs from other bacteriophages.

  3. Development of an Assay for the Identification of Receptor Binding Proteins from Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David J; Sacher, Jessica C; Szymanski, Christine M

    2016-01-11

    Recently, a large number of new technologies have been developed that exploit the unique properties of bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs). These include their use in diagnostic applications that selectively capture bacteria and as therapeutics that reduce bacterial colonization in vivo. RBPs exhibit comparable, and in many cases superior, stability, receptor specificity, and affinity to other carbohydrate binding proteins such as antibodies or lectins. In order to further exploit the use of RBPs, we have developed an assay for discovering RBPs using phage genome expression libraries and protein screens to identify binding partners that recognize the host bacterium. When phage P22 was screened using this assay, Gp9 was the only RBP discovered, confirming previous predictions that this is the sole RBP encoded by this phage. We then examined the Escherichia coli O157:H7 typing phage 1 in our assay and identified a previously undescribed RBP. This general approach has the potential to assist in the identification of RBPs from other bacteriophages.

  4. Characterization of flavonoid-protein interactions using fluorescence spectroscopy: Binding of pelargonidin to dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; Campos-Terán, José; Hernández-Arana, Andrés; McClements, David Julian

    2016-12-15

    In this study, the interaction between the flavonoid pelargonidin and dairy proteins: β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), whey protein (WPI), and caseinate (CAS) was investigated. Fluorescence experiments demonstrated that pelargonidin quenched milk proteins fluorescence strongly. However, the protein secondary structure was not significantly affected by pelargonidin, as judged from far-UV circular dichroism. Analysis of fluorescence data indicated that pelargonidin-induced quenching does not arise from a dynamical mechanism, but instead is due to protein-ligand binding. Therefore, quenching data were analyzed using the model of independent binding sites. Both β-LG and CAS, but not WPI, showed hyperbolic binding isotherms indicating that these proteins firmly bound pelargonidin at both pH 7.0 and 3.0 (binding constants ca. 1.0×10(5) at 25.0°C). To investigate the underlying thermodynamics, binding constants were determined at 25.0, 35.0, and 45.0°C. These results pointed to binding processes that depend on the structural conformation of the milk proteins.

  5. Characterization of flavonoid-protein interactions using fluorescence spectroscopy: Binding of pelargonidin to dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Maya, Izlia J; Campos-Terán, José; Hernández-Arana, Andrés; McClements, David Julian

    2016-12-15

    In this study, the interaction between the flavonoid pelargonidin and dairy proteins: β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), whey protein (WPI), and caseinate (CAS) was investigated. Fluorescence experiments demonstrated that pelargonidin quenched milk proteins fluorescence strongly. However, the protein secondary structure was not significantly affected by pelargonidin, as judged from far-UV circular dichroism. Analysis of fluorescence data indicated that pelargonidin-induced quenching does not arise from a dynamical mechanism, but instead is due to protein-ligand binding. Therefore, quenching data were analyzed using the model of independent binding sites. Both β-LG and CAS, but not WPI, showed hyperbolic binding isotherms indicating that these proteins firmly bound pelargonidin at both pH 7.0 and 3.0 (binding constants ca. 1.0×10(5) at 25.0°C). To investigate the underlying thermodynamics, binding constants were determined at 25.0, 35.0, and 45.0°C. These results pointed to binding processes that depend on the structural conformation of the milk proteins. PMID:27451201

  6. Streptococcal IgA-binding proteins bind in the Calpha 2-Calpha 3 interdomain region and inhibit binding of IgA to human CD89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleass, R J; Areschoug, T; Lindahl, G; Woof, J M

    2001-03-16

    Certain pathogenic bacteria express surface proteins that bind to the Fc part of human IgA or IgG. These bacterial proteins are important as immunochemical tools and model systems, but their biological function is still unclear. Here, we describe studies of three streptococcal proteins that bind IgA: the Sir22 and Arp4 proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes and the unrelated beta protein of group B streptococcus. Analysis of IgA domain swap and point mutants indicated that two loops at the Calpha2/Calpha3 domain interface are critical for binding of the streptococcal proteins. This region is also used in binding the human IgA receptor CD89, an important mediator of IgA effector function. In agreement with this finding, the three IgA-binding proteins and a 50-residue IgA-binding peptide derived from Sir22 blocked the ability of IgA to bind CD89. Further, the Arp4 protein inhibited the ability of IgA to trigger a neutrophil respiratory burst via CD89. Thus, we have identified residues on IgA-Fc that play a key role in binding of different streptococcal IgA-binding proteins, and we have identified a mechanism by which a bacterial IgA-binding protein may interfere with IgA effector function. PMID:11096107

  7. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Sun, Xiuqin; Zhang, Jinxing; Zan, Jindong

    2008-02-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned. It was not interrupted by an intron. This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream, indicating that its transcription may be intensive, and should have an important function. It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested, demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene. Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  8. The evolution of genes encoding for green fluorescent proteins: insights from cephalochordates (amphioxus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Xing Yue; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was originally found in cnidarians, and later in copepods and cephalochordates (amphioxus) (Branchiostoma spp). Here, we looked for GFP-encoding genes in Asymmetron, an early-diverged cephalochordate lineage, and found two such genes closely related to some of the Branchiostoma GFPs. Dim fluorescence was found throughout the body in adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, and, as in Branchiostoma floridae, was especially intense in the ripe ovaries. Spectra of the fluo...

  9. Phylogenetic Analysis of Homologous Proteins Encoded by UL2 and UL23 genes of Herpesviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-ding LIU; Wen-juan WU; Min HONG; Hai-jing SHI; Shao-hui MA; Jing-jing WANG; Hong-ling ZHAO; Yun LIAO; Qi-han LI

    2007-01-01

    The proteins encoded by the Herpesviridae β-gene play a critical role in the replication stage of the virus. In this paper, phylogenetic analyses provided evidence that someβ-gene products, such as UL2 and UL23 from HSV1, have their homologous genes in its family, and also exist in prokaryotic organisms, indicating that these viruses appear to have been assembled over evolutionary time by numerous independent events of horizontal gene transfer.

  10. Polyamine binding to proteins in oat and Petunia protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Y.; Applewhite, P. B.; Galston, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work (A Apelbaum et al. [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 996-998) has demonstrated binding of labeled spermidine (Spd) to a developmentally regulated 18 kilodalton protein in tobacco tissue cultures derived from thin surface layer explants. To assess the general importance of such Spd-protein complexes, we attempted bulk isolation from protoplasts of Petunia and oat (Avena sativa). In Petunia, as in tobacco, fed radioactive Spd is bound to protein, but in oat, Spd is first converted to 1,3,-diaminopropane (DAP), probably by polyamine oxidase action. In oat, binding of DAP to protein depends on age of donor leaf and conditions of illumination and temperature, and the extraction of the DAP-protein complex depends upon buffer and pH. The yield of the DAP-protein complex was maximized by extraction of frozen-thawed protoplasts with a pH 8.8 carbonate buffer containing SDS. Its molecular size, based on Sephacryl column fractionation of ammonium sulfate precipitated material, exceeded 45 kilodaltons. Bound Spd or DAP can be released from their complexes by the action of Pronase, but not DNAse, RNAse, or strong salt solutions, indicating covalent attachment to protein.

  11. Dissecting protein function: an efficient protocol for identifying separation-of-function mutations that encode structurally stable proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Johnathan W; Rao, Timsi; Mandell, Edward K; Wuttke, Deborah S; Lundblad, Victoria

    2013-03-01

    Mutations that confer the loss of a single biochemical property (separation-of-function mutations) can often uncover a previously unknown role for a protein in a particular biological process. However, most mutations are identified based on loss-of-function phenotypes, which cannot differentiate between separation-of-function alleles vs. mutations that encode unstable/unfolded proteins. An alternative approach is to use overexpression dominant-negative (ODN) phenotypes to identify mutant proteins that disrupt function in an otherwise wild-type strain when overexpressed. This is based on the assumption that such mutant proteins retain an overall structure that is comparable to that of the wild-type protein and are able to compete with the endogenous protein (Herskowitz 1987). To test this, the in vivo phenotypes of mutations in the Est3 telomerase subunit from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared with the in vitro secondary structure of these mutant proteins as analyzed by circular-dichroism spectroscopy, which demonstrates that ODN is a more sensitive assessment of protein stability than the commonly used method of monitoring protein levels from extracts. Reverse mutagenesis of EST3, which targeted different categories of amino acids, also showed that mutating highly conserved charged residues to the oppositely charged amino acid had an increased likelihood of generating a severely defective est3(-) mutation, which nevertheless encoded a structurally stable protein. These results suggest that charge-swap mutagenesis directed at a limited subset of highly conserved charged residues, combined with ODN screening to eliminate partially unfolded proteins, may provide a widely applicable and efficient strategy for generating separation-of-function mutations.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins: a structural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briony eForbes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6 bind insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. These binding proteins maintain IGFs in the circulation and direct them to target tissues, where they promote cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival via the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R. IGFBPs also interact with many other molecules, which not only influence their modulation of IGF action but also mediate IGF-independent activities that influence processes such as cell migration and apoptosis by influencing gene transcription.IGFBPs-1 to -6 are structurally similar proteins consisting of three distinct domains, N-terminal, Linker and C-terminal. There have been major advances in our understanding of IGFBP structure in the last decade and a half. While there is still no structure of an intact IGFBP to date, several structures of individual N- and C-domains have been solved. The structure of a complex of N-BP-4:IGF-I:C-BP-4 has also been solved, providing a detailed picture of the structural features of the IGF binding site and the mechanism of binding. Structural studies have also identified features important for interaction with extracellular matrix components and integrins. This review summarises structural studies reported so far and highlights features important for binding not only IGF but also other partners. It also highlights future directions in which structural studies will add to our knowledge of the role played by the IGFBP family in normal growth and development, as well as in disease.

  13. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    over the nucleoid. ParB ribbon-helix-helix dimers bind cooperatively to direct repeats in parC1 and parC2. Using four different assays we obtain solid evidence that ParB can pair parC1- and parC2-encoding DNA fragments in vitro. Convincingly, electron microscopy revealed that ParB mediates binary...... pairing of parC fragments. In addition to binary complexes, ParB mediated the formation of higher order complexes consisting of several DNA fragments joined by ParB at centromere site parC. N-terminal truncated versions of ParB still possessing specific DNA binding activity were incompetent in pairing...

  14. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumedha Roy; Shayoni Dutta; Kanika Khanna; Shruti Singla; Durai Sundar

    2012-07-01

    Zinc finger proteins interact via their individual fingers to three base pair subsites on the target DNA. The four key residue positions −1, 2, 3 and 6 on the alpha-helix of the zinc fingers have hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA. Mutating these key residues enables generation of a plethora of combinatorial possibilities that can bind to any DNA stretch of interest. Exploiting the binding specificity and affinity of the interaction between the zinc fingers and the respective DNA can help to generate engineered zinc fingers for therapeutic purposes involving genome targeting. Exploring the structure–function relationships of the existing zinc finger–DNA complexes can aid in predicting the probable zinc fingers that could bind to any target DNA. Computational tools ease the prediction of such engineered zinc fingers by effectively utilizing information from the available experimental data. A study of literature reveals many approaches for predicting DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins. However, an alternative approach that looks into the physico-chemical properties of these complexes would do away with the difficulties of designing unbiased zinc fingers with the desired affinity and specificity. We present a physico-chemical approach that exploits the relative strengths of hydrogen bonding between the target DNA and all combinatorially possible zinc fingers to select the most optimum zinc finger protein candidate.

  15. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  16. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Novel Human Skin-Associated Genes Encoding Membrane and Secreted Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Martinez, Cynthia; Schrumpf, Holger; Gasis, Marcia; Grether-Beck, Susanne; Krutmann, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Through bioinformatics analyses of a human gene expression database representing 105 different tissues and cell types, we identified 687 skin-associated genes that are selectively and highly expressed in human skin. Over 50 of these represent uncharacterized genes not previously associated with skin and include a subset that encode novel secreted and plasma membrane proteins. The high levels of skin-associated expression for eight of these novel therapeutic target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of normal skin and skin-derived cell lines. Four of these are expressed specifically by epidermal keratinocytes; two that encode G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR87 and GPR115), and two that encode secreted proteins (WFDC5 and SERPINB7). Further analyses using cytokine-activated and terminally differentiated human primary keratinocytes or a panel of common inflammatory, autoimmune or malignant skin diseases revealed distinct patterns of regulation as well as disease associations that point to important roles in cutaneous homeostasis and disease. Some of these novel uncharacterized skin genes may represent potential biomarkers or drug targets for the development of future diagnostics or therapeutics. PMID:23840300

  17. Systematic identification and characterization of novel human skin-associated genes encoding membrane and secreted proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arne Gerber

    Full Text Available Through bioinformatics analyses of a human gene expression database representing 105 different tissues and cell types, we identified 687 skin-associated genes that are selectively and highly expressed in human skin. Over 50 of these represent uncharacterized genes not previously associated with skin and include a subset that encode novel secreted and plasma membrane proteins. The high levels of skin-associated expression for eight of these novel therapeutic target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of normal skin and skin-derived cell lines. Four of these are expressed specifically by epidermal keratinocytes; two that encode G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR87 and GPR115, and two that encode secreted proteins (WFDC5 and SERPINB7. Further analyses using cytokine-activated and terminally differentiated human primary keratinocytes or a panel of common inflammatory, autoimmune or malignant skin diseases revealed distinct patterns of regulation as well as disease associations that point to important roles in cutaneous homeostasis and disease. Some of these novel uncharacterized skin genes may represent potential biomarkers or drug targets for the development of future diagnostics or therapeutics.

  18. Photoaffinity labelling of high affinity dopamine binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, G.M.; McCarry, B.E.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-03-01

    A photoactive analogue of the dopamine agonist 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) has been synthesized and used to photoaffinity label dopamine binding proteins prepared from bovine caudate nucleus. N-(3-)N'-4-azidobenzamidol)-aminopropyl)-aminopropyl)-ADTN (AzB-AP-ADTN) was incubated with caudate membranes and irradiated with UV light. Membranes were then repeatedly washed by centrifugation to remove excess photolabel. A binding assay, using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 (a D/sub 1/ specific antagonist), was then performed to evaluate the loss of receptor density in the photolyzed preparation. AzB-AP-ADTN irreversibly blocked (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis revealed a decrease in the B/sub max/, with no significant change in the K/sub d/, of (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding. Compounds which compete for D/sub 1/ receptor binding (such as dopamine, SKF 38393 or apomorphine), proteted the SCH 23390 binding site from inactivation. This data would suggest that the novel photoaffinity ligand, AzB-AP-ADTN, can covalently label the D/sub 1/ (adenylate cyclase linked) dopamine receptor.

  19. Molecular characterization of a defense-related AMP-binding protein gene, OsBIABP1, from rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-chun ZHANG; Xin YU; Hui-juan ZHANG; Feng-ming SONG

    2009-01-01

    We cloned and characterized a rice gene OsBIABPI encoding an AMP-binding protein. The full-length cDNA of OsBIABP1 is 1912-bp long and is predicted to encode a 558-aa protein. OsBIABP1 contains a typical AMP-binding signature motif and shows high similarity to members of AMP-binding protein family. OsBIABP1 is expressed in stems, leaves and flowers of rice plants, but is not expressed, or expressed at a very low level, in rice roots. The expression of OsBIABP1 was induced by some defense-related signal molecules, e.g., salicylic acid (SA), benzothiadiazole, jasmonic acid (JA), and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, which mediate SA-and JA/ethylene (ET)-dependent defense signaling pathways, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of OsBIABP1 is activated by the infection of Magnaporthe oryzae, and the induced expression is quicker and stronger during early stages of pathogenesis in incompatible interaction than that in compatible interaction between rice and M. oryzae. Our results suggest that OsBIABP1 may be a defense-related AMP-binding protein that is involved in the regulation of defense re-sponse through SA and/or JA/ET signaling pathways.

  20. KAR5 Encodes a Novel Pheromone-inducible Protein Required for Homotypic Nuclear Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Beh, Christopher T.; Brizzio, Valeria; Rose, Mark D.

    1997-01-01

    KAR5 is required for membrane fusion during karyogamy, the process of nuclear fusion during yeast mating. To investigate the molecular mechanism of nuclear fusion, we cloned and characterized the KAR5 gene and its product. KAR5 is a nonessential gene, and deletion mutations produce a bilateral defect in the homotypic fusion of yeast nuclei. KAR5 encodes a novel protein that shares similarity with a protein in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that may play a similar role in nuclear fusion. Kar5p is i...

  1. Crystal Structure of Human Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, S.; Su, M; Seetharaman, J; Huang, Y; Chen, C; Maglaqui, M; Janjua, H; Montelione, G; Tong, L; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    As a step towards better integrating protein three-dimensional (3D) structural information in cancer systems biology, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) (www.nesg.org) has constructed a Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) by analysis of several classical cancer-associated signaling pathways and their physical protein-protein interactions. Many well-known cancer-associated proteins play central roles as hubs or bottlenecks in the HCPIN (http://nmr.cabm.rutgers.edu/hcpin). NESG has selected more than 1000 human proteins and protein domains from the HCPIN for sample production and 3D structure determination. The long-range goal of this effort is to provide a comprehensive 3D structure-function database for human cancer-associated proteins and protein complexes, in the context of their interaction networks. Human retinoblastoma binding protein 9 (RBBP9) is one of the HCPIN proteins targeted by NESG. RBBP9 was initially identified as the product of a new gene, Bog (for B5T over-expressed gene), in several transformed rat liver epithelial cell lines resistant to the growth-inhibitory effect of TGF-1 as well as in primary human liver tumors. RBBP9 contains the retinoblastoma (Rb) binding motif LxCxE in its sequence, and was shown to interact with Rb by yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Mutation of the Leu residue in this motif to Gln blocked the binding to Rb. RBBP9 can displace E2F1 from E2F1-Rb complexes, and over expression of RBBP9 overcomes TGF-1 induced growth arrest and results in transformation of rat liver epithelial cells leading to hepatoblastoma-like tumors in nude mice. RBBP9 may also play a role in cellular responses to chronic low dose radiation. A close homolog of RBBP9, sharing 93% amino acid sequence identity and also known as RBBP10, interacts with a protein with sua5-yciO-yrdC domains.

  2. Generation of a panel of antibodies against proteins encoded on human chromosome 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiseman Frances K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS is caused by trisomy of all or part of chromosome 21. To further understanding of DS we are working with a mouse model, the Tc1 mouse, which carries most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal mouse chromosome complement. This mouse is a model for human DS and recapitulates many of the features of the human syndrome such as specific heart defects, and cerebellar neuronal loss. The Tc1 mouse is mosaic for the human chromosome such that not all cells in the model carry it. Thus to help our investigations we aimed to develop a method to identify cells that carry human chromosome 21 in the Tc1 mouse. To this end, we have generated a panel of antibodies raised against proteins encoded by genes on human chromosome 21 that are known to be expressed in the adult brain of Tc1 mice Results We attempted to generate human specific antibodies against proteins encoded by human chromosome 21. We selected proteins that are expressed in the adult brain of Tc1 mice and contain regions of moderate/low homology with the mouse ortholog. We produced antibodies to seven human chromosome 21 encoded proteins. Of these, we successfully generated three antibodies that preferentially recognise human compared with mouse SOD1 and RRP1 proteins on western blots. However, these antibodies did not specifically label cells which carry a freely segregating copy of Hsa21 in the brains of our Tc1 mouse model of DS. Conclusions Although we have successfully isolated new antibodies to SOD1 and RRP1 for use on western blots, in our hands these antibodies have not been successfully used for immunohistochemistry studies. These antibodies are freely available to other researchers. Our data high-light the technical difficulty of producing species-specific antibodies for both western blotting and immunohistochemistry.

  3. The evolution of genes encoding for green fluorescent proteins: insights from cephalochordates (amphioxus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jia-Xing; Holland, Nicholas D.; Holland, Linda Z.; Deheyn, Dimitri D.

    2016-06-01

    Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was originally found in cnidarians, and later in copepods and cephalochordates (amphioxus) (Branchiostoma spp). Here, we looked for GFP-encoding genes in Asymmetron, an early-diverged cephalochordate lineage, and found two such genes closely related to some of the Branchiostoma GFPs. Dim fluorescence was found throughout the body in adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, and, as in Branchiostoma floridae, was especially intense in the ripe ovaries. Spectra of the fluorescence were similar between Asymmetron and Branchiostoma. Lineage-specific expansion of GFP-encoding genes in the genus Branchiostoma was observed, largely driven by tandem duplications. Despite such expansion, purifying selection has strongly shaped the evolution of GFP-encoding genes in cephalochordates, with apparent relaxation for highly duplicated clades. All cephalochordate GFP-encoding genes are quite different from those of copepods and cnidarians. Thus, the ancestral cephalochordates probably had GFP, but since GFP appears to be lacking in more early-diverged deuterostomes (echinoderms, hemichordates), it is uncertain whether the ancestral cephalochordates (i.e. the common ancestor of Asymmetron and Branchiostoma) acquired GFP by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from copepods or cnidarians or inherited it from the common ancestor of copepods and deuterostomes, i.e. the ancestral bilaterians.

  4. The surface protein Shr of Streptococcus pyogenes binds heme and transfers it to the streptococcal heme-binding protein Shp

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Benfang; Liu Mengyao; Zhu Hui

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The heme acquisition machinery in Streptococcus pyogenes is believed to consist of the surface proteins, Shr and Shp, and heme-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter HtsABC. Shp has been shown to rapidly transfer its heme to the lipoprotein component, HtsA, of HtsABC. The function of Shr and the heme source of Shp have not been established. Results The objective of this study was to determine whether Shr binds heme and is a heme source of Shp. To achieve the objective, ...

  5. Distribution and biological role of the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA in Xanthomonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Oshiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the prevalence of the oppA gene, encoding the oligopeptide binding protein (OppA of the major bacterial oligopeptide uptake system (Opp, in different species of the genus Xanthomonas. The oppA gene was detected in two Xanthomonas axonopodis strains among eight tested Xanthomonas species. The generation of an isogenic oppA-knockout derivative of the Xac 306 strain, showed that the OppA protein neither plays a relevant role in oligopeptide uptake nor contributes to the infectivity and multiplication of the bacterial strain in leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia. Taken together these results suggest that the oppA gene has a recent evolutionary history in the genus and does not contribute in the physiology or pathogenesis of X. axonopodis.

  6. Distribution and biological role of the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) in Xanthomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Elisa E; Tavares, Milene B; Suzuki, Celso F; Pimenta, Daniel C; Angeli, Claudia B; de Oliveira, Julio C F; Ferro, Maria I T; Ferreira, Luis C S; Ferreira, Rita C C

    2010-04-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of the oppA gene, encoding the oligopeptide binding protein (OppA) of the major bacterial oligopeptide uptake system (Opp), in different species of the genus Xanthomonas. The oppA gene was detected in two Xanthomonas axonopodis strains among eight tested Xanthomonas species. The generation of an isogenic oppA-knockout derivative of the Xac 306 strain, showed that the OppA protein neither plays a relevant role in oligopeptide uptake nor contributes to the infectivity and multiplication of the bacterial strain in leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia). Taken together these results suggest that the oppA gene has a recent evolutionary history in the genus and does not contribute in the physiology or pathogenesis of X. axonopodis. PMID:21637492

  7. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Nicole R.; Hecht, Karen A.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas; Rorrer, Gregory L.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-01-08

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins incorporating a tetracysteine tag for site-directed labeling with biarsenical affinity probes and either EGFP or single chain antibody to test colocalization of probes with the EGFP-tagged recombinant protein or binding of biosilica-immobilized antibodies to large and small molecule antigens, respectively. Site-directed labeling with the biarsenical probes demonstrated colocalization with EGFP-encoded proteins in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting their use in studying biosilica maturation. Isolated biosilica transformed with a single chain antibody against either the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) effectively bound the respective antigens. A marked increase in fluorescence lifetime of the TNT surrogate Alexa Fluor 555-trinitrobenzene reflected the high binding specificity of the transformed isolated biosilica. These results demonstrated the potential use of biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies as binders for large and small molecule antigens in sensing and therapeutics.

  8. Predicting the Impact of Missense Mutations on Protein-Protein Binding Affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Petukh, Marharyta; Alexov, Emil; Panchenko, Anna R

    2014-04-01

    The crucial prerequisite for proper biological function is the protein's ability to establish highly selective interactions with macromolecular partners. A missense mutation that alters the protein binding affinity may cause significant perturbations or complete abolishment of the function, potentially leading to diseases. The availability of computational methods to evaluate the impact of mutations on protein-protein binding is critical for a wide range of biomedical applications. Here, we report an efficient computational approach for predicting the effect of single and multiple missense mutations on protein-protein binding affinity. It is based on a well-tested simulation protocol for structure minimization, modified MM-PBSA and statistical scoring energy functions with parameters optimized on experimental sets of several thousands of mutations. Our simulation protocol yields very good agreement between predicted and experimental values with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.69 and 0.63 and root-mean-square errors of 1.20 and 1.90 kcal mol(-1) for single and multiple mutations, respectively. Compared with other available methods, our approach achieves high speed and prediction accuracy and can be applied to large datasets generated by modern genomics initiatives. In addition, we report a crucial role of water model and the polar solvation energy in estimating the changes in binding affinity. Our analysis also reveals that prediction accuracy and effect of mutations on binding strongly depends on the type of mutation and its location in a protein complex. PMID:24803870

  9. Protein-binding RNA aptamers affect molecular interactions distantly from their binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Dupont

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid aptamer selection is a powerful strategy for the development of regulatory agents for molecular intervention. Accordingly, aptamers have proven their diligence in the intervention with serine protease activities, which play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies on the molecular basis underlying aptamer-protease interactions and the associated mechanisms of inhibition. In the present study, we use site-directed mutagenesis to delineate the binding sites of two 2´-fluoropyrimidine RNA aptamers (upanap-12 and upanap-126 with therapeutic potential, both binding to the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA. We determine the subsequent impact of aptamer binding on the well-established molecular interactions (plasmin, PAI-1, uPAR, and LRP-1A controlling uPA activities. One of the aptamers (upanap-126 binds to the area around the C-terminal α-helix in pro-uPA, while the other aptamer (upanap-12 binds to both the β-hairpin of the growth factor domain and the kringle domain of uPA. Based on the mapping studies, combined with data from small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, we construct a model for the upanap-12:pro-uPA complex. The results suggest and highlight that the size and shape of an aptamer as well as the domain organization of a multi-domain protein such as uPA, may provide the basis for extensive sterical interference with protein ligand interactions considered distant from the aptamer binding site.

  10. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christofk, H.R.; Vander Heiden, M.G.; Wu, N.; Asara, J.M.; Cantley, L.C. (Harvard-Med)

    2008-06-03

    Growth factors stimulate cells to take up excess nutrients and to use them for anabolic processes. The biochemical mechanism by which this is accomplished is not fully understood but it is initiated by phosphorylation of signalling proteins on tyrosine residues. Using a novel proteomic screen for phosphotyrosine-binding proteins, we have made the observation that an enzyme involved in glycolysis, the human M2 (fetal) isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), binds directly and selectively to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. We show that binding of phosphotyrosine peptides to PKM2 results in release of the allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, leading to inhibition of PKM2 enzymatic activity. We also provide evidence that this regulation of PKM2 by phosphotyrosine signalling diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are stimulated by certain growth factors. Collectively, our results indicate that expression of this phosphotyrosine-binding form of pyruvate kinase is critical for rapid growth in cancer cells.

  11. Downregulation of the NbNACa1 gene encoding a movement-protein-interacting protein reduces cell-to-cell movement of Brome mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Masanori; Inoue, Yosuke; Takeda, Yoshika; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Atsushi; Mori, Masashi; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Okuno, Tetsuro; Mise, Kazuyuki

    2007-06-01

    The 3a movement protein (MP) plays a central role in the movement of the RNA plant virus, Brome mosaic virus (BMV). To identify host factor genes involved in viral movement, a cDNA library of Nicotiana benthamiana, a systemic host for BMV, was screened with far-Western blotting using a recombinant BMV MP as probe. One positive clone encoded a protein with sequence similarity to the alpha chain of nascent-polypeptide-associated complex from various organisms, which is proposed to contribute to the fidelity of translocation of newly synthesized proteins. The orthologous gene from N. benthamiana was designated NbNACa1. The binding of NbNACa1 to BMV MP was confirmed in vivo with an agroinfiltration-immunoprecipitation assay. To investigate the involvement of NbNACa1 in BMV multiplication, NbNACa1-silenced (GSNAC) transgenic N. benthamiana plants were produced. Downregulation of NbNACa1 expression reduced virus accumulation in inoculated leaves but not in protoplasts. A microprojectile bombardment assay to monitor BMV-MP-assisted viral movement demonstrated reduced virus spread in GSNAC plants. The localization to the cell wall of BMV MP fused to green fluorescent protein was delayed in GSNAC plants. From these results, we propose that NbNACa1 is involved in BMV cell-to-cell movement through the regulation of BMV MP localization to the plasmodesmata.

  12. Vibrational Softening of a Protein on Ligand Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Erica [Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; Perahia, David [Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Cachan, France; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Merzel, Franci [National Institute of Chemistry, Solvenia

    2011-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have demonstrated that binding of the cancer drug methotrexate softens the low-frequency vibrations of its target protein, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Here, this softening is fully reproduced using atomic detail normal-mode analysis. Decomposition of the vibrational density of states demonstrates that the largest contributions arise from structural elements of DHFR critical to stability and function. Mode-projection analysis reveals an increase of the breathing-like character of the affected vibrational modes consistent with the experimentally observed increased adiabatic compressibility of the protein on complexation.

  13. A nuclear juvenile hormone-binding protein from larvae of Manduca sexta: a putative receptor for the metamorphic action of juvenile hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Palli, S R; Touhara, K; Charles, J.P; Bonning, B.C.; Atkinson, J K; Trowell, S C; Hiruma, K.; Goodman, W G; Kyriakides, T; Prestwich, G. D.

    1994-01-01

    A 29-kDa nuclear juvenile hormone (JH)-binding protein from the epidermis of Manduca sexta larvae was purified by using the photoaffinity analog for JH II ([3H]epoxyhomofarnesyldiazoacetate) and partially sequenced. A 1.1-kb cDNA was isolated by using degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR based on these sequences. The cDNA encoded a 262-amino acid protein that showed no similarity with other known proteins, except for short stretches of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rh...

  14. Interaction between the human cytomegalovirus‑encoded UL142 and cellular Snapin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Qi, Ying; Ma, Yanping; He, Rong; Sun, Zhengrong; Huang, Yujing; Ji, Yaohua; Ruan, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can cause severe illness in immunocompromised and immunodeficient individuals. As a novel HCMV‑encoded major histocompatibility complex class I‑related molecule, the UL142‑encoded protein (pUL142) is capable of suppressing natural killer (NK) cell recognition in the course of infection. However, no host factors that directly interact with HCMV pUL142 have been reported so far. In order to understand the interactions between HCMV pUL142 and host proteins, the current study used yeast two‑hybrid screening, a GST pull‑down assay and an immunofluorescence assay. A host protein, the SNARE‑associated protein Snapin, was identified to directly interact and colocalize with HCMV pUL142 in transfected human embryonic kidney‑293 cells. Snapin is abundantly expressed in the majority of cells and mediates the release of neurotransmitters through vesicular transport in the nervous system and vesicle fusion in non‑neuronal cells. It is hypothesized that HCMV pUL142 may have an impact on the neurotransmitter release process and viral dissemination via interaction with Snapin. PMID:25369979

  15. Nuclear translocation of EGF receptor regulated by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Yongguang; SONG; Xin; TAN; Yunnian; LIN; Xiaofeng; ZH

    2004-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV encoded proteins, and also it has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Traditional receptor theory demonstrates that cell surface receptors exert biological functions on the membrane, which neither enter into the nucleus nor directly affect the transcription of the target genes. But, advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly developed our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1 integrated NPC cell line and the expression of LMP1 in which could be regulated by Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear translocation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner from both quantitative and qualitative levels through the Western blot analysis and the immunofluorescent analysis with a laser scanning confocal microscope. We further demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation, and the nuclear accumulation of EGFR regulated by LMP1 was in a ligand-independent manner. These findings provide a novel view that the regulation of LMP1 on the nuclear translocation of EGFR is critical for the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  16. Isolation, characterization, and bioinformatic analysis of calmodulin-binding protein cmbB reveals a novel tandem IP22 repeat common to many Dictyostelium and Mimivirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Suhre, Karsten; Myre, Michael A; Chatterjee-Chakraborty, Munmun; Chavez, Sara E

    2006-08-01

    A novel calmodulin-binding protein cmbB from Dictyostelium discoideum is encoded in a single gene. Northern analysis reveals two cmbB transcripts first detectable at 4 h during multicellular development. Western blotting detects an approximately 46.6 kDa protein. Sequence analysis and calmodulin-agarose binding studies identified a "classic" calcium-dependent calmodulin-binding domain (179IPKSLRSLFLGKGYNQPLEF198) but structural analyses suggest binding may not involve classic alpha-helical calmodulin-binding. The cmbB protein is comprised of tandem repeats of a newly identified IP22 motif ([I,L]Pxxhxxhxhxxxhxxxhxxxx; where h = any hydrophobic amino acid) that is highly conserved and a more precise representation of the FNIP repeat. At least eight Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus proteins and over 100 Dictyostelium proteins contain tandem arrays of the IP22 motif and its variants. cmbB also shares structural homology to YopM, from the plague bacterium Yersenia pestis. PMID:16777069

  17. Are odorant-binding proteins involved in odorant discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecht, R A

    1996-12-01

    Pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of nine moth species belonging to six families and three superfamilies of Lepidoptera were immunolabelled with an antiserum against the pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus. Strong immunolabelling of the sensillum lymph was observed in all long sensilla trichodea of A. polyphemus, A. pernyi (Saturniidae), Bombyx mori (Bombycidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Very weak labelling was found with all sensilla trichodea of Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lasiocampidae) and Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae). In three noctuid species, some long sensilla trichodea were labelled strongly, some only weakly and some were not labelled at all. The fraction of long sensilla trichodea that were strongly labelled was large in Helicoverpa armigera, but small in Spodoptera littoralis and Autographa gamma. The observed cross-reactivity was not correlated with taxonomic relatedness of the species but rather with chemical relatedness of the pheromones used by these species, as a high labelling density was consistently observed in sensilla tuned to pheromones with an alcyl chain of 16 carbon atoms. The highly divergent specificity of pheromone-receptor cells in Noctuidae appears to be mirrored by a similar diversity of the pheromone-binding proteins in the sensilla trichodea. These data support the notion that pheromone-binding proteins participate in odorant discrimination.

  18. Are odorant-binding proteins involved in odorant discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecht, R A

    1996-12-01

    Pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of nine moth species belonging to six families and three superfamilies of Lepidoptera were immunolabelled with an antiserum against the pheromone-binding protein of Antheraea polyphemus. Strong immunolabelling of the sensillum lymph was observed in all long sensilla trichodea of A. polyphemus, A. pernyi (Saturniidae), Bombyx mori (Bombycidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Very weak labelling was found with all sensilla trichodea of Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lasiocampidae) and Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae). In three noctuid species, some long sensilla trichodea were labelled strongly, some only weakly and some were not labelled at all. The fraction of long sensilla trichodea that were strongly labelled was large in Helicoverpa armigera, but small in Spodoptera littoralis and Autographa gamma. The observed cross-reactivity was not correlated with taxonomic relatedness of the species but rather with chemical relatedness of the pheromones used by these species, as a high labelling density was consistently observed in sensilla tuned to pheromones with an alcyl chain of 16 carbon atoms. The highly divergent specificity of pheromone-receptor cells in Noctuidae appears to be mirrored by a similar diversity of the pheromone-binding proteins in the sensilla trichodea. These data support the notion that pheromone-binding proteins participate in odorant discrimination. PMID:8985600

  19. Promoter-distal RNA polymerase II binding discriminates active from inactive CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein beta binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Daniel; Roberts, Brian S.; Carleton, Julia B.; Partridge, E. Christopher; White, Michael A.; Cohen, Barak A.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind to thousands of DNA sequences in mammalian genomes, but most of these binding events appear to have no direct effect on gene expression. It is unclear why only a subset of TF bound sites are actively involved in transcriptional regulation. Moreover, the key genomic features that accurately discriminate between active and inactive TF binding events remain ambiguous. Recent studies have identified promoter-distal RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) binding at enhancer elements, suggesting that these interactions may serve as a marker for active regulatory sequences. Despite these correlative analyses, a thorough functional validation of these genomic co-occupancies is still lacking. To characterize the gene regulatory activity of DNA sequences underlying promoter-distal TF binding events that co-occur with RNAP2 and TF sites devoid of RNAP2 occupancy using a functional reporter assay, we performed cis-regulatory element sequencing (CRE-seq). We tested more than 1000 promoter-distal CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB)-bound sites in HepG2 and K562 cells, and found that CEBPB-bound sites co-occurring with RNAP2 were more likely to exhibit enhancer activity. CEBPB-bound sites further maintained substantial cell-type specificity, indicating that local DNA sequence can accurately convey cell-type–specific regulatory information. By comparing our CRE-seq results to a comprehensive set of genome annotations, we identified a variety of genomic features that are strong predictors of regulatory element activity and cell-type–specific activity. Collectively, our functional assay results indicate that RNAP2 occupancy can be used as a key genomic marker that can distinguish active from inactive TF bound sites. PMID:26486725

  20. Haptoglobin-related protein is a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding plasma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Petersen, Steen Vang; Jacobsen, Christian;

    2006-01-01

    Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) is a primate-specific plasma protein associated with apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles shown to be a part of the innate immune defense. Despite the assumption hitherto that Hpr does not bind to hemoglobin, the present...

  1. YGL9, encoding the putative chloroplast signal recognition particle 43 kDa protein in rice, is involved in chloroplast development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-wei; LI Yun-feng; LING Ying-hua; SANG Xian-chun; HE Guang-hua; ZHANG Tian-quan; XING Ya-di; ZENG Xiao-qin; WANG Ling; LIU Zhong-xian; SHI Jun-qiong; ZHU Xiao-yan; MA Ling

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyla/b-binding proteins (LHCPs) are speciifcaly translocated from the stroma into the thylakoid membrane through the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) pathway. The cpSRP is composed of a cpSRP43 protein and a cpSRP54 protein, and it forms a soluble transit complex with LHCP in the chloroplast stroma. Here, we identiifed theYGL9gene that is predicted to encode the probable rice cpSRP43 protein from a rice yelow-green leaf mutant. A phylogenetic tree showed that an important conserved protein family, cpSRP43, is present in almost al green photosynthetic organisms such as higher plants and green algae. Sequence analysis showed that YGL9 comprises a chloroplast transit peptide, three chromodomains and four ankyrin repeats, and the chromodomains and ankyrin repeats are probably involved in protein-protein interactions. Subcelular localization showed that YGL9 is localized in the chloroplast. Expression pattern analysis indicated thatYGL9is mainly expressed in green leaf sheaths and leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of genes associated with pigment metabolism, chloroplast development and photosynthesis were distinctly affected in theygl9mutant. These results indicated thatYGL9 is possibly involved in pigment metabolism, chloroplast development and photosynthesis in rice.

  2. SiteComp: a server for ligand binding site analysis in protein structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yingjie; Yoo, Seungyeul; Sanchez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Computational characterization of ligand-binding sites in proteins provides preliminary information for functional annotation, protein design and ligand optimization. SiteComp implements binding site analysis for comparison of binding sites, evaluation of residue contribution to binding sites and identification of sub-sites with distinct molecular interaction properties.

  3. Characterization of gprK Encoding a Putative Hybrid G-Protein-Coupled Receptor in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mun-Gu; Kim, Sung Su; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest and most varied collection of membrane embedded proteins that are sensitized by ligand binding and interact with heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite their presumed critical roles in fungal biology, the functions of the GPCR family members in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are largely unknown, as only two (GprC and GprD) of the 15 predicted GPCRs have been studied. Here, we characterize the gprK gene, which is predicted to encode a hybrid GPCR with both 7-transmembrane and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains. The deletion of gprK causes severely impaired asexual development coupled with reduced expression of key developmental activators. Moreover, ΔgprK results in hyper-activation of germination even in the absence of carbon source, and elevated expression and activity of the protein kinase A PkaC1. Furthermore, proliferation of the ΔgprK mutant is restricted on the medium when pentose is the sole carbon source, suggesting that GprK may function in external carbon source sensing. Notably, the absence of gprK results in reduced tolerance to oxidative stress and significantly lowered mRNA levels of the stress-response associated genes sakA and atfA. Activities of catalases and SODs are severely decreased in the ΔgprK mutant, indicating that GprK may function in proper activation of general stress response. The ΔgprK mutant is also defective in gliotoxin (GT) production and slightly less virulent toward the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Transcriptomic studies reveal that a majority of transporters are down-regulated by ΔgprK. In summary, GprK is necessary for proper development, GT production, and oxidative stress response, and functions in down-regulating the PKA-germination pathway. PMID:27584150

  4. Cloning of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor cDNA and expression of recombinant soluble TNF-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cDNA for one of the receptors for human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been isolated. This cDNA encodes a protein of 455 amino acids that is divided into an extracellular domain of 171 residues and a cytoplasmic domain of 221 residues. The extracellular domain has been engineered for expression in mammalian cells, and this recombinant derivative binds TNFα with high affinity and inhibits its cytotoxic activity in vitro. The TNF receptor exhibits similarity with a family of cell surface proteins that includes the nerve growth factor receptor, the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, and the rat T-cell surface antigen OX40. The TNF receptor contains four cysteine-rich subdomains in the extracellular portion. Mammalian cells transfected with the entire TNF receptor cDNA bind radiolabeled TNFα with an affinity of 2.5 x 10-9 M. This binding can be competitively inhibited with unlabeled TNFα or lymphotoxin (TNFβ)

  5. Cytokinins modulate the expression of genes encoding the protein of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serve, B T; Axelos, M; Péaud-Lenoël, C

    1985-05-01

    Tobacco cell suspension cultures responded to cytokinins (for instance kinetin) by full chloroplast differentiation. The hormone had the effect of stimulating the appearance of a few prominent plastid proteins. Synthesis of the light-harvesting chlorophyl a/b-binding protein (LHCP) in response to kinetin was noteworthy (Axelos M. et al.: Plant Sci Lett 33:201-212, 1984).Poly(A)(+)RNAs were prepared from cells grown in the presence of or without added kinetin. Poly(A)(+)RNA recovery and translation activity were not quantitatively altered by the hormone treatment. In vitro translation of polyadenylated mRNA into precursor polypeptides of LHCP (pLHCP) was quantified by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE fractionation of pLHCP immunoprecipitates: pLHCP-mRNA translating activity was found to be stimulated in parallel to mature LHCP accumulation by kinetin-induced cells.Dot-blot and northern-blot hybridizations of poly(A)(+)RNA were carried out, using as a probe a pea LHCP-cDNA clone (Broglie R. et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 7304-7308, 1981). A ten-fold increase of the level of pLHCP-encoding sequences was observed in poly(A)(+)RNA prepared from 9-d kinetin-stimulated cells, compared to control cells. Oligo(dT)-cellulose-excluded RNA fractions exhibited very low hybridization levels, in the same ratios as those obtained with poly(A)(+)RNA.Thus, the expression of LHCP-gene activity, in response to kinetin addition to tobacco cell suspension cultures, is regulated by the level of pLHCP-encoding mRNA rather than by translational or post-translational controls. re]19850218 rv]19850605 ac]19850613. PMID:24306651

  6. Development of computational methods for the prediction of protein structure, protein binding, and mutational effects using free energy calculations.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A molecular understanding of protein-protein or protein-ligand binding is of crucial importance for the design of proteins or ligands with defined binding characteristics. The comprehensive analysis of biomolecular binding and the coupled rational in silico design of protein-ligand interfaces requires both, accurate and computationally fast methods for the prediction of free energies. Accurate free energy methods usually involve atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that are computationall...

  7. Encoding the states of interacting proteins to facilitate biological pathways reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Termanini Alberto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a systems biology perspective, protein-protein interactions (PPI are encoded in machine-readable formats to avoid issues encountered in their retrieval for the reconstruction of comprehensive interaction maps and biological pathways. However, the information stored in electronic formats currently used doesn't allow a valid automatic reconstruction of biological pathways. Results We propose a logical model of PPI that takes into account the "state" of proteins before and after the interaction. This information is necessary for proper reconstruction of the pathway. Conclusions The adoption of the proposed model, which can be easily integrated into existing machine-readable formats used to store the PPI data, would facilitate the automatic or semi-automated reconstruction of biological pathways. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Wen-Yu Chung (nominated by Kateryna Makova, Dr. Carl Herrmann (nominated by Dr. Purificación López-García and Dr. Arcady Mushegian.

  8. Functional interactions between polypyrimidine tract binding protein and PRI peptide ligand containing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Miguel B; Ascher, David B; Gooding, Clare; Lang, Emma; Maude, Hannah; Turner, David; Llorian, Miriam; Pires, Douglas E V; Attig, Jan; Smith, Christopher W J

    2016-08-15

    Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that plays roles in most stages of the life-cycle of pre-mRNA and mRNAs in the nucleus and cytoplasm. PTBP1 has four RNA binding domains of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) family, each of which can bind to pyrimidine motifs. In addition, RRM2 can interact via its dorsal surface with proteins containing short peptide ligands known as PTB RRM2 interacting (PRI) motifs, originally found in the protein Raver1. Here we review our recent progress in understanding the interactions of PTB with RNA and with various proteins containing PRI ligands. PMID:27528752

  9. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder. PMID:25639618

  10. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder.

  11. Interactome map uncovers phosphatidylserine transport by oxysterol-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kenji; Anand, Kanchan; Chiapparino, Antonella; Kumar, Arun; Poletto, Mattia; Kaksonen, Marko; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2013-09-12

    The internal organization of eukaryotic cells into functionally specialized, membrane-delimited organelles of unique composition implies a need for active, regulated lipid transport. Phosphatidylserine (PS), for example, is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and then preferentially associates--through mechanisms not fully elucidated--with the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Lipids can travel via transport vesicles. Alternatively, several protein families known as lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) can extract a variety of specific lipids from biological membranes and transport them, within a hydrophobic pocket, through aqueous phases. Here we report the development of an integrated approach that combines protein fractionation and lipidomics to characterize the LTP-lipid complexes formed in vivo. We applied the procedure to 13 LTPs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the six Sec14 homology (Sfh) proteins and the seven oxysterol-binding homology (Osh) proteins. We found that Osh6 and Osh7 have an unexpected specificity for PS. In vivo, they participate in PS homeostasis and the transport of this lipid to the plasma membrane. The structure of Osh6 bound to PS reveals unique features that are conserved among other metazoan oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs) and are required for PS recognition. Our findings represent the first direct evidence, to our knowledge, for the non-vesicular transfer of PS from its site of biosynthesis (the endoplasmic reticulum) to its site of biological activity (the plasma membrane). We describe a new subfamily of OSBPs, including human ORP5 and ORP10, that transfer PS and propose new mechanisms of action for a protein family that is involved in several human pathologies such as cancer, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23934110

  12. Ectromelia virus encodes a family of Ankyrin/F-box proteins that regulate NFκB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A notable feature of poxviruses is their ability to inhibit the antiviral response, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. NFκB is a transcription factor that is sequestered in the cytoplasm until cell stimulation, and relies on the SCF (Skp1, culllin-1, F-box) ubiquitin ligase to target its inhibitor, IκBα, for degradation. IκBα is recruited to the SCF by the F-box domain-containing protein βTrCP. Here, we show that ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox, encodes four F-box-containing proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165, all of which contain Ankyrin (Ank) domains. The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, and this inhibition is dependent on the F-box domain. We also demonstrate that EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165 prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting that they target the SCF. This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB. - Highlights: • Ectromelia virus encodes four Ank/F-box proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154 and EVM165. • The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, dependent on the F-box. • The Ank/F-box proteins prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting they target the SCF. • Deletion of a single Ank/F-box gene from ECTV does not prevent viral NFκB inhibition. • This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB

  13. Ectromelia virus encodes a family of Ankyrin/F-box proteins that regulate NFκB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burles, Kristin, E-mail: burles@ualberta.ca; Buuren, Nicholas van; Barry, Michele

    2014-11-15

    A notable feature of poxviruses is their ability to inhibit the antiviral response, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. NFκB is a transcription factor that is sequestered in the cytoplasm until cell stimulation, and relies on the SCF (Skp1, culllin-1, F-box) ubiquitin ligase to target its inhibitor, IκBα, for degradation. IκBα is recruited to the SCF by the F-box domain-containing protein βTrCP. Here, we show that ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox, encodes four F-box-containing proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165, all of which contain Ankyrin (Ank) domains. The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, and this inhibition is dependent on the F-box domain. We also demonstrate that EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165 prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting that they target the SCF. This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB. - Highlights: • Ectromelia virus encodes four Ank/F-box proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154 and EVM165. • The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, dependent on the F-box. • The Ank/F-box proteins prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting they target the SCF. • Deletion of a single Ank/F-box gene from ECTV does not prevent viral NFκB inhibition. • This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB.

  14. Angiotensinogen gene-inducible enhancer-binding protein 1, a member of a new family of large nuclear proteins that recognize nuclear factor kappa B-binding sites through a zinc finger motif.

    OpenAIRE

    Ron, D; Brasier, A R; Habener, J F

    1991-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of the rat angiotensinogen gene during the acute-phase response is dependent on a previously characterized acute-phase response element (APRE) that binds at least two types of nuclear proteins: a cytokine-inducible activity indistinguishable from nuclear factor kappa-B (NF kappa B) and a family of C/EBP-like proteins. We screened a rat liver cDNA expression library with a labeled APRE DNA probe and isolated a single clone that encodes a sequence-specific APRE-bindin...

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel hepatitis B virus core binding protein C12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ying Lu; Jun Cheng; Yong-Ping Yang; Yan Liu; Lin Wang; Ke Li; Ling-Xia Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the biological function of HBV core antigen (HBcAg) on pathogenesis of hepatitis B, a novel gene C12 coding for protein with unknown function interacting with HBcAg in hepatocytes was identified and characterized. METHODS: HBcAg bait plasmid pGBKT7-HBcAg was constructed and transformed into yeast AH109, then the transformed yeast was mated with yeast Y187 containing liver complementary DNA (cDNA) library plasmid in 2×YPDA medium. Diploid yeast was plated on synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Trp-Leu-His-Ade) and synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Trp-Leu-His-Ade)containing X-α-gal for screening twice. After extracting and sequencing of plasmid from blue colonies, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel protein designated as C12that directly interacted with HBcAg. The interaction between HBcAg and C12 was verified again by re-mating.pEGFP-N1-C12 fluorescent protein fusion gene was transfected in 293 and L02 cell, and observed by fluorescent microscope. MTT reduction assay was used to study the action of C12 protein effect on metabolism of mammal cell. Yeast two-hybrid and cDNA microarray were performed to search binding protein and differential expression genes regulated by C12 protein.RESULTS: C12 gene was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid system 3. The interaction between HBcAg and the novel protein coded by the new gene C12 was further confirmed by re-mating. After 48 h, fluorescence of fusion protein could be observed steadily in the 293 and L02 cell plasma. Under MTT assay, we found that the expression of C12 did not influence the growth of liver cells. Seventeen differential expression genes in HepG2 cells transfected with C12 protein expression plasmid by cDNA microarray,of which 16 genes were upregulated and 1 gene was downregulated by C12 protein. Twenty-one colonies containing 16 different genes coding for C12 protein binding proteins were isolated by yeast two-hybrid, there were 2 new genes with unknown function

  16. Prediction of Protein-DNA binding by Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuefan; Eisenberg, Moises; Korobka, Alex

    1997-08-01

    We present an analysis and prediction of protein-DNA binding specificity based on the hydrogen bonding between DNA, protein, and auxillary clusters of water molecules. Zif268, glucocorticoid receptor, λ-repressor mutant, HIN-recombinase, and tramtrack protein-DNA complexes are studied. Hydrogen bonds are approximated by the Lennard-Jones potential with a cutoff distance between the hydrogen and the acceptor atoms set to 3.2 Åand an angular component based on a dipole-dipole interaction. We use a three-stage docking algorithm: geometric hashing that matches pairs of hydrogen bonding sites; (2) least-squares minimization of pairwise distances to filter out insignificant matches; and (3) Monte Carlo stochastic search to minimize the energy of the system. More information can be obtained from our first paper on this subject [Y.Deng et all, J.Computational Chemistry (1995)]. Results show that the biologically correct base pair is selected preferentially when there are two or more strong hydrogen bonds (with LJ potential lower than -0.20) that bind it to the protein. Predicted sequences are less stable in the case of weaker bonding sites. In general the inclusion of water bridges does increase the number of base pairs for which correct specificity is predicted.

  17. Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Matrix Protein: Dependence on Bilayer Composition and Protein Lipidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marilia; Nanda, Hirsh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By assembling in a protein lattice on the host's plasma membrane, the retroviral Gag polyprotein triggers formation of the viral protein/membrane shell. The MA domain of Gag employs multiple signals—electrostatic, hydrophobic, and lipid-specific—to bring the protein to the plasma membrane, thereby complementing protein-protein interactions, located in full-length Gag, in lattice formation. We report the interaction of myristoylated and unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag MA domains with bilayers composed of purified lipid components to dissect these complex membrane signals and quantify their contributions to the overall interaction. Surface plasmon resonance on well-defined planar membrane models is used to quantify binding affinities and amounts of protein and yields free binding energy contributions, ΔG, of the various signals. Charge-charge interactions in the absence of the phosphatidylinositide PI(4,5)P2 attract the protein to acidic membrane surfaces, and myristoylation increases the affinity by a factor of 10; thus, our data do not provide evidence for a PI(4,5)P2 trigger of myristate exposure. Lipid-specific interactions with PI(4,5)P2, the major signal lipid in the inner plasma membrane, increase membrane attraction at a level similar to that of protein lipidation. While cholesterol does not directly engage in interactions, it augments protein affinity strongly by facilitating efficient myristate insertion and PI(4,5)P2 binding. We thus observe that the isolated MA protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the full-length Gag, binds the membrane with submicromolar affinities. IMPORTANCE Like other retroviral species, the Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 contains three major domains: the N-terminal, myristoylated MA domain that targets the protein to the plasma membrane of the host; a central capsid-forming domain; and the C-terminal, genome-binding nucleocapsid domain. These domains act in concert to condense Gag into a membrane

  18. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Cotmore, Susan F. [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tattersall, Peter [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Departments of Genetics, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail: zhaohy@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tangl@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  19. Buffer Interference with Protein Dynamics: A Case Study on Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Dong; Yang, Daiwen

    2009-01-01

    Selection of suitable buffer types is often a crucial step for generating appropriate protein samples for NMR and x-ray crystallographic studies. Although the possible interaction between MES buffer (2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid) and proteins has been discussed previously, the interaction is usually thought to have no significant effects on the structures of proteins. In this study, we demonstrate the direct, albeit weak, interaction between MES and human liver fatty acid binding prote...

  20. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  1. Liver fatty acid-binding protein binds monoacylglycerol in vitro and in mouse liver cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagakos, William S; Guan, Xudong; Ho, Shiu-Ying; Sawicki, Luciana Rodriguez; Corsico, Betina; Kodukula, Sarala; Murota, Kaeko; Stark, Ruth E; Storch, Judith

    2013-07-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP; FABP1) is expressed both in liver and intestinal mucosa. Mice null for LFABP were recently shown to have altered metabolism of not only fatty acids but also monoacylglycerol, the two major products of dietary triacylglycerol hydrolysis (Lagakos, W. S., Gajda, A. M., Agellon, L., Binas, B., Choi, V., Mandap, B., Russnak, T., Zhou, Y. X., and Storch, J. (2011) Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 300, G803-G814). Nevertheless, the binding and transport of monoacylglycerol (MG) by LFABP are uncertain, with conflicting reports in the literature as to whether this single chain amphiphile is in fact bound by LFABP. In the present studies, gel filtration chromatography of liver cytosol from LFABP(-/-) mice shows the absence of the low molecular weight peak of radiolabeled monoolein present in the fractions that contain LFABP in cytosol from wild type mice, indicating that LFABP binds sn-2 MG in vivo. Furthermore, solution-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates two molecules of sn-2 monoolein bound in the LFABP binding pocket in positions similar to those found for oleate binding. Equilibrium binding affinities are ∼2-fold lower for MG compared with fatty acid. Finally, kinetic studies examining the transfer of a fluorescent MG analog show that the rate of transfer of MG is 7-fold faster from LFABP to phospholipid membranes than from membranes to membranes and occurs by an aqueous diffusion mechanism. These results provide strong support for monoacylglycerol as a physiological ligand for LFABP and further suggest that LFABP functions in the efficient intracellular transport of MG. PMID:23658011

  2. Liver Fatty Acid-binding Protein Binds Monoacylglycerol in Vitro and in Mouse Liver Cytosol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagakos, William S.; Guan, Xudong; Ho, Shiu-Ying; Sawicki, Luciana Rodriguez; Corsico, Betina; Kodukula, Sarala; Murota, Kaeko; Stark, Ruth E.; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP; FABP1) is expressed both in liver and intestinal mucosa. Mice null for LFABP were recently shown to have altered metabolism of not only fatty acids but also monoacylglycerol, the two major products of dietary triacylglycerol hydrolysis (Lagakos, W. S., Gajda, A. M., Agellon, L., Binas, B., Choi, V., Mandap, B., Russnak, T., Zhou, Y. X., and Storch, J. (2011) Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 300, G803–G814). Nevertheless, the binding and transport of monoacylglycerol (MG) by LFABP are uncertain, with conflicting reports in the literature as to whether this single chain amphiphile is in fact bound by LFABP. In the present studies, gel filtration chromatography of liver cytosol from LFABP−/− mice shows the absence of the low molecular weight peak of radiolabeled monoolein present in the fractions that contain LFABP in cytosol from wild type mice, indicating that LFABP binds sn-2 MG in vivo. Furthermore, solution-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrates two molecules of sn-2 monoolein bound in the LFABP binding pocket in positions similar to those found for oleate binding. Equilibrium binding affinities are ∼2-fold lower for MG compared with fatty acid. Finally, kinetic studies examining the transfer of a fluorescent MG analog show that the rate of transfer of MG is 7-fold faster from LFABP to phospholipid membranes than from membranes to membranes and occurs by an aqueous diffusion mechanism. These results provide strong support for monoacylglycerol as a physiological ligand for LFABP and further suggest that LFABP functions in the efficient intracellular transport of MG. PMID:23658011

  3. Human pentraxin 3 binds to the complement regulator c4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Braunschweig

    Full Text Available The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is a soluble recognition molecule with multiple functions including innate immune defense against certain microbes and the clearance of apoptotic cells. PTX3 interacts with recognition molecules of the classical and lectin complement pathways and thus initiates complement activation. In addition, binding of PTX3 to the alternative complement pathway regulator factor H was shown. Here, we show that PTX3 binds to the classical and lectin pathway regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP. A PTX3-binding site was identified within short consensus repeats 1-3 of the C4BP α-chain. PTX3 did not interfere with the cofactor activity of C4BP in the fluid phase and C4BP maintained its complement regulatory activity when bound to PTX3 on surfaces. While C4BP and factor H did not compete for PTX3 binding, the interaction of C4BP with PTX3 was inhibited by C1q and by L-ficolin. PTX3 bound to human fibroblast- and endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrices and recruited functionally active C4BP to these surfaces. Whereas PTX3 enhanced the activation of the classical/lectin pathway and caused enhanced C3 deposition on extracellular matrix, deposition of terminal pathway components and the generation of the inflammatory mediator C5a were not increased. Furthermore, PTX3 enhanced the binding of C4BP to late apoptotic cells, which resulted in an increased rate of inactivation of cell surface bound C4b and a reduction in the deposition of C5b-9. Thus, in addition to complement activators, PTX3 interacts with complement inhibitors including C4BP. This balanced interaction on extracellular matrix and on apoptotic cells may prevent excessive local complement activation that would otherwise lead to inflammation and host tissue damage.

  4. Methanol:coenzyme M methyltransferase from Methanosarcina barkeri. Purification, properties and encoding genes of the corrinoid protein MT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K; Harms, U; Thauer, R K

    1997-02-01

    In Methanosarcina barkeri, methanogenesis from methanol is initiated by the formation of methylcoenzyme M from methanol and coenzyme M. This methyl transfer reaction is catalyzed by two enzymes, designated MT1 and MT2. Transferase MT1 is a corrinoid protein. The purification, catalytic properties and encoding genes of MT2 (MtaA) have been described previously [Harms, U. and Thauer, R.K. (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 235, 653-659]. We report here on the corresponding analysis of MT1. The corrinoid protein MT1 was purified to apparent homogeneity and showed a specific activity of 750 mumol min-1 mg-1. The enzyme catalyzed the methylation of its bound corrinoid in the cob(I)amide oxidation state by methanol. In addition to this automethylation, the purified enzyme was found to catalyze the methylation of free cob(I)alamin to methylcob(III)alamin. It was composed of two different subunits designated MtaB and MtaC, with apparent molecular masses of 49 kDa and 24 kDa, respectively. The subunit MtaC was shown to harbour the corrinoid prosthetic group. The genes mtaB and mtaC were cloned and sequenced. They were found to be juxtapositioned and to form a transcription unit mtaCB. The corrinoid-harbouring subunit MtaC exhibits 35% sequence similarity to the cobalamin-binding domain of methionine synthase from Escherichia coli. PMID:9057830

  5. Glucan-Binding Proteins are Essential for Shaping Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David J.; Fountain, Tracey L.; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.

    2006-01-01

    Glucan plays a central role in sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans. This organism synthesizes several proteins capable of binding glucan. These are divided into the glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) that catalyze the synthesis of glucan and the non-Gtf glucan-binding proteins (Gbps). The biological significance of the Gbps has not been thoroughly defined, but studies suggest these proteins influence virulence and play a role in maintaining biofilm architecture by linking bacteria and extracellular molecules of glucan. We engineered a panel of Gbp mutants, targeting GbpA, GbpC, and GbpD, in which each gene encoding a Gbp was deleted individually and in combination. These strains were then analyzed by confocal microscopy and the biofilm properties quantified by the biofilm quantification software COMSTAT. All biofilms produced by mutant strains lost significant depth, but the basis for the reduction in height depended on which particular Gbp was missing. The loss of the cell-bound GbpC appeared dominant as might be expected based on losing the principal receptor for glucan. The loss of an extracellular Gbp, either GbpA or GbpD, also profoundly changed the biofilm architecture, each in a unique manner. PMID:17214736

  6. A temperature-sensitive trpS mutation interferes with trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulation of trp gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, A I; Sarsero, J P; Yanofsky, C

    1996-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, the tryptophan-activated trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulates expression of the seven tryptophan biosynthetic genes by binding to specific repeat sequences in the transcripts of the trp operon and of the folate operon, the operon containing trpG. Steinberg observed that strains containing a temperature-sensitive mutant form of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, encoded by the trpS1 allele, produced elevated levels of the tryptophan pathway enzymes, when grown ...

  7. Targeting Human Cancer by a Glycosaminoglycan Binding Malaria Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Clausen, Thomas M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.;

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum engineer infected erythrocytes to present the malarial protein, VAR2CSA, which binds a distinct type chondroitin sulfate (CS) exclusively expressed in the placenta. Here, we show that the same CS modification is present on a high proportion of malignant cells and that it can...... be specifically targeted by recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2). In tumors, placental-like CS chains are linked to a limited repertoire of cancer-associated proteoglycans including CD44 and CSPG4. The rVAR2 protein localizes to tumors in vivo and rVAR2 fused to diphtheria toxin or conjugated to hemiasterlin compounds...... strongly inhibits in vivo tumor cell growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate how an evolutionarily refined parasite-derived protein can be exploited to target a common, but complex, malignancy-associated glycosaminoglycan modification....

  8. Mutations in STX1B, encoding a presynaptic protein, cause fever-associated epilepsy syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, J.; Siekierska, A.; Langlois, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures affect 2-4% of all children(1) and have a strong genetic component(2). Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2)(3-5) have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding....... Wild-type human syntaxin-1B but not a mutated protein rescued the effects of stx1b knockdown in zebrafish. Our results thus implicate STX1B and the presynaptic release machinery in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes....

  9. The identification and high level expression of a protein encoded by the yeast Ty element.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, M J; Mellor, J; Fulton, A.M.; Roberts, N A; Bowen, B A; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1984-01-01

    Transcription of the yeast Ty element, Ty1 -15, was placed under the control of the efficient PGK promoter on the yeast expression vector, pMA91 . In extracts of yeast transformants containing these constructions a new 52 K basic polypeptide was detected by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and was shown, by hybrid arrested translation, to be specifically encoded by the Ty element. The protein coding region was mapped to the first 1.45 kb of the transcribed region of Ty1 -15. These dat...

  10. Cloning and expression of prion protein encoding gene of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiwen; SUN Xiuqin; ZHANG Jinxing; ZAN Jindong

    2008-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) encoding gene of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was cloned.It was not interrupted by an intron.This gene has two promoters in its 5' upstream,indicating that its transcription may be intensive,and should have an important function.It was expressed in all 14 tissues tested,demonstrating that it is a house-keeping gene.Its expression in digestion and reproduction systems implies that the possible prions of fish may transfer horizontally.

  11. Interplay between binding affinity and kinetics in protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huaiqing; Huang, Yongqi; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-07-01

    To clarify the interplay between the binding affinity and kinetics of protein-protein interactions, and the possible role of intrinsically disordered proteins in such interactions, molecular simulations were carried out on 20 protein complexes. With bias potential and reweighting techniques, the free energy profiles were obtained under physiological affinities, which showed that the bound-state valley is deep with a barrier height of 12 - 33 RT. From the dependence of the affinity on interface interactions, the entropic contribution to the binding affinity is approximated to be proportional to the interface area. The extracted dissociation rates based on the Arrhenius law correlate reasonably well with the experimental values (Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.79). For each protein complex, a linear free energy relationship between binding affinity and the dissociation rate was confirmed, but the distribution of the slopes for intrinsically disordered proteins showed no essential difference with that observed for ordered proteins. A comparison with protein folding was also performed. Proteins 2016; 84:920-933. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Interplay between binding affinity and kinetics in protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huaiqing; Huang, Yongqi; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-07-01

    To clarify the interplay between the binding affinity and kinetics of protein-protein interactions, and the possible role of intrinsically disordered proteins in such interactions, molecular simulations were carried out on 20 protein complexes. With bias potential and reweighting techniques, the free energy profiles were obtained under physiological affinities, which showed that the bound-state valley is deep with a barrier height of 12 - 33 RT. From the dependence of the affinity on interface interactions, the entropic contribution to the binding affinity is approximated to be proportional to the interface area. The extracted dissociation rates based on the Arrhenius law correlate reasonably well with the experimental values (Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.79). For each protein complex, a linear free energy relationship between binding affinity and the dissociation rate was confirmed, but the distribution of the slopes for intrinsically disordered proteins showed no essential difference with that observed for ordered proteins. A comparison with protein folding was also performed. Proteins 2016; 84:920-933. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018856

  13. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  14. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  15. Retinoic acid binding protein in normal and neopolastic rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, M S; Brandes, M J; Arnold, E A; Isaacs, J T; Ueda, H; Millan, J C; Brandes, D

    1982-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosol from normal and neoplastic rat prostatic tissues exhibited a peak of (3H) retinoic acid binding in the 2S region, corresponding to the cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein (cRABP). In the Fisher-Copenhagen F1 rat, cRABP was present in the lateral lobe, but could not be detected in the ventral nor in the dorsal prostatic lobes. Four sublines of the R-3327 rat prostatic tumor contained similar levels of this binding protein. The absence of cRABP in the normal tissue of origin of the R-3327 tumor, the rat dorsal prostate, and reappearance in the neoplastic tissues follows a pattern described in other human and animal tumors. The occurrence of cRABP in the well-differentiated as well as in the anaplastic R-3327 tumors in which markers which reflect a state of differentiation and hormonal regulation, such as androgen receptor, 5 alpha reductase, and secretory acid phosphatase are either markedly reduced or absent, points to cRABP as a marker of malignant transformation.

  16. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery. PMID:23762824

  17. Expression analysis of the Theileria parva subtelomere-encoded variable secreted protein gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intracellular protozoan parasite Theileria parva transforms bovine lymphocytes inducing uncontrolled proliferation. Proteins released from the parasite are assumed to contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell and parasite persistence. With 85 members, genes encoding subtelomeric variable secreted proteins (SVSPs form the largest gene family in T. parva. The majority of SVSPs contain predicted signal peptides, suggesting secretion into the host cell cytoplasm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed SVSP expression in T. parva-transformed cell lines established in vitro by infection of T or B lymphocytes with cloned T. parva parasites. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed mRNA expression for a wide range of SVSP genes. The pattern of mRNA expression was largely defined by the parasite genotype and not by host background or cell type, and found to be relatively stable in vitro over a period of two months. Interestingly, immunofluorescence analysis carried out on cell lines established from a cloned parasite showed that expression of a single SVSP encoded by TP03_0882 is limited to only a small percentage of parasites. Epitope-tagged TP03_0882 expressed in mammalian cells was found to translocate into the nucleus, a process that could be attributed to two different nuclear localisation signals. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis reveals a complex pattern of Theileria SVSP mRNA expression, which depends on the parasite genotype. Whereas in cell lines established from a cloned parasite transcripts can be found corresponding to a wide range of SVSP genes, only a minority of parasites appear to express a particular SVSP protein. The fact that a number of SVSPs contain functional nuclear localisation signals suggests that proteins released from the parasite could contribute to phenotypic changes of the host cell. This initial characterisation will facilitate future studies on the regulation of SVSP gene

  18. Bioinformatic identification of genes encoding C1q-domain containing proteins in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    C1q is the first subcomponent of classical pathway in the complement system and a major link between innate and acquired immunities. The globular (gC1q) domain similar with C1q was also found in many non-complement C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins which have similar crystal structure to that of the multifunctional tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family, and also have diverse functions. In this study, we identified a total of 52 independent gene sequences encoding C1q-domain-containing proteins through comprehensive searches of zebrafish genome, cDNA and EST databases. In comparison to 31 orthologous genes in human and different numbers in other species, a significant selective pressure was suggested during vertebrate evolution. Domain organization of C1q-domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins mainly includes a leading signal peptide, a collagen-like region of variable length, and a C-terminal C1q domain. There are 11 highly conserved residues within the C1q domain, among which 2 are invariant within the zebrafish gene set. A more extensive database searches also revealed homologous C1qDC proteins in other vertebrates, invertebrates and even bacterium, but no homologous sequences for encoding C1qDC proteins were found in many species that have a more recent evolutionary history with zebrafish. Therefore, further studies on C1q-domain-containing genes among different species will help us understand evolutionary mechanism of innate and acquired immunities.

  19. Integrating protein structures and precomputed genealogies in the Magnum database: Examples with cellular retinoid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Michael E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When accurate models for the divergent evolution of protein sequences are integrated with complementary biological information, such as folded protein structures, analyses of the combined data often lead to new hypotheses about molecular physiology. This represents an excellent example of how bioinformatics can be used to guide experimental research. However, progress in this direction has been slowed by the lack of a publicly available resource suitable for general use. Results The precomputed Magnum database offers a solution to this problem for ca. 1,800 full-length protein families with at least one crystal structure. The Magnum deliverables include 1 multiple sequence alignments, 2 mapping of alignment sites to crystal structure sites, 3 phylogenetic trees, 4 inferred ancestral sequences at internal tree nodes, and 5 amino acid replacements along tree branches. Comprehensive evaluations revealed that the automated procedures used to construct Magnum produced accurate models of how proteins divergently evolve, or genealogies, and correctly integrated these with the structural data. To demonstrate Magnum's capabilities, we asked for amino acid replacements requiring three nucleotide substitutions, located at internal protein structure sites, and occurring on short phylogenetic tree branches. In the cellular retinoid binding protein family a site that potentially modulates ligand binding affinity was discovered. Recruitment of cellular retinol binding protein to function as a lens crystallin in the diurnal gecko afforded another opportunity to showcase the predictive value of a browsable database containing branch replacement patterns integrated with protein structures. Conclusion We integrated two areas of protein science, evolution and structure, on a large scale and created a precomputed database, known as Magnum, which is the first freely available resource of its kind. Magnum provides evolutionary and structural

  20. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term “movable type”. Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the