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Sample records for binding protein cbp

  1. Solution properties of the archaeal CRISPR DNA repeat-binding homeodomain protein Cbp2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenchappa, Chandra; Heiðarsson, Pétur Orri; Kragelund, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) form the basis of diverse adaptive immune systems directed primarily against invading genetic elements of archaea and bacteria. Cbp1 of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophilic order Sulfolobales, carrying three imperfect repeats, binds...... specifically to CRISPR DNA repeats and has been implicated in facilitating production of long transcripts from CRISPR loci. Here, a second related class of CRISPR DNA repeat-binding protein, denoted Cbp2, is characterized that contains two imperfect repeats and is found amongst members of the crenarchaeal...... in facilitating high affinity DNA binding of Cbp2 by tethering the two domains. Structural studies on mutant proteins provide support for Cys(7) and Cys(28) enhancing high thermal stability of Cbp2(Hb) through disulphide bridge formation. Consistent with their proposed CRISPR transcriptional regulatory role, Cbp2...

  2. Modulation of CRISPR locus transcription by the repeat-binding protein Cbp1 in Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Ling; Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar; Peng, Xu

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR loci are essential components of the adaptive immune system of archaea and bacteria. They consist of long arrays of repeats separated by DNA spacers encoding guide RNAs (crRNA), which target foreign genetic elements. Cbp1 (CRISPR DNA repeat binding protein) binds specifically to the multiple...... direct repeats of CRISPR loci of members of the acidothermophilic, crenarchaeal order Sulfolobales. cbp1 gene deletion from Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A produced a strong reduction in pre-crRNA yields from CRISPR loci but did not inhibit the foreign DNA targeting capacity of the CRISPR/Cas system....... Conversely, overexpression of Cbp1 in S. islandicus generated an increase in pre-crRNA yields while the level of reverse strand transcripts from CRISPR loci remained unchanged. It is proposed that Cbp1 modulates production of longer pre-crRNA transcripts from CRISPR loci. A possible mechanism...

  3. Adenovirus DNA binding protein inhibits SrCap-activated CBP and CREB-mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiequn; Tarakanova, Vera; Chrivia, John; Yaciuk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The SNF2-related CBP activator protein (SrCap) is a potent activator of transcription mediated by CBP and CREB. We have previously demonstrated that the Adenovirus 2 DNA Binding Protein (DBP) binds to SrCap and inhibits the transcription mediated by the carboxyl-terminal region of SrCap (amino acids 1275-2971). We report here that DBP inhibits the ability of full-length SrCap (1-2971) to activate transcription mediated by Gal-CREB and Gal-CBP. In addition, DBP also inhibits the ability of SrCap to enhance Protein Kinase A (PKA) activated transcription of the enkaphalin promoter. DBP was found to dramatically inhibit transcription of a mammalian two-hybrid system that was dependent on the interaction of SrCap and CBP binding domains. We also found that DBP has no effect on transcription mediated by a transcriptional activator that is not related to SrCap, indicating that our reported transcriptional inhibition is specific for SrCap and not due to nonspecific effects of DBP's DNA binding activity on the CAT reporter plasmid. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which DBP inhibits cellular transcription mediated by the interaction between SrCap and CBP

  4. Calmodulin-binding protein CBP60g functions as a negative regulator in Arabidopsis anthocyanin accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Wan, Dongli; Li, Ruili; Han, Xiaomin; Li, Guojing; Wang, Ruigang

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins, a kind of flavonoid, normally accumulate in the flowers and fruits and make them colorful. Anthocyanin accumulation is regulated via the different temporal and spatial expression of anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic genes. CBP60g, a calmodulin binding protein, has previously been shown to have a role in pathogen resistance, drought tolerance and ABA sensitivity. In this study, we found that CBP60g repressed anthocyanin accumulation induced by drought, sucrose and kinetin. The expression pattern of CBP60g was in accordance with the anthocyanin accumulation tissues. Real-time qPCR analysis revealed that the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes CHS, CHI and DFR, as well as two members of MBW complex, PAP1, a MYB transcription factor, and TT8, a bHLH transcription factor, were down regulated by CBP60g. PMID:28253311

  5. Evidence that lactose binding to CBP35 disrupts its interaction with CBP70 in isolated HL60 cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sève, A P; Hadj-Sahraoui, Y; Felin, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Aubery, M; Hubert, J

    1994-07-01

    We have previously reported that two carbohydrate-binding proteins (CBP35 and CBP70) can, under appropriate conditions of affinity chromatography, be isolated from HL60 cell nuclear extracts as a complex. Moreover, we have demonstrated that, during affinity chromatography, the CBP70-CBP35 association can be modified by the binding of lactose to CBP35. To determine whether the CBP70-CBP35 association could be disrupted in the nucleus upon lactose binding to CBP35, the behaviors of CBP70 and CBP35 were analyzed in membrane-depleted nuclei of HL60 cells, incubated with or without lactose. This study was performed by using an antiserum that cross-reacts with CBP35 and CBP70, an antiserum that was specifically raised against CBP70, and a monoclonal antibody (Mac 2) reactive against CBP35. Taken together, the results of indirect immunofluorescent staining, immunoblotting experiments, and quantitative flow-cytofluorometric analysis show that (i) CBP70 and CBP35 are present and colocalized in the nuclei incubated without lactose, (ii) all the CBP70 molecules left the nuclei incubated in the presence of lactose, while CBP35 molecules, probably bound to RNA, remained inside the nuclei, and (iii) glucose failed to have the same effect as lactose. These results strongly suggest that, in membrane-depleted nuclei, CBP35 and CBP70 interactions can be altered by a conformational change of CBP35 induced by the binding of lactose to its carbohydrate-recognition domain.

  6. Crystal structure of CbpF, a bifunctional choline-binding protein and autolysis regulator from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; González, Ana; Stelter, Meike; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Kahn, Richard; Morales, María; Moscoso, Miriam; Campuzano, Susana; Campillo, Nuria E; Mobashery, Shahriar; García, José L; García, Pedro; Hermoso, Juan A

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorylcholine, a crucial component of the pneumococcal cell wall, is essential in bacterial physiology and in human pathogenesis because it binds to serum components of the immune system and acts as a docking station for the family of surface choline-binding proteins. The three-dimensional structure of choline-binding protein F (CbpF), one of the most abundant proteins in the pneumococcal cell wall, has been solved in complex with choline. CbpF shows a new modular structure composed both of consensus and non-consensus choline-binding repeats, distributed along its length, which markedly alter its shape, charge distribution and binding ability, and organizing the protein into two well-defined modules. The carboxy-terminal module is involved in cell wall binding and the amino-terminal module is crucial for inhibition of the autolytic LytC muramidase, providing a regulatory function for pneumococcal autolysis.

  7. Arabidopsis CaM binding protein CBP60g contributes to MAMP-induced SA accumulation and is involved in disease resistance against Pseudomonas syringae.

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    Lin Wang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA-induced defense responses are important factors during effector triggered immunity and microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP-induced immunity in plants. This article presents evidence that a member of the Arabidopsis CBP60 gene family, CBP60g, contributes to MAMP-triggered SA accumulation. CBP60g is inducible by both pathogen and MAMP treatments. Pseudomonas syringae growth is enhanced in cbp60g mutants. Expression profiles of a cbp60g mutant after MAMP treatment are similar to those of sid2 and pad4, suggesting a defect in SA signaling. Accordingly, cbp60g mutants accumulate less SA when treated with the MAMP flg22 or a P. syringae hrcC strain that activates MAMP signaling. MAMP-induced production of reactive oxygen species and callose deposition are unaffected in cbp60g mutants. CBP60g is a calmodulin-binding protein with a calmodulin-binding domain located near the N-terminus. Calmodulin binding is dependent on Ca(2+. Mutations in CBP60g that abolish calmodulin binding prevent complementation of the SA production and bacterial growth defects of cbp60g mutants, indicating that calmodulin binding is essential for the function of CBP60g in defense signaling. These studies show that CBP60g constitutes a Ca(2+ link between MAMP recognition and SA accumulation that is important for resistance to P. syringae.

  8. Purification, characterization and modular organization of a cellulose-binding protein, CBP105, a processive beta-1,4-endoglucanase from Cellulomonas flavigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Castillo, Teresa; Hidalgo-Lara, Maria Eugenia; Brieba, Luis G; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime

    2008-04-01

    A cellulose-binding protein of 105 kDa (CBP105) from Cellulomonas flavigena was purified and its gene was cloned. CBP105 is a processive endoglucanase with maximum activity on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) at pH 7.5 and 60 degrees C. Limited proteolysis suggested that CBP105 is composed of one catalytic domain (CD) and two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM). The nucleotide sequence of the cbp105 gene (AY729806) indicates that CBP105 is a modular enzyme with a family 9 glycoside hydrolase CD linked to a family 3 CBM, two fibronectin III-like domains and a family 2 CBM. This structural organization may be responsible for CBP105 processive CMC degradation.

  9. Transgenic Mice Expressing a Truncated Form of CREB-Binding Protein (CBP) Exhibit Deficits in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcelo A.; Kaplan, Michael P.; Park, Alice; Blanchard, Edward J.; Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Lombardi, Thomas L.; Abel, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Deletions, translocations, or point mutations in the CREB-binding protein (CBP) gene have been associated with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome; a human developmental disorder characterized by retarded growth and reduced mental function. To examine the role of CBP in memory, transgenic mice were generated in which the CaMKII[alpha] promoter drives…

  10. New insights into the structure and mode of action of Mo-CBP3, an antifungal chitin-binding protein of Moringa oleifera seeds.

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    Adelina B Batista

    Full Text Available Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein purified from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds that displays inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This study investigated the structural properties and the antifungal mode of action of this protein. To this end, circular dichroism spectroscopy, antifungal assays, measurements of the production of reactive oxygen species and microscopic analyses were utilized. Mo-CBP3 is composed of 30.3% α-helices, 16.3% β-sheets, 22.3% turns and 30.4% unordered forms. The Mo-CBP3 structure is highly stable and retains its antifungal activity regardless of temperature and pH. Fusarium solani was used as a model organism for studying the mechanisms by which this protein acts as an antifungal agent. Mo-CBP3 significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth at 0.05 mg.mL-1. Mo-CBP3 has both fungistatic and fungicidal effects, depending on the concentration used. Binding of Mo-CBP3 to the fungal cell surface is achieved, at least in part, via electrostatic interactions, as salt was able to reduce its inhibitory effect. Mo-CBP3 induced the production of ROS and caused disorganization of both the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in F. solani cells. Based on its high stability and specific toxicity, with broad-spectrum efficacy against important phytopathogenic fungi at low inhibitory concentrations but not to human cells, Mo-CBP3 has great potential for the development of new antifungal drugs or transgenic crops with enhanced resistance to phytopathogens.

  11. Recruitment of CBP/p300, TATA-binding protein, and S8 to distinct regions at the N terminus of adenovirus E1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Mozhgan; Grand, Roger J A; Mymryk, Joe S; Gallimore, Phillip H; Turnell, Andrew S

    2005-05-01

    The N-terminal region of the adenovirus (Ad) 12S E1A gene product targets several cellular proteins that are essential for the induction of S phase, cellular immortalization, cellular transformation, transcriptional repression, and transcriptional activation. The precise binding sites for these proteins, however, remain to be resolved. We therefore undertook an extensive site-directed mutagenesis approach to generate specific point mutants and to precisely map the binding sites for CBP, p300, TATA-binding protein (TBP), S4, S8, hGcn5, P/CAF, and Ran within the first 30 amino acids of the Ad5 12S E1A protein. We determined that although common residues within the N-terminal region can form partial binding sites for these proteins, point mutants were also generated that could discriminate between binding sites. These data indicate that AdE1A can target each of these proteins individually through distinct binding sites. It was evident, however, that the mutation of specific hydrophobic residues typically had the greatest effect upon AdE1A's ability to bind individual partners. Indeed, the mutation of L at positions 19 and 20 eliminated the ability of AdE1A to interact with any of the N-terminal binding proteins studied here. Interestingly, although TBP and S8 or CBP/p300 can exist as functional complexes, RNA interference revealed that the recruitment of either TBP, S8, or CBP/p300 to AdE1A was not dependent upon the expression of the other proteins. These data further indicate that AdE1A can target individual partner proteins in vivo and that it does not necessarily recruit these proteins indirectly as components of larger macromolecular complexes. Finally, we took advantage of the fine-mapping data to ascertain which proteins were targeted during the transformation process. Consistent with previous studies, CBP/p300 was found to be targeted by AdE1A during this process, although our data suggest that binding to other N-terminal proteins is also important for

  12. Structural Analysis of a Complex between Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (SUMO1) and the ZZ Domain of CREB-binding Protein (CBP/p300) Reveals a New Interaction Surface on SUMO

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    Diehl, Carl; Akke, Mikael; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We have recently discovered that the ZZ zinc finger domain represents a novel small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) binding motif. In this study we identify the binding epitopes in the ZZ domain of CBP (CREB-binding protein) and SUMO1 using NMR spectroscopy. The binding site on SUMO1 represents a ...

  13. E. coli Fis protein insulates the cbpA gene from uncontrolled transcription.

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    Chintakayala, Kiran; Singh, Shivani S; Rossiter, Amanda E; Shahapure, Rajesh; Dame, Remus T; Grainger, David C

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli curved DNA binding protein A (CbpA) is a poorly characterised nucleoid associated factor and co-chaperone. It is expressed at high levels as cells enter stationary phase. Using genetics, biochemistry, and genomics, we have examined regulation of, and DNA binding by, CbpA. We show that Fis, the dominant growth-phase nucleoid protein, prevents CbpA expression in growing cells. Regulation by Fis involves an unusual "insulation" mechanism. Thus, Fis protects cbpA from the effects of a distal promoter, located in an adjacent gene. In stationary phase, when Fis levels are low, CbpA binds the E. coli chromosome with a preference for the intrinsically curved Ter macrodomain. Disruption of the cbpA gene prompts dramatic changes in DNA topology. Thus, our work identifies a novel role for Fis and incorporates CbpA into the growing network of factors that mediate bacterial chromosome structure.

  14. Determination of osteogenic or adipogenic lineages in muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) by a collagen-binding peptide (CBP) derived from bone sialoprotein (BSP)

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    Choi, Yoon Jung [Dental Regenerative Biotechnology Major, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jue Yeon [Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jin [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chong-Pyoung, E-mail: ccpperio@snu.ac.kr [Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Jeong, E-mail: parkyj@snu.ac.kr [Dental Regenerative Biotechnology Major, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP sequence is identified from BSP and has collagen binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP directly activates the MAPK signaling, especially ERK1/2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP increase osteoblastic differentiation by the activation of Runx2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CBP decrease adipogenic differentiation by the inhibition of PPAR{gamma}. -- Abstract: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized, tissue-specific, non-collagenous protein that is normally expressed only in mineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, cementum, and calcified cartilage, and at sites of new mineral formation. The binding of BSP to collagen is thought to be important for initiating bone mineralization and bone cell adhesion to the mineralized matrix. Several recent studies have isolated stem cells from muscle tissue, but their functional properties are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of a synthetic collagen-binding peptide (CBP) on the differentiation efficiency of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs). The CBP sequence (NGVFKYRPRYYLYKHAYFYPHLKRFPVQ) corresponds to residues 35-62 of bone sialoprotein (BSP), which are located within the collagen-binding domain in BSP. Interestingly, this synthetic CBP inhibited adipogenic differentiation but increased osteogenic differentiation in MDSCs. The CBP also induced expression of osteoblastic marker proteins, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin; prevented adipogenic differentiation in MDSCs; and down-regulated adipose-specific mRNAs, such as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}. The CBP increased Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 protein phosphorylation, which is important in lineage determination. These observations suggest that this CBP determines the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage in MDSCs by activating ERK1/2. Taken together, a

  15. CrRNA-Protospacer Recognition during CRISPR- Directed DNA Interference Sulfolobus islandicus REY 15A and Structural Studies of CRISPR Binding Proteins (CBP) of Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousaei, Marzieh

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated proteins) is one of the important known immune mechanisms in archaea and bacteria. This adaptive immune system degrades invading genetic elements and protects the cell. Amongst 3 main types I, II and III...... of CRISPR system, two types (I and III) are found in archaea. However, in Sulfolobus species, subtypes IA, I-D, and III-B, III-D and rarely III-A are found. The model organism used for interference and structural studies is S. islandicus REY15A which carries subtypes I-A and III-B (α and β). Besides CRISPR...... ribonucleoprotein complex which is involved directly in defense, there are some less- known parts of the system including CPBs (CRISPR repeat-binding proteins) which are suggested to play a role in transcription. In the first part of my thesis, I provide a brief introduction to archaea and viruses that infect...

  16. E2A proteins enhance the histone acetyltransferase activity of the transcriptional co-activators CBP and p300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Brandy D; Thompson, Patrick; Bayly, Richard; Côté, Graham P; LeBrun, David P

    2012-05-01

    The E2A gene encodes the E-protein transcription factors E12 and E47 that play critical roles in B-lymphopoiesis. A somatic chromosomal translocation detectable in 5% of cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) involves E2A and results in expression of the oncogenic transcription factor E2A-PBX1. CREB binding protein (CBP) and its close paralog p300 are transcriptional co-activators with intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. We and others have shown that direct binding of an N-terminal transcriptional activation domain present in E12/E47 and E2A-PBX1 to the KIX domain of CBP/p300 contributes to E2A protein function. In the current work we show for the first time that the catalytic HAT activity of CBP/p300 is increased in the presence of residues 1-483 of E2A (i.e., the portion present in E2A-PBX1). The addition of purified, recombinant E2A protein to in vitro assays results in a two-fold augmentation of CBP/p300 HAT activity, whereas in vivo assays show a ten-fold augmentation of HAT-dependent transcriptional induction and a five-fold augmentation of acetylation of reporter plasmid-associated histone by CBP in response to co-transfected E2A. Our results indicate that the HAT-enhancing effect is independent of the well-documented E2A-CBP interaction involving the KIX domain and suggest a role for direct, perhaps low affinity binding of E2A to a portion of CBP that includes the HAT domain and flanking elements. Our findings add to a growing body of literature indicating that interactions between CBP/p300 and transcription factors can function in a specific manner to modulate HAT catalytic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. AGO2 Negatively Regulates Type I Interferon Signaling Pathway by Competition Binding IRF3 with CBP/p300

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    Shengyu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection triggers a series of signaling cascades and host innate immune responses, including interferon (IFN production, which depends on coordinated activity of multiple transcription factors. IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP and/or p300 are core factors that participate in transcriptional complex formation in the nucleus. In general, cells balance the production of IFNs through suppressive and stimulative mechanisms, but viral infections can disrupt such equilibrium. This study determined that H5N1 viral infection reduced the distribution of human argonaute 2 (AGO2 in A549 cell nucleus. AGO2 did not block phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding ability of IRF3 but inhibited its association with CBP. Therefore, this newly revealed mechanism shows that cellular response leads to transfer of AGO2 from cell nucleus and promotes IFN-β expression to increase host survival during viral infection.

  18. Paenibacillus larvae chitin-degrading protein PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor in American Foulbrood of honey bees.

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    Eva Garcia-Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of the globally occurring epizootic American Foulbrood (AFB of honey bees, causes intestinal infections in honey bee larvae which develop into systemic infections inevitably leading to larval death. Massive brood mortality might eventually lead to collapse of the entire colony. Molecular mechanisms of host-microbe interactions in this system and of differences in virulence between P. larvae genotypes are poorly understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium is a key step in pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Here, we present the isolation and identification of PlCBP49, a modular, chitin-degrading protein of P. larvae and demonstrate that this enzyme is crucial for the degradation of the larval peritrophic matrix during infection. PlCBP49 contains a module belonging to the auxiliary activity 10 (AA10, formerly CBM33 family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs which are able to degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides. Using chitin-affinity purified PlCBP49, we provide evidence that PlCBP49 degrades chitin via a metal ion-dependent, oxidative mechanism, as already described for members of the AA10 family. Using P. larvae mutants lacking PlCBP49 expression, we analyzed in vivo biological functions of PlCBP49. In the absence of PlCBP49 expression, peritrophic matrix degradation was markedly reduced and P. larvae virulence was nearly abolished. This indicated that PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor for the species P. larvae. The identification of the functional role of PlCBP49 in AFB pathogenesis broadens our understanding of this important family of chitin-binding and -degrading proteins, especially in those bacteria that can also act as entomopathogens.

  19. Paenibacillus larvae Chitin-Degrading Protein PlCBP49 Is a Key Virulence Factor in American Foulbrood of Honey Bees

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    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Poppinga, Lena; Fünfhaus, Anne; Hertlein, Gillian; Hedtke, Kati; Jakubowska, Agata; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of the globally occurring epizootic American Foulbrood (AFB) of honey bees, causes intestinal infections in honey bee larvae which develop into systemic infections inevitably leading to larval death. Massive brood mortality might eventually lead to collapse of the entire colony. Molecular mechanisms of host-microbe interactions in this system and of differences in virulence between P. larvae genotypes are poorly understood. Recently, it was demonstrated that the degradation of the peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium is a key step in pathogenesis of P. larvae infections. Here, we present the isolation and identification of PlCBP49, a modular, chitin-degrading protein of P. larvae and demonstrate that this enzyme is crucial for the degradation of the larval peritrophic matrix during infection. PlCBP49 contains a module belonging to the auxiliary activity 10 (AA10, formerly CBM33) family of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) which are able to degrade recalcitrant polysaccharides. Using chitin-affinity purified PlCBP49, we provide evidence that PlCBP49 degrades chitin via a metal ion-dependent, oxidative mechanism, as already described for members of the AA10 family. Using P. larvae mutants lacking PlCBP49 expression, we analyzed in vivo biological functions of PlCBP49. In the absence of PlCBP49 expression, peritrophic matrix degradation was markedly reduced and P. larvae virulence was nearly abolished. This indicated that PlCBP49 is a key virulence factor for the species P. larvae. The identification of the functional role of PlCBP49 in AFB pathogenesis broadens our understanding of this important family of chitin-binding and -degrading proteins, especially in those bacteria that can also act as entomopathogens. PMID:25080221

  20. CREB binding protein is required for both short-term and long-term memory formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Zou, X.; Watanabe, H.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Shen, J.

    2010-01-01

    CREB binding protein (CBP) is a transcriptional coactivator with histone acetyltransferase activity. Our prior study suggested that CBP might be a key target of presenilins in the regulation of memory formation and neuronal survival. To elucidate the role of CBP in the adult brain, we generated

  1. A Venom Gland Extracellular Chitin-Binding-Like Protein from Pupal Endoparasitoid Wasps, Pteromalus Puparum, Selectively Binds Chitin

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    Chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) existed in various species and involved in different biology processes. In the present study, we cloned a full length cDNA of chitin-binding protein-like (PpCBP-like) from Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae. PpCBP-like encoded a 96 putative amin...

  2. Evidence for a lactose-mediated association between two nuclear carbohydrate-binding proteins.

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    Sève, A P; Felin, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Sahraoui, T; Aubery, M; Hubert, J

    1993-02-01

    Nuclear proteins were extracted in 2 M NaCl from membrane-depleted nuclei isolated from HL60 cells. Extracted proteins were submitted to affinity chromatography columns containing immobilized glucose, galactose or lactose. The polypeptides present in the different eluted fractions were resolved by SDS-PAGE and were either silver stained or analysed by immunoblotting with monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies, respectively, raised against the glucose-binding protein CBP67 and the galactose-binding proteins CBP35 and L14. The results presented here show that HL60 cell nuclei contain CBP35 and a glucose-binding lectin of 70 kDa (CBP70). These data account for the previously reported binding of neoglycoproteins containing glucosyl and galactosyl residues to HL60 cell nuclei. Furthermore, the present study provides the new information that CBP35 can associate with CBP70 by interactions dependent on the binding of CBP35 to lactose, and the results of some affinity chromatography experiments strongly suggest that CBP35 and CBP70 associate by protein-protein interactions. The potential function of this lactose-mediated interaction is discussed with respect to data recently reported by others showing that CBP35 is involved in in vitro mRNA splicing and that lactose inhibits the processing of the pre-RNA substrate.

  3. The cellular prion protein: a new partner of the lectin CBP70 in the nucleus of NB4 human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

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    Rybner, C; Finel-Szermanski, S; Felin, M; Sahraoui, T; Rousseau, C; Fournier, J G; Sève, A P; Botti, J

    2002-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPc) whose physiological role still remains elusive. To better understand the function of PrPc, it is important to identify the different subcellular localization(s) of the protein and the different partners with which it might be associated. In this context, the PrPc-lectins interactions are investigated because PrPc is a sialoglycoprotein which can react with lectins which are carbohydrate-binding proteins. We have previously characterized a nuclear lectin CBP70 able to recognize N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine residues in HL60 cells. Using confocal immunofluorescence, flow-cytofluorometry, and Western-blotting, we have found that PrPc is expressed in the nucleus of the NB4 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line. It was also found that the lectin CBP70 is localized in NB4 cell nuclei. Moreover, several approaches revealed that PrPc and CBP70 are colocalized in the nucleus. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that these proteins are coprecipitated and interact via a sugar-dependent binding moiety. In conclusion, PrPc and CBP70 are colocalized in the nuclear compartment of NB4 cells and this interaction may be important to better understand the biological function and possibly the conversion process of PrPc into its pathological form (PrPsc). Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A Venom Gland Extracellular Chitin-Binding-Like Protein from Pupal Endoparasitoid Wasps, Pteromalus Puparum, Selectively Binds Chitin

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    Yu Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin-binding proteins (CBPs are present in many species and they act in a variety of biological processes. We analyzed a Pteromalus puparum venom apparatus proteome and transcriptome and identified a partial gene encoding a possible CBP. Here, we report cloning a full-length cDNA of a sequence encoding a chitin-binding-like protein (PpCBP from P. puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae. The cDNA encoded a 96-amino-acid protein, including a secretory signal peptide and a chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain. Phylogenetic analysis of chitin binding domains (CBDs of cuticle proteins and peritrophic matrix proteins in selected insects revealed that the CBD of PpCBP clustered with the CBD of Nasonia vitripennis. The PpCBP is specifically expressed in the venom apparatus of P. puparum, mostly in the venom gland. PpCBP expression was highest at day one after adult eclosion and much lower for the following five days. We produced a recombinant PpCBP and binding assays showed the recombinant protein selectively binds chitin but not cellulose in vitro. We infer that PpCBP serves a structural role in the venom reservoir, or may be injected into the host to help wound healing of the host exoskeleton.

  5. 3D structure prediction of histone acetyltransferase (HAC proteins of the p300/CBP family and their interactome in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Amar Cemanovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histone acetylation is an important posttranslational modification correlated with gene activation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the histone acetyltransferase (HAC proteins of the CBP family are homologous to animal p300/CREB (cAMP-responsive element-binding proteins, which are important histone acetyltransferases participating in many physiological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study the 3-D structure of all HAC protein subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana: HAC1, HAC2, HAC4, HAC5 and HAC12 is predicted by homology modeling and confirmed by Ramachandran plot analysis. The amino acid sequences HAC family members are highly similar to the sequences of the homologous human p300/CREB protein. Conservation of p300/CBP domains among the HAC proteins was examined further by sequence alignment and pattern search. The domains of p300/CBP required for the HAC function, such as PHD, TAZ and ZZ domains, are conserved in all HAC proteins. Interactome analysis revealed that HAC1, HAC5 and HAC12 proteins interact with S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase domaincontaining protein that shows methyltransferase activity, suggesting an additional function of the HAC proteins. Additionally, HAC5 has a strong interaction value for the putative c-myb-like transcription factor MYB3R-4, which suggests that it also may have a function in regulation of DNA replication.

  6. Functional redundancy between the transcriptional activation domains of E2A is mediated by binding to the KIX domain of CBP/p300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Christopher M; Langelaan, David N; Kirlin, Alyssa C; Chitayat, Seth; Munro, Kim; Spencer, Holly L; LeBrun, David P; Smith, Steven P

    2014-06-01

    The E-protein transcription factors play essential roles in lymphopoiesis, with E12 and E47 (hereafter called E2A) being particularly important in B cell specification and maturation. The E2A gene is also involved in a chromosomal translocation that results in the leukemogenic oncoprotein E2A-PBX1. The two activation domains of E2A, AD1 and AD2, display redundant, independent, and cooperative functions in a cell-dependent manner. AD1 of E2A functions by binding the transcriptional co-activator CBP/p300; this interaction is required in oncogenesis and occurs between the conserved ϕ-x-x-ϕ-ϕ motif in AD1 and the KIX domain of CBP/p300. However, co-activator recruitment by AD2 has not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the first of two conserved ϕ-x-x-ϕ-ϕ motifs within AD2 of E2A interacts at the same binding site on KIX as AD1. Mutagenesis uncovered a correspondence between the KIX-binding affinity of AD2 and transcriptional activation. Although AD2 is dispensable for oncogenesis, experimentally increasing the affinity of AD2 for KIX uncovered a latent potential to mediate immortalization of primary hematopoietic progenitors by E2A-PBX1. Our findings suggest that redundancy between the two E2A activation domains with respect to transcriptional activation and oncogenic function is mediated by binding to the same surface of the KIX domain of CBP/p300. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Krisztián A; Steinmann, Myriam; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J; Cardinaux, Jean-René

    2015-11-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2

    KAUST Repository

    Kovács, Krisztián A.

    2015-11-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  9. Identification of two nuclear N-acetylglucosamine-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, M; Doyennette-Moyne, M A; Hadj-Sahraoui, Y; Aubery, M; Hubert, J; Sève, A P

    1994-12-01

    Using neoglycoproteins, lectins that recognize different sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine residues, were previously detected in animal cell nuclei. We report herein the isolation of two N-acetylglucosamine-binding proteins from HL60 cell nuclei: i) a 22 kDa polypeptide (CBP22) with an isoelectric point of 4.5 was isolated for the first time and ii) a 70 kDa polypeptide with an isoelectric point of 7.8. This latter protein corresponds to the glucose-binding protein (CBP70) previously isolated, based on the following similarities: i) they have the same molecular mass, ii) they have the same isoelectric point, iii) they are recognized by antibodies raised against CBP70, and iv) both are lectins from the C group of Drickamer's classification. CBP70 appeared to recognize glucose and N-acetylglucosamine; however, its affinity for N-acetylglucosamine was found to be twice that for glucose. The presence in the nucleus of two nuclear N-acetylglucosamine-binding proteins and their potential ligands, such as O-N-acetylglucosamine glycoproteins, strongly argues for possible intranuclear glycoprotein-lectin interactions.

  10. Multiple functions of CREB-binding protein during postembryonic development: identification of target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; George, Smitha; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-12-29

    Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids control postembryonic development in insects. They serve as valuable targets for pest management. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms of their action is of crucial importance. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a universal transcriptional co-regulator. It controls the expression of several genes including those from hormone signaling pathways through co-activation of many transcription factors. However, the role of CBP during postembryonic development in insects is not well understood. Therefore, we have studied the role of CBP in postembryonic development in Tribolium, a model coleopteran insect. CBP is ubiquitously expressed in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of CBP resulted in a decrease in JH induction of Kr-h1 gene expression in Tribolium larvae and led to a block in their development. Moreover, the injection of CBP double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) showed lethal phenotypes within 8 days of injection. RNA-seq and subsequent differential gene expression analysis identified CBP target genes in Tribolium. Knockdown of CBP caused a decrease in the expression of 1306 genes coding for transcription factors and other proteins associated with growth and development. Depletion of CBP impaired the expression of several JH response genes (e.g., Kr-h1, Hairy, early trypsin) and ecdysone response genes (EcR, E74, E75, and broad complex). Further, GO enrichment analyses of the downregulated genes showed enrichment in different functions including developmental processes, pigmentation, anatomical structure development, regulation of biological and cellular processes, etc. These data suggest diverse but crucial roles for CBP during postembryonic development in the coleopteran model insect, Tribolium. It can serve as a target for RNAi mediated pest management of this stored product pest.

  11. Role of CBP and SATB-1 in aging, dietary restriction, and insulin-like signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhua Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available How dietary restriction (DR increases lifespan and decreases disease burden are questions of major interest in biomedical research. Here we report that hypothalamic expression of CREB-binding protein (CBP and CBP-binding partner Special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB-1 is highly correlated with lifespan across five strains of mice, and expression of these genes decreases with age and diabetes in mice. Furthermore, in Caenorhabditis elegans, cbp-1 is induced by bacterial dilution DR (bDR and the daf-2 mutation, and cbp-1 RNAi specifically in adults completely blocks lifespan extension by three distinct protocols of DR, partially blocks lifespan extension by the daf-2 mutation but not of cold, and blocks delay of other age-related pathologies by bDR. Inhibiting the C. elegans ortholog of SATB-1 and CBP-binding partners daf-16 and hsf-1 also attenuates lifespan extension by bDR, but not other protocols of DR. In a transgenic Abeta42 model of Alzheimer's disease, cbp-1 RNAi prevents protective effects of bDR and accelerates Abeta42-related pathology. Furthermore, consistent with the function of CBP as a histone acetyltransferase, drugs that enhance histone acetylation increase lifespan and reduce Abeta42-related pathology, protective effects completely blocked by cbp-1 RNAi. Other factors implicated in lifespan extension are also CBP-binding partners, suggesting that CBP constitutes a common factor in the modulation of lifespan and disease burden by DR and the insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway.

  12. [Phenotypic changes and apoptosis of Jurkat cells induced by over-expression of C-Src kinase-binding protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meihua; Cong, Beibei; Wang, Bing; Wang, Lina; Shao, Zhiwei

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of up-regulated expression of C-Src kinase-binding protein (CBP) on biological functions and cell ultrastructure in Jurkat cells. We constructed the CBP-EGFP viral vector and established a stably transfected Jurkat cell line with it. Cell growing status was observed under a light microscope. The transfection efficiency and the location of CBP were examined with confocal microscopy. The complexity of cell organelles was observed by electron microscopy. Apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of C-Src kinase (CSK) and Vav oncoprotein in CBP signaling pathway were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). We found more pyknotic cells and less homogeneity in the transfected Jurkat cells under light microscope. Confocal microscopy revealed that cell transfection efficiency was up to 100% and CBP was located on the cell membrane. Moreover, there were more complex organelles in CBP-EGFP transfected Jurkat cells with a lot of mitochondrions and the lysosome-like clumps accumulation. Detection of apoptosis showed that CBP-EGFP transfected Jurkat cells had more necrotic cells compared with the negative group. Finally, qRT-PCR indicated the expression of CSK increased and Vav decreased in the CBP-EGFP transfected group. Up-regulated expression of CBP in Jurkat cells could reduce cell homogeneity and promote cell apoptosis.

  13. SUMOylation regulates the nuclear mobility of CREB binding protein and its association with nuclear bodies in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Colm M.; Kindle, Karin B.; Collins, Hilary M. [Gene Regulation Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Heery, David M., E-mail: david.heery@nottingham.ac.uk [Gene Regulation Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    The lysine acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) is required for chromatin modification and transcription at many gene promoters. In fixed cells, a large proportion of CBP colocalises to PML or nuclear bodies. Using live cell imaging, we show here that YFP-tagged CBP expressed in HEK293 cells undergoes gradual accumulation in nuclear bodies, some of which are mobile and migrate towards the nuclear envelope. Deletion of a short lysine-rich domain that contains the major SUMO acceptor sites of CBP abrogated its ability to be SUMO modified, and prevented its association with endogenous SUMO-1/PML speckles in vivo. This SUMO-defective CBP showed enhanced ability to co-activate AML1-mediated transcription. Deletion mapping revealed that the SUMO-modified region was not sufficient for targeting CBP to PML bodies, as C-terminally truncated mutants containing this domain showed a strong reduction in accumulation at PML bodies. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that YFP-CBP{Delta}998-1087 had a retarded recovery time in the nucleus, as compared to YFP-CBP. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates CBP function by influencing its shuttling between nuclear bodies and chromatin microenvironments.

  14. Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates p300/CBP co-activation function. Possible role in the regulation of NF-AT1 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Gonzalo, Marta; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carretero, Marta; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Alejandra; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Lai, Michael M.C.; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core is a viral structural protein; it also participates in some cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation. However, the mechanisms of core-mediated transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. Oncogenic virus proteins often target p300/CBP, a known co-activator of a wide variety of transcription factors, to regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that HCV core protein interacts with p300/CBP and enhances both its acetyl-transferase and transcriptional activities. In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear core protein activates the NH 2 -terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) of NF-AT1 in a p300/CBP-dependent manner. We propose a model in which core protein regulates the co-activation function of p300/CBP and activates NF-AT1, and probably other p300/CBP-regulated transcription factors, by a novel mechanism involving the regulation of the acetylation state of histones and/or components of the transcriptional machinery

  15. Contribution of Streptococcus mutans Strains with Collagen-Binding Proteins in the Presence of Serum to the Pathogenesis of Infective Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsugu, Masatoshi; Nomura, Ryota; Matayoshi, Saaya; Teramoto, Noboru; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans , a major pathogen of dental caries, is considered one of the causative agents of infective endocarditis (IE). Recently, bacterial DNA encoding 120-kDa cell surface collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) has frequently been detected from S. mutans -positive IE patients. In addition, some of the CBP-positive S. mutans strains lacked a 190-kDa protein antigen (PA), whose absence strengthened the adhesion to and invasion of endothelial cells. The interaction between pathogenic bacteria and serum or plasma is considered an important virulence factor in developing systemic diseases; thus, we decided to analyze the pathogenesis of IE induced by S. mutans strains with different patterns of CBP and PA expression by focusing on the interaction with serum or plasma. CBP-positive (CBP + )/PA-negative (PA - ) strains showed prominent aggregation in the presence of human serum or plasma, which was significantly greater than that with CBP + /PA-positive (PA + ) and CBP-negative (CBP - )/PA+ strains. Aggregation of CBP + /PA - strains was also observed in the presence of a high concentration of type IV collagen, a major extracellular matrix protein in serum. In addition, aggregation of CBP + /PA - strains was drastically reduced when serum complement was inactivated. Furthermore, an ex vivo adherence model and an in vivo rat model of IE showed that extirpated heart valves infected with CBP + /PA - strains displayed prominent bacterial mass formation, which was not observed following infection with CBP + /PA + and CBP - /PA + strains. These results suggest that CBP + /PA - S. mutans strains utilize serum to contribute to their pathogenicity in IE. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Drosophila Cbp53E Regulates Axon Growth at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly R Hagel

    Full Text Available Calcium is a primary second messenger in all cells that functions in processes ranging from cellular proliferation to synaptic transmission. Proper regulation of calcium is achieved through numerous mechanisms involving channels, sensors, and buffers notably containing one or more EF-hand calcium binding domains. The Drosophila genome encodes only a single 6 EF-hand domain containing protein, Cbp53E, which is likely the prototypic member of a small family of related mammalian proteins that act as calcium buffers and calcium sensors. Like the mammalian homologs, Cbp53E is broadly though discretely expressed throughout the nervous system. Despite the importance of calcium in neuronal function and growth, nothing is known about Cbp53E's function in neuronal development. To address this deficiency, we generated novel null alleles of Drosophila Cbp53E and examined neuronal development at the well-characterized larval neuromuscular junction. Loss of Cbp53E resulted in increases in axonal branching at both peptidergic and glutamatergic neuronal terminals. This overgrowth could be completely rescued by expression of exogenous Cbp53E. Overexpression of Cbp53E, however, only affected the growth of peptidergic neuronal processes. These findings indicate that Cbp53E plays a significant role in neuronal growth and suggest that it may function in both local synaptic and global cellular mechanisms.

  17. SUMOylation regulates the nuclear mobility of CREB binding protein and its association with nuclear bodies in live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Colm M.; Kindle, Karin B.; Collins, Hilary M.; Heery, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The lysine acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) is required for chromatin modification and transcription at many gene promoters. In fixed cells, a large proportion of CBP colocalises to PML or nuclear bodies. Using live cell imaging, we show here that YFP-tagged CBP expressed in HEK293 cells undergoes gradual accumulation in nuclear bodies, some of which are mobile and migrate towards the nuclear envelope. Deletion of a short lysine-rich domain that contains the major SUMO acceptor sites of CBP abrogated its ability to be SUMO modified, and prevented its association with endogenous SUMO-1/PML speckles in vivo. This SUMO-defective CBP showed enhanced ability to co-activate AML1-mediated transcription. Deletion mapping revealed that the SUMO-modified region was not sufficient for targeting CBP to PML bodies, as C-terminally truncated mutants containing this domain showed a strong reduction in accumulation at PML bodies. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that YFP-CBPΔ998-1087 had a retarded recovery time in the nucleus, as compared to YFP-CBP. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates CBP function by influencing its shuttling between nuclear bodies and chromatin microenvironments.

  18. Cbp80 is needed for the expression of piRNA components and piRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Rashpa

    Full Text Available Cap binding protein 80 (Cbp80 is the larger subunit of the nuclear cap-binding complex (nCBC, which is known to play important roles in nuclear mRNA processing, export, stability and quality control events. Reducing Cbp80 mRNA levels in the female germline revealed that Cbp80 is also involved in defending the germline against transposable elements. Combining such knockdown experiments with large scale sequencing of small RNAs further showed that Cbp80 is involved in the initial biogenesis of piRNAs as well as in the secondary biogenesis pathway, the ping-pong amplification cycle. We further found that Cbp80 knockdown not only led to the upregulation of transposons, but also to delocalization of Piwi, Aub and Ago3, key factors in the piRNA biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore, compared to controls, levels of Piwi and Aub were also reduced upon knock down of Cbp80. On the other hand, with the same treatment we could not detect significant changes in levels or subcellular distribution (nuage localization of piRNA precursor transcripts. This shows that Cbp80 plays an important role in the production and localization of the protein components of the piRNA pathway and it seems to be less important for the production and export of the piRNA precursor transcripts.

  19. Histone acetylation and CREB binding protein are required for neuronal resistance against ischemic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferah Yildirim

    Full Text Available Epigenetic transcriptional regulation by histone acetylation depends on the balance between histone acetyltransferase (HAT and deacetylase activities (HDAC. Inhibition of HDAC activity provides neuroprotection, indicating that the outcome of cerebral ischemia depends crucially on the acetylation status of histones. In the present study, we characterized the changes in histone acetylation levels in ischemia models of focal cerebral ischemia and identified cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB-binding protein (CBP as a crucial factor in the susceptibility of neurons to ischemic stress. Both neuron-specific RNA interference and neurons derived from CBP heterozygous knockout mice showed increased damage after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning by a short (5 min subthreshold occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA, followed 24 h afterwards by a 30 min occlusion of the MCA, increased histone acetylation levels in vivo. Ischemic preconditioning enhanced CBP recruitment and histone acetylation at the promoter of the neuroprotective gene gelsolin leading to increased gelsolin expression in neurons. Inhibition of CBP's HAT activity attenuated neuronal ischemic preconditioning. Taken together, our findings suggest that the levels of CBP and histone acetylation determine stroke outcome and are crucially associated with the induction of an ischemia-resistant state in neurons.

  20. IGF binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Leon A

    2017-12-18

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1-6 bind IGFs but not insulin with high affinity. They were initially identified as serum carriers and passive inhibitors of IGF actions. However, subsequent studies showed that, although IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions in many circumstances, they may also potentiate these actions. IGFBPs are widely expressed in most tissues, and they are flexible endocrine and autocrine/paracrine regulators of IGF activity, which is essential for this important physiological system. More recently, individual IGFBPs have been shown to have IGF-independent actions. Mechanisms underlying these actions include (i) interaction with non-IGF proteins in compartments including the extracellular space and matrix, the cell surface and intracellularly; (ii) interaction with and modulation of other growth factor pathways including EGF, TGF- and VEGF; and (iii) direct or indirect transcriptional effects following nuclear entry of IGFBPs. Through these IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions, IGFBPs modulate essential cellular processes including proliferation, survival, migration, senescence, autophagy and angiogenesis. They have been implicated in a range of disorders including malignant, metabolic, neurological and immune diseases. A more complete understanding of their cellular roles may lead to the development of novel IGFBP-based therapeutic opportunities.

  1. Characterisation of cellulose-binding proteins that are involved in the adhesion mechanism of Fibrobacter intestinalis DR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, J; Forsberg, C W

    1999-04-01

    Cellulose-binding proteins (CBP) isolated from cell envelopes of the cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter intestinalis strain DR7 were studied in order to investigate the adhesion mechanism. The proteins were examined for their reaction with antibodies that specifically block bacterial adhesion, response to glycosylation staining and monosaccharide composition. To this end, the effect of some monosaccharides (CBP components) on blocking of DR7 adhesion to cellulose was determined. Previous study had shown the occurrence of 16 CBP in the outer membrane and periplasm of DR7, of which 6 had endoglucanase activity (Miron and Forsberg 1998). Data from the present study show that most of the 16 CBP of DR7, except for the 38-, 90- and 180-kDa proteins, are glycosylated. Rabbit antibodies that specifically block DR7 adhesion were prepared by affinity preabsorption of antiserum against wild-type DR7 with bacterial cells of its adherence-defective mutant (DR7-M). The preabsorbed antibodies reacted positively in Western blotting with glycosylated CBP of 225, 200, 150, 70, 45 and block the adhesion of DR7 cells to cellulose. It is suggested that some glycosylated residues of CBP may have a predominant role in the adhesion of DR7 to cellulose.

  2. Stable expression of functional CBP70 lectin during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, C; Felin, M; Sève, A P

    2000-04-01

    CBP70 is a glycoslylated lectin that interacts through either glycan-lectin or protein-protein interactions. In addition, depending on its cellular localization, this lectin has different partners, for example, galectin-3, an 82-kDa ligand in the nucleus, or Bcl-2 in the cytoplasm. In this study, we observed the persistence of plurilocalized lectin CBP70 after two heat-shock treatments conducted either under mild conditions, i.e., incubating the cells for 1 h at 42 degrees C then for 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 h at 37 degrees C, or harsh conditions, i.e., incubation at 42 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h. By combining the information collected from biochemical, fluorocytometric, confocal, and affinity-chromatography analyses, we concluded that CBP70 persisted in HL60 cells and its N-acetylglucosamine-binding sites remained active after all the heat-shock treatments tested. These data and the previously published findings reviewed in this report concur in supporting the hypothesis that CBP70 could function as an organizer of multimeric assembly, leading to the formation of various complexes in different cellular compartments, according to the needs of the cell. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Roles of phosphorylation and helix propensity in the binding of the KIX domain of CREB-binding protein by constitutive (c-Myb) and inducible (CREB) activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Tsaffrir; Mayr, Bernhard M; Dyson, H Jane; Montminy, Marc R; Wright, Peter E

    2002-11-01

    cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) is a general transcriptional co-activator that mediates interactions between transcription factors and the basal transcription machinery. To obtain insights into the mechanism by which the KIX domain of CBP can recognize the transactivation domains of many different transcription factors, we have used NMR and biochemical analyses to study the interactions of KIX with the transactivation domain from the constitutive activator c-Myb and with the kinase-inducible transactivation domain (KID) from CREB. NMR chemical shift mapping shows that both activation domains bind to the same surface of KIX. In the unbound state, both the phosphorylated KID and c-Myb activation domains are only partly structured, and binding to KIX is coupled with folding to form an amphipathic helix. Helix-destabilizing mutations significantly impair binding, whereas mutations that increase the intrinsic secondary structure content of the free phosphorylated KID peptide have only a small influence on binding affinity. Low affinity but specific binding of unphosphorylated KID to KIX was measured by ITC and was also observed in Western blot assays and by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiment in living cells. The large increase in the affinity for phosphorylated KID is due to favorable intermolecular interactions involving the phosphate moiety. After induction by phosphorylation, CREB is able to compete effectively with other transcriptional activators for binding to CBP.

  4. Distinct effects of cAMP and mitogenic signals on CREB-binding protein recruitment impart specificity to target gene activation via CREB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Bernhard M.; Canettieri, Gianluca; Montminy, Marc R.

    2001-01-01

    Ser-133 phosphorylation of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is sufficient to induce cellular gene expression in response to cAMP, but additional promoter-bound factors are required for target gene activation by CREB in response to mitogen/stress signals. To compare the relative effects of different signals on recruitment of the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) to CREB in living cells, we developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. cAMP promoted the interaction of CREB with CBP in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by FRET analysis, but mitogen/stress signals were far less effective in stimulating complex formation even though they induced comparable levels of Ser-133 phosphorylation. cAMP and non-cAMP stimuli were comparably active in promoting this interaction in the cytosol; the formation of CREB⋅CBP complexes in response to non-cAMP signals was specifically inhibited in the nucleus. Non-cAMP signals had no effect on intrinsic CREB- or CBP-binding activities by Far Western blot assay, thereby supporting the presence of a distinct CREB⋅CBP antagonist. Our studies indicate that the relative effects of cAMP and mitogen/stress signals on CREB⋅CBP complex formation impart selectivity to gene activation through CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133. PMID:11535812

  5. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  6. CREB-binding protein, p300, butyrate, and Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Lazarova, Darina L

    2015-07-21

    This paper reviews the distinctive roles played by the transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cell physiology in colorectal cancer (CRC). Specifically, we focus on the effects of CBP- and p300-mediated Wnt activity on (1) neoplastic progression; (2) the activities of butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber, on cell signaling and colonic cell physiology; (3) the development of resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), including butyrate and synthetic HDACis, in colonic cells; and (4) the physiology and number of cancer stem cells. Mutations of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway initiate the majority of CRC cases, and we have shown that hyperactivation of this pathway by butyrate and other HDACis promotes CRC cell apoptosis. This activity by butyrate may in part explain the preventive action of fiber against CRC. However, individuals with a high-fiber diet may still develop neoplasia; therefore, resistance to the chemopreventive action of butyrate likely contributes to CRC. CBP or p300 may modify the ability of butyrate to influence colonic cell physiology since the two transcriptional coactivators affect Wnt signaling, and likely, its hyperactivation by butyrate. Also, CBP and p300 likely affect colonic tumorigenesis, as well as stem cell pluripotency. Improvement of CRC prevention and therapy requires a better understanding of the alterations in Wnt signaling and gene expression that underlie neoplastic progression, stem cell fate, and the development of resistance to butyrate and clinically relevant HDACis. Detailed knowledge of how CBP- and p300 modulate colonic cell physiology may lead to new approaches for anti-CRC prevention and therapeutics, particularly with respect to combinatorial therapy of CBP/p300 inhibitors with HDACis.

  7. Transcriptional tools: Small molecules for modulating CBP KIX-dependent transcriptional activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Caleb A; Pomerantz, William C; Mapp, Anna K

    2011-01-01

    Previously it was demonstrated that amphipathic isoxazolidines are able to functionally replace the transcriptional activation domains of endogenous transcriptional activators. In addition, in vitro binding studies suggested that a key binding partner of these molecules is the CREB Binding Protein (CBP), more specifically the KIX domain within this protein. Here we show that CBP plays an essential role in the ability of isoxazolidine transcriptional activation domains to activate transcription in cells. Consistent with this model, isoxazolidines are able to function as competitive inhibitors of the activators MLL and Jun, both of which utilize a binding interaction with KIX to up-regulate transcription. Further, modification of the N2 side chain produced three analogs with enhanced potency against Jun-mediated transcription, although increased cytotoxicity was also observed. Collectively these small KIX-binding molecules will be useful tools for dissecting the role of the KIX domain in a variety of pathological processes. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. binding protein (HABP1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    adsorbed on carbon coated copper grid (400 mesh) for. 5 min at room temperature. The grids were subsequently .... and inhibition by GAGs and DMA were determined on polystyrene wells of microtitre plates (Costar, ... for binding inhibition assays was carried out by mixing equal volumes of the conjugate and the inhibitor at ...

  9. binding protein (HABP1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of HA in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting its multiligand affinity amongst carbohydrates. rHABP1 shows differential affinity ... site is seen to correspond to the carbohydrate-binding site in E-selectin, which has similarity in the ... adsorbed on carbon coated copper grid (400 mesh) for. 5 min at room temperature.

  10. Specificity and sensitivity of binding proteins in the radioimmunoassay of cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijzen, A.H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison concerning avidity towards cortisol and 10 other steroids was made between several binding proteins either in solution or bound to cellulose as so called ''solid phase'' reagent. Human blood cortisol binding protein (CBP, transcortin), and two distinctly different cortisol-binding rabbit antisera and the isolated immunoglobulins thereof were compared in their avidity to bind cortisol and several other steroids. The antisera were harvested from rabbits immunized with either cortisol-21-succinyl-albumin (CSA) or cortisol-3-oxim-albumin (COA). The latter antiserum, having the highest titre in cortisol titration, showed the greatest specificity and was most useful as a binding reagent in cortisol radioimmunoassay when used as a solid phase reagent. The determination of cortisol in micro samples of blood serum is possible without steroid extraction or serum protein denaturation and with only minor influence of steroid impurities in the sample to be analyzed. Affinity constants for all compared binding reagents and steroids are given

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of choline-binding protein F from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Rafael [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González, Ana; Moscoso, Miriam; García, Pedro [Departamento de Microbiología Molecular, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stelter, Meike; Kahn, Richard [Institut de Biologie Structurale J.-P. Ebel CEA CNRS UJF, Laboratoire de Cristallographie Macromoléculaire, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble CEDEX 1 (France); Hermoso, Juan A., E-mail: xjuan@iqfr.csic.es [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-09-01

    The modular choline-binding protein F (CbpF) from S. pneumoniae has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A SAD data set from a gadolinium-complex derivative has been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Choline-binding protein F (CbpF) is a modular protein that is bound to the pneumococcal cell wall through noncovalent interactions with choline moieties of the bacterial teichoic and lipoteichoic acids. Despite being one of the more abundant proteins on the surface, along with the murein hydrolases LytA, LytB, LytC and Pce, its function is still unknown. CbpF has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 291 K. Diffraction-quality orthorhombic crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.13, b = 114.94, c = 75.69 Å. A SAD data set from a Gd-HPDO3A-derivatized CbpF crystal was collected to 2.1 Å resolution at the gadolinium L{sub III} absorption edge using synchrotron radiation.

  12. A Chitin-binding Protein Purified from Moringa oleifera Seeds Presents Anticandidal Activity by Increasing Cell Membrane Permeability and Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João X.S. Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that infect immunocompromised and/or immunosuppressed patients, particularly in hospital facilities, that besides representing a significant threat to health increase the risk of mortality. Apart from echinocandins and triazoles, which are well tolerated, most of the antifungal drugs used for candidiasis treatment can cause side effects and lead to the development of resistant strains. A promising alternative to the conventional treatments is the use of plant proteins. M. oleifera Lam. is a plant with valuable medicinal properties, including antimicrobial activity. This work aimed to purify a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds and to evaluate its antifungal properties against Candida species. The purified protein, named Mo-CBP2, represented about 0.2% of the total seed protein and appeared as a single band on native PAGE. By mass spectrometry, Mo-CBP2 presented 13,309 Da. However, by SDS-PAGE, Mo-CBP2 migrated as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 23,400 Da. Tricine-SDS-PAGE of Mo-CBP2 under reduced conditions revealed two protein bands with apparent molecular masses of 7,900 and 4,600 Da. Altogether, these results suggest that Mo-CBP2 exists in different oligomeric forms. Moreover, Mo-CBP2 is a basic glycoprotein (pI 10.9 with 4.1% (m/m sugar and it did not display hemagglutinating and hemolytic activities upon rabbit and human erythrocytes. A comparative analysis of the sequence of triptic peptides from Mo-CBP2 in solution, after LC-ESI-MS/MS, revealed similarity with other M. oleifera proteins, as the 2S albumin Mo-CBP3 and flocculating proteins, and 2S albumins from different species. Mo-CBP2 possesses in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis, with MIC50 and MIC90 values ranging between 9.45–37.90 and 155.84–260.29 μM, respectively. In addition, Mo-CBP2 (18.90 μM increased the cell membrane permeabilization

  13. The transcriptional cofactor MIER1-beta negatively regulates histone acetyltransferase activity of the CREB-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillespie Laura L

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mier1 encodes a novel transcriptional regulator and was originally isolated as a fibroblast growth factor early response gene. Two major protein isoforms have been identified, MIER1α and β, which differ in their C-terminal sequence. Previously, we demonstrated that both isoforms recruit histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 to repress transcription. To further explore the role of MIER1 in chromatin remodeling, we investigated the functional interaction of MIER1 with the histone acetyltransferase (HAT, Creb-binding protein (CBP. Findings Using GST pull-down assays, we demonstrate that MIER1 interacts with CBP and that this interaction involves the N-terminal half (amino acids 1–283 of MIER1, which includes the acidic activation and ELM2 domains and the C-terminal half (amino acids 1094–2441 of CBP, which includes the bromo-, HAT, C/H3 and glutamine-rich domains. Functional analysis, using HEK293 cells, shows that the CBP bound to MIER1 in vivo has no detectable HAT activity. Histone 4 peptide binding assays demonstrate that this inhibition of HAT activity is not the result of interference with histone binding. Conclusion Our data indicate that an additional mechanism by which MIER1 could repress transcription involves the inhibition of histone acetyltransferase activity.

  14. The chitinolytic system of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comprises a nonprocessive chitinase and a chitin-binding protein that promotes the degradation of alpha- and beta-chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav; Bunaes, Anne C; Mathiesen, Geir; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2009-04-01

    It has recently been shown that the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens produces an accessory nonhydrolytic chitin-binding protein that acts in synergy with chitinases. This provided the first example of the production of dedicated helper proteins for the turnover of recalcitrant polysaccharides. Chitin-binding proteins belong to family 33 of the carbohydrate-binding modules, and genes putatively encoding these proteins occur in many microorganisms. To obtain an impression of the functional conservation of these proteins, we studied the chitinolytic system of the Gram-positive Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IL1403. The genome of this lactic acid bacterium harbours a simple chitinolytic machinery, consisting of one family 18 chitinase (named LlChi18A), one family 33 chitin-binding protein (named LlCBP33A) and one family 20 N-acetylhexosaminidase. We cloned, overexpressed and characterized LlChi18A and LlCBP33A. Sequence alignments and structural modelling indicated that LlChi18A has a shallow substrate-binding groove characteristic of nonprocessive endochitinases. Enzymology showed that LlChi18A was able to hydrolyse both chitin oligomers and artificial substrates, with no sign of processivity. Although the chitin-binding protein from S. marcescens only bound to beta-chitin, LlCBP33A was found to bind to both alpha- and beta-chitin. LlCBP33A increased the hydrolytic efficiency of LlChi18A to both alpha- and beta-chitin. These results show the general importance of chitin-binding proteins in chitin turnover, and provide the first example of a family 33 chitin-binding protein that increases chitinase efficiency towards alpha-chitin.

  15. Monoallele deletion of CBP leads to pericentromeric heterochromatin condensation through ESET expression and histone H3 (K9) methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Hagerty, Sean; Cormier, Kerry A; Kim, Jinho; Kung, Andrew L; Ferrante, Robert J; Ryu, Hoon

    2008-06-15

    Chromatin remodeling is tightly controlled under physiological conditions. Alterations in chromatin structure are involved in the pathogenesis of neuronal systems. We found that the monoallelic deletion of CREB binding protein (CBP) results in the induction of ERG-associated protein with SET domain (ESET) and increases trimethylation of histone H3 (K9) and condensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin structure in neurons. Nested deletion and mutational analysis of the ESET promoter further demonstrated that the Ets-2 transcription factor regulates transcriptional activity of the ESET gene. In CBP+/- mice, Ets-2 occupancy in the ESET promoter DNA was markedly elevated. Our results suggest that CBP is a transcriptional repressor of ESET gene expression by limiting Ets-2 transcriptional activity, while CBP siRNA enhances basal and Ets-2-dependent ESET transcriptional activity. Altered expression of the ESET gene and hypertrimethylation of H3 (K9) correlate with striatal neuron atrophy and dysfunction in CBP+/- mice. These results establish an alternative pathway that loss of CBP leads to the pericentric heterochromatin condensation through ESET expression and trimethylation of H3 (K9).

  16. When is protein binding important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Jules; Schmidt, Stephan; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2013-09-01

    The present paper is an ode to a classic citation by Benet and Hoener (2002. Clin Pharm Ther 71(3):115-121). The now classic paper had a huge impact on drug development and the way the issue of protein binding is perceived and interpreted. Although the authors very clearly pointed out the limitations and underlying assumptions for their delineations, these are too often overlooked and the classic paper's message is misinterpreted by broadening to cases that were not intended. Some members of the scientific community concluded from the paper that protein binding is not important. This was clearly not intended by the authors, as they finished their paper with a paragraph entitled: "When is protein binding important?" Misinterpretation of the underlying assumptions in the classic work can result in major pitfalls in drug development. Therefore, we revisit the topic of protein binding with the intention of clarifying when clinically relevant changes should be considered during drug development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Suppression of type I interferon production by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and degradation of CREB-binding protein by nsp1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingzhan; Shi, Kaichuang; Yoo, Dongwan, E-mail: dyoo@illinois.edu

    2016-02-15

    Type I interferons (IFN-α/β) are the major components of the innate immune response of hosts, and in turn many viruses have evolved to modulate the host response during infection. We found that the IFN-β production was significantly suppressed during PEDV infection in cells. To identify viral IFN antagonists and to study their suppressive function, viral coding sequences for the entire structural and nonstructural proteins were cloned and expressed. Of 16 PEDV nonstructural proteins (nsps), nsp1, nsp3, nsp7, nsp14, nsp15 and nsp16 were found to inhibit the IFN-β and IRF3 promoter activities. The sole accessory protein ORF3, structure protein envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) protein were also shown to inhibit such activities. PEDV nsp1 did not interfere the IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation but interrupted the enhanceosome assembly of IRF3 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) by degrading CBP. A further study showed that the CBP degradation by nsp1 was proteasome-dependent. Our data demonstrate that PEDV modulates the host innate immune responses by degrading CBP and suppressing ISGs expression. - Highlights: • PEDV modulates the host innate immune system by suppressing the type I interferon production and ISGs expression. • Ten viral proteins were identified as IFN antagonists, and nsp1 was the most potent viral IFN antagonist. • PEDV nsp1 did not interfere the IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation but interrupted the enhanceosome assembly of IRF3 and CREB-binding protein (CBP). • PEDV nsp1 caused the CBP degradation in the nucleus, which may be the key mechanism for PEDV-mediated IFN downregulation.

  18. "Nuclear FGF receptor-1 and CREB binding protein: an integrative signaling module".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Michal K; Birkaya, B; Aletta, J M; Narla, S T; Benson, C A; Decker, B; Stachowiak, E K

    2015-05-01

    In this review we summarize the current understanding of a novel integrative function of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1) and its partner CREB Binding Protein (CBP) acting as a nuclear regulatory complex. Nuclear FGFR1 and CBP interact with and regulate numerous genes on various chromosomes. FGFR1 dynamic oscillatory interactions with chromatin and with specific genes, underwrites gene regulation mediated by diverse developmental signals. Integrative Nuclear FGFR1 Signaling (INFS) effects the differentiation of stem cells and neural progenitor cells via the gene-controlling Feed-Forward-And-Gate mechanism. Nuclear accumulation of FGFR1 occurs in numerous cell types and disruption of INFS may play an important role in developmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and in metastatic diseases such as cancer. Enhancement of INFS may be used to coordinate the gene regulation needed to activate cell differentiation for regenerative purposes or to provide interruption of cancer stem cell proliferation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inhibition of CREB binding protein-beta-catenin signaling down regulates CD133 expression and activates PP2A-PTEN signaling in tumor initiating liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Berlind, Joshua; Mavila, Nirmala

    2018-03-12

    The WNT-beta-catenin pathway is known to regulate cellular homeostasis during development and tissue regeneration. Activation of WNT signaling increases the stability of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and enhances its nuclear translocation. Nuclear beta-catenin function is regulated by transcriptional co-factors such as CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. Hyper-activated WNT-beta-catenin signaling is associated with many cancers. However, its role in inducing stemness to liver cancer cells, its autoregulation and how it regulates tumor suppressor pathways are not well understood. Here we have investigated the role of CBP-beta-catenin signaling on the expression of CD133, a known stem cell antigen and PP2A-PTEN pathway in tumor initiating liver cancer cells. Human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 and clonally expanded CD133 expressing tumor initiating liver cells (TICs) from premalignant murine liver were used in this study. CBP-beta-catenin inhibitor ICG001 was used to target CBP-beta catenin signaling in liver cancer cells in vitro. Western blotting and real time PCR (qPCR) were used to quantify protein expression/phosphorylation and mRNA levels, respectively. CBP and CD133 gene silencing was performed by siRNA transfection. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) was performed to quantify CD133 positive cells. Protein Phosphatase (PP2A) activity was measured after PP2AC immunoprecipitation. CBP inhibitor ICG001 and CBP silencing significantly reduced CD133 expression and anchorage independent growth in HepG2 and murine TICs. CD133 silencing in TICs decreased cell proliferation and expression levels of cell cycle regulatory genes, CyclinD1 and CyclinA2. ICG001 treatment and CBP silencing reduced the levels of phospho Ser380/Tyr382/383 PTEN, phospho Ser473 -AKT, Phospho- Ser552 beta-catenin in TICs. ICG001 mediated de-phosphorylation of PTEN in TICs was PP2A dependent and partly prevented by co-treatment with PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid. CBP-beta-catenin signaling

  20. Small molecule inhibition of CBP/catenin interactions eliminates drug resistant clones in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Eun Ji; Hsieh, Yao-Te; Pham, Jennifer; Zhao, Yi; Nguyen, Cu; Huantes, Sandra; Park, Eugene; Naing, Khatija; Klemm, Lars; Swaminathan, Srividya; Conway, Edward M.; Pelus, Louis M.; Crispino, John; Mullighan, Charles; McMillan, Michael; Müschen, Markus; Kahn, Michael; Kim, Yong-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a major problem warranting new treatment strategies. Wnt/catenin signaling is critical for the self-renewal of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Deregulated Wnt signaling is evident in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia, however little is known about ALL. Differential interaction of catenin with either the Kat3 coactivator CREBBP (CBP) or the highly homologous EP300 (p300) is critical to determine divergent cellular responses and provides a rationale for the regulation of both proliferation and differentiation by the Wnt signaling pathway. Usage of the coactivator CBP by catenin leads to transcriptional activation of cassettes of genes that are involved in maintenance of progenitor cell self-renewal. However, the use of the coactivator p300, leads to activation of genes involved in the initiation of differentiation. ICG-001 is a novel small molecule modulator of Wnt/catenin signaling, which specifically binds to the N-terminus of CBP and not p300, within amino acids 1–110, thereby disrupting the interaction between CBP and catenin. Here, we report that selective disruption of the CBP/β- and γ-catenin interactions using ICG-001 leads to differentiation of pre-B ALL cells and loss of self-renewal capacity. Survivin, an inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein, was also downregulated in primary ALL after treatment with ICG-001. Using ChIP assay, we demonstrate occupancy by CBP of the survivin promoter, which is decreased by ICG-001 in primary ALL. CBP-mutations have been recently identified in a significant percentage of ALL patients, however, almost all of the identified mutations reported occur C-terminal to the binding site for ICG-001. Importantly, ICG-001, regardless of CBP mutational status and chromosomal aberration, leads to eradication of drug-resistant primary leukemia in combination with conventional therapy in vitro and significantly prolongs the survival of NOD/SCID mice engrafted with primary

  1. CBP List of Preclearance Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CBP Preclearance provides for the U.S. border inspection and clearance of commercial air passengers and their goods at (15) locations in (6) foreign countries. CBP...

  2. Identification of StARD3 as a lutein-binding protein in the macula of the primate retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M; Bernstein, Paul S

    2011-04-05

    Lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the macular pigment of the human retina. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of these carotenoids in the diet, serum, and macula are associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the AREDS2 study is prospectively testing this hypothesis. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms underlying the selective uptakes of lutein and zeaxanthin into the human macula may provide important insights into the physiology of the human macula in health and disease. GSTP1 is the macular zeaxanthin-binding protein, but the identity of the human macular lutein-binding protein has remained elusive. Prior identification of the silkworm lutein-binding protein (CBP) as a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) protein family and selective labeling of monkey photoreceptor inner segments with an anti-CBP antibody provided an important clue for identifying the primate retina lutein-binding protein. The homology of CBP with all 15 human StARD proteins was analyzed using database searches, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, and we here provide evidence to identify StARD3 (also known as MLN64) as a human retinal lutein-binding protein. Antibody to StARD3, N-62 StAR, localizes to all neurons of monkey macular retina and especially cone inner segments and axons, but does not colocalize with the Müller cell marker, glutamine synthetase. Further, recombinant StARD3 selectively binds lutein with high affinity (K(D) = 0.45 μM) when assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues for exploring its roles in human macular physiology and disease.

  3. Identification of StARD3 as a Lutein-binding Protein in the Macula of the Primate Retina†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Lutein, zeaxanthin and their metabolites are the xanthophyll carotenoids that form the macular pigment of the human retina. Epidemiological evidence suggests that high levels of these carotenoids in the diet, serum and macula are associated with decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the AREDS2 study is prospectively testing this hypothesis. Understanding the biochemical mechanisms underlying the selective uptakes of lutein and zeaxanthin into the human macula may provide important insights into the physiology of the human macula in health and disease. GSTP1 is the macular zeaxanthin-binding protein, but the identity of the human macular lutein-binding protein has remained elusive. Prior identification of the silkworm lutein-binding protein (CBP) as a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory domain (StARD) protein family, and selective labeling of monkey photoreceptor inner segments by anti-CBP antibody provided an important clue toward identifying the primate retina lutein-binding protein. Homology of CBP to all 15 human StARD proteins was analyzed using database searches, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and we here provide evidence to identify StARD3 (also known as MLN64) as a human retinal lutein-binding protein. Further, recombinant StARD3 selectively binds lutein with high affinity (KD = 0.45 micromolar) when assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized, specific interactions of StARD3 with lutein and provide novel avenues to explore its roles in human macular physiology and disease. PMID:21322544

  4. Megalin binds and mediates cellular internalization of folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birn, Henrik; Zhai, Xiaoyue; Holm, Jan

    2005-01-01

    to express high levels of megalin, is inhibitable by excess unlabeled FBP and by receptor associated protein, a known inhibitor of binding to megalin. Immortalized rat yolk sac cells, representing an established model for studying megalin-mediated uptake, reveal (125)I-labeled FBP uptake which is inhibited...... to bind and mediate cellular uptake of FBP. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows binding of bovine and human milk FBP to immobilized megalin, but not to low density lipoprotein receptor related protein. Binding of (125)I-labeled folate binding protein (FBP) to sections of kidney proximal tubule, known...

  5. Polymeric competitive protein binding adsorbents for radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Serum protein comprising specific binding proteins such as antibodies, B 12 intrinsic factor, thyroxin binding globulin and the like may be copolymerized with globulin constituents of serum by the action of ethylchloroformate to form readily packed insoluble precipitates which, following purification as by washing, are eminently suited for employment as competitive binding protein absorbents in radioassay procedures. 10 claims, no drawings

  6. E2A-PBX1 interacts directly with the KIX domain of CBP/p300 in the induction of proliferation in primary hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, Richard; Chuen, Luan; Currie, Richard A; Hyndman, Brandy D; Casselman, Richard; Blobel, Gerd A; LeBrun, David P

    2004-12-31

    The E2A gene encodes DNA-binding transcription factors, called E12 and E47, involved in cell specification and maturation. E2A is also involved in a chromosomal translocation that leads to the expression of an oncogenic transcription factor called E2A-PBX1 in cases of acute leukemia. In the work described here, we elucidate the interaction between E2A-PBX1 and transcriptional co-activators. We confirm that the E2A portion can interact with CBP and PCAF and map required elements on E2A and CBP. On CBP, the interaction involves the KIX domain, a well characterized domain that mediates interactions with several other oncogenic transcription factors. On E2A, the interaction with CBP requires conserved alpha-helical domains that reside within activation domains 1 and 2 (AD1 and AD2, respectively). Using purified, recombinant proteins, we show that the E2A-CBP interaction is direct. Notwithstanding the previously demonstrated ability of AD1 and AD2 to function independently, some of our findings suggest functional cooperativity between these two domains. Finally, we show that the CBP/p300-interactive helical domains of E2A are important in the induction of proliferation in cultured primary bone marrow cells retrovirally transduced with E2A-PBX1. Our findings suggest that some aspects of E2A-PBX1 oncogenesis involve a direct interaction with the KIX domain of CBP/p300.

  7. Actin binding proteins and spermiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruk, Dolores D

    2011-01-01

    Drebrin E, an actin-binding protein lacking intrinsic activity in the regulation of actin dynamics (e.g., polymerization, capping, nucleation, branching, cross-linking, bundling and severing), is known to recruit actin regulatory proteins to a specific cellular site. Herein, we critically evaluate recent findings in the field which illustrate that drebrin E works together with two other actin-binding proteins, namely Arp3 (actin-related protein 3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that simultaneously controls actin nucleation for polymerization and branching of actin filaments) and Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 that controls capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments, as well as actin filament bundling) to regulate the homeostasis of F-actin filament bundles at the ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific atypical adherens junction (AJ) in the seminiferous epithelium. This is mediated by the strict temporal and spatial expression of these three actin-binding proteins at the apical and basal ES at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (step 8–19) and Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, respectively, during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. In this Commentary, we put forth a possible model by which drebrin E may be acting as a platform upon which proteins (e.g., Arp3) that are needed to alter the conformation of actin filament bundles at the ES can be recruited to the site, thus facilitating changes in cell shape and cell position in the epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. In short, drebrin E may be acting as a “logistic” distribution center to manage different regulatory proteins at the apical ES, thereby regulating the dynamics of actin filament bundles and modulating the plasticity of the apical ES. This would allow adhesion to be altered continuously throughout the epithelial cycle to accommodate spermatid movement in the seminiferous epithelium during spermiogenesis and spermiation. We also

  8. Human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J S; Rasmussen, H; Nielsen, B B

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant human plasminogen binding protein tetranectin (TN) and the C-type lectin CRD of this protein (TN3) have been crystallized. TN3 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4(2)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = b = 64.0, c = 75.7 A and with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals...... to at least 2.5 A. A full data set has been collected to 3.0 A. The asymmetric unit contains one monomer of TN. Molecular replacement solutions for TN3 and TN have been obtained using the structure of the C-type lectin CRD of rat mannose-binding protein as search model. The rhombohedral space group indicates...... diffract X-rays to at least 2.0 A resolution. A complete diffraction data set has been collected to 2.7 A resolution. The crystals of TN, obtained by the vapour-diffusion reverse salting-in method at 280 K, are rhombohedral, space group R3, with the hexagonal axes a = b = 89.1, c = 75.8 A, and diffract...

  9. Genes encoding calmodulin-binding proteins in the Arabidopsis genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vaka S.; Ali, Gul S.; Reddy, Anireddy S N.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the recently completed Arabidopsis genome sequence indicates that approximately 31% of the predicted genes could not be assigned to functional categories, as they do not show any sequence similarity with proteins of known function from other organisms. Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous and multifunctional Ca(2+) sensor, interacts with a wide variety of cellular proteins and modulates their activity/function in regulating diverse cellular processes. However, the primary amino acid sequence of the CaM-binding domain in different CaM-binding proteins (CBPs) is not conserved. One way to identify most of the CBPs in the Arabidopsis genome is by protein-protein interaction-based screening of expression libraries with CaM. Here, using a mixture of radiolabeled CaM isoforms from Arabidopsis, we screened several expression libraries prepared from flower meristem, seedlings, or tissues treated with hormones, an elicitor, or a pathogen. Sequence analysis of 77 positive clones that interact with CaM in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner revealed 20 CBPs, including 14 previously unknown CBPs. In addition, by searching the Arabidopsis genome sequence with the newly identified and known plant or animal CBPs, we identified a total of 27 CBPs. Among these, 16 CBPs are represented by families with 2-20 members in each family. Gene expression analysis revealed that CBPs and CBP paralogs are expressed differentially. Our data suggest that Arabidopsis has a large number of CBPs including several plant-specific ones. Although CaM is highly conserved between plants and animals, only a few CBPs are common to both plants and animals. Analysis of Arabidopsis CBPs revealed the presence of a variety of interesting domains. Our analyses identified several hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome as CaM targets, suggesting their involvement in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling networks.

  10. Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Knudsen, J; Poulsen, F M

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein a...

  11. A TDG/CBP/RARα Ternary Complex Mediates the Retinoic Acid-dependent Expression of DNA Methylation-sensitive Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Léger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG is a multifunctional enzyme, which is essential for embryonic development. It mediates the base excision repair (BER of G:T and G:U DNA mismatches arising from the deamination of 5-methyl cytosine (5-MeC and cytosine, respectively. Recent studies have pointed at a role of TDG during the active demethylation of 5-MeC within CpG islands. TDG interacts with the histone acetylase CREB-binding protein (CBP to activate CBP-dependent transcription. In addition, TDG also interacts with the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα, resulting in the activation of RARα target genes. Here we provide evidence for the existence of a functional ternary complex containing TDG, CBP and activated RARα. Using global transcriptome profiling, we uncover a coupling of de novo methylation-sensitive and RA-dependent transcription, which coincides with a significant subset of CBP target genes. The introduction of a point mutation in TDG, which neither affects overall protein structure nor BER activity, leads to a significant loss in ternary complex stability, resulting in the deregulation of RA targets involved in cellular networks associated with DNA replication, recombination and repair. We thus demonstrate for the first time a direct coupling of TDG’s epigenomic and transcription regulatory function through ternary complexes with CBP and RARα.

  12. Contribution of the Collagen-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans to Bacterial Colonization of Inflamed Dental Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryota; Ogaya, Yuko; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen of dental caries. Collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) (approximately 120 kDa), termed Cnm and Cbm, are regarded as important cell surface antigens related to the adherence of S. mutans to collagenous tissue. Furthermore, CBP-positive S. mutans strains are associated with various systemic diseases involving bacteremia, such as infective endocarditis. Endodontic infection is considered to be an important cause of bacteremia, but little is known regarding the presence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissue. In the present study, the distribution and virulence of S. mutans in dental pulp tissues were investigated by focusing on CBPs. Adhesion and invasion properties of various S. mutans strains were analyzed using human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPFs). CBP-positive strains had a significantly higher rate of adhesion to HDPFs compared with CBP-defective isogenic mutant strains (Pmutans strains isolated from infected root canal specimens was then analyzed by PCR. We found that approximately 50% of the root canal specimens were positive for S. mutans. Approximately 20% of these strains were Cnm-positive, while no Cbm-positive strains were isolated. The Cnm-positive strains isolated from the specimens showed adhesion to HDPFs. Our results suggest that CBP-positive S. mutans strains exhibit high colonization in dental pulp. This could be a possible virulence factor for various systemic diseases.

  13. Immuno-histochemical localization of cholesterol binding proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, cholesterol association in tissue sections was confirmed by using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) labeled florescent antibodies and immuno-blotting of CBPs. Finally, CBPs or cholesterol-carrying proteins were detected intracellularly in midgut epithelial/ microvillus cells named as CBP+. Zymogene ...

  14. Translation initiation mediated by nuclear cap-binding protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Incheol; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2017-04-01

    In mammals, cap-dependent translation of mRNAs is initiated by two distinct mechanisms: cap-binding complex (CBC; a heterodimer of CBP80 and 20)-dependent translation (CT) and eIF4E-dependent translation (ET). Both translation initiation mechanisms share common features in driving cap- dependent translation; nevertheless, they can be distinguished from each other based on their molecular features and biological roles. CT is largely associated with mRNA surveillance such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), whereas ET is predominantly involved in the bulk of protein synthesis. However, several recent studies have demonstrated that CT and ET have similar roles in protein synthesis and mRNA surveillance. In a subset of mRNAs, CT preferentially drives the cap-dependent translation, as ET does, and ET is responsible for mRNA surveillance, as CT does. In this review, we summarize and compare the molecular features of CT and ET with a focus on the emerging roles of CT in translation. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(4): 186-193].

  15. CAP binding proteins associated with the nucleus.

    OpenAIRE

    Patzelt, E; Blaas, D; Kuechler, E

    1983-01-01

    Cap binding proteins of HeLa cells were identified by photo-affinity labelling using the cap analogue gamma-[32P]-[4-(benzoyl-phenyl)methylamido]-7-methylguanosine-5'- triphosphate. Photoreaction with whole cell homogenates resulted in specific labelling of five major polypeptides. The small molecular weight polypeptide appeared to be identical to the 24 000 to 26 000 dalton cap binding protein previously identified in initiation factors. A cap binding protein of 37 000 dalton was found in in...

  16. Retinoid-binding proteins: similar protein architectures bind similar ligands via completely different ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoids are a class of compounds that are chemically related to vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in vision, cell growth and differentiation. In vivo, retinoids must bind with specific proteins to perform their necessary functions. Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and epididymal retinoic acid binding protein (ERABP carry retinoids in bodily fluids, while cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs carry retinoids within cells. Interestingly, although all of these transport proteins possess similar structures, the modes of binding for the different retinoid ligands with their carrier proteins are different. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we analyzed the various retinoid transport mechanisms using structure and sequence comparisons, binding site analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that in the same family of proteins and subcellular location, the orientation of a retinoid molecule within a binding protein is same, whereas when different families of proteins are considered, the orientation of the bound retinoid is completely different. In addition, none of the amino acid residues involved in ligand binding is conserved between the transport proteins. However, for each specific binding protein, the amino acids involved in the ligand binding are conserved. The results of this study allow us to propose a possible transport model for retinoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the differences in the binding modes between the different retinoid-binding proteins.

  17. Recent Advances in the Discovery of HIF-1α-p300/CBP Inhibitors as Anti-Cancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinlian; Yang, Yingrui; Lu, Mengchen; Lei, Yonghua; Xu, Lili; Jiang, Zhengyu; Xu, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaoke; Zhang, Xiaojin; Sun, Haopeng; You, Qidong

    2018-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric (containing α and β subunits) transcription factor, is involved in hypoxia response pathway that regulates the expression of many tumorrelated genes. The stabilized HIF-1 heterodimer couples to the general co-activators p300/CBP (CREB binding protein), forming an active transcription factor to initiate hypoxic responses. Inhibiting the transcription factor-coactivator HIF-1α-p300/CBP interaction represents an attractive approach for blocking hypoxia pathway in tumors. Recently, diverse HIF-1α-p300/CBP inhibitors have been designed and their anti-tumor activities have been evaluated. The developments of inhibitors of HIF-1α- p300/CBP are discussed in this review. An outline of structures and biological activities of these inhibitors can be traced, along with the approaches for inhibitors discovery. The challenges in identifying novel and selective potent inhibitors of HIF-1α-p300/CBP are also put forward. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Structure of noncoding RNA is a determinant of function of RNA binding proteins in transcriptional regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyoshi Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The majority of the noncoding regions of mammalian genomes have been found to be transcribed to generate noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs, resulting in intense interest in their biological roles. During the past decade, numerous ncRNAs and aptamers have been identified as regulators of transcription. 6S RNA, first described as a ncRNA in E. coli, mimics an open promoter structure, which has a large bulge with two hairpin/stalk structures that regulate transcription through interactions with RNA polymerase. B2 RNA, which has stem-loops and unstructured single-stranded regions, represses transcription of mRNA in response to various stresses, including heat shock in mouse cells. The interaction of TLS (translocated in liposarcoma with CBP/p300 was induced by ncRNAs that bind to TLS, and this in turn results in inhibition of CBP/p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity in human cells. Transcription regulator EWS (Ewing's sarcoma, which is highly related to TLS, and TLS specifically bind to G-quadruplex structures in vitro. The carboxy terminus containing the Arg-Gly-Gly (RGG repeat domains in these proteins are necessary for cis-repression of transcription activation and HAT activity by the N-terminal glutamine-rich domain. Especially, the RGG domain in the carboxy terminus of EWS is important for the G-quadruplex specific binding. Together, these data suggest that functions of EWS and TLS are modulated by specific structures of ncRNAs.

  19. Coactivators p300 and CBP maintain the identity of mouse embryonic stem cells by mediating long-range chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Xu, Yifeng; Chew, Kai-Khen; Chen, Xi; Ng, Huck-Hui; Matsudaira, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Master transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog are required to maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by regulating a specific transcriptional network. A few other transcription factors have been shown to be important in ESCs by interacting with these master transcription factors; however, little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms regulated by coregulators (coactivators and corepressors). In this study, we examined the function of two highly homologous coactivators, p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP), in ESCs. We find that these two coactivators play redundant roles in maintaining the undifferentiated state of ESCs. They are recruited by Nanog through physical interaction to Nanog binding loci, mediating the formation of long-range chromatin looping structures, which is essential to maintain ESC-specific gene expression. Further functional studies reveal that the p300/CBP binding looping fragments contain enhancer activities, suggesting that the formation of p300/CBP-mediated looping structures may recruit distal enhancers to create a concentration of factors for the transcription activation of genes that are involved in self-renewal and pluripotency. Overall, these results provide a total new insight into the transcriptional regulation mechanism of coactivators p300 and CBP in ESCs, which is important in maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency, by mediating the formation of higher order chromosome structures. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  20. In Situ Protein Binding Assay Using Fc-Fusion Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Nirmala; Siddiqui, Tabrez J

    2017-01-01

    This protocol describes an in situ protein-protein interaction assay between tagged recombinant proteins and cell-surface expressed synaptic proteins. The assay is arguably more sensitive than other traditional protein binding assays such as co-immunoprecipitation and pull-downs and provides a visual readout for binding. This assay has been widely used to determine the dissociation constant of binding of trans-synaptic adhesion proteins. The step-wise description in the protocol should facilitate the adoption of this method in other laboratories.

  1. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) enhances cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation and phospho-CREB interaction with the mouse steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Brian F; Hudson, Elizabeth A; Clark, Barbara J

    2005-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transcription is regulated through cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms that involve multiple transcription factors including the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family members. Classically, binding of phosphorylated CREB to cis-acting cAMP-responsive elements (5'-TGACGTCA-3') within target gene promoters leads to recruitment of the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP). Herein we examined the extent of CREB family member phosphorylation on protein-DNA interactions and CBP recruitment with the StAR promoter. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activating transcription factor (ATF)-1 are expressed in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells, yet only CREB and ATF-1 are phosphorylated. (Bu)2cAMP treatment of MA-10 cells increased CREB phosphorylation approximately 2.3-fold within 30 min but did not change total nuclear CREB expression levels. Using DNA-affinity chromatography, we now show that CREB and ATF-1, but not CREM, interact with the StAR promoter, and this interaction is dependent on the activator protein-1 (AP-1) cis-acting element within the cAMP-responsive region. In addition, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) association with the StAR promoter but did not influence total CREB interaction. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated CREB binding to the StAR proximal promoter is independent of (Bu)2cAMP-treatment, confirming our in vitro analysis. However, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased P-CREB and CBP interaction with the StAR promoter, demonstrating for the first time the physical role of P-CREB:DNA interactions in CBP recruitment to the StAR proximal promoter.

  2. Radiation damage to DNA-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culard, G.; Eon, S.; DeVuyst, G.; Charlier, M.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2003-01-01

    The DNA-binding properties of proteins are strongly affected upon irradiation. The tetrameric lactose repressor (a dimer of dimers) losses its ability to bind operator DNA as soon as at least two damages per protomer of each dimer occur. The monomeric MC1 protein losses its ability to bind DNA in two steps : i) at low doses only the specific binding is abolished, whereas the non-specific one is still possible; ii) at high doses all binding vanishes. Moreover, the DNA bending induced by MC1 binding is less pronounced for a protein that underwent the low dose irradiation. When the entire DNA-protein complexes are irradiated, the observed disruption of the complexes is mainly due to the damage of the proteins and not to that of DNA. The doses necessary for complex disruption are higher than those inactivating the free protein. This difference, larger for MC1 than for lactose repressor, is due to the protection of the protein by the bound DNA. The oxidation of the protein side chains that are accessible to the radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals seems to represent the inactivating damage

  3. The effects of microwave radiation on expressions of pCREB, CREM, and CBP in the testicular tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-yu CHEN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects and ascertain the significance of microwave radiation on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-response element-binding protein (pCREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM, and CREB-binding protein (CBP in the testicular tissue of rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (n=5 and radiation group (n=25. Five rats in the radiation group were sacrificed at 6h, 1, 3, 7, and 14d, respectively, after exposure to microwave radiation for 5min, with an average power density of 30mW/cm2. Rats in the control group were sacrificed within 1d without receiving microwave radiation. Expressions and dynamic changes in pCREB, CREM, and CBP in the testicular tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results pCREB, CREM, and CBP were mainly expressed in the sperm nuclei of the seminiferous tubule in the rat testis. pCREB and CBP protein expressions were downregulated from 6h to14d (except for pCREB at 1d after exposure to microwave radiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. The expression of CREM was also weakened significantly from 6h to 7d after radiation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01. Conclusion The downregulation of pCREB, CREM, and CBP expression may play an important role in the injury of spermatogenic cells caused by microwave radiation.

  4. Tlx3 promotes glutamatergic neuronal subtype specification through direct interactions with the chromatin modifier CBP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Shimomura

    Full Text Available Nervous system development relies on the generation of precise numbers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The homeodomain transcription factor, T-cell leukemia 3 (Tlx3, functions as the master neuronal fate regulator by instructively promoting the specification of glutamatergic excitatory neurons and suppressing the specification of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic neurons. However, how Tlx3 promotes glutamatergic neuronal subtype specification is poorly understood. In this study, we found that Tlx3 directly interacts with the epigenetic co-activator cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB-binding protein (CBP and that the Tlx3 homeodomain is essential for this interaction. The interaction between Tlx3 and CBP was enhanced by the three amino acid loop extension (TALE-class homeodomain transcription factor, pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 3 (Pbx3. Using mouse embryonic stem (ES cells stably expressing Tlx3, we found that the interaction between Tlx3 and CBP became detectable only after these Tlx3-expressing ES cells were committed to a neural lineage, which coincided with increased Pbx3 expression during neural differentiation from ES cells. Forced expression of mutated Tlx3 lacking the homeodomain in ES cells undergoing neural differentiation resulted in significantly reduced expression of glutamatergic neuronal subtype markers, but had little effect on the expression on pan neural markers. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that functional interplay between Tlx3 and CBP plays a critical role in neuronal subtype specification, providing novel insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanism that modulates the transcriptional efficacy of a selective set of neuronal subtype-specific genes during differentiation.

  5. Are many Z-DNA binding proteins actually phospholipid-binding proteins?

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, P; Kennedy, B P; Waisman, D M; van de Sande, J H; McGhee, J D

    1990-01-01

    We used a Z-DNA affinity column to isolate a collection of Z-DNA binding proteins from a high salt extract of Escherichia coli. We identified one of the major Z-DNA binding proteins of this fraction, not as a protein involved in gene regulation or genetic recombination, but rather as an outer membrane porin protein. We then showed that several other known phospholipid-binding proteins (bovine lung annexins and human serum lipoproteins) also bind much more tightly to Z-DNA than to B-DNA. In al...

  6. [Establishment and identification of Jurkat cell xenograft mouse models with over-expression of C-terminal Src kinase binding protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meihua; Ma, Yu; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Minrui; Zhang, Shuchao

    2015-09-01

    To establish xenograft mouse models of Jurkat T-leukemia cells over-expressing C-terminal Src kinase binding protein (CBP). The 5-week-old female BALB/c-nu mice were randomly divided into blank control group, normal Jurkat cell control group, empty virus-transfected Jurkat cell control group and CBP over-expression model group, 5 mice in each group. The mice were subcutaneously injected 1×10(7)/0.1 mL Jurkat cells in axillary area. The tumor tissues of mouse models were weighed and then subjected to HE staining to observe the pathological changes of tumor tissues. The proliferation of Jurkat cells in the peripheral blood of mice was detected by flow cytometry, and the interleukin 2 (IL-2) levels in mouse sera were determined with ELISA. The volume of tumor tissues in the CBP over-expression model group was smaller than that in the control groups, so was the mass of tumor tissues. HE staining showed the proliferation of Jurkat cells in tumor tissues of the model group. The proliferation rate of Jurkat cells in the peripheral blood and IL-2 levels in the sera of the CBP over-expression model group were lower than those in the normal Jurkat cell control group and the empty virus-transfected Jurkat cell control group. The mouse models of Jurkat T-leukemia cells over-expressing CBP have been established successfully. Up-regulated CBP has inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Jurkat cells and IL-2 secretion.

  7. Fatty Acid Binding Proteins in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jett, Marti

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that there is a distinct pattern of fatty acid binding protein (FAEP) expression in prostate cancer vs normal cells and that finding has be confirmed in patient samples of biopsy specimens...

  8. Analysis list: CBP [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBP Adult,Cell line,Embryo,Larvae,Pupae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/dm3/target/CBP.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/CBP.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/CBP.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/CBP.Adul...t.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/CBP.Cell_line.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/CBP.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3

  9. Ubiquitin-binding proteins: similar, but different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine M; Hofmann, Kay; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    and phosphatases, specific sets of ubiquitinating/deubiquitinating enzymes control the degree of ubiquitination. A large number of ubiquitin-binding proteins act at different steps in the downstream pathways, followed by the ubiquitinated protein. Different families of ubiquitin-binding proteins have been...... described. UBA (ubiquitin-associated) domain-containing proteins is the largest family and includes members involved in different cell processes. The smaller groups of UIM (ubiquitin-interacting motif), GAT [GGA (Golgi-associated gamma-adaptin homologous) and Tom1 (target of Myb 1)], CUE (coupling...

  10. Loss of p300 and CBP disrupts histone acetylation at the mouse Sry promoter and causes XY gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Siggers, Pam; Xipolita, Marilena; Brindle, Paul; Lutz, Beat; Wells, Sara; Greenfield, Andy

    2018-01-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP, CREBBP, KAT3A) and its closely related paralogue p300 (EP300, KAT3B), together termed p300/CBP, are histone/lysine acetyl-transferases that control gene expression by modifying chromatin-associated proteins. Here, we report roles for both of these chromatin-modifying enzymes in mouse sex determination, the process by which the embryonic gonad develops into a testis or an ovary. By targeting gene ablation to embryonic gonadal somatic cells using an inducible Cre line, we show that gonads lacking either gene exhibit major abnormalities of XY gonad development at 14.5 dpc, including partial sex reversal. Embryos lacking three out of four functional copies of p300/Cbp exhibit complete XY gonadal sex reversal and have greatly reduced expression of the key testis-determining genes Sry and Sox9. An analysis of histone acetylation at the Sry promoter in mutant gonads at 11.5 dpc shows a reduction in levels of the positive histone mark H3K27Ac. Our data suggest a role for CBP/p300 in testis determination mediated by control of histone acetylation at the Sry locus and reveal a novel element in the epigenetic control of Sry and mammalian sex determination. They also suggest possible novel causes of human disorders of sex development (DSD). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Telomere-binding proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentgraf, U

    1995-02-01

    The nucleoprotein structure of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres was investigated. A protein specifically binding to telomeric sequences was characterized by gel mobility shift assays with synthetic oligonucleotides consisting of four 7 bp telomeric repeats of Arabidopsis (TTTAGGG) and crude nuclear protein extracts of Arabidopsis leaves. These DNA-protein binding studies revealed that the binding affinity of this telomere-binding protein to the G-rich single-strand as well as to the double-stranded telomeric DNA is much higher than to the C-rich single-strand. The molecular mass of the protein was identified by SDS-PAGE to be 67 kDa. The isoelectric points were determined to be 5.0, 4.85 and 4.7, respectively, indicating that either one protein with different modifications or three slightly different proteins have been isolated. An RNA component, possibly serving as a template for reverse transcription of a plant telomerase, does not mediate the DNA-protein contact because the DNA-protein interactions were not RNAse-sensitive.

  12. The allosteric communication pathways in KIX domain of CBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzesi, Ferruccio; Barducci, Alessandro; Tollinger, Martin; Parrinello, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Allosteric regulation plays an important role in a myriad of biomacromolecular processes. Specifically, in a protein, the process of allostery refers to the transmission of a local perturbation, such as ligand binding, to a distant site. Decades after the discovery of this phenomenon, models built on static images of proteins are being reconsidered with the knowledge that protein dynamics plays an important role in its function. Molecular dynamics simulations are a valuable tool for studying complex biomolecular systems, providing an atomistic description of their structure and dynamics. Unfortunately, their predictive power has been limited by the complexity of the biomolecule free-energy surface and by the length of the allosteric timescale (in the order of milliseconds). In this work, we are able to probe the origins of the allosteric changes that transcription factor mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) causes to the interactions of KIX domain of CREB-binding protein (CBP) with phosphorylated kinase inducible domain (pKID), by combing all-atom molecular dynamics with enhanced sampling methods recently developed in our group. We discuss our results in relation to previous NMR studies. We also develop a general simulations protocol to study allosteric phenomena and many other biological processes that occur in the micro/milliseconds timescale. PMID:23940332

  13. Haptenation: Chemical Reactivity and Protein Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Chipinda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight chemical (LMW allergens are commonly referred to as haptens. Haptens must complex with proteins to be recognized by the immune system. The majority of occupationally related haptens are reactive, electrophilic chemicals, or are metabolized to reactive metabolites that form covalent bonds with nucleophilic centers on proteins. Nonelectrophilic protein binding may occur through disulfide exchange, coordinate covalent binding onto metal ions on metalloproteins or of metal allergens, themselves, to the major histocompatibility complex. Recent chemical reactivity kinetic studies suggest that the rate of protein binding is a major determinant of allergenic potency; however, electrophilic strength does not seem to predict the ability of a hapten to skew the response between Th1 and Th2. Modern proteomic mass spectrometry methods that allow detailed delineation of potential differences in protein binding sites may be valuable in predicting if a chemical will stimulate an immediate or delayed hypersensitivity. Chemical aspects related to both reactivity and protein-specific binding are discussed.

  14. CREB Binding Protein Interacts with Nucleoporin-Specific FG Repeats That Activate Transcription and Mediate NUP98-HOXA9 Oncogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Lawryn H.; Brindle, Paul K.; Schnabel, Catherine A.; Pritchard, Colin E. J.; Cleary, Michael L.; van Deursen, Jan M. A.

    1999-01-01

    Genes encoding the Phe-Gly (FG) repeat-containing nucleoporins NUP98 and CAN/NUP214 are at the breakpoints of several chromosomal translocations associated with human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but their role in oncogenesis is unclear. Here we demonstrate that the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion gene encodes two nuclear oncoproteins with either 19 or 37 NUP98 FG repeats fused to the DNA binding and PBX heterodimerization domains of the transcription factor HOXA9. Both NUP98-HOXA9 chimeras transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, and this transformation required the HOXA9 domains for DNA binding and PBX interaction. Surprisingly, the FG repeats acted as very potent transactivators of gene transcription. This NUP98-derived activity is essential for transformation and can be replaced by the bona fide transactivation domain of VP16. Interestingly, FG repeat-containing segments derived from the nucleoporins NUP153 and CAN/NUP214 functioned similarly to those from NUP98. We further demonstrate that transactivation by FG repeat-rich segments of NUP98 correlates with their ability to interact functionally and physically with the transcriptional coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. This finding shows, for the first time, that a translocation-generated fusion protein appears to recruit CBP/p300 as an important step of its oncogenic mechanism. Together, our results suggest that NUP98-HOXA9 chimeras are aberrant transcription factors that deregulate HOX-responsive genes through the transcriptional activation properties of nucleoporin-specific FG repeats that recruit CBP/p300. Indeed, FG repeat-mediated transactivation may be a shared pathogenic function of nucleoporins implicated human AML. PMID:9858599

  15. Role of surface layer collagen binding protein from indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum 91 in adhesion and its anti-adhesion potential against gut pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Tyagi, Ashish; Kaushik, Jai Kumar; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Human feacal isolates were ascertain as genus Lactobacillus using specific primer LbLMA1/R16-1 and further identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with species specific primers Lpl-3/Lpl-2. 25 L. plantarum strains were further assessed for hydrophobicity following the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) method and colonization potentials based on their adherence to immobilized human collagen type-1. Surface proteins were isolated from selected L. plantarum 91(Lp91) strain. The purified collagen binding protein (Cbp) protein was assessed for its anti-adhesion activity against enteric Escherichia coli 0157:H7 pathogen on immobilized collagen. Four L. plantarum strains displayed high degree of hydrophobicity and significant adhesion to collagen. A 72 kDa protein was purified which reduced 59.71% adhesion of E. coli 0157:H7 on immobilized collagen as compared to control well during adhesion assay. Cbp protein is the major influencing factor in inhibition of E. coli 0157:H7 adhesion with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Hydrophobicity and adhesion potential are closely linked attributes precipitating in better colonization potential of the lactobacillus strains. Cbp is substantiated as a crucial surface protein contributing in adhesion of lactobacillus strains. The study can very well be the platform for commercialization of indigenous probiotic strain once their functional attributes are clinically explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational search for aflatoxin binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Aflatoxin is one of the mycotoxins that contaminate various food products. Among various aflatoxin types (B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1), aflatoxin B1 is the most important and the most toxic one. In this study, through computational screening, we found that several proteins may bind specifically with different type of aflatoxins. Combination of theoretical methods including target fishing, molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, MM/PBSA calculation were utilized to search for new aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. A recently developed method for calculating entropic contribution to binding free energy called interaction entropy (IE) was employed to compute the binding free energy between the protein and aflatoxin B1. Through comprehensive comparison, three proteins, namely, trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, GSK-3b, and Pim-1 were eventually selected as potent aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. GSK-3b and Pim-1 are drug targets of cancers or neurological diseases. GSK-3b is the strongest binder for aflatoxin B1.

  17. Sumoylation controls CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated clock resetting via CBP recruitment in nuclear transcriptional foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yool; Chun, Sung Kook; Kim, Kyungjin

    2015-10-01

    CLOCK-BMAL1 is a key transcription factor complex of the molecular clock system that generates circadian gene expression and physiology in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that sumoylation of BMAL1 mediates the rapid activation of CLOCK-BMAL1 by CREB-binding protein (CBP) in nuclear foci and also the resetting of the circadian clock. Under physiological conditions, a bimolecular fluorescence complementation-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BiFC-FRET) assay revealed that CLOCK-BMAL1 rapidly dimerized and formed a ternary complex with CBP in discrete nuclear foci in response to serum stimuli. We found that the formation of this ternary complex requires sumoylation of BMAL1 by SUMO3. These processes were abolished by both the ectopic expression of the SUMP2/3-specific protease, SUSP1, and mutation of the major sumoylation site (Lys259) of BMAL1. Moreover, molecular inhibition of BMAL1 sumoylation abrogated acute Per1 transcription and severely dampened the circadian gene oscillation triggered by clock synchronization stimuli. Taken together, these findings suggest that sumoylation plays a critical role in the spatiotemporal co-activation of CLOCK-BMAL1 by CBP for immediate-early Per induction and the resetting of the circadian clock. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Multiple protonation equilibria in electrostatics of protein-protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłat, Zofia; Antosiewicz, Jan M

    2008-11-27

    All proteins contain groups capable of exchanging protons with their environment. We present here an approach, based on a rigorous thermodynamic cycle and the partition functions for energy levels characterizing protonation states of the associating proteins and their complex, to compute the electrostatic pH-dependent contribution to the free energy of protein-protein binding. The computed electrostatic binding free energies include the pH of the solution as the variable of state, mutual "polarization" of associating proteins reflected as changes in the distribution of their protonation states upon binding and fluctuations between available protonation states. The only fixed property of both proteins is the conformation; the structure of the monomers is kept in the same conformation as they have in the complex structure. As a reference, we use the electrostatic binding free energies obtained from the traditional Poisson-Boltzmann model, computed for a single macromolecular conformation fixed in a given protonation state, appropriate for given solution conditions. The new approach was tested for 12 protein-protein complexes. It is shown that explicit inclusion of protonation degrees of freedom might lead to a substantially different estimation of the electrostatic contribution to the binding free energy than that based on the traditional Poisson-Boltzmann model. This has important implications for the balancing of different contributions to the energetics of protein-protein binding and other related problems, for example, the choice of protein models for Brownian dynamics simulations of their association. Our procedure can be generalized to include conformational degrees of freedom by combining it with molecular dynamics simulations at constant pH. Unfortunately, in practice, a prohibitive factor is an enormous requirement for computer time and power. However, there may be some hope for solving this problem by combining existing constant pH molecular dynamics

  19. PRIC320, a transcription coactivator, isolated from peroxisome proliferator-binding protein complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surapureddi, Sailesh; Viswakarma, Navin; Yu Songtao; Guo Dongsheng; Rao, M. Sambasiva; Reddy, Janardan K.

    2006-01-01

    Ciprofibrate, a potent peroxisome proliferator, induces pleiotropic responses in liver by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a nuclear receptor. Transcriptional regulation by liganded nuclear receptors involves the participation of coregulators that form multiprotein complexes possibly to achieve cell and gene specific transcription. SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses of ciprofibrate-binding proteins from liver nuclear extracts obtained using ciprofibrate-Sepharose affinity matrix resulted in the identification of a new high molecular weight nuclear receptor coactivator, which we designated PRIC320. The full-length human cDNA encoding this protein has an open-reading frame that codes for a 320 kDa protein containing 2882 amino acids. PRIC320 contains five LXXLL signature motifs that mediate interaction with nuclear receptors. PRIC320 binds avidly to nuclear receptors PPARα, CAR, ERα, and RXR, but only minimally with PPARγ. PRIC320 also interacts with transcription cofactors CBP, PRIP, and PBP. Immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting as well as cellular localization studies confirmed the interaction between PPARα and PRIC320. PRIC320 acts as a transcription coactivator by stimulating PPARα-mediated transcription. We conclude that ciprofibrate, a PPARα ligand, binds a multiprotein complex and PRIC320 cloned from this complex functions as a nuclear receptor coactivator

  20. AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1: the outsider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Michael; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is one of the first characterized proteins that bind auxin and has been implied as a receptor for a number of auxin responses. Early studies characterized its auxin binding properties and focused on rapid electrophysiological and cell expansion responses, while subsequent work indicated a role in cell cycle and cell division control. Very recently, ABP1 has been ascribed a role in modulating endocytic events at the plasma membrane and RHO OF PLANTS-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements during asymmetric cell expansion. The exact molecular function of ABP1 is still unresolved, but its main activity apparently lies in influencing events at the plasma membrane. This review aims to connect the novel findings with the more classical literature on ABP1 and to point out the many open questions that still separate us from a comprehensive model of ABP1 action, almost 40 years after the first reports of its existence.

  1. ALG-2, a multifunctional calcium binding protein?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarabykina, Svetlana; Mollerup, Jens; Winding Gojkovic, P.

    2004-01-01

    ALG-2 was originally discovered as a pro-apoptotic protein in a genetic screen. Due to its ability to bind calcium with high affinity it was postulated to provide a link between the known effect of calcium in programmed cell death and the molecular death execution machinery. This review article d...

  2. Complementarity of structure ensembles in protein-protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Raik; Leckner, Johan; Nilges, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Protein-protein association is often accompanied by changes in receptor and ligand structure. This interplay between protein flexibility and protein-protein recognition is currently the largest obstacle both to our understanding of and to the reliable prediction of protein complexes. We performed two sets of molecular dynamics simulations for the unbound receptor and ligand structures of 17 protein complexes and applied shape-driven rigid body docking to all combinations of representative snapshots. The crossdocking of structure ensembles increased the likelihood of finding near-native solutions. The free ensembles appeared to contain multiple complementary conformations. These were in general not related to the bound structure. We suggest that protein-protein binding follows a three-step mechanism of diffusion, free conformer selection, and refolding. This model combines previously conflicting ideas and is in better agreement with the current data on interaction forces, time scales, and kinetics.

  3. Protein Binding Capacity of Different Forages Tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusiati, L. M.; Kurniawati, A.; Hanim, C.; Anas, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Eight forages of tannin sources(Leucaena leucocephala, Arachis hypogaea, Mimosa pudica, Morus alba L, Swietenia mahagoni, Manihot esculenta, Gliricidia sepium, and Bauhinia purpurea)were evaluated their tannin content and protein binding capacity. The protein binding capacity of tannin were determined using precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Swietenia mahagonihas higest total tannin level and condensed tannin (CT) compared with other forages (Ptannin (HT) level (Ptannin content of Swietenia mahagoni were 11.928±0.04 mg/100 mg and 9.241±0.02mg/100mg dry matter (DM) of leaves. The hydrolysable tannin content of Leucaena leucocephala was 5.338±0.03 mg/100 mg DM of leaves. Binding capacity was highest in Swietenia mahagoni and Leucaena leucocephala compared to the other forages (Ptannin in Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoniwere1.181±0.44 and 1.217±0.60mg/mg dry matter of leaves. The present study reports that Swietenia mahagoni has highest of tannin content and Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoni capacity of protein binding.

  4. Genome-wide binding map of the HIV-1 Tat protein to the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Marban

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 Trans-Activator of Transcription (Tat protein binds to multiple host cellular factors and greatly enhances the level of transcription of the HIV genome. While Tat's control of viral transcription is well-studied, much less is known about the interaction of Tat with the human genome. Here, we report the genome-wide binding map of Tat to the human genome in Jurkat T cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with next-generation sequencing. Surprisingly, we found that ~53% of the Tat target regions are within DNA repeat elements, greater than half of which are Alu sequences. The remaining target regions are located in introns and distal intergenic regions; only ~7% of Tat-bound regions are near transcription start sites (TSS at gene promoters. Interestingly, Tat binds to promoters of genes that, in Jurkat cells, are bound by the ETS1 transcription factor, the CBP histone acetyltransferase and/or are enriched for histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. Tat binding is associated with genes enriched with functions in T cell biology and immune response. Our data reveal that Tat's interaction with the host genome is more extensive than previously thought, with potentially important implications for the viral life cycle.

  5. Differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) induces gene and protein expression of the Dictyostelium nuclear calmodulin-binding protein nucleomorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H; Poloz, Yekaterina; Myre, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    The nucleomorphin gene numA1 from Dictyostelium codes for a multi-domain, calmodulin binding protein that regulates nuclear number. To gain insight into the regulation of numA, we assessed the effects of the stalk cell differentiation inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), an extracellular signalling molecule, on the expression of numA1 RNA and protein. For comparison, the extracellular signalling molecules cAMP (mediates chemotaxis, prestalk and prespore differentiation) and ammonia (NH(3)/NH(4)(+); antagonizes DIF) were also studied. Starvation, which is a signal for multicellular development, results in a greater than 80% decrease in numA1 mRNA expression within 4 h. Treatment with ammonium chloride led to a greater than 90% inhibition of numA1 RNA expression within 2 h. In contrast, the addition of DIF-1 completely blocked the decrease in numA1 gene expression caused by starvation. Treatment of vegetative cells with cAMP led to decreases in numA1 RNA expression that were equivalent to those seen with starvation. Western blotting after various morphogen treatments showed that the maintenance of vegetative levels of numA1 RNA by DIF-1 in starved cells was reflected in significantly increased numA1 protein levels. Treatment with cAMP and/or ammonia led to decreased protein expression and each of these morphogens suppressed the stimulatory effects of DIF-1. Protein expression levels of CBP4a, a calcium-dependent binding partner of numA1, were regulated in the same manner as numA1 suggesting this potential co-regulation may be related to their functional relationship. NumA1 is the first calmodulin binding protein shown to be regulated by developmental morphogens in Dictyostelium being upregulated by DIF-1 and down-regulated by cAMP and ammonia.

  6. End binding proteins are obligatory dimers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Sen

    Full Text Available End binding (EB proteins are responsible for the recruitment of an array of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs to growing microtubules ends. EBs encompass an N-terminal calponin homology domain that confers microtubule tip tracking activity to the protein. The C-terminal domain of EBs contains a coiled coil that mediates the parallel dimerization of EB monomers. This part of the protein is also responsible for partner binding. While dimerization is not essential for microtubule tip tracking by EBs it is a prerequisite for +TIP partner binding. The concentration of EBs in cells has been estimated to be in the range of hundreds of nanomoles. In contrast, in in vitro single molecule experiments EB concentrations of subnanomoles are employed. From a mechanistic point of view it is important to assess the oligomerization state of EBs at physiologically and experimentally relevant protein concentrations, in particular if the goal of a study is to model the behavior of EB-dependent dynamic +TIP networks. Here we have determined the stability of the EB1 and EB3 dimers using multi-angle light scattering and fluorescence analytical ultracentrifugation. We show that these EBs form stable dimers and do not dissociate even at very low nanomolar concentrations. The dimers remained stable at both room temperature as well as at the physiologically relevant temperature of 37°C. Together, our results reveal that EBs are obligatory dimers, a conclusion that has implications for the mechanistic understanding of these key proteins involved in the orchestration of dynamic protein networks at growing microtubule ends.

  7. A structural classification of substrate-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsson, Ronnie P. -A.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Substrate-binding proteins (SBP) are associated with a wide variety of protein complexes. The proteins are part of ATP-binding cassette transporters for substrate uptake, ion gradient driven transporters, DNA-binding proteins, as well as channels and receptors from both pro-and eukaryotes. A wealth

  8. C11orf83, a mitochondrial cardiolipin-binding protein involved in bc1 complex assembly and supercomplex stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmurs, Marjorie; Foti, Michelangelo; Raemy, Etienne; Vaz, Frédéric Maxime; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Bairoch, Amos; Lane, Lydie

    2015-04-01

    Mammalian mitochondria may contain up to 1,500 different proteins, and many of them have neither been confidently identified nor characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that C11orf83, which was lacking experimental characterization, is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein facing the intermembrane space. This protein is specifically associated with the bc1 complex of the electron transport chain and involved in the early stages of its assembly by stabilizing the bc1 core complex. C11orf83 displays some overlapping functions with Cbp4p, a yeast bc1 complex assembly factor. Therefore, we suggest that C11orf83, now called UQCC3, is the functional human equivalent of Cbp4p. In addition, C11orf83 depletion in HeLa cells caused abnormal crista morphology, higher sensitivity to apoptosis, a decreased ATP level due to impaired respiration and subtle, but significant, changes in cardiolipin composition. We showed that C11orf83 binds to cardiolipin by its α-helices 2 and 3 and is involved in the stabilization of bc1 complex-containing supercomplexes, especially the III2/IV supercomplex. We also demonstrated that the OMA1 metalloprotease cleaves C11orf83 in response to mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting a role in the selection of cells with damaged mitochondria for their subsequent elimination by apoptosis, as previously described for OPA1. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. P-glycoprotein attenuates DNA repair activity in multidrug-resistant cells by acting through the Cbp-Csk-Src cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Fang; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Pidugu, Vijaya Kumar; Ho, I-Ching; Su, Tsann-Long; Lee, Te-Chang

    2017-07-11

    Recent studies have demonstrated that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression impairs DNA interstrand cross-linking agent-induced DNA repair efficiency in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells. To date, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying how P-gp interferes with Src activation and subsequent DNA repair activity remain unclear. In this study, we determined that the C-terminal Src kinase-binding protein (Cbp) signaling pathway involved in the negative control of Src activation is enhanced in MDR cells. We also demonstrated that cells that ectopically express P-gp exhibit reduced activation of DNA damage response regulators, such as ATM, Chk2, Braca1 and Nbs1 and hence attenuated DNA double-strand break repair capacity and become more susceptible than vector control cells to DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) agents. Moreover, we demonstrated that P-gp can not only interact with Cbp and Src but also enhance the formation of inhibitory C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-Cbp complexes that reduce phosphorylation of the Src activation residue Y416 and increase phosphorylation of the Src negative regulatory residue Y527. Notably, suppression of Cbp expression in MDR cells restores cisplatin-induced Src activation, improves DNA repair capacity, and increases resistance to ICL agents. Ectopic expression of Cbp attenuates cisplatin-induced Src activation and increases the susceptibility of cells to ICL agents. Together, the current results indicate that P-gp inhibits DNA repair activity by modulating Src activation via Cbp-Csk-Src cascade. These results suggest that DNA ICL agents are likely to have therapeutic potential against MDR cells with P-gp-overexpression.

  10. Binding of radionuclides to proteins in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1981-01-01

    Radioisotope tracer experiments on binding of radionuclides to proteins in fish were carried out in order to gain further information on biochemical behavior of radionuclides in marine fish. The radionuclides, which were bound to proteins in fish through sea water and food, were extracted with a Trisacetate buffer solution and separated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. Most of 137 Cs in the fish liver were bound only to a peptide with a molecular weight of 1,100 - 1,300. The most remarkable feature of 60 Co in the profiles of the gel filtration was the presence of two clear radioactivity pearks and the radioactivity appeared to transfer from a low molecular weight protein to a high molecular weight protein in the case of the uptake, and the reverse phenomenon was observed in the case of the excretion. Therefore, this suggested that these proteins had each inherent turnover rate for 60 Co. The profiles of the gel filtration of 65 Zn varied widely among species of fish, tissues or organs even in the same fish and pathways of the uptake. 125 I was bound to a relatively low molecular weight substance in cultured eel, however, the binding of 125 I to a protein with higher molecular weight was observed in the eel head including thyroid gland marked through food, and this protein was estimated to be thyroglobulin with molecular weight of 670,000. Although 95 Nb, 144 Ce- 144 Pr and 106 Ru- 106 Rh probably have no biological function in fish, it was apparently found to be organically bound in tissues or organs of the marine fish. (author)

  11. Maximizing binding capacity for protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sanchayita; Zhang, Jennifer; Conley, Lynn; Caple, Ryan; Williams, Kevin P; Cecchini, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Advances in cell culture expression levels in the last two decades have resulted in monoclonal antibody titers of ≥10 g/L to be purified downstream. A high capacity capture step is crucial to prevent purification from being the bottleneck in the manufacturing process. Despite its high cost and other disadvantages, Protein A chromatography still remains the optimal choice for antibody capture due to the excellent selectivity provided by this step. A dual flow loading strategy was used in conjunction with a new generation high capacity Protein A resin to maximize binding capacity without significantly increasing processing time. Optimum conditions were established using a simple empirical Design of Experiment (DOE) based model and verified with a wide panel of antibodies. Dynamic binding capacities of >65 g/L could be achieved under these new conditions, significantly higher by more than one and half times the values that have been typically achieved with Protein A in the past. Furthermore, comparable process performance and product quality was demonstrated for the Protein A step at the increased loading. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. DSCG binding protein and process for preparing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecht, I.; Mazurek, N.

    1987-07-28

    An essentially pure protein is described consisting essentially of the protein, (CBP), present in nature in membranes of basophile cells and in mast cells, having a molecular weight of about 60,000 +- 2,000 determined by SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis an isoelectric point of about 3.9 and an amino acid composition of about 4 units of asparagine, 3 units of threonine and serine, 3 units glycine, 2 units alanine, 2 units proline, 1 unit cysteine, 2 units valine, 1 unit methionine, 1 unit isoleucine, 2 units leucine, 1 unit tyrosine, 1 unit phenylalanine, 2 units histamine, 2 units lysine and 1 unit arginine. The protein is able to build calcium and having a calcium dependent affinity to the disodium salt of 1,2 bis(-2 carboxychromon-5-yloxy)-2-hydroxy propane (DSCG).

  13. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Brázda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc., the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGGn, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2 and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development.

  14. Cobalamin and its binding protein in rat milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1989-01-01

    Cobalamin and its binding protein, haptocorrin, are present in rat milk throughout the lactation period. The concentration of cobalamin is approximately 0.3-times the concentration of the unsaturated binding protein. The concentration of the unsaturated cobalamin-binding protein varies between 18...... nmol l-1 and 16 nmol l-1. The binding protein has a Stokes radius of 2.49 nm when saturated with cobalamin and 2.61 nm when unsaturated. It binds cobalamin over a broad range of pH and is able to bind cobinamide also. With immunohistochemistry, we find haptocorrin immunoreactivity in the mammary glands...

  15. Pharmacological Activators of the NR4A Nuclear Receptors Enhance LTP in a CREB/CBP-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Morgan S; Hawk, Joshua D; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Safe, Stephen; Abel, Ted

    2017-05-01

    Nr4a nuclear receptors contribute to long-term memory formation and are required for long-term memory enhancement by a class of broad-acting drugs known as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes and identifying ways to increase their activity may provide novel therapeutic approaches for ameliorating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we find that Nr4a gene expression after learning requires the cAMP-response element binding (CREB) interaction domain of the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP). These gene expression deficits emerge at a time after learning marked by promoter histone acetylation in wild-type mice. Further, mutation of the CREB-CBP interaction domain reduces Nr4a promoter acetylation after learning. As memory enhancement by HDAC inhibitors requires CREB-CBP interaction and Nr4a gene function, these data support the notion that the balance of histone acetylation at the Nr4a promoters is critical for memory formation. NR4A ligands have recently been described, but the effect of these drugs on synaptic plasticity or memory has not been investigated. We find that the 'C-DIM' NR4A ligands, para-phenyl substituted di-indolylmethane compounds, enhance long-term contextual fear memory and increase the duration of long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. LTP enhancement by these drugs is eliminated in mice expressing a dominant negative form of NR4A and attenuated in mice with mutation of the CREB-CBP interaction domain. These data define the molecular connection between histone acetylation and Nr4a gene expression after learning. In addition, they suggest that NR4A-activating C-DIM compounds may serve as a potent and selective means to enhance memory and synaptic plasticity.

  16. Oct-1 potentiates CREB-driven cyclin D1 promoter activation via a phospho-CREB- and CREB binding protein-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulon, Séverine; Dantonel, Jean-Christophe; Binet, Virginie; Vié, Annick; Blanchard, Jean-Marie; Hipskind, Robert A; Philips, Alexandre

    2002-11-01

    Cyclin D1, the regulatory subunit for mid-G(1) cyclin-dependent kinases, controls the expression of numerous cell cycle genes. A cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE), located upstream of the cyclin D1 mRNA start site, integrates mitogenic signals that target the CRE-binding factor CREB, which can recruit the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). We describe an alternative mechanism for CREB-driven cyclin D1 induction that involves the ubiquitous POU domain protein Oct-1. In the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, overexpression of Oct-1 or its POU domain strongly increases transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 and GAL4 reporter genes that is specifically dependent upon CREB but independent of Oct-1 DNA binding. Gel retardation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm that POU forms a complex with CREB bound to the cyclin D1 CRE. In solution, CREB interaction with POU requires the CREB Q2 domain and, notably, occurs with CREB that is not phosphorylated on Ser 133. Accordingly, Oct-1 also potently enhances transcriptional activation mediated by a Ser133Ala CREB mutant. Oct-1/CREB synergy is not diminished by the adenovirus E1A 12S protein, a repressor of CBP coactivator function. In contrast, E1A strongly represses CBP-enhanced transactivation by CREB phosphorylated on Ser 133. Our observation that Oct-1 potentiates CREB-dependent cyclin D1 transcriptional activity independently of Ser 133 phosphorylation and E1A-sensitive coactivator function offers a new paradigm for the regulation of cyclin D1 induction by proliferative signals.

  17. Measuring Binding Affinity of Protein-Ligand Interaction Using Spectrophotometry: Binding of Neutral Red to Riboflavin-Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenprakhon, Pirom; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    The dissociation constant, K[subscript d], of the binding of riboflavin-binding protein (RP) with neutral red (NR) can be determined by titrating RP to a fixed concentration of NR. Upon adding RP to the NR solution, the maximum absorption peak of NR shifts to 545 nm from 450 nm for the free NR. The change of the absorption can be used to determine…

  18. Discovery of a selective catalytic p300/CBP inhibitor that targets lineage-specific tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasko, Loren M.; Jakob, Clarissa G.; Edalji, Rohinton P.; Qiu, Wei; Montgomery, Debra; Digiammarino, Enrico L.; Hansen, T. Matt; Risi, Roberto M.; Frey, Robin; Manaves, Vlasios; Shaw, Bailin; Algire, Mikkel; Hessler, Paul; Lam, Lloyd T.; Uziel, Tamar; Faivre, Emily; Ferguson, Debra; Buchanan, Fritz G.; Martin, Ruth L.; Torrent, Maricel; Chiang, Gary G.; Karukurichi, Kannan; Langston, J. William; Weinert, Brian T.; Choudhary, Chunaram; de Vries, Peter; Van Drie, John H.; McElligott, David; Kesicki, Ed; Marmorstein, Ronen; Sun, Chaohong; Cole, Philip A.; Rosenberg, Saul H.; Michaelides, Michael R.; Lai, Albert; Bromberg, Kenneth D. (AbbVie); (UCopenhagen); (Petra Pharma); (UPENN); (JHU); (Van Drie); (Faraday)

    2017-09-27

    The dynamic and reversible acetylation of proteins, catalysed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), is a major epigenetic regulatory mechanism of gene transcription1 and is associated with multiple diseases. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently approved to treat certain cancers, but progress on the development of drug-like histone actyltransferase inhibitors has lagged behind2. The histone acetyltransferase paralogues p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) are key transcriptional co-activators that are essential for a multitude of cellular processes, and have also been implicated in human pathological conditions (including cancer3). Current inhibitors of the p300 and CBP histone acetyltransferase domains, including natural products4, bi-substrate analogues5 and the widely used small molecule C6466,7, lack potency or selectivity. Here, we describe A-485, a potent, selective and drug-like catalytic inhibitor of p300 and CBP. We present a high resolution (1.95 Å) co-crystal structure of a small molecule bound to the catalytic active site of p300 and demonstrate that A-485 competes with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). A-485 selectively inhibited proliferation in lineage-specific tumour types, including several haematological malignancies and androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer. A-485 inhibited the androgen receptor transcriptional program in both androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and inhibited tumour growth in a castration-resistant xenograft model. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using small molecule inhibitors to selectively target the catalytic activity of histone acetyltransferases, which may provide effective treatments for transcriptional activator-driven malignancies and diseases.

  19. What Happened to the IGF Binding Proteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Leon A

    2018-02-01

    Insulinlike growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1 to 6 are high-affinity regulators of IGF activity. They generally inhibit IGF actions by preventing binding to the IGF-I receptor but can also enhance their actions under some conditions. Posttranslational modifications such as glycosylation and phosphorylation modulate IGFBP properties, and IGFBP proteolysis results in IGF release. IGFBPs have more recently been shown to have IGF-independent actions. A number of mechanisms are involved, including modulation of other growth factor pathways, nuclear localization and transcriptional regulation, interaction with the sphingolipid pathway, and binding to non-IGF biomolecules in the extracellular space and matrix, on the cell surface and intracellularly. IGFBPs modulate important biological processes, including cell proliferation, survival, migration, senescence, autophagy, and angiogenesis. Their actions have been implicated in growth, metabolism, cancer, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, and immune regulation. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of IGFBP abundance. A more complete understanding of IGFBP biology is necessary to further define their cellular roles and determine their therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  20. The Study of Posttranslational Modifications of Tau Protein by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Phosphorylation of Tau Protein by ERK2 Recombinant Kinase and Rat Brain Extract, and Acetylation by Recombinant Creb-Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haoling; Despres, Clément; Prabakaran, Sudhakaran; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Chambraud, Béatrice; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Lippens, Guy; Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Landrieu, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be used as an analytical tool to investigate posttranslational modifications of protein. NMR is a valuable tool to map the interaction regions of protein partners. Here, we present protocols that have been developed in the course of our studies of the neuronal Tau protein. Tau is found aggregated in the neurons of Alzheimer's disease patients. Development of the disease is accompanied by increased, abnormal phosphorylation and acetylation of Tau. We have used NMR to investigate how these posttranslational modifications of Tau affect the interactions with its partners. We present here detailed protocols of in vitro phosphorylation of Tau by recombinant kinase, ERK2, or kinase activity of rat brain extracts, and acetylation by recombinant Creb-binding protein (CBP) acetyltransferase. The analytical characterization of the modified Tau by NMR spectroscopy is additionally described.

  1. CBP Phase I Code Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown and Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown and Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface

  2. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  3. Mucosal Infections and Invasive Potential of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Are Enhanced by Oligopeptide Binding Proteins AliC and AliD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bradshaw

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp is an emerging human pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx and is associated with noninvasive diseases such as otitis media (OM, conjunctivitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Since capsule expression was previously thought to be necessary for establishment of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD, serotype-specific polysaccharide capsules are targeted by currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. Yet, NESp expressing oligopeptide binding proteins AliC and AliD have been isolated during IPD. Thus, we hypothesize AliC and AliD are major NESp virulence determinants that facilitate persistence and development of IPD. Our study reveals that NESp expressing AliC and AliD have intensified virulence compared to isogenic mutants. Specifically, we demonstrate AliC and AliD enhance murine nasopharyngeal colonization and pulmonary infection and are required for OM in a chinchilla model. Furthermore, AliC and AliD increase pneumococcal survival in chinchilla whole blood and aid in resistance to killing by human leukocytes. Comparative proteome analysis revealed significant alterations in protein levels when AliC and AliD were absent. Virulence-associated proteins, including a pneumococcal surface protein C variant (CbpAC, were significantly downregulated, while starvation response indicators were upregulated in the double mutant relative to wild-type levels. We also reveal that differentially expressed CbpAC was essential for NESp adherence to epithelial cells, virulence during OM, reduction of C3b deposition on the NESp surface, and binding to nonspecific IgA. Altogether, the rise in NESp prevalence urges the need to understand how NESp establishes disease and persists in a host. This study highlights the roles of AliC, AliD, and CbpAC in the pathogenesis of NESp.

  4. Glycan masking of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein for probing protein binding function and vaccine development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Sampath

    Full Text Available Glycan masking is an emerging vaccine design strategy to focus antibody responses to specific epitopes, but it has mostly been evaluated on the already heavily glycosylated HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Here this approach was used to investigate the binding interaction of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP and the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC and to evaluate if glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens would focus the antibody response on key interaction surfaces. Four variants of PVDBPII were generated and probed for function and immunogenicity. Whereas two PvDBPII glycosylation variants with increased glycan surface coverage distant from predicted interaction sites had equivalent binding activity to wild-type protein, one of them elicited slightly better DARC-binding-inhibitory activity than wild-type immunogen. Conversely, the addition of an N-glycosylation site adjacent to a predicted PvDBP interaction site both abolished its interaction with DARC and resulted in weaker inhibitory antibody responses. PvDBP is composed of three subdomains and is thought to function as a dimer; a meta-analysis of published PvDBP mutants and the new DBPII glycosylation variants indicates that critical DARC binding residues are concentrated at the dimer interface and along a relatively flat surface spanning portions of two subdomains. Our findings suggest that DARC-binding-inhibitory antibody epitope(s lie close to the predicted DARC interaction site, and that addition of N-glycan sites distant from this site may augment inhibitory antibodies. Thus, glycan resurfacing is an attractive and feasible tool to investigate protein structure-function, and glycan-masked PvDBPII immunogens might contribute to P. vivax vaccine development.

  5. Ice-Binding Proteins in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bredow

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub-zero temperatures put plants at risk of damage associated with the formation of ice crystals in the apoplast. Some freeze-tolerant plants mitigate this risk by expressing ice-binding proteins (IBPs, that adsorb to ice crystals and modify their growth. IBPs are found across several biological kingdoms, with their ice-binding activity and function uniquely suited to the lifestyle they have evolved to protect, be it in fishes, insects or plants. While IBPs from freeze-avoidant species significantly depress the freezing point, plant IBPs typically have a reduced ability to lower the freezing temperature. Nevertheless, they have a superior ability to inhibit the recrystallization of formed ice. This latter activity prevents ice crystals from growing larger at temperatures close to melting. Attempts to engineer frost-hardy plants by the controlled transfer of IBPs from freeze-avoiding fish and insects have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, the expression of recombinant IBP sequences from freeze-tolerant plants significantly reduced electrolyte leakage and enhanced freezing survival in freeze-sensitive plants. These promising results have spurred additional investigations into plant IBP localization and post-translational modifications, as well as a re-evaluation of IBPs as part of the anti-stress and anti-pathogen axis of freeze-tolerant plants. Here we present an overview of plant freezing stress and adaptation mechanisms and discuss the potential utility of IBPs for the generation of freeze-tolerant crops.

  6. Apolipoprotein B is a calcium binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashti, N.; Lee, D.M.; Mok, T.

    1986-05-29

    Human hepatocarcinoma Hep G2 cells were grown in culture medium containing (/sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/). The secreted lipoproteins of d < 1.063 g/ml and d 1.063-1.21 g/ml were isolated from the culture media and analyzed by 3.3% and 7% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Radioactivity profiles of (/sup 45/Ca) from the gels showed that the peak of radioactivity corresponded to the apolipoprotein B band. The molar ratio of the incorporated (/sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/) and apolipoprotein B was close to unity. No radioactivity was found associated with any other secreted apolipoproteins. To confirm these findings, apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins were precipitated with anti-apolipoprotein B and high density lipoproteins were precipitated with anti-apolipoprotein A-I. Only the former precipitate was radioactive. These results suggest that apolipoprotein B is a calcium binding protein.

  7. Helical propensity in an intrinsically disordered protein accelerates ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Dogan, Jakob; Jemth, Per

    2014-01-01

    domain of the activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) is intrinsically disordered and folds upon binding to the nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of the CREB binding protein. A number of mutants was designed that selectively perturbs the amount of secondary structure......Many intrinsically disordered proteins fold upon binding to other macromolecules. The secondary structure present in the well-ordered complex is often formed transiently in the unbound state. The consequence of such transient structure for the binding process is, however, not clear. The activation...... the notion of preformed secondary structure as an important determinant for molecular recognition in intrinsically disordered proteins....

  8. Detection of secondary binding sites in proteins using fragment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, R Frederick; Verdonk, Marcel L; Saini, Harpreet K; Tickle, Ian J; Jhoti, Harren

    2015-12-29

    Proteins need to be tightly regulated as they control biological processes in most normal cellular functions. The precise mechanisms of regulation are rarely completely understood but can involve binding of endogenous ligands and/or partner proteins at specific locations on a protein that can modulate function. Often, these additional secondary binding sites appear separate to the primary binding site, which, for example for an enzyme, may bind a substrate. In previous work, we have uncovered several examples in which secondary binding sites were discovered on proteins using fragment screening approaches. In each case, we were able to establish that the newly identified secondary binding site was biologically relevant as it was able to modulate function by the binding of a small molecule. In this study, we investigate how often secondary binding sites are located on proteins by analyzing 24 protein targets for which we have performed a fragment screen using X-ray crystallography. Our analysis shows that, surprisingly, the majority of proteins contain secondary binding sites based on their ability to bind fragments. Furthermore, sequence analysis of these previously unknown sites indicate high conservation, which suggests that they may have a biological function, perhaps via an allosteric mechanism. Comparing the physicochemical properties of the secondary sites with known primary ligand binding sites also shows broad similarities indicating that many of the secondary sites may be druggable in nature with small molecules that could provide new opportunities to modulate potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordhoff, E; Krogsdam, A M; Jorgensen, H F

    1999-01-01

    We report a protocol for the rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins. Immobilized DNA probes harboring a specific sequence motif are incubated with cell or nuclear extract. Proteins are analyzed directly off the solid support by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass...... was validated by the identification of known prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins, and its use provided evidence that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase exhibits DNA sequence-specific binding to DNA....

  10. In vitro binding of germanium to proteins of rice shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of in vitro binding between proteins of rice shoots and germanium (Ge) was investigated. The proteins in mixtures of aqueous extracts of rice shoots and radioactive germanium ( 68 GeO 2 ) were fractionated. The binding of radioactivity to the proteins was observed even after 5 successive fractionation steps from the original mixtures. At the final fractionation step using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a constant proportionality between protein concentration and associated radioactivity was found in most samples although not all. These results indicate that the binding of 68 Ge to proteins is not due to the simple adsorption by proteins. (auth.)

  11. Development of radioimmunoassay for prolactin binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikar, R.S.; Sheth, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Using a homogenous prolactin binding protein (PBP) preparations from rat seminal vesicle secretion, a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for PBP has been developed. The assay was highly specific and showed no cross-reaction with other protein hormones from various species. The antiserum had an affinity constant (Ka) of 2.66 x 10 10 M -1 . The assay sensitivity was in the range of 0.5-1.0 ng of pure PBP per assay tube and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were 6-8% and 12-14.5% respectively. The overall recovery of PBP to the rat seminal vesicle secretion was 96.8%. Using this RIA, PBP levels in various biological fluids and reproductive tissues were measured. Azoospermic human semen contained significantly higher levels of PBP than normospermic semen. The seminal vesicle of rat exhibited the highest concentration of PBP. Administration of antiserum to PBP to mature male rats resulted in a significant reduction in the weight of ventral prostrate and serum prolactin levels were significantly elevated in these animals suggesting that the antibody raised against the PBP was capable of blocking prolactin receptors. (author)

  12. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Figueroa-Angulo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  13. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  14. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  15. UV-induced DNA-binding proteins in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazer, P.M.; Greggio, N.A.; Metherall, J.E.; Summers, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the response of human cells to DNA-damaging agents such as UV irradiation, the authors examined nuclear protein extracts of UV-irradiated HeLa cells for the presence of DNA-binding proteins. Electrophoretically separated proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose filter that was subsequently immersed in a binding solution containing radioactively labeled DNA probes. Several DNA-binding proteins were induced in HeLa cells after UV irradiation. These included proteins that bind predominantly double-stranded DNA and proteins that bind both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA. The binding proteins were induced in a dose-dependent manner by UV light. Following a dose of 12 J/m 2 , the binding proteins in the nuclear extracts increased over time to a peak in the range of 18 hr after irradiation. Experiments with metabolic inhibitors (cycloheximide and actinomycin D) revealed that de novo synthesis of these proteins is not required for induction of the binding activities, suggesting that the induction is mediated by protein modification

  16. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-01-01

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. [ 35 S]GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of [ 35 S]GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin

  17. Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4 Modulates Temozolomide Sensitivity in Glioblastoma by Regulating DNA Repair Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar J. Kitange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide evidence that RBBP4 modulates temozolomide (TMZ sensitivity through coordinate regulation of two key DNA repair genes critical for recovery from TMZ-induced DNA damage: methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT and RAD51. Disruption of RBBP4 enhanced TMZ sensitivity, induced synthetic lethality to PARP inhibition, and increased DNA damage signaling in response to TMZ. Moreover, RBBP4 silencing enhanced TMZ-induced H2AX phosphorylation and apoptosis in GBM cells. Intriguingly, RBBP4 knockdown suppressed the expression of MGMT, RAD51, and other genes in association with decreased promoter H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac and increased H3K9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3. Consistent with these data, RBBP4 interacts with CBP/p300 to form a chromatin-modifying complex that binds within the promoter of MGMT, RAD51, and perhaps other genes. Globally, RBBP4 positively and negatively regulates genes involved in critical cellular functions including tumorigenesis. The RBBP4/CBP/p300 complex may provide an interesting target for developing therapy-sensitizing strategies for GBM and other tumors.

  18. Thermodynamics of Ligand Binding to Acyl-Coenzyme A Binding Protein Studied by Titration Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils Joakim; Sigurskjold, Bent Walther; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    1996-01-01

    Ligand binding to recombinant bovine acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) was examined using isothermal microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements confirm that the binding affinity of acyl-CoA esters for ACBP is strongly dependent on the length of the acyl chain with a clear preference for acyl-...

  19. Thermodynamics of ligand binding to acyl-coenzyme A binding protein studied by titration calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgeman, Nils J.; Sigurskjold, B W; Kragelund, B B

    1996-01-01

    Ligand binding to recombinant bovine acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) was examined using isothermal microcalorimetry. Microcalorimetric measurements confirm that the binding affinity of acyl-CoA esters for ACBP is strongly dependent on the length of the acyl chain with a clear preference for acyl-...

  20. SONAR Discovers RNA-Binding Proteins from Analysis of Large-Scale Protein-Protein Interactomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Kristopher W; Jin, Wenhao; Huelga, Stephanie C; Banks, Charles A S; Gilmore, Joshua M; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Van Nostrand, Eric L; Pratt, Gabriel A; Schwinn, Marie K; Daniels, Danette L; Yeo, Gene W

    2016-10-20

    RNA metabolism is controlled by an expanding, yet incomplete, catalog of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), many of which lack characterized RNA binding domains. Approaches to expand the RBP repertoire to discover non-canonical RBPs are currently needed. Here, HaloTag fusion pull down of 12 nuclear and cytoplasmic RBPs followed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) demonstrates that proteins interacting with multiple RBPs in an RNA-dependent manner are enriched for RBPs. This motivated SONAR, a computational approach that predicts RNA binding activity by analyzing large-scale affinity precipitation-MS protein-protein interactomes. Without relying on sequence or structure information, SONAR identifies 1,923 human, 489 fly, and 745 yeast RBPs, including over 100 human candidate RBPs that contain zinc finger domains. Enhanced CLIP confirms RNA binding activity and identifies transcriptome-wide RNA binding sites for SONAR-predicted RBPs, revealing unexpected RNA binding activity for disease-relevant proteins and DNA binding proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Actin binding proteins, spermatid transport and spermiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaojing; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, Yan-Ho; Tang, Elizabeth I.; Han, Daishu; Lee, Will M.; Wong, Elissa W. P.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2014-01-01

    The transport of germ cells across the seminiferous epithelium is composed of a series of cellular events during the epithelial cycle essential to the completion of spermatogenesis. Without the timely transport of spermatids during spermiogenesis, spermatozoa that are transformed from step 19 spermatids in the rat testis fail to reach the luminal edge of the apical compartment and enter the tubule lumen at spermiation, thereby entering the epididymis for further maturation. Step 19 spermatids and/or sperms that remain in the epithelium will be removed by the Sertoli cell via phagocytosis to form phagosomes and be degraded by lysosomes, leading to subfertility and/or infertility. However, the biology of spermatid transport, in particular the final events that lead to spermiation remain elusive. Based on recent data in the field, we critically evaluate the biology of spermiation herein by focusing on the actin binding proteins (ABPs) that regulate the organization of actin microfilaments at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, which is crucial for spermatid transport during this event. The hypothesis we put forth herein also highlights some specific areas of research that can be pursued by investigators in the years to come. PMID:24735648

  2. Interleukin-18 and interleukin-18 Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eDinarello

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-18 (IL 18 is a member of the IL 1 family of cytokines. Increasing reports have expanded the role of IL 18 in mediating inflammation in animal models of disease using IL 18 deficient mice, neutralization of IL 18 or deficiency in the IL 18 receptor alpha chain. Similar to IL 1β, IL 18 is synthesized as an inactive precursor requiering processing by caspase 1 into an active cytokine but unlike IL 1β, the IL 18 precursor is constitutively present in nearly all cells in healthy humans and animals. The activity of IL 18 is balanced by the presence of a high-affinity naturally occuring IL 18 binding protein (IL 18BP. In humans, disease increased disease severity can be associated with an imbalance of IL 18 to IL 18BP such that the levels of free IL 18 are elevated in the circulation. A role for IL 18 has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, myocardial function, emphysema, metabolic syndromes, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, hemophagocytic syndromes, macrophage activation syndrome, sepsis and acute kidney injury, although in some diseases, IL 18 is protective. IL 18 plays a major role in the production of interferon-g from natural killer cells. The IL 18BP has been used safely in humans and clinical trials of IL 18BP as well as neutralizing anti-IL 18 antibodies are in clinical trials. This review updates the biology of IL 18 as well as its role in human disease

  3. IGF Binding Protein-5 Induces Cell Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Sanada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is the complex process of deterioration that drives the aging of an organism, resulting in the progressive loss of organ function and eventually phenotypic aging. Senescent cells undergo irreversible growth arrest, usually by inducing telomere shortening. Alternatively, senescence may also occur prematurely in response to various stress stimuli, such as oxidative stress, DNA damage, or activated oncogenes. Recently, it has been shown that IGF binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5 with the induction of the tumor suppressor p53 is upregulated during cellular senescence. This mechanism mediates interleukin-6/gp130-induced premature senescence in human fibroblasts, irradiation-induced premature senescence in human endothelial cells (ECs, and replicative senescence in human ECs independent of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and IGF-II. Additionally, a link between IGFBP-5, hyper-coagulation, and inflammation, which occur with age, has been implicated. Thus, IGFBP-5 seems to play decisive roles in controlling cell senescence and cell inflammation. In this review, we describe the accumulating evidence for this role of IGFBP-5 including our new finding.

  4. Immobilized purified folate-binding protein: binding characteristics and use for quantifying folate in erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Nexo, E.

    1987-01-01

    Purified folate-binding protein from cow's milk was immobilized on monodisperse polymer particles (Dynospheres) activated by rho-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Leakage from the spheres was less than 0.1%, and the binding properties were similar to those of the soluble protein with regard to dissociation, pH optimum for binding pteroylglutamic acid, and specificity for binding various folate derivatives. We used the immobilized folate-binding protein as binding protein in an isotope-dilution assay for quantifying folate in erythrocytes. The detection limit was 50 nmol/L and the CV over a six-month period was 2.3% (means = 1.25 mumol/L, n = 15). The reference interval, for folate measured in erythrocytes of 43 blood donors, was 0.4-1.5 mumol/L

  5. Ligand Binding Domain Protein in Tetracycline-Inducible Expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate tetracycline-inducible expression system for producing clinically usable, highquality liver X receptor ligand-binding domain recombinant protein. Methods: In this study, we have expressed and purified the recombinant liver X receptor β-ligand binding domain proteins in E. coli using a tetracycline ...

  6. SCOWLP classification: Structural comparison and analysis of protein binding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed information about protein interactions is critical for our understanding of the principles governing protein recognition mechanisms. The structures of many proteins have been experimentally determined in complex with different ligands bound either in the same or different binding regions. Thus, the structural interactome requires the development of tools to classify protein binding regions. A proper classification may provide a general view of the regions that a protein uses to bind others and also facilitate a detailed comparative analysis of the interacting information for specific protein binding regions at atomic level. Such classification might be of potential use for deciphering protein interaction networks, understanding protein function, rational engineering and design. Description Protein binding regions (PBRs might be ideally described as well-defined separated regions that share no interacting residues one another. However, PBRs are often irregular, discontinuous and can share a wide range of interacting residues among them. The criteria to define an individual binding region can be often arbitrary and may differ from other binding regions within a protein family. Therefore, the rational behind protein interface classification should aim to fulfil the requirements of the analysis to be performed. We extract detailed interaction information of protein domains, peptides and interfacial solvent from the SCOWLP database and we classify the PBRs of each domain family. For this purpose, we define a similarity index based on the overlapping of interacting residues mapped in pair-wise structural alignments. We perform our classification with agglomerative hierarchical clustering using the complete-linkage method. Our classification is calculated at different similarity cut-offs to allow flexibility in the analysis of PBRs, feature especially interesting for those protein families with conflictive binding regions

  7. Accurate prediction of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Petsalaki

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many important protein-protein interactions are mediated by the binding of a short peptide stretch in one protein to a large globular segment in another. Recent efforts have provided hundreds of examples of new peptides binding to proteins for which a three-dimensional structure is available (either known experimentally or readily modeled but where no structure of the protein-peptide complex is known. To address this gap, we present an approach that can accurately predict peptide binding sites on protein surfaces. For peptides known to bind a particular protein, the method predicts binding sites with great accuracy, and the specificity of the approach means that it can also be used to predict whether or not a putative or predicted peptide partner will bind. We used known protein-peptide complexes to derive preferences, in the form of spatial position specific scoring matrices, which describe the binding-site environment in globular proteins for each type of amino acid in bound peptides. We then scan the surface of a putative binding protein for sites for each of the amino acids present in a peptide partner and search for combinations of high-scoring amino acid sites that satisfy constraints deduced from the peptide sequence. The method performed well in a benchmark and largely agreed with experimental data mapping binding sites for several recently discovered interactions mediated by peptides, including RG-rich proteins with SMN domains, Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 with TRADD domains, DBC1 with Sir2, and the Ago hook with Argonaute PIWI domain. The method, and associated statistics, is an excellent tool for predicting and studying binding sites for newly discovered peptides mediating critical events in biology.

  8. Antigenic and structural conservation of herpesvirus DNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littler, E; Yeo, J; Killington, R A; Purifoy, D J; Powell, K L

    1981-10-01

    Previously, we have shown a common antigen of several herpesviruses (pseudorabies virus, equine abortion virus and bovine mammillitis virus) to be antigenically related to the major DNA-binding proteins of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. In this study we have purified the cross-reacting polypeptide from cells infected with pseudorabies virus, equine abortion virus and bovine mammillitis virus and shown the cross-reacting protein to be a major DNA-binding protein for each virus. Tryptic peptide analysis of the cross-reacting DNA-binding proteins of all five viruses has shown structural similarities. The proteins thus were shown to share common antigenic sites, to have similar biological properties and to have a highly conserved amino acid sequence. This unexpected similarity between proteins from diverse herpes viruses suggests an essential and fundamental role of the major DNA-binding protein in herpes virus replication.

  9. CBP Customs Rulings Online Search System (CROSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CROSS is a searchable database of CBP rulings that can be retrieved based on simple or complex search characteristics using keywords and Boolean operators. CROSS has...

  10. Carbene footprinting accurately maps binding sites in protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Lucio; Barrow, Andrew S.; Scott, Daniel; Layfield, Robert; Wright, Timothy G.; Moses, John E.; Oldham, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    Specific interactions between proteins and their binding partners are fundamental to life processes. The ability to detect protein complexes, and map their sites of binding, is crucial to understanding basic biology at the molecular level. Methods that employ sensitive analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry have the potential to provide valuable insights with very little material and on short time scales. Here we present a differential protein footprinting technique employing an efficient photo-activated probe for use with mass spectrometry. Using this methodology the location of a carbohydrate substrate was accurately mapped to the binding cleft of lysozyme, and in a more complex example, the interactions between a 100 kDa, multi-domain deubiquitinating enzyme, USP5 and a diubiquitin substrate were located to different functional domains. The much improved properties of this probe make carbene footprinting a viable method for rapid and accurate identification of protein binding sites utilizing benign, near-UV photoactivation.

  11. A brave new world of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Matthias W; Castello, Alfredo; Schwarzl, Thomas; Preiss, Thomas

    2018-01-17

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are typically thought of as proteins that bind RNA through one or multiple globular RNA-binding domains (RBDs) and change the fate or function of the bound RNAs. Several hundred such RBPs have been discovered and investigated over the years. Recent proteome-wide studies have more than doubled the number of proteins implicated in RNA binding and uncovered hundreds of additional RBPs lacking conventional RBDs. In this Review, we discuss these new RBPs and the emerging understanding of their unexpected modes of RNA binding, which can be mediated by intrinsically disordered regions, protein-protein interaction interfaces and enzymatic cores, among others. We also discuss the RNA targets and molecular and cellular functions of the new RBPs, as well as the possibility that some RBPs may be regulated by RNA rather than regulate RNA.

  12. Identification of calcium-binding proteins in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumley, L.M.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    In human platelets, intracellular Ca 2+ is a second messenger for platelet agonists. Two targets for the Ca 2+ signal are calmodulin and the C-,inase; however, other Ca 2+ -binding proteins may also play a role in platelet function. The Western blotting technique of Maruyama et al., which utilizes 45 Ca 2+ to detect Ca 2+ -binding proteins, has been used to identify numerous platelet Ca 2+ -binding proteins ranging in molecular weight from 165K to 15K. The greatest quantity of 45 Ca 2+ was bound to a 165 kilodalton protein which has been identified as thrombospondin based upon its release from thrombin-stimulated platelets and its comigration on SDS gels with purified thrombospondin. Two other major sites for 45 Ca 2+ -binding correspond to proteins of 120K and 108K which are present only in the platelet particulate fraction; they have been identified as glycoproteins IIb and IIIa based upon their labeling by 125 I-concanavalin A. Two proteins with molecular weights of 20K and 15K bound much less 45 Ca 2+ and correspond on SDS gels to calmodulin and subunit B of the calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. A number of other, yet to be identified, Ca 2+ -binding proteins were also detected. These data indicate that human platelets contain numerous Ca 2+ -binding proteins and that Western blotting techniques utilizing 45 Ca 2+ may be useful as an assay system in future attempts to purify platelet Ca 2+ -binding proteins

  13. Rate Constants and Mechanisms of Protein-Ligand Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2017-05-22

    Whereas protein-ligand binding affinities have long-established prominence, binding rate constants and binding mechanisms have gained increasing attention in recent years. Both new computational methods and new experimental techniques have been developed to characterize the latter properties. It is now realized that binding mechanisms, like binding rate constants, can and should be quantitatively determined. In this review, we summarize studies and synthesize ideas on several topics in the hope of providing a coherent picture of and physical insight into binding kinetics. The topics include microscopic formulation of the kinetic problem and its reduction to simple rate equations; computation of binding rate constants; quantitative determination of binding mechanisms; and elucidation of physical factors that control binding rate constants and mechanisms.

  14. Combined Effect of Cameo2 and CBP on the Cellular Uptake of Lutein in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Chai, Chun-Li; Pan, Cai-Xia; Tang, Hui; Chen, Yan-Hong; Dai, Fang-Yin; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Formation of yellow-red color cocoons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, occurs as the result of the selective delivery of carotenoids from the midgut to the silk gland via the hemolymph. This process of pigment transport is thought to be mediated by specific cellular carotenoids carrier proteins. Previous studies indicated that two proteins, Cameo2 and CBP, are associated with the selective transport of lutein from the midgut into the silk gland in Bombyx mori. However, the exact roles of Cameo2 and CBP during the uptake and transport of carotenoids are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the respective contributions of these two proteins to lutein and β-carotene transport in Bombyx mori as well as commercial cell-line. We found that tissues, expressed both Cameo2 and CBP, accumulate lutein. Cells, co-expressed Cameo2 and CBP, absorb 2 fold more lutein (Plutein was concentration-dependent and reached saturation. From immunofluorescence staining, confocal microscopy observation and western blot analysis, Cameo2 was localized at the membrane and CBP was expressed in the cytosol. What’s more, bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis showed that these two proteins directly interacted at cellular level. Therefore, Cameo2 and CBP are necessarily expressed in midguts and silk glands for lutein uptake in Bombyx mori. Cameo2 and CBP, as the membrane protein and the cytosol protein, respectively, have the combined effect to facilitate the cellular uptake of lutein. PMID:24475153

  15. The Cobalamin-binding Protein in Zebrafish is an Intermediate Between the Three Cobalamin-binding Proteins in Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva Holm; Fedosov, Sergey; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    In humans, three soluble extracellular cobalamin-binding proteins; transcobalamin (TC), intrinsic factor (IF), and haptocorrin (HC), are involved in the uptake and transport of cobalamin. In this study, we investigate a cobalamin-binding protein from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and summarize current...

  16. Calcium-binding proteins from human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogstad, G.O.; Krutnes, M.B.; Solum, N.O.

    1983-01-01

    Calcium-binding platelet proteins were examined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis of solubilized platelets against antibodies to whole platelets followed by incubation of the immunoplates with 45 Ca 2 + and autoradiography. When the immunoplates had been pretreated with EDTA at pH 9.0 in order to remove divalent cations, three immunoprecipitates were markedly labelled with 45 Ca 2 + . These corresponded to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex, glycoprotein Ia and a presently unidentified antigen termed G18. These antigens were membrane-bound and surface-oriented. When an excess of EDTA was introduced in the incubation media the results revealed that the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex and antigen G18, but not glycoprotein Ia, contained sites with a stronger affinity for calcium than has EDTA at pH 7.4 Immunoprecipitates of the separate glycoproteins IIb and IIIa both bound calcium in the same manner as the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. As another approach, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with 45 Ca 2 + prior to crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the solubilized platelets. A single immunoprecipitate was wekly labelled. This did not correspond to any of the immunoprecipitates which were visible after staining with Coomassie blue. The labelling of this antigen was markedly increased when the platelt-rich plasma had been preincubated with EDTA and in this case a weak labelling of the glycoprotein IIB-IIIa precipitate also became apparent. No increased incorporation of calcium occured in any of these immunoprecipitates when the platelets were aggregated with ADP in the presence of 45 Ca 2 + . (orig.)

  17. CaMELS: In silico prediction of calmodulin binding proteins and their binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Wajid Arshad; Asif, Amina; Andleeb, Saiqa; Minhas, Fayyaz Ul Amir Afsar

    2017-09-01

    Due to Ca 2+ -dependent binding and the sequence diversity of Calmodulin (CaM) binding proteins, identifying CaM interactions and binding sites in the wet-lab is tedious and costly. Therefore, computational methods for this purpose are crucial to the design of such wet-lab experiments. We present an algorithm suite called CaMELS (CalModulin intEraction Learning System) for predicting proteins that interact with CaM as well as their binding sites using sequence information alone. CaMELS offers state of the art accuracy for both CaM interaction and binding site prediction and can aid biologists in studying CaM binding proteins. For CaM interaction prediction, CaMELS uses protein sequence features coupled with a large-margin classifier. CaMELS models the binding site prediction problem using multiple instance machine learning with a custom optimization algorithm which allows more effective learning over imprecisely annotated CaM-binding sites during training. CaMELS has been extensively benchmarked using a variety of data sets, mutagenic studies, proteome-wide Gene Ontology enrichment analyses and protein structures. Our experiments indicate that CaMELS outperforms simple motif-based search and other existing methods for interaction and binding site prediction. We have also found that the whole sequence of a protein, rather than just its binding site, is important for predicting its interaction with CaM. Using the machine learning model in CaMELS, we have identified important features of protein sequences for CaM interaction prediction as well as characteristic amino acid sub-sequences and their relative position for identifying CaM binding sites. Python code for training and evaluating CaMELS together with a webserver implementation is available at the URL: http://faculty.pieas.edu.pk/fayyaz/software.html#camels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  19. Astrocyte-to-neuron communication through integrin-engaged Thy-1/CBP/Csk/Src complex triggers neurite retraction via the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, H; Calderon, C; Burgos-Bravo, F; Kobler, O; Zuschratter, W; Ramirez, O; Härtel, S; Schneider, P; Quest, A F G; Herrera-Molina, R; Leyton, L

    2017-02-01

    Two key proteins for cellular communication between astrocytes and neurons are αvβ3 integrin and the receptor Thy-1. Binding of these molecules in the same (cis) or on adjacent (trans) cellular membranes induces Thy-1 clustering, triggering actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Molecular events that could explain how the Thy-1-αvβ3 integrin interaction signals have only been studied separately in different cell types, and the detailed transcellular communication and signal transduction pathways involved in neuronal cytoskeleton remodeling remain unresolved. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, single-molecule tracking, and high-resolution nanoscopy, we provide evidence that upon binding to αvβ3 integrin, Thy-1 mobility decreased while Thy-1 nanocluster size increased. This occurred concomitantly with inactivation and exclusion of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src from the Thy-1/C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein (CBP)/Csk complex. The Src inactivation decreased the p190Rho GTPase activating protein phosphorylation, promoting RhoA activation, cofilin, and myosin light chain II phosphorylation and, consequently, neurite shortening. Finally, silencing the adaptor CBP demonstrated that this protein was a key transducer in the Thy-1 signaling cascade. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the Thy-1-CBP-Csk-Src-RhoA-ROCK axis transmitted signals from astrocytic integrin-engaged Thy-1 (trans) to the neuronal actin cytoskeleton. Importantly, the β3 integrin in neurons (cis) was not found to be crucial for neurite shortening. This is the first study to detail the signaling pathway triggered by αvβ3, the endogenous Thy-1 ligand, highlighting the role of membrane-bound integrins as trans acting ligands in astrocyte-neuron communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Further biochemical characterization of Mycobacterium leprae laminin-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Marques

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that the alpha2 chain of laminin-2 present on the surface of Schwann cells is involved in the process of attachment of Mycobacterium leprae to these cells. Searching for M. leprae laminin-binding molecules, in a previous study we isolated and characterized the cationic proteins histone-like protein (Hlp and ribosomal proteins S4 and S5 as potential adhesins involved in M. leprae-Schwann cell interaction. Hlp was shown to bind alpha2-laminins and to greatly enhance the attachment of mycobacteria to ST88-14 Schwann cells. In the present study, we investigated the laminin-binding capacity of the ribosomal proteins S4 and S5. The genes coding for these proteins were PCR amplified and their recombinant products were shown to bind alpha2-laminins in overlay assays. However, when tested in ELISA-based assays and in adhesion assays with ST88-14 cells, in contrast to Hlp, S4 and S5 failed to bind laminin and act as adhesins. The laminin-binding property and adhesin capacity of two basic host-derived proteins were also tested, and only histones, but not cytochrome c, were able to increase bacterial attachment to ST88-14 cells. Our data suggest that the alanine/lysine-rich sequences shared by Hlp and eukaryotic H1 histones might be involved in the binding of these cationic proteins to laminin.

  1. Predicting binding within disordered protein regions to structurally characterised peptide-binding domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqasuddin Khan

    Full Text Available Disordered regions of proteins often bind to structured domains, mediating interactions within and between proteins. However, it is difficult to identify a priori the short disordered regions involved in binding. We set out to determine if docking such peptide regions to peptide binding domains would assist in these predictions.We assembled a redundancy reduced dataset of SLiM (Short Linear Motif containing proteins from the ELM database. We selected 84 sequences which had an associated PDB structures showing the SLiM bound to a protein receptor, where the SLiM was found within a 50 residue region of the protein sequence which was predicted to be disordered. First, we investigated the Vina docking scores of overlapping tripeptides from the 50 residue SLiM containing disordered regions of the protein sequence to the corresponding PDB domain. We found only weak discrimination of docking scores between peptides involved in binding and adjacent non-binding peptides in this context (AUC 0.58.Next, we trained a bidirectional recurrent neural network (BRNN using as input the protein sequence, predicted secondary structure, Vina docking score and predicted disorder score. The results were very promising (AUC 0.72 showing that multiple sources of information can be combined to produce results which are clearly superior to any single source.We conclude that the Vina docking score alone has only modest power to define the location of a peptide within a larger protein region known to contain it. However, combining this information with other knowledge (using machine learning methods clearly improves the identification of peptide binding regions within a protein sequence. This approach combining docking with machine learning is primarily a predictor of binding to peptide-binding sites, and is not intended as a predictor of specificity of binding to particular receptors.

  2. Guardian of Genetic Messenger-RNA-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Anji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA in cells is always associated with RNA-binding proteins that regulate all aspects of RNA metabolism including RNA splicing, export from the nucleus, RNA localization, mRNA turn-over as well as translation. Given their diverse functions, cells express a variety of RNA-binding proteins, which play important roles in the pathologies of a number of diseases. In this review we focus on the effect of alcohol on different RNA-binding proteins and their possible contribution to alcohol-related disorders, and discuss the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases and cancer. We further discuss the conventional methods and newer techniques that are employed to identify RNA-binding proteins.

  3. Discrete persistent-chain model for protein binding on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-04-01

    We describe and solve a discrete persistent-chain model of protein binding on DNA, involving an extra σ(i) at a site i of the DNA. This variable takes the value 1 or 0, depending on whether or not the site is occupied by a protein. In addition, if the site is occupied by a protein, there is an extra energy cost ɛ. For a small force, we obtain analytic expressions for the force-extension curve and the fraction of bound protein on the DNA. For higher forces, the model can be solved numerically to obtain force-extension curves and the average fraction of bound proteins as a function of applied force. Our model can be used to analyze experimental force-extension curves of protein binding on DNA, and hence deduce the number of bound proteins in the case of nonspecific binding. ©2011 American Physical Society

  4. Characterization of a cocaine binding protein in human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.S.; Zhou, D.H.; Maulik, D.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    [ 3 H]-Cocaine binding sites are identified in human placental villus tissue plasma membranes. These binding sites are associated with a protein and show saturable and specific binding of [ 3 H]-cocaine with a high affinity site of 170 fmole/mg protein. The binding is lost with pretreatment with trypsin or heat. The membrane bound protein is solubilized with the detergent 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethyl-ammonio-1-propane sulphonate (CHAPS) with retention of its saturable and specific binding of [ 3 H]-cocaine. The detergent-protein complex migrates on a sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography column as a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 75,900. The protein has an S 20,w value of 5.1. The binding of this protein to norcocaine, pseudococaine, nomifensine, imipramine, desipramine, amphetamine and dopamine indicates that it shares some, but not all, the properties of the brain cocaine receptor. The physiologic significance of this protein in human placenta is currently unclear

  5. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. New binding mode to TNF-alpha revealed by ubiquitin-based artificial binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A variety of approaches have been employed to generate binding proteins from non-antibody scaffolds. Utilizing a beta-sheet of the human ubiquitin for paratope creation we obtained binding proteins against tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha. The bioactive form of this validated pharmacological target protein is a non-covalently linked homo-trimer. This structural feature leads to the observation of a certain heterogeneity concerning the binding mode of TNF-alpha binding molecules, for instance in terms of monomer/trimer specificity. We analyzed a ubiquitin-based TNF-alpha binder, selected by ribosome display, with a particular focus on its mode of interaction. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, specific binding to TNF-alpha with nanomolar affinity was observed. In isothermal titration calorimetry we obtained comparable results regarding the affinity and detected an exothermic reaction with one ubiquitin-derived binding molecule binding one TNF-alpha trimer. Using NMR spectroscopy and other analytical methods the 1:3 stoichiometry could be confirmed. Detailed binding analysis showed that the interaction is affected by the detergent Tween-20. Previously, this phenomenon was reported only for one other type of alternative scaffold-derived binding proteins--designed ankyrin repeat proteins--without further investigation. As demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy, the presence of the detergent increases the association rate significantly. Since the special architecture of TNF-alpha is known to be modulated by detergents, the access to the recognized epitope is indicated to be restricted by conformational transitions within the target protein. Our results suggest that the ubiquitin-derived binding protein targets a new epitope on TNF-alpha, which differs from the epitopes recognized by TNF-alpha neutralizing antibodies.

  7. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...

  8. The interrelationship between ligand binding and self-association of the folate binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jan; Schou, Christian; Babol, Linnea N.

    2011-01-01

    The folate binding protein (FBP) regulates homeostasis and intracellular trafficking of folic acid, a vitamin of decisive importance in cell division and growth. We analyzed whether interrelationship between ligand binding and self-association of FBP plays a significant role in the physiology of ...

  9. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple

  10. Measurement of plasma protein and lipoprotein binding of pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Pankaj K; Muralidhara, S; Bruckner, James V; White, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    A simple, reliable procedure was developed to measure binding of pyrethroid insecticides to total proteins and lipoproteins of rat and human plasma. The extent of binding of (14)C-labeled deltamethrin (DLM), cis-permethrin (CIS) and trans-permethrin (TRANS) was quantified by a 3-step organic solvent extraction technique. Rat and human plasma samples, containing NaF to inhibit esterases, were spiked with a range of concentrations of each radiolabeled pyrethroid. Protein binding reached equilibrium within ~1h of incubation at 37°C. The samples were extracted in turn with: isooctane to collect the unbound fraction; 2-octanol to extract the lipoprotein-bound fraction; and acetonitrile to obtain the protein-bound fraction. Absolute recoveries of DLM, CIS and TRANS ranged from 86 to 95%. Adherence of these very lipophilic chemicals to glass and plastic was minimized by using silanized glass vials and LoBind® plastic pipettes. The method's ability to distinguish lipoprotein from protein binding was confirmed by experiments with diazepam and cyclosporine, drugs that bind selectively to albumin and lipoproteins, respectively. This procedure was effectively utilized for studies of the species-dependence of plasma protein and lipoprotein binding of three pyrethroids for inclusion in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models of pyrethroids for use in health risk assessments of the insecticides in children and adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergistic inhibition of the intrinsic factor X activation by protein S and C4b-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S. J.; van't Veer, C.; Sixma, J. J.; Bouma, B. N.

    1995-01-01

    The complement protein C4b-binding protein plays an important role in the regulation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. C4b-binding protein can bind to protein S, thereby inhibiting the cofactor activity of protein S for activated protein C. In this report, we describe a new role for

  12. New fluorescent reagents specific for Ca2+-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hail, Danya; Lemelson, Daniela; Israelson, Adrian; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New reagents specifically inhibit the activity of Ca 2+ -dependent proteins. ► FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru allow for mechanism-independent probing of Ca 2+ -binding proteins. ► Changes in reagents fluorescence allow characterization of protein Ca 2+ -binding properties. -- Abstract: Ca 2+ carries information pivotal to cell life and death via its interactions with specific binding sites in a protein. We previously developed a novel photoreactive reagent, azido ruthenium (AzRu), which strongly inhibits Ca 2+ -dependent activities. Here, we synthesized new fluorescent ruthenium-based reagents containing FITC or EITC, FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru. These reagents were purified, characterized and found to specifically interact with and markedly inhibit Ca 2+ -dependent activities but not the activity of Ca 2+ -independent reactions. In contrast to many reagents that serve as probes for Ca 2+ , FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru are the first fluorescent divalent cation analogs to be synthesized and characterized that specifically bind to Ca 2+ -binding proteins and inhibit their activity. Such reagents will assist in characterizing Ca 2+ -binding proteins, thereby facilitating better understanding of the function of Ca 2+ as a key bio-regulator.

  13. Identification of Putative Vero Cell Protein(s) that Bind Specifically to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The 45 KDa, 43 KDa and 30 KDa plasma membrane proteins were identified as viral envelope targets. Competitive binding assay showed these proteins competing with dengue virus binding. MTT assay indicate that viability of vero cells increases in cultures pretreated with 45 KDa, 43 KDa and 30 KDa proteins ...

  14. Conformational control of the binding of the transactivation domain of the MLL protein and c-Myb to the KIX domain of CREB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Nihal Korkmaz

    Full Text Available The KIX domain of CBP is a transcriptional coactivator. Concomitant binding to the activation domain of proto-oncogene protein c-Myb and the transactivation domain of the trithorax group protein mixed lineage leukemia (MLL transcription factor lead to the biologically active ternary MLL∶KIX∶c-Myb complex which plays a role in Pol II-mediated transcription. The binding of the activation domain of MLL to KIX enhances c-Myb binding. Here we carried out molecular dynamics (MD simulations for the MLL∶KIX∶c-Myb ternary complex, its binary components and KIX with the goal of providing a mechanistic explanation for the experimental observations. The dynamic behavior revealed that the MLL binding site is allosterically coupled to the c-Myb binding site. MLL binding redistributes the conformational ensemble of KIX, leading to higher populations of states which favor c-Myb binding. The key element in the allosteric communication pathways is the KIX loop, which acts as a control mechanism to enhance subsequent binding events. We tested this conclusion by in silico mutations of loop residues in the KIX∶MLL complex and by comparing wild type and mutant dynamics through MD simulations. The loop assumed MLL binding conformation similar to that observed in the KIX∶c-Myb state which disfavors the allosteric network. The coupling with c-Myb binding site faded, abolishing the positive cooperativity observed in the presence of MLL. Our major conclusion is that by eliciting a loop-mediated allosteric switch between the different states following the binding events, transcriptional activation can be regulated. The KIX system presents an example how nature makes use of conformational control in higher level regulation of transcriptional activity and thus cellular events.

  15. Drosophila DNA-Binding Proteins in Polycomb Repression

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    Maksim Erokhin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of individual gene expression patterns in different cell types is required during differentiation and development of multicellular organisms. Polycomb group (PcG proteins are key epigenetic regulators responsible for gene repression, and dysregulation of their activities leads to developmental abnormalities and diseases. PcG proteins were first identified in Drosophila, which still remains the most convenient system for studying PcG-dependent repression. In the Drosophila genome, these proteins bind to DNA regions called Polycomb response elements (PREs. A major role in the recruitment of PcG proteins to PREs is played by DNA-binding factors, several of which have been characterized in detail. However, current knowledge is insufficient for comprehensively describing the mechanism of this process. In this review, we summarize and discuss the available data on the role of DNA-binding proteins in PcG recruitment to chromatin.

  16. Water-binding of protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.P.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As overweight and obesity become more prevalent in society, the demand for food products that can help maintain body weight increases. One way to make such products is by decreasing the protein and fat content through increasing the water content. This thesis describes the potential of protein

  17. Estrogen receptor diminishes DNA-binding activities of chicken GATA-1 and CACCC-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holth, L T; Sun, J M; Coutts, A S; Murphy, L C; Davie, J R

    1997-12-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) repressed erythroid differentiation and erythroid-specific gene expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of ER alpha (referred to throughout as ER) on DNA-binding activities of transcription factors involved in regulating the expression of erythroid-specific genes, and, in particular, the histone H5 gene. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we found that in the presence of rabbit reticulocyte lysate, human ER reduced the binding activities of chicken immature erythrocyte nuclear extracted proteins to GATA and CACCC sites in the H5 promoter and enhancer. In contrast, the binding activities of NF1 and Sp1 were not affected by ER. Binding of ER to an estrogen response element was enhanced by addition of rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This lysate was also necessary for ER to diminish the DNA-binding activity of GATA-1. These results suggest that additional factor(s) are necessary for full ER function. Both GATA-1 and CACCC-binding proteins are critical for the developmentally regulated expression of erythroid-specific genes. We hypothesize that interference in DNA-binding activities of GATA-1 and CACCC-binding proteins is the mechanism by which the ER inhibits regulation of these genes.

  18. Binding mechanisms of intrinsically disordered proteins: theory, simulation, and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mollica

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs. In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed e.g. in the fly-casting hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit, are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  19. Binding and measuring natural rubber latex proteins on glove powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J; Lucas, Anne D; Sanchez, Beatriz A

    2004-01-01

    Cornstarch used as a donning powder on natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves adsorbs NRL proteins. During glove use, powder-carried proteins can be aerosolized and can cause allergic reactions in NRL sensitized individuals. The amount of NRL proteins bound to glove powder and its relative relationship to the total amount of proteins on the glove has not been studied, due to the difficulty in measuring proteins on powder. Using the ELISA inhibition assay for NRL proteins [Standard test method for the immunological measurement of antigenic protein in natural rubber and its products. In: The Annual Book of ASTM Standards; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, 2000; ASTM D 64-0] we have investigated possible protocol modifications in order to include measurement of proteins bound to glove powder, as well as the water-extractable glove proteins. Possible interference of the starch itself was evaluated by adding clean cornstarch to the assay. No significant interference was observed with powder concentrations below 5 mg/mL. We analyzed 19 extracts of powdered surgical and examination gloves before and after removal of the particulate component. Comparison of NRL glove extracts with, and without, the cornstarch powder fraction indicated significant variations in the ratios of powder-bound protein and corresponding water-extractable protein. The ratios did not appear to correlate with either the total protein on the glove, the glove weight, or the total amount of powder on the glove. However, when virgin glove powders were exposed to NRL proteins, binding was proportional to the protein concentration in the suspension. Temperature in the range from 4 degrees C to 37 degrees C, did not affect binding intensity, while a higher pH resulted in a higher level of protein associated with, or bound to, the starch. The major differences in the propensity for NRL protein binding were observed among different glove powders. The data indicate that the amount of protein that binds to glove powder

  20. Relating the shape of protein binding sites to binding affinity profiles: is there an association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitter István

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various pattern-based methods exist that use in vitro or in silico affinity profiles for classification and functional examination of proteins. Nevertheless, the connection between the protein affinity profiles and the structural characteristics of the binding sites is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between virtual drug screening results (calculated binding free energy values and the geometry of protein binding sites. Molecular Affinity Fingerprints (MAFs were determined for 154 proteins based on their molecular docking energy results for 1,255 FDA-approved drugs. Protein binding site geometries were characterized by 420 PocketPicker descriptors. The basic underlying component structure of MAFs and binding site geometries, respectively, were examined by principal component analysis; association between principal components extracted from these two sets of variables was then investigated by canonical correlation and redundancy analyses. Results PCA analysis of the MAF variables provided 30 factors which explained 71.4% of the total variance of the energy values while 13 factors were obtained from the PocketPicker descriptors which cumulatively explained 94.1% of the total variance. Canonical correlation analysis resulted in 3 statistically significant canonical factor pairs with correlation values of 0.87, 0.84 and 0.77, respectively. Redundancy analysis indicated that PocketPicker descriptor factors explain 6.9% of the variance of the MAF factor set while MAF factors explain 15.9% of the total variance of PocketPicker descriptor factors. Based on the salient structures of the factor pairs, we identified a clear-cut association between the shape and bulkiness of the drug molecules and the protein binding site descriptors. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate complex multivariate associations between affinity profiles and the geometric properties of protein binding sites. We found that

  1. Ubiquitin-binding proteins: similar, but different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine M; Hofmann, Kay; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    of ubiquitin conjugation to endoplasmic reticulum degradation), UEV [ubiquitin E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) variant] and NZF (nuclear protein localization gene 4 zinc finger) domain-containing proteins appear to have more specialized functions. Here we discuss functional and structural properties......Covalent modification of proteins with ubiquitin is a common regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Typically, ubiquitinated proteins are targeted for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. However, more recently the ubiquitin signal has also been connected with many other cell processes, including...... endocytosis, vesicle fusion, DNA repair and transcriptional silencing. Hence ubiquitination may be comparable with phosphorylation in its importance as an intracellular switch, controlling various signal-transduction pathways. Similar to the regulation of the extent of phosphorylation by kinases...

  2. Species specificity for HBsAg binding protein endonexin II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruin, WCC; Leenders, WPJ; Moshage, H; vanHaelst, UJGM

    Background/Aims: Hepatitis B virus displays a distinct species and tissue tropism, Previously we have demonstrated that a human liver plasma membrane protein,vith a molecular weight of approximately 34 kiloDalton specifically binds to HBsAg. This protein was identified as endonexin II, a Ca2+

  3. Selectivity determinants of GPCR-G-protein binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flock, Tilman; Hauser, Alexander S; Lund, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The selective coupling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to specific G proteins is critical to trigger the appropriate physiological response. However, the determinants of selective binding have remained elusive. Here we reveal the existence of a selectivity barcode (that is, patterns of ami...

  4. Acyl-CoA-binding protein/diazepam-binding inhibitor gene and pseudogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, S; Hummel, R; Ravn, S

    1992-01-01

    modulator of the GABAA receptor in brain membranes. ACBP/DBI, or proteolytically derived polypeptides of ACBP/DBI, have also been implicated in the control of steroidogenesis in mitochondria and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Thus, it appears that ACBP/DBI is a remarkable, versatile protein. Now we......Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a 10 kDa protein isolated from bovine liver by virtue of its ability to bind and induce the synthesis of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters. Surprisingly, it turned out to be identical to a protein named diazepam-binding Inhibitor (DBI) claimed to be an endogenous....... There is a remarkable correspondence between the structural modules of ACBP/DBI as determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the exon-intron architecture of the ACBP/DBI gene. Detailed analyses of transcription of the ACBP/DBI gene in brain and liver were performed to map transcription initiation...

  5. Detergent activation of the binding protein in the folate radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Lyngbye, J.

    1982-01-01

    A minor cow's whey protein associated with β-lactoglobulin is used as binding protein in the competitive radioassay for serum and erythrocyte folate. Seeking to optimize the assay, we tested the performance of binder solutions of increasing purity. The folate binding protein was isolated from cow's whey by means of CM-Sepharose CL-6B cation-exchange chromatography, and further purified on a methotrexate-AH-Sepharose 4B affinity matrix. In contrast to β-lactoglobulin, the purified protein did not bind folate unless the detergents cetyltrimethylammonium (10 mmol/Ll) or Triton X-100 (1 g/L) were present. Such detergent activation was not needed in the presence of serum. There seems to be a striking analogy between these phenomena and the well-known reactivation of certain purified membrane-derived enzymes by surfactants

  6. RNA-Binding Domain Proteins in Kinetoplastids: a Comparative Analysis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaudenzi, Javier; Frasch, Alberto C.; Clayton, Christine

    2005-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins are important in many aspects of RNA processing, function, and destruction. One class of such proteins contains the RNA recognition motif (RRM), which consists of about 90 amino acid residues, including the canonical RNP1 octapeptide: (K/R)G(F/Y)(G/A)FVX(F/Y). We used a variety of homology searches to classify all of the RRM proteins of the three kinetoplastids Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major. All three organisms have similar sets of RRM-containing protein orthologues, suggesting common posttranscriptional processing and regulatory pathways. Of the 75 RRM proteins identified in T. brucei, only 13 had clear homologues in other eukaryotes, although 8 more could be given putative functional assignments. A comparison with the 18 RRM proteins of the obligate intracellular parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi revealed just 3 RRM proteins which appear to be conserved at the primary sequence level throughout eukaryotic evolution: poly(A) binding protein, the rRNA-processing protein MRD1, and the nuclear cap binding protein. PMID:16339728

  7. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, V Joachim; Daminelli, Simone; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology) - a drug's ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand flexibility to have a minor

  8. TATA-binding protein and the retinoblastoma gene product bind to overlapping epitopes on c-Myc and adenovirus E1A protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateboer, G.; Timmers, H.T.M.; Rustgi, A.K.; Billaud, Marc; Veer, L.J. Van 't; Bernards, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Using a protein binding assay, we show that the amino-teminal 204 amino acids of the c-Myc protein interact di y with a key component of the basal p tdon factor TFID, the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Essentialy the same region of the c-Myc protein alo binds the product of the retinoblatoma

  9. Effect of cobratoxin binding on the normal mode vibration within acetylcholine binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaccini, Edward J; Lindahl, Erik; Sixma, Titia; Trudell, James R

    2008-04-01

    Recent crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) have revealed surprisingly small structural alterations upon ligand binding. Here we investigate the extent to which ligand binding may affect receptor dynamics. AChBP is a homologue of the extracellular component of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). We have previously used an elastic network normal-mode analysis to propose a gating mechanism for the LGICs and to suggest the effects of various ligands on such motions. However, the difficulties with elastic network methods lie in their inability to account for the modest effects of a small ligand or mutation on ion channel motion. Here, we report the successful application of an elastic network normal mode technique to measure the effects of large ligand binding on receptor dynamics. The present calculations demonstrate a clear alteration in the native symmetric motions of a protein due to the presence of large protein cobratoxin ligands. In particular, normal-mode analysis revealed that cobratoxin binding to this protein significantly dampened the axially symmetric motion of the AChBP that may be associated with channel gating in the full nAChR. The results suggest that alterations in receptor dynamics could be a general feature of ligand binding.

  10. Differential binding of heavy chain variable domain 3 antigen binding fragments to protein A chromatography resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Julia; Lewis, Nathaniel; Maggiora, Kathy; Gillespie, Alison J; Connell-Crowley, Lisa

    2015-08-28

    This work examines the binding of 15 different VH3 IgGs and their corresponding F(ab')2 fragments to two different protein A chromatography resins: MabSelect(®), which utilizes a recombinant protein A ligand, and MabSelect SuRe(®) (SuRe), which utilizes a tetrameric Z domain ligand. The results show that VH3 F(ab')2 fragments can exhibit a variety of binding behaviours for the two resins. Contrary to previously published data, a subset of these molecules show strong interaction with the Z domain of SuRe(®). Furthermore, the results show that sequence variability of residue 57 in the VH3 heavy chain CDR2 domain correlates with binding behaviour on MabSelect(®) and SuRe(®). Site-directed mutagenesis of this residue confers gain or loss of VH3 F(ab')2 binding to these resins in 3 mAbs, demonstrating that it plays a key role in both recombinant protein A and Z domain interaction. A fourth mAb with a longer CDR2 loop was not affected by mutation of residue 57, indicating that CDR2 domain length may alter the binding interface and lead to the involvement of other residues in protein A binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  12. Computational design of binding proteins to EGFR domain II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sup Choi

    Full Text Available We developed a process to produce novel interactions between two previously unrelated proteins. This process selects protein scaffolds and designs protein interfaces that bind to a surface patch of interest on a target protein. Scaffolds with shapes complementary to the target surface patch were screened using an exhaustive computational search of the human proteome and optimized by directed evolution using phage display. This method was applied to successfully design scaffolds that bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR domain II, the interface of EGFR dimerization, with high reactivity toward the target surface patch of EGFR domain II. One potential application of these tailor-made protein interactions is the development of therapeutic agents against specific protein targets.

  13. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B.A.; Eberwine, J.; Spencer, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington`s disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to >37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and LJV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  14. CNE, a collagen-binding protein of Streptococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannergård, Jonas; Frykberg, Lars; Guss, Bengt

    2003-05-16

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is an important horse pathogenic bacterium causing a serious disease called strangles. Using bioinformatics we identified a gene denoted cne (gene encoding collagen-binding protein from S. equi) coding for a novel potential virulence factor of this species called protein CNE. The protein is composed of 657 amino acids and has the typical features found in cell surface-anchored proteins in Gram-positive bacteria. CNE displays amino acid sequence similarities to the previously well-studied collagen-binding protein CNA from Staphylococcus aureus, a proven virulence factor in septic arthritis. Based on similarity to CNA the structure of the mature CNE protein can be divided into an N-terminal A domain and a C-terminal B domain. The highest similarity between CNA and CNE is found in the A domains. The A domain in CNA is known to be the collagen-binding domain. Two parts of cne were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligated into an expression vector, and recombinant CNE proteins were produced in Escherichia coli. The purified CNE proteins were shown to display collagen-binding activity in a Western ligand blot and to inhibit collagen binding to cells of subsp. equi and to CNE-coated microtitre wells. Furthermore, the A domain of CNE was sufficient for binding collagen, and was shown to compete for the same site on collagen as CNA in inhibition studies. Using PCR, the cne gene was detected in all studied strains of subsp. equi and S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

  15. SCM, the M Protein of Streptococcus canis Binds Immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Simone; Eichhorn, Inga; Kohler, Thomas P; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Goldmann, Oliver; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The M protein of Streptococcus canis (SCM) is a virulence factor and serves as a surface-associated receptor with a particular affinity for mini-plasminogen, a cleavage product of the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin. Here, we report that SCM has an additional high-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding activity. The ability of a particular S. canis isolate to bind to IgG significantly correlates with a scm -positive phenotype, suggesting a dominant role of SCM as an IgG receptor. Subsequent heterologous expression of SCM in non-IgG binding S. gordonii and Western Blot analysis with purified recombinant SCM proteins confirmed its IgG receptor function. As expected for a zoonotic agent, the SCM-IgG interaction is species-unspecific, with a particular affinity of SCM for IgGs derived from human, cats, dogs, horses, mice, and rabbits, but not from cows and goats. Similar to other streptococcal IgG-binding proteins, the interaction between SCM and IgG occurs via the conserved Fc domain and is, therefore, non-opsonic. Interestingly, the interaction between SCM and IgG-Fc on the bacterial surface specifically prevents opsonization by C1q, which might constitute another anti-phagocytic mechanism of SCM. Extensive binding analyses with a variety of different truncated SCM fragments defined a region of 52 amino acids located in the central part of the mature SCM protein which is important for IgG binding. This binding region is highly conserved among SCM proteins derived from different S. canis isolates but differs significantly from IgG-Fc receptors of S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae sub. equisimilis , respectively. In summary, we present an additional role of SCM in the pathogen-host interaction of S. canis . The detailed analysis of the SCM-IgG interaction should contribute to a better understanding of the complex roles of M proteins in streptococcal pathogenesis.

  16. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormo Gary D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data.

  17. RNA-binding region of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Zee Hong; Mohd, Nur Azmina Syakirin; Tan, Soon Guan; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Wen Siang

    2014-09-01

    White tail disease (WTD) kills prawn larvae and causes drastic losses to the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) industry. The main causative agent of WTD is Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). The N-terminal end of the MrNV capsid protein is very rich in positively charged amino acids and is postulated to interact with RNA molecules. N-terminal and internal deletion mutagenesis revealed that the RNA-binding region is located at positions 20-29, where 80 % of amino acids are positively charged. Substitution of all these positively charged residues with alanine abolished the RNA binding. Mutants without the RNA-binding region still assembled into virus-like particles, suggesting that this region is not a part of the capsid assembly domain. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to report the specific RNA-binding region of MrNV capsid protein. © 2014 The Authors.

  18. Metal binding proteins, recombinant host cells and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Anne O.; Caguiat, Jonathan J.

    2004-06-15

    The present disclosure provides artificial heavy metal binding proteins termed chelons by the inventors. These chelons bind cadmium and/or mercuric ions with relatively high affinity. Also disclosed are coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and recombinant host cells comprising those recombinant DNA molecules for expression of the chelon proteins. In the recombinant host cells or transgenic plants, the chelons can be used to bind heavy metals taken up from contaminated soil, groundwater or irrigation water and to concentrate and sequester those ions. Recombinant enteric bacteria can be used within the gastrointestinal tracts of animals or humans exposed to toxic metal ions such as mercury and/or cadmium, where the chelon recombinantly expressed in chosen in accordance with the ion to be rededicated. Alternatively, the chelons can be immobilized to solid supports to bind and concentrate heavy metals from a contaminated aqueous medium including biological fluids.

  19. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2014-02-21

    Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is a tumor and leukemia suppressor that binds both methylated histone tails and DNA. Our previous studies indicated that RBBP1 possesses a Tudor domain, which cannot bind histone marks. In order to clarify the function of the Tudor domain, the solution structure of the RBBP1 Tudor domain was determined by NMR and is presented here. Although the proteins are unrelated, the RBBP1 Tudor domain forms an interdigitated double Tudor structure similar to the Tudor domain of JMJD2A, which is an epigenetic mark reader. This indicates the functional diversity of Tudor domains. The RBBP1 Tudor domain structure has a significant area of positively charged surface, which reveals a capability of the RBBP1 Tudor domain to bind nucleic acids. NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the RBBP1 Tudor domain binds both double- and single-stranded DNA with an affinity of 10-100 μM; no apparent DNA sequence specificity was detected. The DNA binding mode and key interaction residues were analyzed in detail based on a model structure of the Tudor domain-dsDNA complex, built by HADDOCK docking using the NMR data. Electrostatic interactions mediate the binding of the Tudor domain with DNA, which is consistent with NMR experiments performed at high salt concentration. The DNA-binding residues are conserved in Tudor domains of the RBBP1 protein family, resulting in conservation of the DNA-binding function in the RBBP1 Tudor domains. Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1.

  20. T3: Targeted Proteomics of DNA-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagore, Linda I.; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A technique that allows the inclusion of a specific DNA to enrich and direct proteomic identification of transcription factors (TF) while providing a route for high throughput screening on a single platform would be valuable in investigations of gene expression and regulation. Polyvinylpyrrolidone binds DNA avidly while binding negligible amounts of protein. This observation is used in a proof-of-concept method to enrich for TF by combining nuclear extract with a specific DNA sequence and imm...

  1. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the α subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single β subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the α subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub sα/ relative to G/sub ichemical bond/ and G/sub ochemical bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with [ 125 I]protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the β subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the α subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium

  2. Chromate Binding and Removal by the Molybdate-Binding Protein ModA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpus, Jason; Bosscher, Michael; Ajiboye, Ifedayo; Zhang, Liang; He, Chuan

    2017-04-04

    Effective and cheap methods and techniques for the safe removal of hexavalent chromate from the environment are in increasingly high demand. High concentrations of hexavalent chromate have been shown to have numerous harmful effects on human biology. We show that the E. coli molybdate-binding protein ModA is a genetically encoded tool capable of removing chromate from aqueous solutions. Although previously reported to not bind chromate, we show that ModA binds chromate tightly and is capable of removing chromate to levels well below current US federal standards. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhou J; Mortimer, Gysell; Minchin, Rodney F; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO 2 , the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO 2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  5. Solvation structure of ice-binding antifreeze proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, John

    2009-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can be found in organisms which survive at subzero temperatures. They were first discovered in polar fishes since the 1950's [1] and have been isolated meanwhile also from insects, plants, and bacteria. While AFPs shift the freezing point of water below the bulk melting point and hence can prevent recrystallization; the effect is non-colligative and there is a pronounced hysteresis between freezing and melting. For many AFPs it is generally accepted that they function through an irreversible binding to the ice-water interface which leads to a piecewise convex growth front with a lower nonequilibrium freezing point due to the Kelvin effect. Recent molecular dynamics simulations of the AFP from Choristoneura fumiferana reveal that the solvation structures of water at ice-binding and non-ice-binding faces of the protein are crucial for understanding how the AFP binds to the ice surface and how it is protected from being overgrown [2]. We use density functional theory of classical fluids in order to assess the microscopic solvent structure in the vicinity of protein faces with different surface properties. With our method, binding energies of different protein faces to the water-ice-interface can be computed efficiently in a simplified model. [1] Y. Yeh and R.E. Feeney, Chem. Rev. 96, 601 (1996). [2] D.R. Nutt and J.C. Smith, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 13066 (2008).

  6. Phosphorus Binding Sites in Proteins: Structural Preorganization and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruber, Mathias Felix; Greisen, Per Junior; Junker, Märta Caroline

    2014-01-01

    to individual structures that bind to phosphate groups; here, we investigate a total of 8307 structures obtained from the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB). An analysis of the binding site amino acid propensities reveals very characteristic first shell residue distributions, which are found to be influenced...... by the characteristics of the phosphorus compound and by the presence of cobound cations. The second shell, which supports the coordinating residues in the first shell, is found to consist mainly of protein backbone groups. Our results show how the second shell residue distribution is dictated mainly by the first shell...

  7. The RNA-binding protein repertoire of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2016-07-11

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have essential roles in determining the fate of RNA from synthesis to decay and have been studied on a protein-by-protein basis, or computationally based on a number of well-characterised RNA-binding domains. Recently, high-throughput methods enabled the capture of mammalian RNA-binding proteomes. To gain insight into the role of Arabidopsis thaliana RBPs at the systems level, we have employed interactome capture techniques using cells from different ecotypes grown in cultures and leaves. In vivo UV-crosslinking of RNA to RBPs, oligo(dT) capture and mass spectrometry yielded 1,145 different proteins including 550 RBPs that either belong to the functional category ‘RNA-binding’, have known RNA-binding domains or have orthologs identified in mammals, C. elegans, or S. cerevisiae in addition to 595 novel candidate RBPs. We noted specific subsets of RBPs in cultured cells and leaves and a comparison of Arabidopsis, mammalian, C. elegans, and S. cerevisiae RBPs reveals a common set of proteins with a role in intermediate metabolism, as well as distinct differences suggesting that RBPs are also species and tissue specific. This study provides a foundation for studies that will advance our understanding of the biological significance of RBPs in plant developmental and stimulus specific responses.

  8. Deoxyribonucleic-binding homeobox proteins are augmented in human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Mercurio, A M; Chung, S Y

    1990-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression during embryonic development. In this study, we examined the expression of homeobox proteins in human cancer. Antiserum was obtained against a synthetic peptide derived from...... the same patients exhibited little immunoreactivity. Both the peptide antiserum and the polyclonal antiserum against the native protein immunoblotted a molecular weight 63,000 protein in nuclear extracts of tumor tissue, but not significantly in extracts of normal tissue. At the molecular level......, the presence of the homeobox transcript in human carcinoma was documented by in situ hybridization and RNase protection mapping. These results demonstrate that human cancer is associated with the expression of homeobox proteins. Such homeobox proteins, as well as other regulatory proteins, could be involved...

  9. Free enthalpies of replacing water molecules in protein binding pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniker, Sereina; Barandun, Luzi J; Diederich, François; Krämer, Oliver; Steffen, Andreas; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2012-12-01

    Water molecules in the binding pocket of a protein and their role in ligand binding have increasingly raised interest in recent years. Displacement of such water molecules by ligand atoms can be either favourable or unfavourable for ligand binding depending on the change in free enthalpy. In this study, we investigate the displacement of water molecules by an apolar probe in the binding pocket of two proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, using the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) to obtain free enthalpy differences. In both cases, a ligand core is placed inside the respective pocket and the remaining water molecules are converted to apolar probes, both individually and in pairs. The free enthalpy difference between a water molecule and a CH(3) group at the same location in the pocket in comparison to their presence in bulk solution calculated from EDS molecular dynamics simulations corresponds to the binding free enthalpy of CH(3) at this location. From the free enthalpy difference and the enthalpy difference, the entropic contribution of the displacement can be obtained too. The overlay of the resulting occupancy volumes of the water molecules with crystal structures of analogous ligands shows qualitative correlation between experimentally measured inhibition constants and the calculated free enthalpy differences. Thus, such an EDS analysis of the water molecules in the binding pocket may give valuable insight for potency optimization in drug design.

  10. Tritium NMR spectroscopy of ligand binding to maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, K.; Williams, P.G.; Pelton, J.G.; Morimoto, H.; Wemmer, D.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-06-04

    Tritium-labeled {alpha}- and {beta}-maltodextrins have been used to study their complexes with maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40-kDa bacterial protein. Five substrates, from maltose to maltohexaose, were labeled at their reducing ends and their binding studied. Tritium NMR specctroscopy of the labeled sugars showed large upfield chamical shift changes upon binding and strong anomeric specficity. At 10{degrees}C, MBP bound {alpha}-maltose with 2.7 {plus minus} 0.5-fold higher affinity than {beta}-maltose, and, for longer maltodextrins, the ratio of affinities was even larger. The maximum chemical shift change was 2.2 ppm, suggesting that the reducing end of bound {alpha}-maltodextrin makes close contact with an aromatic residue in the MBP-binding site. Experiments with maltotriose (and longer maltodextrins) also revealed the presence of two bound {beta}-maltotriose resonances in rapid exchange. The authors interpret these two resonances as arising from two distinct sugar-protein complexes. In one complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by its reducing end, and, in the other complex, the {beta}-maltodextrin is bound by the middle glucose residue(s). This interpretation also suggests how MBP is able to bind both linear and circular maltodextrins.

  11. Tritium NMR spectroscopy of ligand binding to maltose-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehring, K.; Williams, P.G.; Pelton, J.G.; Morimoto, H.; Wemmer, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium-labeled α- and β-maltodextrins have been used to study their complexes with maltose-binding protein (MBP), a 40-kDa bacterial protein. Five substrates, from maltose to maltohexaose, were labeled at their reducing ends and their binding studied. Tritium NMR specctroscopy of the labeled sugars showed large upfield chamical shift changes upon binding and strong anomeric specficity. At 10 degrees C, MBP bound α-maltose with 2.7 ± 0.5-fold higher affinity than β-maltose, and, for longer maltodextrins, the ratio of affinities was even larger. The maximum chemical shift change was 2.2 ppm, suggesting that the reducing end of bound α-maltodextrin makes close contact with an aromatic residue in the MBP-binding site. Experiments with maltotriose (and longer maltodextrins) also revealed the presence of two bound β-maltotriose resonances in rapid exchange. The authors interpret these two resonances as arising from two distinct sugar-protein complexes. In one complex, the β-maltodextrin is bound by its reducing end, and, in the other complex, the β-maltodextrin is bound by the middle glucose residue(s). This interpretation also suggests how MBP is able to bind both linear and circular maltodextrins

  12. Fluorescence properties of porcine odorant binding protein Trp 16 residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Jihad Rene, E-mail: Jihad-Rene.Albani@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Summary: The present work deals with fluorescence studies of adult porcine odorant binding protein at pH=7.5. At this pH, the protein is a dimer, each monomer contains one tryptophan residue. Our results show that tryptophan residue displays significant motions and emits with three fluorescence lifetimes. Decay associated spectra showed that the three lifetime's components emanate from sub-structures surrounded by the same microenvironment.

  13. Cooperative binding of copper(I) to the metal binding domains in Menkes disease protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P Y; Bonander, N; Møller, L B

    1999-01-01

    spectroscopy, and their copper(I) binding properties have been determined. Structure prediction derived from far-UV CD indicates that the secondary structure is similar in the three proteins and dominated by beta-sheet. The tryptophan fluorescence maximum is blue-shifted in the constructs containing two...... and six MBDs relative to the monomer, suggesting more structurally buried tryptophan(s), compared to the single MBD construct. Copper(I) binding has been studied by equilibrium dialysis under anaerobic conditions. We show that the copper(I) binding to constructs containing two and six domains...... is cooperative, with Hill coefficients of 1.5 and 4, respectively. The apparent affinities are described by K(0.5), determined to be 65 microM and 19 microM for constructs containing two and six domains, respectively. Our data reveal a unique regulation of Menkes protein upon a change in copper(I) concentration...

  14. Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP): Training and Release of CBP Toolbox Software, Version 1.0 - 13480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S.; Flach, G.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III; Burns, H.; Van der Sloot, H.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; Samson, E.; Mallick, P.; Suttora, L.; Esh, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Philip, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the Office of Tank Waste Management within the Office of Environmental Management of U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that improve understanding and predictions of the long-term hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program are intended to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to or longer than 100 years for operating facilities and longer than 1,000 years for waste management purposes. CBP software tools were made available to selected DOE Office of Environmental Management and field site users for training and evaluation based on a set of important degradation scenarios, including sulfate ingress/attack and carbonation of cementitious materials. The tools were presented at two-day training workshops held at U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Savannah River, and Hanford included LeachXS TM /ORCHESTRA, STADIUM R , and a CBP-developed GoldSim Dashboard interface. Collectively, these components form the CBP Software Toolbox. The new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency leaching test methods based on the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) were also presented. The CBP Dashboard uses a custom Dynamic-link library developed by CBP to couple to the LeachXS TM /ORCHESTRA and STADIUM R codes to simulate reactive transport and degradation in cementitious materials for selected performance assessment scenarios. The first day of the workshop introduced participants to the software components via presentation materials, and the second day included hands-on tutorial exercises followed by discussions

  15. Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP): Training and Release of CBP Toolbox Software, Version 1.0 - 13480

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.G.; Kosson, D.S.; Garrabrants, A.C.; Sarkar, S. [Vanderbilt University, School of Engineering, CRESP, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Flach, G.; Langton, C.; Smith, F.G. III; Burns, H. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Van der Sloot, H. [Hans Van der Sloot Consultancy, Dorpsstraat 216, 1721BV Langedijk (Netherlands); Meeussen, J.C.L. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Westerduinweg 3, Petten (Netherlands); Samson, E. [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada); Mallick, P.; Suttora, L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Esh, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Philip, J. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the Office of Tank Waste Management within the Office of Environmental Management of U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The CBP program has developed a set of integrated tools (based on state-of-the-art models and leaching test methods) that improve understanding and predictions of the long-term hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. Tools selected for and developed under this program are intended to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near-surface engineered waste disposal systems for periods of performance up to or longer than 100 years for operating facilities and longer than 1,000 years for waste management purposes. CBP software tools were made available to selected DOE Office of Environmental Management and field site users for training and evaluation based on a set of important degradation scenarios, including sulfate ingress/attack and carbonation of cementitious materials. The tools were presented at two-day training workshops held at U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Savannah River, and Hanford included LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA, STADIUM{sup R}, and a CBP-developed GoldSim Dashboard interface. Collectively, these components form the CBP Software Toolbox. The new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency leaching test methods based on the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) were also presented. The CBP Dashboard uses a custom Dynamic-link library developed by CBP to couple to the LeachXS{sup TM}/ORCHESTRA and STADIUM{sup R} codes to simulate reactive transport and degradation in cementitious materials for selected performance assessment scenarios. The first day of the workshop introduced participants to the software components via presentation materials, and the second day included hands-on tutorial exercises followed

  16. RBPmap: a web server for mapping binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Inbal; Kosti, Idit; Ares, Manuel; Cline, Melissa; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2014-07-01

    Regulation of gene expression is executed in many cases by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that bind to mRNAs as well as to non-coding RNAs. RBPs recognize their RNA target via specific binding sites on the RNA. Predicting the binding sites of RBPs is known to be a major challenge. We present a new webserver, RBPmap, freely accessible through the website http://rbpmap.technion.ac.il/ for accurate prediction and mapping of RBP binding sites. RBPmap has been developed specifically for mapping RBPs in human, mouse and Drosophila melanogaster genomes, though it supports other organisms too. RBPmap enables the users to select motifs from a large database of experimentally defined motifs. In addition, users can provide any motif of interest, given as either a consensus or a PSSM. The algorithm for mapping the motifs is based on a Weighted-Rank approach, which considers the clustering propensity of the binding sites and the overall tendency of regulatory regions to be conserved. In addition, RBPmap incorporates a position-specific background model, designed uniquely for different genomic regions, such as splice sites, 5' and 3' UTRs, non-coding RNA and intergenic regions. RBPmap was tested on high-throughput RNA-binding experiments and was proved to be highly accurate. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Co-suppression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... In Arabidopsis,. At5g35220 gene being sterol regulatory element-binding protein site 2, protease and metalloendopeptidase activity were required for chloroplast development and play a role in regulation of endodermal plastid size and number that are involved in ethylene-dependent gravitropism of light-.

  18. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copper- binding protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Cloning and expression analysis of a blue copper- binding protein gene from Dasypyrum Villosum. Huagang He1*, Shanying Zhu1, Wenbing Wang1, Tongde Bie2 and Peidu Chen3. 1Jiangsu University. Zhenjiang 212013, P. R. China. 2Yangzhou Academy of Agricultural ...

  19. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein mediates LPS detoxification by chylomicrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, Anita C. E.; Rousseau, Corine H.; Hartung, Thomas; Greve, Jan Willem M.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Buurman, Wim A.

    2003-01-01

    Chylomicrons have been shown to protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. LPS-binding protein (LBP) is involved in the inactivation of bacterial toxin by lipoproteins. The current study examined the interaction among LBP, chylomicrons, and bacterial toxin. LBP was demonstrated to associate with

  20. MTBindingSim: simulate protein binding to microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Julia T; Pence, Charles H; Goodson, Holly V

    2012-02-01

    Many protein-protein interactions are more complex than can be accounted for by 1:1 binding models. However, biochemists have few tools available to help them recognize and predict the behaviors of these more complicated systems, making it difficult to design experiments that distinguish between possible binding models. MTBindingSim provides researchers with an environment in which they can rapidly compare different models of binding for a given scenario. It is written specifically with microtubule polymers in mind, but many of its models apply equally well to any polymer or any protein-protein interaction. MTBindingSim can thus both help in training intuition about binding models and with experimental design. MTBindingSim is implemented in MATLAB and runs either within MATLAB (on Windows, Mac or Linux) or as a binary without MATLAB (on Windows or Mac). The source code (licensed under the GNU General Public License) and binaries are freely available at http://mtbindingsim.googlecode.com. jphilip@nd.edu; cpence@nd.edu.

  1. Genome-wide regulation of TATA-binding protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Werven, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transcription, the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template, is a well-controlled process. TATA binding protein (TBP) recruitment to promoters is essential for transcription by all three RNA polymerases, and often is the rate-limiting step of transcription initiation. TBP is incorporated into different

  2. Cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    the role of CREB and BDNF in depression and as targets/mediators of antidepressant action. [Nair A and Vaidya V A 2006 Cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: Molecules that modulate our mood?; J. Biosci. 31 423–434]. Keywords. Antidepressant; depression; hippocampus ...

  3. Controlling transcription fidelity via TATA-binding protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription underlies all cellular processes and responses to internal and external cues. Deregulation of transcription has implications for the fitness of the cell or organism. During my PhD I have investigated the importance of proper TATA-binding protein (TBP) regulation as a mechanism to

  4. Evidence for covalent binding of epicocconone with proteins from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Evidence for covalent binding of epicocconone with proteins from synchronous fluorescence spectra ... the interaction of epicocconone with human serum albumin is significantly different from its interaction with surfactant assemblies. .... at 620 nm is collected at right angles to the direction of the excitation beam, at magic ...

  5. Immunoglobulin classes, metal binding proteins, and trace metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , IgA and IgM), metal binding proteins (Transferrin, Caeruloplasmin, Alpha-2- Macroglobulin and Haptoglobin) and nutritionally essential trace metals/heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, Mg, Cd and Pb) in Nigerian cassava processors using single ...

  6. molecular interactions of the TATA-binding protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    variants and lacking a UASGAL, showed that TATA-binding protein (TBP)-TATA complex gets stabilized in the presence of the acidic activator GAL4-VP16. Activator also greatly suppressed the non-specific TBP-DNA complex formation. The effects were more pronounced over weaker TATA boxes. Activator also reduced the.

  7. PRODIGY: a web server for predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Li C; Rodrigues, João Pglm; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Bonvin, Alexandre Mjj; Vangone, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Gaining insights into the structural determinants of protein-protein interactions holds the key for a deeper understanding of biological functions, diseases and development of therapeutics. An important aspect of this is the ability to accurately predict the binding strength for a given protein-protein complex. Here we present PROtein binDIng enerGY prediction (PRODIGY), a web server to predict the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes from their 3D structure. The PRODIGY server implements our simple but highly effective predictive model based on intermolecular contacts and properties derived from non-interface surface. PRODIGY is freely available at: http://milou.science.uu.nl/services/PRODIGY CONTACT: a.m.j.j.bonvin@uu.nl, a.vangone@uu.nl. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Small world network strategies for studying protein structures and binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Neil R

    2013-01-01

    Small world network concepts provide many new opportunities to investigate the complex three dimensional structures of protein molecules. This mini-review explores the published literature on using small-world network approaches to study protein structure, with emphasis on the different combinations of descriptors that have been tested, on studies involving ligand binding in protein-ligand complexes, and on protein-protein complexes. The benefits and success of small world network approaches, which change the focus from specific interactions to the local environment, even to non-local phenomenon, are described. The purpose is to show the different ways that small world network concepts have been used for building new computational models for studying protein structure and function, and for extending and improving existing modelling approaches.

  9. Sampling and energy evaluation challenges in ligand binding protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jiayi; Doyle, Lindsey; Jr Greisen, Per; Schena, Alberto; Park, Hahnbeom; Johnsson, Kai; Stoddard, Barry L; Baker, David

    2017-12-01

    The steroid hormone 17α-hydroxylprogesterone (17-OHP) is a biomarker for congenital adrenal hyperplasia and hence there is considerable interest in development of sensors for this compound. We used computational protein design to generate protein models with binding sites for 17-OHP containing an extended, nonpolar, shape-complementary binding pocket for the four-ring core of the compound, and hydrogen bonding residues at the base of the pocket to interact with carbonyl and hydroxyl groups at the more polar end of the ligand. Eight of 16 designed proteins experimentally tested bind 17-OHP with micromolar affinity. A co-crystal structure of one of the designs revealed that 17-OHP is rotated 180° around a pseudo-two-fold axis in the compound and displays multiple binding modes within the pocket, while still interacting with all of the designed residues in the engineered site. Subsequent rounds of mutagenesis and binding selection improved the ligand affinity to nanomolar range, while appearing to constrain the ligand to a single bound conformation that maintains the same "flipped" orientation relative to the original design. We trace the discrepancy in the design calculations to two sources: first, a failure to model subtle backbone changes which alter the distribution of sidechain rotameric states and second, an underestimation of the energetic cost of desolvating the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of the ligand. The difference between design model and crystal structure thus arises from both sampling limitations and energy function inaccuracies that are exacerbated by the near two-fold symmetry of the molecule. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  10. Engineering periplasmic ligand binding proteins as glucose nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance J. Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes affects over 100 million people worldwide. Better methods for monitoring blood glucose levels are needed for improving disease management. Several labs have previously made glucose nanosensors by modifying members of the periplasmic ligand binding protein superfamily. This minireview summarizes recent developments in constructing new versions of these proteins that are responsive within the physiological range of blood glucose levels, employ new reporter groups, and/or are more robust. These experiments are important steps in the development of novel proteins that have the characteristics needed for an implantable glucose nanosensor for diabetes management: specificity for glucose, rapid response, sensitivity within the physiological range of glucose concentrations, reproducibility, and robustness.

  11. Observation of Protein Structural Vibrational Mode Sensitivity to Ligand Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Katherine; Xu, Mengyang; Snell, Edward; Markelz, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    We report the first measurements of the dependence of large-scale protein intramolecular vibrational modes on ligand binding. These collective vibrational modes in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (5-100 cm-1) are of great interest due to their predicted relation to protein function. Our technique, Crystals Anisotropy Terahertz Microscopy (CATM), allows for room temperature, table-top measurements of the optically active intramolecular modes. CATM measurements have revealed surprisingly narrowband features. CATM measurements are performed on single crystals of chicken egg-white lysozyme (CEWL) as well as CEWL bound to tri-N-acetylglucosamine (CEWL-3NAG) inhibitor. We find narrow band resonances that dramatically shift with binding. Quasiharmonic calculations are performed on CEWL and CEWL-3NAG proteins with CHARMM using normal mode analysis. The expected CATM response of the crystals is then calculated by summing over all protein orientations within the unit cell. We will compare the CATM measurements with the calculated results and discuss the changes which arise with protein-ligand binding. This work is supported by NSF grant MRI 2 grant DBI2959989.

  12. Treponema pallidum receptor binding proteins interact with fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Baseman, J.B.; Alderete, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    Analysis of plasma proteins avidly bound to T. pallidum surfaces revealed the ability of T. pallidum to acquire numerous host macromolecules. No acquisition was evident by the avirulent spirochete, T. phagedenis biotype Reiter. Western blotting technology using hyperimmune antifibronectin serum as a probe revealed the ability of virulent treponemes to avidly bind fibronectin from a complex medium such as plasma. The specificity of the tiplike adherence of motile T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated glass surfaces and to fibronectin on HEp-2 cells was reinforced by the observation that pretreatment of coverslips or cell monolayers with monospecific antiserum against fibronectin substantially reduced T. pallidum attachment. The stoichiometric binding of T. pallidum to fibronectin-coated coverslips and the inability of unlabeled or /sup 35/S-radiolabeled treponemes to interact with glass surfaces treated with other plasma proteins further established the specific nature of the interaction between virulent T. pallidum and fibronectin. The avid association between three outer envelope proteins of T. pallidum and fibronectin was also demonstrated. These treponemal surface proteins have been previously identified as putative receptor-binding proteins responsible for T. pallidum parasitism of host cells. The data suggest that surface fibronectin mediates tip-oriented attachment of T. pallidum to host cells via a receptor-ligand mechanism of recognition.

  13. Thermal unfolding of a Ca- and Lanthanide-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Goettfert, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Knoeppel, J.

    2017-06-01

    The MIIA (metal ion-induced autocleavage)-domain of the protein Vic001052 from the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus, comprises 173 amino acids and exhibits Ca-dependent autoproteolytic activity. It shows homology to nodulation proteins which are secreted by Rhizobiacea into plant host cells where they exert Ca-dependent functions. We have studied the structural and energetic aspects of metal protein interactions of the MIIA domain which appear attractive for engineering metal-binding synthetic peptides. Using a non-cleavable MIIA domain construct, we detected very similar structural changes upon binding to Ca{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}. The thermal denaturation of the Ca-bound state was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The metal-bound folded state unfolds reversibly into an unstructured metal-free state similar to the metal-free state at room temperature.

  14. The binding of in vitro synthesized adenovirus DNA binding protein to single-stranded DNA is stimulated by zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.L.; Lee, F.M. van der; Sussenbach, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have synthesized wild type DNA binding protein (DBP) of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and several truncated forms of this protein by a combination of in vitro transcription and translation. The proteins obtained were tested for binding to a single-stranded DNA-cellulose column. It could be shown that

  15. An angiogenin-binding protein from endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Guofu; Chang, Sooik; Riordan, J.F.; Vallee, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    A 42-kDa bovine protein that binds bovine angiogenin [angiogenin binding protein (AngBP)] has been identified as a dissociable cell-surface component of calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells and a transformed bovine endothelial cell line, GM7373. 125 I-Ang can be crosslinked efficiently to AngBP by a water-soluble carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbo-diimide. Bovine ribonuclease A competes with the binding of 125 I-Ang to AngBP, but lysozyme does not. Direct binding to AngBP of 125 I-labeled bovine ribonuclease A is, however, much weaker than that of 125 I-Ang. Two enzymatically active derivatives of angiogenin cleaved at residues 60-61 and 67-68, respectively, fail to induce angiogenesis and also bind to AngBP only weakly. AngBP has been isolated by treatment of cells with heparan sulfate, affinity chromatography on angiogenin-Sepharose of the material dissociated from the cell surface, and gel filtration HPLC. The results suggest that AngBP has the characteristics of a receptor that may likely function in angiogenesis

  16. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins: a structural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briony eForbes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6 bind insulin-like growth factors-I and -II (IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. These binding proteins maintain IGFs in the circulation and direct them to target tissues, where they promote cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival via the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R. IGFBPs also interact with many other molecules, which not only influence their modulation of IGF action but also mediate IGF-independent activities that influence processes such as cell migration and apoptosis by influencing gene transcription.IGFBPs-1 to -6 are structurally similar proteins consisting of three distinct domains, N-terminal, Linker and C-terminal. There have been major advances in our understanding of IGFBP structure in the last decade and a half. While there is still no structure of an intact IGFBP to date, several structures of individual N- and C-domains have been solved. The structure of a complex of N-BP-4:IGF-I:C-BP-4 has also been solved, providing a detailed picture of the structural features of the IGF binding site and the mechanism of binding. Structural studies have also identified features important for interaction with extracellular matrix components and integrins. This review summarises structural studies reported so far and highlights features important for binding not only IGF but also other partners. It also highlights future directions in which structural studies will add to our knowledge of the role played by the IGFBP family in normal growth and development, as well as in disease.

  17. Polyamine binding to proteins in oat and Petunia protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Y.; Applewhite, P. B.; Galston, A. W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work (A Apelbaum et al. [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 996-998) has demonstrated binding of labeled spermidine (Spd) to a developmentally regulated 18 kilodalton protein in tobacco tissue cultures derived from thin surface layer explants. To assess the general importance of such Spd-protein complexes, we attempted bulk isolation from protoplasts of Petunia and oat (Avena sativa). In Petunia, as in tobacco, fed radioactive Spd is bound to protein, but in oat, Spd is first converted to 1,3,-diaminopropane (DAP), probably by polyamine oxidase action. In oat, binding of DAP to protein depends on age of donor leaf and conditions of illumination and temperature, and the extraction of the DAP-protein complex depends upon buffer and pH. The yield of the DAP-protein complex was maximized by extraction of frozen-thawed protoplasts with a pH 8.8 carbonate buffer containing SDS. Its molecular size, based on Sephacryl column fractionation of ammonium sulfate precipitated material, exceeded 45 kilodaltons. Bound Spd or DAP can be released from their complexes by the action of Pronase, but not DNAse, RNAse, or strong salt solutions, indicating covalent attachment to protein.

  18. Sampling protein motion and solvent effect during ligand binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongelli, Vittorio; Marinelli, Luciana; Cosconati, Sandro; La Motta, Concettina; Sartini, Stefania; Mugnaini, Laura; Da Settimo, Federico; Novellino, Ettore; Parrinello, Michele

    2012-01-01

    An exhaustive description of the molecular recognition mechanism between a ligand and its biological target is of great value because it provides the opportunity for an exogenous control of the related process. Very often this aim can be pursued using high resolution structures of the complex in combination with inexpensive computational protocols such as docking algorithms. Unfortunately, in many other cases a number of factors, like protein flexibility or solvent effects, increase the degree of complexity of ligand/protein interaction and these standard techniques are no longer sufficient to describe the binding event. We have experienced and tested these limits in the present study in which we have developed and revealed the mechanism of binding of a new series of potent inhibitors of Adenosine Deaminase. We have first performed a large number of docking calculations, which unfortunately failed to yield reliable results due to the dynamical character of the enzyme and the complex role of the solvent. Thus, we have stepped up the computational strategy using a protocol based on metadynamics. Our approach has allowed dealing with protein motion and solvation during ligand binding and finally identifying the lowest energy binding modes of the most potent compound of the series, 4-decyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-one. PMID:22238423

  19. Binding free energy analysis of protein-protein docking model structures by evERdock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Kitao, Akio

    2018-03-14

    To aid the evaluation of protein-protein complex model structures generated by protein docking prediction (decoys), we previously developed a method to calculate the binding free energies for complexes. The method combines a short (2 ns) all-atom molecular dynamics simulation with explicit solvent and solution theory in the energy representation (ER). We showed that this method successfully selected structures similar to the native complex structure (near-native decoys) as the lowest binding free energy structures. In our current work, we applied this method (evERdock) to 100 or 300 model structures of four protein-protein complexes. The crystal structures and the near-native decoys showed the lowest binding free energy of all the examined structures, indicating that evERdock can successfully evaluate decoys. Several decoys that show low interface root-mean-square distance but relatively high binding free energy were also identified. Analysis of the fraction of native contacts, hydrogen bonds, and salt bridges at the protein-protein interface indicated that these decoys were insufficiently optimized at the interface. After optimizing the interactions around the interface by including interfacial water molecules, the binding free energies of these decoys were improved. We also investigated the effect of solute entropy on binding free energy and found that consideration of the entropy term does not necessarily improve the evaluations of decoys using the normal model analysis for entropy calculation.

  20. Binding free energy analysis of protein-protein docking model structures by evERdock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kazuhiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Kitao, Akio

    2018-03-01

    To aid the evaluation of protein-protein complex model structures generated by protein docking prediction (decoys), we previously developed a method to calculate the binding free energies for complexes. The method combines a short (2 ns) all-atom molecular dynamics simulation with explicit solvent and solution theory in the energy representation (ER). We showed that this method successfully selected structures similar to the native complex structure (near-native decoys) as the lowest binding free energy structures. In our current work, we applied this method (evERdock) to 100 or 300 model structures of four protein-protein complexes. The crystal structures and the near-native decoys showed the lowest binding free energy of all the examined structures, indicating that evERdock can successfully evaluate decoys. Several decoys that show low interface root-mean-square distance but relatively high binding free energy were also identified. Analysis of the fraction of native contacts, hydrogen bonds, and salt bridges at the protein-protein interface indicated that these decoys were insufficiently optimized at the interface. After optimizing the interactions around the interface by including interfacial water molecules, the binding free energies of these decoys were improved. We also investigated the effect of solute entropy on binding free energy and found that consideration of the entropy term does not necessarily improve the evaluations of decoys using the normal model analysis for entropy calculation.

  1. Protein-folding location can regulate manganese-binding versus copper- or zinc-binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottey, Steve; Waldron, Kevin J; Firbank, Susan J; Reale, Brian; Bessant, Conrad; Sato, Katsuko; Cheek, Timothy R; Gray, Joe; Banfield, Mark J; Dennison, Christopher; Robinson, Nigel J

    2008-10-23

    Metals are needed by at least one-quarter of all proteins. Although metallochaperones insert the correct metal into some proteins, they have not been found for the vast majority, and the view is that most metalloproteins acquire their metals directly from cellular pools. However, some metals form more stable complexes with proteins than do others. For instance, as described in the Irving-Williams series, Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) typically form more stable complexes than Mn(2+). Thus it is unclear what cellular mechanisms manage metal acquisition by most nascent proteins. To investigate this question, we identified the most abundant Cu(2+)-protein, CucA (Cu(2+)-cupin A), and the most abundant Mn(2+)-protein, MncA (Mn(2+)-cupin A), in the periplasm of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Each of these newly identified proteins binds its respective metal via identical ligands within a cupin fold. Consistent with the Irving-Williams series, MncA only binds Mn(2+) after folding in solutions containing at least a 10(4) times molar excess of Mn(2+) over Cu(2+) or Zn(2+). However once MncA has bound Mn(2+), the metal does not exchange with Cu(2+). MncA and CucA have signal peptides for different export pathways into the periplasm, Tat and Sec respectively. Export by the Tat pathway allows MncA to fold in the cytoplasm, which contains only tightly bound copper or Zn(2+) (refs 10-12) but micromolar Mn(2+) (ref. 13). In contrast, CucA folds in the periplasm to acquire Cu(2+). These results reveal a mechanism whereby the compartment in which a protein folds overrides its binding preference to control its metal content. They explain why the cytoplasm must contain only tightly bound and buffered copper and Zn(2+).

  2. A mosquito hemolymph odorant-binding protein family member specifically binds juvenile hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Hwan; Pham, Van; Jablonka, Willy; Goodman, Walter G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2017-07-27

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of insect development and reproduction. In adult mosquitoes, it is essential for maturation of the ovary and normal male reproductive behavior, but how JH distribution and activity is regulated after secretion is unclear. Here, we report a new type of specific JH-binding protein, given the name mosquito juvenile hormone-binding protein (mJHBP), which circulates in the hemolymph of pupal and adult Aedes aegypti males and females. mJHBP is a member of the odorant-binding protein (OBP) family, and orthologs are present in the genomes of Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquito species. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that mJHBP specifically binds JH II and JH III but not eicosanoids or JH derivatives. mJHBP was crystallized in the presence of JH III and found to have a double OBP domain structure reminiscent of salivary “long” D7 proteins of mosquitoes. We observed that a single JH III molecule is contained in the N-terminal domain binding pocket that is closed in an apparent conformational change by a C-terminal domain-derived α-helix. The electron density for the ligand indicated a high occupancy of the natural 10R enantiomer of JH III. Of note, mJHBP is structurally unrelated to hemolymph JHBP from lepidopteran insects. A low level of expression of mJHBP in Ae. aegypti larvae suggests that it is primarily active during the adult stage where it could potentially influence the effects of JH on egg development, mating behavior, feeding, or other processes.

  3. Identification of Putative Vero Cell Protein(s) that Bind Specifically to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with a cellular membrane [3,4]. The initial binding of dengue virus to target cells is mediated by binding of the envelope protein to a specific and unidentified cell surface receptor(s) [5]. Viral interaction with its targets observed by electron microscopy has been already reported. [6]. The structure of the ectodomain of DEN-2E.

  4. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) family proteins contain an inactive guanylate kinase (GK) domain, whose function has been elusive. Here, this domain is revealed as a new type of phospho-peptide-binding module, in which the GMP-binding site has evolved to accommodate phospho-serines or -threonines.

  5. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promote neurogenesis and abrogate hypoxia-induced memory impairment through AMPK-PKC-CBP signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Aditya; Gangwar, Anamika; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Roy, Manas; Das, Mainak; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional integrity of the brain is adversely affected by reduced oxygen saturation, especially during chronic hypoxia exposure and often encountered by altitude travelers or dwellers. Hypoxia-induced generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species reportedly affects the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain, promoting memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), also known as nanoceria, switch between +3 and +4 oxidation states and reportedly scavenge superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective as well as the cognition-enhancing activities of nanoceria during hypobaric hypoxia. Using polyethylene glycol-coated 3 nm nanoceria (PEG-CNPs), we have demonstrated efficient localization of PEG-CNPs in rodent brain. This resulted in significant reduction of oxidative stress and associated damage during hypoxia exposure. Morris water maze-based memory function tests revealed that PEG-CNPs ameliorated hypoxia-induced memory impairment. Using microscopic, flow cytometric, and histological studies, we also provide evidences that PEG-CNPs augmented hippocampus neuronal survival and promoted neurogenesis. Molecular studies revealed that PEG-CNPs promoted neurogenesis through the 5'-adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-protein kinase C-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein binding (AMPK-PKC-CBP) protein pathway. Our present study results suggest that nanoceria can be translated as promising therapeutic molecules for neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promote neurogenesis and abrogate hypoxia-induced memory impairment through AMPK–PKC–CBP signaling cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Aditya; Gangwar, Anamika; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Roy, Manas; Das, Mainak; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional integrity of the brain is adversely affected by reduced oxygen saturation, especially during chronic hypoxia exposure and often encountered by altitude travelers or dwellers. Hypoxia-induced generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species reportedly affects the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain, promoting memory impairment and cognitive dysfunction. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs), also known as nanoceria, switch between +3 and +4 oxidation states and reportedly scavenge superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective as well as the cognition-enhancing activities of nanoceria during hypobaric hypoxia. Using polyethylene glycol-coated 3 nm nanoceria (PEG-CNPs), we have demonstrated efficient localization of PEG-CNPs in rodent brain. This resulted in significant reduction of oxidative stress and associated damage during hypoxia exposure. Morris water maze-based memory function tests revealed that PEG-CNPs ameliorated hypoxia-induced memory impairment. Using microscopic, flow cytometric, and histological studies, we also provide evidences that PEG-CNPs augmented hippocampus neuronal survival and promoted neurogenesis. Molecular studies revealed that PEG-CNPs promoted neurogenesis through the 5′-adenine monophosphate-activated protein kinase–protein kinase C–cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein binding (AMPK-PKC-CBP) protein pathway. Our present study results suggest that nanoceria can be translated as promising therapeutic molecules for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27069362

  7. Predicting DNA-binding proteins and binding residues by complex structure prediction and application to human proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Zhao

    Full Text Available As more and more protein sequences are uncovered from increasingly inexpensive sequencing techniques, an urgent task is to find their functions. This work presents a highly reliable computational technique for predicting DNA-binding function at the level of protein-DNA complex structures, rather than low-resolution two-state prediction of DNA-binding as most existing techniques do. The method first predicts protein-DNA complex structure by utilizing the template-based structure prediction technique HHblits, followed by binding affinity prediction based on a knowledge-based energy function (Distance-scaled finite ideal-gas reference state for protein-DNA interactions. A leave-one-out cross validation of the method based on 179 DNA-binding and 3797 non-binding protein domains achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.77 with high precision (94% and high sensitivity (65%. We further found 51% sensitivity for 82 newly determined structures of DNA-binding proteins and 56% sensitivity for the human proteome. In addition, the method provides a reasonably accurate prediction of DNA-binding residues in proteins based on predicted DNA-binding complex structures. Its application to human proteome leads to more than 300 novel DNA-binding proteins; some of these predicted structures were validated by known structures of homologous proteins in APO forms. The method [SPOT-Seq (DNA] is available as an on-line server at http://sparks-lab.org.

  8. Role of adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP) and acyl-coA binding protein (ACBP) in PPAR-mediated transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helledie, Torben; Jørgensen, Claus; Antonius, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    lipid binding protein (ALBP), the keratinocyte lipid binding protein (KLBP) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) exhibit a prominent nuclear localization in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Similarly, ectopic expression of these proteins in CV-1 cells resulted in a primarily nuclear localization...... appears to sequester or increase the turn-over of the agonist. Similarly, our results are in keeping with a model in which ACBP increase the metabolism of these ligands....

  9. Regulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-ARegulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaidamauskas, Ervinas

    recognised role for PAPP-A in ageing and in the development of age-related disease. PAPP-A is a secreted metalloproteinase that cleaves insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). Ervinas Gaidamauskas studied the mechanism of IGF-modulated proteolysis of IGFBPs by PAPP-A and the structural......During his PhD studies, Ervinas Gaidamauskas researched the proteins pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and its homologue PAPP-A2 in vitro. As suggested by its name, PAPP-A plays an important role in pregnancy and fetal development. Additionally, recent studies indicate a newly...... determinants for cleavage. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), he also analysed the intermodular structural organisation of the C-terminal domain of PAPP-A involved in substrate binding. Detailed knowledge of interactions between PAPP-A and its substrates is required to understand the modulatory role...

  10. DNABP: Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Based on Feature Selection Using a Random Forest and Predicting Binding Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins are fundamentally important in cellular processes. Several computational-based methods have been developed to improve the prediction of DNA-binding proteins in previous years. However, insufficient work has been done on the prediction of DNA-binding proteins from protein sequence information. In this paper, a novel predictor, DNABP (DNA-binding proteins), was designed to predict DNA-binding proteins using the random forest (RF) classifier with a hybrid feature. The hybrid feature contains two types of novel sequence features, which reflect information about the conservation of physicochemical properties of the amino acids, and the binding propensity of DNA-binding residues and non-binding propensities of non-binding residues. The comparisons with each feature demonstrated that these two novel features contributed most to the improvement in predictive ability. Furthermore, to improve the prediction performance of the DNABP model, feature selection using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method combined with incremental feature selection (IFS) was carried out during the model construction. The results showed that the DNABP model could achieve 86.90% accuracy, 83.76% sensitivity, 90.03% specificity and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.727. High prediction accuracy and performance comparisons with previous research suggested that DNABP could be a useful approach to identify DNA-binding proteins from sequence information. The DNABP web server system is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/DNABP/.

  11. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Vesa; Jarva, Hanna; Biedzka-Sarek, Marta; Blom, Anna M; Skurnik, Mikael; Meri, Seppo

    2008-08-29

    Many pathogens are equipped with factors providing resistance against the bactericidal action of complement. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative enteric pathogen with invasive properties, efficiently resists the deleterious action of human complement. The major Y. enterocolitica serum resistance determinants include outer membrane proteins YadA and Ail. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen (O-ag) and outer core (OC) do not contribute directly to complement resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible mechanism whereby Y. enterocolitica could inhibit the antibody-mediated classical pathway of complement activation. We show that Y. enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9 bind C4b-binding protein (C4bp), an inhibitor of both the classical and lectin pathways of complement. To identify the C4bp receptors on Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 surface, a set of mutants expressing YadA, Ail, O-ag, and OC in different combinations was tested for the ability to bind C4bp. The studies showed that both YadA and Ail acted as C4bp receptors. Ail-mediated C4bp binding, however, was blocked by the O-ag and OC, and could be observed only with mutants lacking these LPS structures. C4bp bound to Y. enterocolitica was functionally active and participated in the factor I-mediated degradation of C4b. These findings show that Y. enterocolitica uses two proteins, YadA and Ail, to bind C4bp. Binding of C4bp could help Y. enterocolitica to evade complement-mediated clearance in the human host.

  12. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Kirjavainen

    Full Text Available Many pathogens are equipped with factors providing resistance against the bactericidal action of complement. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative enteric pathogen with invasive properties, efficiently resists the deleterious action of human complement. The major Y. enterocolitica serum resistance determinants include outer membrane proteins YadA and Ail. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-antigen (O-ag and outer core (OC do not contribute directly to complement resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze a possible mechanism whereby Y. enterocolitica could inhibit the antibody-mediated classical pathway of complement activation. We show that Y. enterocolitica serotypes O:3, O:8, and O:9 bind C4b-binding protein (C4bp, an inhibitor of both the classical and lectin pathways of complement. To identify the C4bp receptors on Y. enterocolitica serotype O:3 surface, a set of mutants expressing YadA, Ail, O-ag, and OC in different combinations was tested for the ability to bind C4bp. The studies showed that both YadA and Ail acted as C4bp receptors. Ail-mediated C4bp binding, however, was blocked by the O-ag and OC, and could be observed only with mutants lacking these LPS structures. C4bp bound to Y. enterocolitica was functionally active and participated in the factor I-mediated degradation of C4b. These findings show that Y. enterocolitica uses two proteins, YadA and Ail, to bind C4bp. Binding of C4bp could help Y. enterocolitica to evade complement-mediated clearance in the human host.

  13. Surface selective binding of nanoclay particles to polyampholyte protein chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Nisha; Bohidar, H B

    2009-07-28

    Binding of nanoclay (Laponite) to gelatin-A and gelatin-B (both polyampholytes) molecules was investigated at room temperature (25 degrees C) both experimentally and theoretically. The stoichiometric binding ratio between gelatin and Laponite was found to be strongly dependent on the solution ionic strength. Large soluble complexes were formed at higher ionic strengths of the solution, a result supported by data obtained from light scattering, viscosity, and zeta potential measurements. The binding problem was theoretically modeled by choosing a suitable two-body screened Coulomb potential, U(R(+)) = (q(-)/2epsilon)[(Q(-)/R(-))e(-kR(-))-(Q(+)/R(+))e(-kR(+))], where the protein dipole has charges Q(+) and Q(-) that are located at distances R(+) and R(-) from the point Laponite charge q(-) and the dispersion liquid has dielectric constant (epsilon). U(R(+)) accounted for electrostatic interactions between a dipole (protein molecule) and an effective charge (Laponite particle) located at an angular position theta. Gelatin-A and Laponite association was facilitated by a strong attractive interaction potential that led to preferential binding of the biopolymer chains to negatively charged face of Laponite particles. In the case of gelatin-B selective surf ace patch binding dominated the process where the positively charged rim and negatively charged face of the particles were selectively bound to the oppositely charged segments of the biopolymer. The equilibrium separation (R(e)) between the protein and nanoclay particle revealed monovalent salt concentration dependence given by R(e) approximately [NaCl](alpha) where alpha = 0.6+/-0.2 for gelatin-A and alpha = 0.4+/-0.2 for gelatin-B systems. The equilibrium separations were approximately 30% less compared to the gelatin-A system implying preferential short-range ordering of the gelatin-B-nanoclay pair in the solvent.

  14. Fragile X mental retardation protein: A paradigm for translational control by RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eileen; Joseph, Simpson

    2015-07-01

    Translational control is a common mechanism used to regulate gene expression and occur in bacteria to mammals. Typically in translational control, an RNA-binding protein binds to a unique sequence in the mRNA to regulate protein synthesis by the ribosomes. Alternatively, a protein may bind to or modify a translation factor to globally regulate protein synthesis by the cell. Here, we review translational control by the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the absence of which causes the neurological disease, fragile X syndrome (FXS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Recruitment of activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to herpes simplex virus ICP0 nuclear foci: Potential role in blocking IFN-β induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melroe, Gregory T.; Silva, Lindsey; Schaffer, Priscilla A.; Knipe, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The host innate response to viral infection includes the production of interferons, which is dependent on the coordinated activity of multiple transcription factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been shown to block efficient interferon expression by multiple mechanisms. We and others have demonstrated that HSV-1 can inhibit the transcription of genes promoted by interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), including interferon beta (IFN-β), and that the immediate-early ICP0 protein is sufficient for this function. However, the exact mechanism by which ICP0 blocks IRF-3 activity has yet to be determined. Unlike some other viral proteins that inhibit IRF-3 activity, ICP0 does not appear to affect phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF-3. Here, we show that a portion of activated IRF-3 co-localizes with nuclear foci containing ICP0 at early times after virus infection. Co-localization to ICP0-containing foci is also seen with the IRF-3-binding partners and transcriptional co-activators, CBP and p300. In addition, using immunoprecipitation of infected cell lysates, we can immunoprecipitate a complex containing ICP0, IRF-3, and CBP. Thus we hypothesize that ICP0 recruits activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to nuclear structures, away from the host chromatin. This leads to the inactivation and accelerated degradation of IRF-3, resulting in reduced transcription of IFN-β and an inhibition of the host response. Therefore, ICP0 provides an example of how viruses can block IFN-β induction by sequestration of important transcription factors essential for the host response

  17. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  18. Boar seminal plasma proteins and their binding prperties. A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 461-475 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:MSM 113100001 Keywords : seminal plasma proteins * binding properties * spermadhesins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.062, year: 2004

  19. Studies of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus equi

    OpenAIRE

    Lannergård, Jonas; Flock, Margareta; Johansson, Staffan; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Guss, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a disease of the upper respiratory tract in horses. The initiation of S. equi subsp. equi infection is likely to involve cell surface-anchored molecules mediating bacterial adhesion to the epithelium of the host. The present study describes the cloning and characterization of FNEB, a fibronectin-binding protein with cell wall-anchoring motifs. FNEB can thus be predicted as cell surface located, contrary to the two previously ...

  20. RNA Binding Proteins Posttranscriptionally Regulate Genes Involved In Oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    lysed in triple- detergent RIPA buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche, Pleasanton, CA). For nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation, the NE-PER kit...Posttranscriptional regulation of IL-13 in T cells: role of the RNA-binding protein HuR. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2008, 121(4):853-859...and western blot analysis. Western analysis was performed as described previously.12 For detection of VEGFα and TSP1 from tumors, triple- detergent

  1. Mannan-binding proteins from boar seminal plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková-Slavíčková, Petra; Liberda, J.; Maňásková, Pavla; Ryšlavá, H.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2004), s. 167-182 ISSN 0165-0378. [Congress of the European Society for Reproductive & Developmental Immunology /4./. Rhodes, 04.06.2003-06.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA MŠk VS96141; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : boar seminal plasma proteins * mannan-binding proteins * oviductal epithelium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2004

  2. Human neutrophil calmodulin-binding proteins: identification of the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, W.D.; Tallant, E.A.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The molecular events in linking neutrophil activation and ligand binding to specific membrane receptors are mediated in part by an increase in intracellular Ca 2+ . One mechanism by which Ca 2+ may trigger neutrophil activation is through Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-regulated proteins and enzymes. To determine which Ca 2+ /CaM-regulated enzymes may be present in the neutrophil, they have used Western blotting techniques and 125 I-CaM to identify neutrophil CaM-binding proteins. Eleven proteins with molecular weights ranging from 230K to 13.5K bound 125 I-CaM in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. One predominant region of 125 I-Cam binding was to a 59K protein; a protein with an identical mobility was labeled by an antisera against brain CaM-dependent phosphatase. Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase activity, which was inhibited by the CaM antagonist trifluoperazine, was detected in a neutrophil extract; a radioimmunoassay for the phosphatase indicated that it was present in the extract at approximately 0.2 μg/mg protein. Most of the CaM-binding proteins, including the 59K protein, were rapidly degraded upon lysis of the neutrophil. There was a close correlation between the degradation of the 59K protein and the loss of Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase activity in the neutrophil extract. Thus, human neutrophils contain numerous CaM-binding proteins which are presumably Ca 2+ /calmodulin-regulated enzymes and proteins; the 59K protein is a CaM-dependent phosphatase

  3. Characterization of auxin-binding proteins from zucchini plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rice, M. S.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have previously identified two auxin-binding polypeptides in plasma membrane (PM) preparations from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) (Hicks et al. 1989, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86, 4948-4952). These polypeptides have molecular weights of 40 kDa and 42 kDa and label specifically with the photoaffinity auxin analog 5-N3-7-3H-IAA (azido-IAA). Azido-IAA permits both the covalent and radioactive tagging of auxin-binding proteins and has allowed us to characterize further the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, including the nature of their attachment to the PM, their relationship to each other, and their potential function. The azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides remain in the pelleted membrane fraction following high-salt and detergent washes, which indicates a tight and possibly integral association with the PM. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of partially purified azido-IAA-labeled protein demonstrates that, in addition to the major isoforms of the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides, which possess isoelectric points (pIs) of 8.2 and 7.2, respectively, several less abundant isoforms that display unique pIs are apparent at both molecular masses. Tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the auxin-binding proteins indicates that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are closely related or are modifications of the same polypeptide. Phase extraction with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 results in partitioning of the azido-IAA-labeled polypeptides into the aqueous (hydrophilic) phase. This apparently paradoxical behavior is also exhibited by certain integral membrane proteins that aggregate to form channels. The results of gel filtration indicate that the auxin-binding proteins do indeed aggregate strongly and that the polypeptides associate to form a dimer or multimeric complex in vivo. These characteristics are consistent with the hypothesis that the 40-kDa and 42-kDa polypeptides are subunits of a multimeric integral membrane protein which has an auxin-binding site, and which may

  4. Binding properties and immunolocalization of a fatty acid-binding protein in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M T; Maache, M; de la Guardia, R Díaz; Córdova, O M; García, J R Gil; Galiana, M; Acuña Castroviejo, D; Martins, M; Osuna, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    We describe here a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) isolated and purified from the parasitic protozoon Giardia lamblia. The protein has a molecular mass of 8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.96. A Scatchard analysis of the data at equilibrium revealed a dissociation constant of 3.12 x 10(-8) M when the labeled oleic acid was displaced by a 10-fold greater concentration of unlabeled oleic acid. Testosterone, sodium desoxycholate, taurocholate, metronidazol, and alpha-tocopherol, together with butyric, arachidonic, palmitic, retinoic, and glycocholic acids, were also bound to the protein. Assays with polyclonal antibodies revealed that the protein is located in the ventral disk and also appears in the dorsal membrane, the cytoplasm, and in the vicinity of the lipid vacuoles.

  5. Fluctuations in Mass-Action Equilibrium of Protein Binding Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Walker, Dylan; Maslov, Sergei

    2008-12-01

    We consider two types of fluctuations in the mass-action equilibrium in protein binding networks. The first type is driven by slow changes in total concentrations of interacting proteins. The second type (spontaneous) is caused by quickly decaying thermodynamic deviations away from equilibrium. We investigate the effects of network connectivity on fluctuations by comparing them to scenarios in which the interacting pair is isolated from the network and analytically derives bounds on fluctuations. Collective effects are shown to sometimes lead to large amplification of spontaneous fluctuations. The strength of both types of fluctuations is positively correlated with the complex connectivity and negatively correlated with complex concentration. Our general findings are illustrated using a curated network of protein interactions and multiprotein complexes in baker’s yeast, with empirical protein concentrations.

  6. Decreased protein binding of moxifloxacin in patients with sepsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorn, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mean (SD unbound fraction of moxifloxacin in plasma from patients with severe sepsis or septic shock was determined by ultrafiltration to 85.5±3.0% (range 81.9 and 91.6% indicating a decreased protein binding of moxifloxacin in this population compared with the value of 58–60% provided in the Summary of Product Characteristics. However, previous investigations neglected the influence of pH and temperature on the protein binding of moxifloxacin. Maintaining physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 37°C – as in the present study – the unbound fraction of moxifloxacin in plasma from healthy volunteers was 84%. In contrast, the unbound fraction of moxifloxacin was 77% at 4°C and 66–68% in unbuffered plasma or at pH 8.5 in fair agreement with previously published data. PK/PD parameters e.g. AUC/MIC or ratios between interstitial fluid and free plasma concentrations, which were obtained assuming a protein binding rate of moxifloxacin of 40% or more, should be revised.

  7. PRODIGY : a web server for predicting the binding affinity of protein-protein complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Li; Garcia Lopes Maia Rodrigues, João; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Bonvin, Alexandre Mjj; Vangone, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Gaining insights into the structural determinants of protein-protein interactions holds the key for a deeper understanding of biological functions, diseases and development of therapeutics. An important aspect of this is the ability to accurately predict the binding strength for a given

  8. Haptoglobin-related protein is a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding plasma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Petersen, Steen Vang; Jacobsen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) is a primate-specific plasma protein associated with apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles shown to be a part of the innate immune defense. Despite the assumption hitherto that Hpr does not bind to hemoglobin, the present...

  9. Human pentraxin 3 binds to the complement regulator c4b-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Braunschweig

    Full Text Available The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is a soluble recognition molecule with multiple functions including innate immune defense against certain microbes and the clearance of apoptotic cells. PTX3 interacts with recognition molecules of the classical and lectin complement pathways and thus initiates complement activation. In addition, binding of PTX3 to the alternative complement pathway regulator factor H was shown. Here, we show that PTX3 binds to the classical and lectin pathway regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP. A PTX3-binding site was identified within short consensus repeats 1-3 of the C4BP α-chain. PTX3 did not interfere with the cofactor activity of C4BP in the fluid phase and C4BP maintained its complement regulatory activity when bound to PTX3 on surfaces. While C4BP and factor H did not compete for PTX3 binding, the interaction of C4BP with PTX3 was inhibited by C1q and by L-ficolin. PTX3 bound to human fibroblast- and endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrices and recruited functionally active C4BP to these surfaces. Whereas PTX3 enhanced the activation of the classical/lectin pathway and caused enhanced C3 deposition on extracellular matrix, deposition of terminal pathway components and the generation of the inflammatory mediator C5a were not increased. Furthermore, PTX3 enhanced the binding of C4BP to late apoptotic cells, which resulted in an increased rate of inactivation of cell surface bound C4b and a reduction in the deposition of C5b-9. Thus, in addition to complement activators, PTX3 interacts with complement inhibitors including C4BP. This balanced interaction on extracellular matrix and on apoptotic cells may prevent excessive local complement activation that would otherwise lead to inflammation and host tissue damage.

  10. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  11. A conserved NAD+binding pocket that regulates protein-protein interactions during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Bonkowski, Michael S; Moniot, Sébastien; Zhang, Dapeng; Hubbard, Basil P; Ling, Alvin J Y; Rajman, Luis A; Qin, Bo; Lou, Zhenkun; Gorbunova, Vera; Aravind, L; Steegborn, Clemens; Sinclair, David A

    2017-03-24

    DNA repair is essential for life, yet its efficiency declines with age for reasons that are unclear. Numerous proteins possess Nudix homology domains (NHDs) that have no known function. We show that NHDs are NAD + (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) binding domains that regulate protein-protein interactions. The binding of NAD + to the NHD domain of DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1) prevents it from inhibiting PARP1 [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase], a critical DNA repair protein. As mice age and NAD + concentrations decline, DBC1 is increasingly bound to PARP1, causing DNA damage to accumulate, a process rapidly reversed by restoring the abundance of NAD + Thus, NAD + directly regulates protein-protein interactions, the modulation of which may protect against cancer, radiation, and aging. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Structural basis of CBP/p300 recruitment in leukemia induction by E2A-PBX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Christopher M; Chitayat, Seth; Plevin, Michael J; Wang, Feng; Thompson, Patrick; Liu, Shuang; Spencer, Holly L; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; LeBrun, David P; Smith, Steven P

    2012-11-08

    E-proteins are critical transcription factors in B-cell lymphopoiesis. E2A, 1 of 3 E-protein-encoding genes, is implicated in the induction of acute lymphoblastic leukemia through its involvement in the chromosomal translocation 1;19 and consequent expression of the E2A-PBX1 oncoprotein. An interaction involving a region within the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain of E2A-PBX1, termed the PCET motif, which has previously been implicated in E-protein silencing, and the KIX domain of the transcriptional coactivator CBP/p300, critical for leukemogenesis. However, the structural details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we report the structure of a 1:1 complex between PCET motif peptide and the KIX domain. Residues throughout the helical PCET motif that contact the KIX domain are important for both binding KIX and bone marrow immortalization by E2A-PBX1. These results provide molecular insights into E-protein-driven differentiation of B-cells and the mechanism of E-protein silencing, and reveal the PCET/KIX interaction as a therapeutic target for E2A-PBX1-induced leukemia.

  13. Shrimp arginine kinase being a binding protein of WSSV envelope protein VP31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cuiyan; Gao, Qiang; Liang, Yan; Li, Chen; Liu, Chao; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Viral entry into the host is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle in which attachment proteins play a key role. VP31 (WSV340/WSSV396), an envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide domain known as a cellular attachment site. At present, the process of VP31 interacting with shrimp host cells has not been explored. Therefore, the VP31 gene was cloned into pET30a (+), expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 and purified with immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Four gill cellular proteins of shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were pulled down by an affinity column coupled with recombinant VP31 (rVP31), and the amino acid sequences were identified with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Hemocyanin, beta-actin, arginine kinase (AK), and an unknown protein were suggested as the putative VP31 receptor proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that AK is the predominant binding protein of VP31. An i n vitro binding activity experiment indicated that recombinant AK's (rAK) binding activity with rVP31 is comparable to that with the same amount of WSSV. These results suggested that AK, as a member of the phosphagen kinase family, plays a role in WSSV infection. This is the first evidence showing that AK is a binding protein of VP31. Further studies on this topic will elucidate WSSV infection mechanism in the future.

  14. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, E.; Magnúsdóttir, S.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Teusink, B.; Molenaar, D.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is

  15. Activity of cefixime against Helicobacter pylori and affinities for the penicillin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, F; Yokota, Y; Mine, Y; Tatsuta, M

    1990-12-01

    Cefixime induced the formation of rounded cells from the spiral bacillary form of Helicobacter pylori at the MIC or less. Three main penicillin-binding proteins, called A, B and C, were separated from H. pylori. Cefixime had the strongest affinity to penicillin-binding protein B. The binding of cefixime to this protein may induce the formation of rounded H. pylori cells.

  16. DMPD: LPS-binding proteins and receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9665271 LPS-binding proteins and receptors. Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. J Leukoc Biol.... 1998 Jul;64(1):25-32. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS-binding proteins and receptors. PubmedID 9665271 Title LPS-binding prot...eins and receptors. Authors Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. Publication J Leukoc Biol. 199

  17. Collagen-binding proteins of Streptococcus mutans and related streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Reyes, A; Miller, J H; Lemos, J A; Abranches, J

    2017-04-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms used by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  19. Folding energetics of ligand binding proteins. I. Theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösgen, J; Hinz, H J

    2001-03-02

    Heat capacity curves as obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are an outstanding source for molecular information on protein folding and ligand-binding energetics. However, deconvolution of C(p) data of proteins in the presence of ligands can be compromised by indeterminacies concerning the correct choice of the statistical thermodynamic ensemble. By convent, the assumption of constant free ligand concentration has been used to derive formulae for the enthalpy. Unless the ligand occurs at large excess, this assumption is incorrect. Still the relevant ensemble is the grand canonical ensemble. We derive formulae for both constraints, constancy of total or free ligand concentration and illustrate the equations by application to the typical equilibrium Nx N + x D + x. It is demonstrated that as long as the thermodynamic properties of the ligand can be completely corrected for by performing a reference measurement, the grand canonical approach provides the proper and mathematically significantly simpler choice. We demonstrate on the two cases of sequential or independent ligand-binding the fact, that similar binding mechanisms result in different and distinguishable heat capacity equations. Finally, we propose adequate strategies for DSC experiments as well as for obtaining first estimates of the characteristic thermodynamic parameters, which can be used as starting values in a global fit of DSC data. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Retinoic acid binding protein in normal and neopolastic rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, M S; Brandes, M J; Arnold, E A; Isaacs, J T; Ueda, H; Millan, J C; Brandes, D

    1982-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosol from normal and neoplastic rat prostatic tissues exhibited a peak of (3H) retinoic acid binding in the 2S region, corresponding to the cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein (cRABP). In the Fisher-Copenhagen F1 rat, cRABP was present in the lateral lobe, but could not be detected in the ventral nor in the dorsal prostatic lobes. Four sublines of the R-3327 rat prostatic tumor contained similar levels of this binding protein. The absence of cRABP in the normal tissue of origin of the R-3327 tumor, the rat dorsal prostate, and reappearance in the neoplastic tissues follows a pattern described in other human and animal tumors. The occurrence of cRABP in the well-differentiated as well as in the anaplastic R-3327 tumors in which markers which reflect a state of differentiation and hormonal regulation, such as androgen receptor, 5 alpha reductase, and secretory acid phosphatase are either markedly reduced or absent, points to cRABP as a marker of malignant transformation.

  1. The Collagen Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans and Related Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Miller, James H.; Lemos, José A.; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms utilized by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. PMID:26991416

  2. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  3. A Single Rainbow Trout Cobalamin-binding Protein Stands in for Three Human Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva Holm; Fedosov, Sergey; Sorensen, Boe S

    2012-01-01

    Cobalamin uptake and transport in mammals are mediated by three cobalamin-binding proteins: haptocorrin, intrinsic factor, and transcobalamin. The nature of cobalamin-binding proteins in lower vertebrates remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize the cobalamin......-binding proteins of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to compare their properties with those of the three human cobalamin-binding proteins. High cobalamin-binding capacity was found in trout stomach (210 pmol/g), roe (400 pmol/g), roe fluid (390 nmol/liter), and plasma (2500 nmol/liter). In all cases......, it appeared to be the same protein based on analysis of partial sequences and immunological responses. The trout cobalamin-binding protein was purified from roe fluid, sequenced, and further characterized. Like haptocorrin, the trout cobalamin-binding protein was stable at low pH and had a high binding...

  4. The Movable Type Method Applied to Protein-Ligand Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Ucisik, Melek N; Merz, Kenneth M

    2013-12-10

    Accurately computing the free energy for biological processes like protein folding or protein-ligand association remains a challenging problem. Both describing the complex intermolecular forces involved and sampling the requisite configuration space make understanding these processes innately difficult. Herein, we address the sampling problem using a novel methodology we term "movable type". Conceptually it can be understood by analogy with the evolution of printing and, hence, the name movable type. For example, a common approach to the study of protein-ligand complexation involves taking a database of intact drug-like molecules and exhaustively docking them into a binding pocket. This is reminiscent of early woodblock printing where each page had to be laboriously created prior to printing a book. However, printing evolved to an approach where a database of symbols (letters, numerals, etc.) was created and then assembled using a movable type system, which allowed for the creation of all possible combinations of symbols on a given page, thereby, revolutionizing the dissemination of knowledge. Our movable type (MT) method involves the identification of all atom pairs seen in protein-ligand complexes and then creating two databases: one with their associated pairwise distant dependent energies and another associated with the probability of how these pairs can combine in terms of bonds, angles, dihedrals and non-bonded interactions. Combining these two databases coupled with the principles of statistical mechanics allows us to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as the pose of a ligand in a receptor. This method, by its mathematical construction, samples all of configuration space of a selected region (the protein active site here) in one shot without resorting to brute force sampling schemes involving Monte Carlo, genetic algorithms or molecular dynamics simulations making the methodology extremely efficient. Importantly, this method explores the free

  5. Integrating protein structures and precomputed genealogies in the Magnum database: Examples with cellular retinoid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Michael E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When accurate models for the divergent evolution of protein sequences are integrated with complementary biological information, such as folded protein structures, analyses of the combined data often lead to new hypotheses about molecular physiology. This represents an excellent example of how bioinformatics can be used to guide experimental research. However, progress in this direction has been slowed by the lack of a publicly available resource suitable for general use. Results The precomputed Magnum database offers a solution to this problem for ca. 1,800 full-length protein families with at least one crystal structure. The Magnum deliverables include 1 multiple sequence alignments, 2 mapping of alignment sites to crystal structure sites, 3 phylogenetic trees, 4 inferred ancestral sequences at internal tree nodes, and 5 amino acid replacements along tree branches. Comprehensive evaluations revealed that the automated procedures used to construct Magnum produced accurate models of how proteins divergently evolve, or genealogies, and correctly integrated these with the structural data. To demonstrate Magnum's capabilities, we asked for amino acid replacements requiring three nucleotide substitutions, located at internal protein structure sites, and occurring on short phylogenetic tree branches. In the cellular retinoid binding protein family a site that potentially modulates ligand binding affinity was discovered. Recruitment of cellular retinol binding protein to function as a lens crystallin in the diurnal gecko afforded another opportunity to showcase the predictive value of a browsable database containing branch replacement patterns integrated with protein structures. Conclusion We integrated two areas of protein science, evolution and structure, on a large scale and created a precomputed database, known as Magnum, which is the first freely available resource of its kind. Magnum provides evolutionary and structural

  6. Exploring the binding sites and binding mechanism for hydrotrope encapsulated griseofulvin drug on γ-tubulin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shubhadip; Paul, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    The protein γ-tubulin plays an important role in centrosomal clustering and this makes it an attractive therapeutic target for treating cancers. Griseofulvin, an antifungal drug, has recently been used to inhibit proliferation of various types of cancer cells. It can also affect the microtubule dynamics by targeting the γ-tubulin protein. So far, the binding pockets of γ-tubulin protein are not properly identified and the exact mechanism by which the drug binds to it is an area of intense speculation and research. The aim of the present study is to investigate the binding mechanism and binding affinity of griseofulvin on γ-tubulin protein using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Since the drug griseofulvin is sparingly soluble in water, here we also present a promising approach for formulating and achieving delivery of hydrophobic griseofulvin drug via hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS) cluster. We observe that the binding pockets of γ-tubulin protein are mainly formed by the H8, H9 helices and S7, S8, S14 strands and the hydrophobic interactions between the drug and γ-tubulin protein drive the binding process. The release of the drug griseofulvin from the SCS cluster is confirmed by the coordination number analysis. We also find hydrotrope-induced alteration of the binding sites of γ-tubulin protein and the weakening of the drug-protein interactions.

  7. Exploring the binding sites and binding mechanism for hydrotrope encapsulated griseofulvin drug on γ-tubulin protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhadip Das

    Full Text Available The protein γ-tubulin plays an important role in centrosomal clustering and this makes it an attractive therapeutic target for treating cancers. Griseofulvin, an antifungal drug, has recently been used to inhibit proliferation of various types of cancer cells. It can also affect the microtubule dynamics by targeting the γ-tubulin protein. So far, the binding pockets of γ-tubulin protein are not properly identified and the exact mechanism by which the drug binds to it is an area of intense speculation and research. The aim of the present study is to investigate the binding mechanism and binding affinity of griseofulvin on γ-tubulin protein using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Since the drug griseofulvin is sparingly soluble in water, here we also present a promising approach for formulating and achieving delivery of hydrophobic griseofulvin drug via hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS cluster. We observe that the binding pockets of γ-tubulin protein are mainly formed by the H8, H9 helices and S7, S8, S14 strands and the hydrophobic interactions between the drug and γ-tubulin protein drive the binding process. The release of the drug griseofulvin from the SCS cluster is confirmed by the coordination number analysis. We also find hydrotrope-induced alteration of the binding sites of γ-tubulin protein and the weakening of the drug-protein interactions.

  8. Mechanism of the G-protein mimetic nanobody binding to a muscarinic G-protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinglong; McCammon, J Andrew

    2018-03-20

    Protein-protein binding is key in cellular signaling processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of protein-protein binding, however, are challenging due to limited timescales. In particular, binding of the medically important G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with intracellular signaling proteins has not been simulated with MD to date. Here, we report a successful simulation of the binding of a G-protein mimetic nanobody to the M 2 muscarinic GPCR using the robust Gaussian accelerated MD (GaMD) method. Through long-timescale GaMD simulations over 4,500 ns, the nanobody was observed to bind the receptor intracellular G-protein-coupling site, with a minimum rmsd of 2.48 Å in the nanobody core domain compared with the X-ray structure. Binding of the nanobody allosterically closed the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket, being consistent with the recent experimental finding. In the absence of nanobody binding, the receptor orthosteric pocket sampled open and fully open conformations. The GaMD simulations revealed two low-energy intermediate states during nanobody binding to the M 2 receptor. The flexible receptor intracellular loops contribute remarkable electrostatic, polar, and hydrophobic residue interactions in recognition and binding of the nanobody. These simulations provided important insights into the mechanism of GPCR-nanobody binding and demonstrated the applicability of GaMD in modeling dynamic protein-protein interactions.

  9. Rbfox2 controls autoregulation in RNA-binding protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangi, Mohini; Boutz, Paul L; Paul, Prakriti; Sharp, Phillip A

    2014-03-15

    The tight regulation of splicing networks is critical for organismal development. To maintain robust splicing patterns, many splicing factors autoregulate their expression through alternative splicing-coupled nonsense-mediated decay (AS-NMD). However, as negative autoregulation results in a self-limiting window of splicing factor expression, it is unknown how variations in steady-state protein levels can arise in different physiological contexts. Here, we demonstrate that Rbfox2 cross-regulates AS-NMD events within RNA-binding proteins to alter their expression. Using individual nucleotide-resolution cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (iCLIP) and mRNA sequencing, we identified >200 AS-NMD splicing events that are bound by Rbfox2 in mouse embryonic stem cells. These "silent" events are characterized by minimal apparent splicing changes but appreciable changes in gene expression upon Rbfox2 knockdown due to degradation of the NMD-inducing isoform. Nearly 70 of these AS-NMD events fall within genes encoding RNA-binding proteins, many of which are autoregulated. As with the coding splicing events that we found to be regulated by Rbfox2, silent splicing events are evolutionarily conserved and frequently contain the Rbfox2 consensus UGCAUG. Our findings uncover an unexpectedly broad and multilayer regulatory network controlled by Rbfox2 and offer an explanation for how autoregulatory splicing networks are tuned.

  10. Classification and purification of proteins of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles by RNA-binding specificities.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, M S; Dreyfuss, G

    1988-01-01

    Several proteins of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) particles display very high binding affinities for different ribonucleotide homopolymers. The specificity of some of these proteins at high salt concentrations and in the presence of heparin allows for their rapid one-step purification from HeLa nucleoplasm. We show that the hnRNP C proteins are poly(U)-binding proteins and compare their specificity to that of the previously described cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein. Thes...

  11. Comparison of two methods forecasting binding rate of plasma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjiu, Liu; Yanrong, Hu

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the descriptors calculated from the molecular structure, the binding rates of plasma protein (BRPP) with seventy diverse drugs are modeled by a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) technique. Two algorithms, heuristic algorithm (HA) and support vector machine (SVM), are used to establish linear and nonlinear models to forecast BRPP. Empirical analysis shows that there are good performances for HA and SVM with cross-validation correlation coefficients Rcv(2) of 0.80 and 0.83. Comparing HA with SVM, it was found that SVM has more stability and more robustness to forecast BRPP.

  12. Thermostability and reversibility of silver nanoparticle-protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Seabrook, Shane A; Nedumpully-Govindan, Praveen; Chen, Pengyu; Yin, Hong; Waddington, Lynne; Epa, V Chandana; Winkler, David A; Kirby, Jason K; Ding, Feng; Ke, Pu Chun

    2015-01-21

    The interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and proteins in living systems are a precursor to the formation of a NP-protein "corona" that underlies cellular and organism responses to nanomaterials. However, the thermodynamic properties and reversibility of NP-protein interactions have rarely been examined. Using an automated, high-throughput and temperature-controlled dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique we observed a distinct hysteresis in the hydrodynamic radius of branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) coated-silver nanoparticles (bAgNPs) exposed to like-charged lysozyme during the processes of heating and cooling, in contrast to the irreversible interactions between bAgNPs and oppositely charged alpha lactalbumin (ALact). Our discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations offered a new molecular insight into the differential structure, dynamics and thermodynamics of bAgNPs binding with the two protein homologs and further revealed the different roles of the capping agents of citrate and BPEI in NP-protein interactions. This study facilitates our understanding of the transformation of nanomaterials in living systems, whose implications range from the field study of nanotoxicology to nanomaterials synthesis, nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine.

  13. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Kai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR, and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, “sensor” proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM’s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs, and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs in a poly(ADP-ribose (PAR-dependent manner (unpublished data. DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP ribose polymerase 1 makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as

  14. Protein-protein binding before and after photo-modification of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2016-03-01

    Bioeffects of directed-optical-energy encompass a wide range of applications. One aspect of photochemical interactions involves irradiating a photosensitizer with visible light in order to induce protein unfolding and consequent changes in function. In the past, irradiation of several dye-protein combinations has revealed effects on protein structure. Beta lactoglobulin, human serum albumin (HSA) and tubulin have all been photo-modified with meso-tetrakis(4- sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP) bound, but only in the case of tubulin has binding caused a verified loss of biological function (loss of ability to form microtubules) as a result of this light-induced structural change. The current work questions if the photo-induced structural changes that occur to HSA, are sufficient to disable its biological function of binding to osteonectin. The albumin-binding protein, osteonectin, is about half the molecular weight of HSA, so the two proteins and their bound product can be separated and quantified by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. TSPP was first bound to HSA and irradiated, photo-modifying the structure of HSA. Then native HSA or photo-modified HSA (both with TSPP bound) were compared, to assess loss in HSA's innate binding ability as a result of light-induced structure modification.

  15. Efficient purification of recombinant proteins fused to maltose-binding protein by mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanne, Charlotte; Pezzini, Jérôme; Joucla, Gilles; Hocquellet, Agnès; Barbot, Caroline; Garbay, Bertrand; Santarelli, Xavier

    2009-05-15

    Two mixed-mode resins were evaluated as an alternative to conventional affinity resins for the purification of recombinant proteins fused to maltose-binding protein (MPB). We purified recombinant MBP, MBP-LacZ and MBP-Leap2 from crude Escherichia coli extracts. Mixed-mode resins allowed the efficient purification of MBP-fused proteins. Indeed, the quantity of purified proteins was significantly higher with mixed-mode resins, and their purity was equivalent to that obtained with affinity resins. By using purified MBP, MBP-LacZ and MBP-Leap2, the dynamic binding capacity of mixed-mode resins was 5-fold higher than that of affinity resins. Moreover, the recovery for the three proteins studied was in the 50-60% range for affinity resins, and in the 80-85% range for mixed-mode resins. Mixed-mode resins thus represent a powerful alternative to the classical amylose or dextrin resins for the purification of recombinant proteins fused to maltose-binding protein.

  16. Light-activated DNA binding in a designed allosteric protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Devin; Moffat, Keith; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

    2008-09-03

    An understanding of how allostery, the conformational coupling of distant functional sites, arises in highly evolvable systems is of considerable interest in areas ranging from cell biology to protein design and signaling networks. We reasoned that the rigidity and defined geometry of an {alpha}-helical domain linker would make it effective as a conduit for allosteric signals. To test this idea, we rationally designed 12 fusions between the naturally photoactive LOV2 domain from Avena sativa phototropin 1 and the Escherichia coli trp repressor. When illuminated, one of the fusions selectively binds operator DNA and protects it from nuclease digestion. The ready success of our rational design strategy suggests that the helical 'allosteric lever arm' is a general scheme for coupling the function of two proteins.

  17. The Role of Microtubule End Binding (EB) Proteins in Ciliogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob Morville

    centrosomal MT array and abnormally long centriole-associated rootlet filaments. Cells lacking EB1 also had stumpy cilia and a disorganized centrosomal MT array, but rootlet filaments appeared normal. Further, live imaging revealed increased release frequency of MTs from the centrosome upon EB1 or EB3......EB1 is a small microtubule (MT)-binding protein that associates preferentially with MT plus ends. EB1 plays a role in regulating MT dynamics, localizing other MT-associated proteins to the plus end, and in regulating interactions of MTs with the cell cortex, mitotic kinetochores and different......, are required for assembly of primary cilia in cultured human cells. The EB3 - siRNA ciliary phenotype could be rescued by GFP-EB1 expression, and GFP-EB3 over expression resulted in elongated cilia. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that EB3-depleted cells possess stumpy cilia, a disorganized...

  18. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin

    2018-04-25

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immobilized sialyloligo-macroligand and its protein binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narla, Satya Nandana; Sun, Xue-Long

    2012-05-14

    We report a chemoenzymatic synthesis of chain-end functionalized sialyllactose-containing glycopolymers with different linkages and their oriented immobilization for glycoarray and SPR-based glyco-biosensor applications. Specifically, O-cyanate chain-end functionalized sialyllactose-containing glycopolymers were synthesized by enzymatic α2,3- and α2,6-sialylation of a lactose-containing glycopolymer that was synthesized by cyanoxyl-mediated free radical polymerization. (1)H NMR showed almost quantitative α2,3- and α2,6-sialylation. The O-cyanate chain-end functionalized sialyllactose-containing glycopolymers were printed onto amine-functionalized glass slides via isourea bond formation for glycoarray formation. Specific protein binding activity of the arrays was confirmed with α2,3- and α2,6-sialyl specific binding lectins together with inhibition assays. Further, immobilizing O-cyanate chain-end functionalized sialyllactose-containing glycopolymers onto amine-modified SPR chip via isourea bond formation afforded SPR-based glyco-biosensor, which showed specific binding activity for lectins and influenza viral hemagglutinins (HA). These sialyloligo-macroligand derived glycoarray and SPR-based glyco-biosensor are closely to mimic 3D nature presentation of sialyloligosaccharides and will provide important high-throughput tools for virus diagnosis and potential antiviral drug candidates screening applications.

  20. Comprehensive review and empirical analysis of hallmarks of DNA-, RNA- and protein-binding residues in protein chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Zhiqiang; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2017-12-15

    Proteins interact with a variety of molecules including proteins and nucleic acids. We review a comprehensive collection of over 50 studies that analyze and/or predict these interactions. While majority of these studies address either solely protein-DNA or protein-RNA binding, only a few have a wider scope that covers both protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid binding. Our analysis reveals that binding residues are typically characterized with three hallmarks: relative solvent accessibility (RSA), evolutionary conservation and propensity of amino acids (AAs) for binding. Motivated by drawbacks of the prior studies, we perform a large-scale analysis to quantify and contrast the three hallmarks for residues that bind DNA-, RNA-, protein- and (for the first time) multi-ligand-binding residues that interact with DNA and proteins, and with RNA and proteins. Results generated on a well-annotated data set of over 23 000 proteins show that conservation of binding residues is higher for nucleic acid- than protein-binding residues. Multi-ligand-binding residues are more conserved and have higher RSA than single-ligand-binding residues. We empirically show that each hallmark discriminates between binding and nonbinding residues, even predicted RSA, and that combining them improves discriminatory power for each of the five types of interactions. Linear scoring functions that combine these hallmarks offer good predictive performance of residue-level propensity for binding and provide intuitive interpretation of predictions. Better understanding of these residue-level interactions will facilitate development of methods that accurately predict binding in the exponentially growing databases of protein sequences. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Identification of Actin-Binding Proteins from Maize Pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, C.J.

    2004-01-13

    Specific Aims--The goal of this project was to gain an understanding of how actin filament organization and dynamics are controlled in flowering plants. Specifically, we proposed to identify unique proteins with novel functions by investigating biochemical strategies for the isolation and characterization of actin-binding proteins (ABPs). In particular, our hunt was designed to identify capping proteins and nucleation factors. The specific aims included: (1) to use F-actin affinity chromatography (FAAC) as a general strategy to isolate pollen ABPs (2) to produce polyclonal antisera and perform subcellular localization in pollen tubes (3) to isolate cDNA clones for the most promising ABPs (4) to further purify and characterize ABP interactions with actin in vitro. Summary of Progress By employing affinity chromatography on F-actin or DNase I columns, we have identified at least two novel ABPs from pollen, PrABP80 (gelsolin-like) and ZmABP30, We have also cloned and expressed recombinant protein, as well as generated polyclonal antisera, for 6 interesting ABPs from Arabidopsis (fimbrin AtFIM1, capping protein a/b (AtCP), adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (AtCAP), AtCapG & AtVLN1). We performed quantitative analyses of the biochemical properties for two of these previously uncharacterized ABPs (fimbrin and capping protein). Our studies provide the first evidence for fimbrin activity in plants, demonstrate the existence of barbed-end capping factors and a gelsolin-like severing activity, and provide the quantitative data necessary to establish and test models of F-actin organization and dynamics in plant cells.

  2. Immunochemical characterization of the brain glutamate binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.

    1986-01-01

    A glutamate binding protein (GBP) was purified from bovine and rat brain to near homogeneity. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against this protein. An enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was used to quantify and determine the specificity of the antibody response. The antibodies were shown to strongly react with bovine brain GBP and the analogous protein from rat brain. The antibodies did not show any crossreactivity with the glutamate metabolizing enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamyl transpeptidase, however it crossreacted moderately with glutamate decarboxylase. The antibodies were also used to define the possible physiologic activity of GBP in synaptic membranes. The antibodies were shown: (i) to inhibit the excitatory amino-acid stimulation of thiocyanate (SCN)flux, (ii) had no effect on transport of L-Glutamic acid across the synaptic membrane, and (iii) had no effect on the depolarization-induced release of L-glutamate. When the anti-GBP antibodies were used to localize and quantify the GBP distribution in various subcellular fractions and in brain tissue samples, it was found that the hippocampus had the highest immunoreactivity followed by the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and caudate-putamen. The distribution of immunoreactivity in the subcellular fraction were as follows: synaptic membranes > crude mitochondrial fraction > homogenate > myelin. In conclusion these studies suggest that: (a) the rat brain GBP and the bovine brain GBP are immunologically homologous protein, (b) there are no structural similarities between the GBP and the glutamate metabolizing enzymes with the exception of glutamate decarboxylase and (c) the subcellular and regional distribution of the GBP immunoreactivity followed a similar pattern as observed for L-[ 3 H]-binding

  3. Prediction of protein-protein binding site by using core interface residue and support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhonghua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of protein-protein binding site can provide structural annotation to the protein interaction data from proteomics studies. This is very important for the biological application of the protein interaction data that is increasing rapidly. Moreover, methods for predicting protein interaction sites can also provide crucial information for improving the speed and accuracy of protein docking methods. Results In this work, we describe a binding site prediction method by designing a new residue neighbour profile and by selecting only the core-interface residues for SVM training. The residue neighbour profile includes both the sequential and the spatial neighbour residues of an interface residue, which is a more complete description of the physical and chemical characteristics surrounding the interface residue. The concept of core interface is applied in selecting the interface residues for training the SVM models, which is shown to result in better discrimination between the core interface and other residues. The best SVM model trained was tested on a test set of 50 randomly selected proteins. The sensitivity, specificity, and MCC for the prediction of the core interface residues were 60.6%, 53.4%, and 0.243, respectively. Our prediction results on this test set were compared with other three binding site prediction methods and found to perform better. Furthermore, our method was tested on the 101 unbound proteins from the protein-protein interaction benchmark v2.0. The sensitivity, specificity, and MCC of this test were 57.5%, 32.5%, and 0.168, respectively. Conclusion By improving both the descriptions of the interface residues and their surrounding environment and the training strategy, better SVM models were obtained and shown to outperform previous methods. Our tests on the unbound protein structures suggest further improvement is possible.

  4. A sequence-based dynamic ensemble learning system for protein ligand-binding site prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng

    2015-12-03

    Background: Proteins have the fundamental ability to selectively bind to other molecules and perform specific functions through such interactions, such as protein-ligand binding. Accurate prediction of protein residues that physically bind to ligands is important for drug design and protein docking studies. Most of the successful protein-ligand binding predictions were based on known structures. However, structural information is not largely available in practice due to the huge gap between the number of known protein sequences and that of experimentally solved structures

  5. Evolving Transcription Factor Binding Site Models From Protein Binding Microarray Data

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2016-02-02

    Protein binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughput platform that can measure the DNA binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. In this paper, we describe the PBM motif model building problem. We apply several evolutionary computation methods and compare their performance with the interior point method, demonstrating their performance advantages. In addition, given the PBM domain knowledge, we propose and describe a novel method called kmerGA which makes domain-specific assumptions to exploit PBM data properties to build more accurate models than the other models built. The effectiveness and robustness of kmerGA is supported by comprehensive performance benchmarking on more than 200 datasets, time complexity analysis, convergence analysis, parameter analysis, and case studies. To demonstrate its utility further, kmerGA is applied to two real world applications: 1) PBM rotation testing and 2) ChIP-Seq peak sequence prediction. The results support the biological relevance of the models learned by kmerGA, and thus its real world applicability.

  6. Salicylate clearance, the resultant of protein binding and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, D E; Tozer, T N; Melmon, K L

    1979-09-01

    Steady-state plasma salicylate concentrations and protein binding were examined in 9 normal subjects to determine relationships among daily dose, total and unbound salicylate concentrations, and total and unbound clearances. Aspirin doses ranging from 0.66 to 4.0 mg/kg/hr were given to steady state. Free and total salicylate concentrations were measured with spectrophotometric, fluorimetric, and equilibrium dialysis techniques. Although unbound clearance decreased over the therapeutic range, total clearance was unchanged. The former is a consequence of saturable metabolism; the latter, of saturable plasma protein binding as well as saturable metabolism. The fraction unbound increased linearly with unbound concentration. Clearance determined at 1.8 mg/kg/hr was used to predict levels obtained at higher aspirin doses. Analysis of residuals was used to ascertain the accuracy of the prediction. The coefficient of variation from prediction among subjects was found to be +/- 14%. It is concluded that, in normal subjects, salicylate clearance changes relatively little over the therapeutic range because the increasing fraction unbound compensates for decreasing clearance of unbound drug.

  7. Tannin-binding salivary proteins in three captive rhinoceros species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Marcus; Gehrke, Janin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Flach, Edmund J; Hermes, Robert; Castell, Johanna; Streich, W Juergen; Fickel, Joerns

    2005-01-01

    Tannin-binding salivary proteins (TBSP) are considered to be counter-defences acquired in the course of evolution by animals whose natural forage contains such tannins. As tannins mostly occur in browse material but not in grasses, it is assumed that grazers do not have a need for TBSP. Whereas it has been shown in several non-ungulate species that TBSP can be induced by dietary tannins, their presence or absence in ungulates has, so far, been shown to be a species-specific characteristic independent of dietary manipulations. We investigated saliva from three rhinoceros species from zoological gardens fed comparable, conventional zoo diets. As expected, saliva from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherum simum, grazer) had lower tannin-binding capacities than that from black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis, browser). Surprisingly, however, Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis), commonly regarded as grazers as well, displayed the highest tannin-binding capacities of the three species investigated. It is speculated that this discrepancy might be a result of an evolutionarily recent switch to a grass-dominated diet in Indian rhinoceroses, and that the black rhinoceros, which is closer related to the white rhinoceros than the Indian species, has evolved an inducible mechanism of TBSP production. In separate trials during which the tannin content of the diets of black rhinoceroses was increased by the addition of either tannic acid or quebracho, the tannin-binding capacity of black rhinoceros saliva was increased to levels within the same range as that of Indian rhinoceroses on the conventional diets. While induction trials in white and Indian rhinoceroses remain to be performed for a full understanding of salivary anti-tannin defence in rhinoceroses, these results are the first report of an induced salivary response to increased dietary tannin levels in an ungulate species.

  8. The telomere binding protein TRF2 induces chromatin compaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa M Baker

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres are specialized chromatin structures that require the telomere binding protein, TRF2, for maintaining chromosome stability. In addition to its ability to modulate DNA repair activities, TRF2 also has direct effects on DNA structure and topology. Given that mammalian telomeric chromatin includes nucleosomes, we investigated the effect of this protein on chromatin structure. TRF2 bound to reconstituted telomeric nucleosomal fibers through both its basic N-terminus and its C-terminal DNA binding domain. Analytical agarose gel electrophoresis (AAGE studies showed that TRF2 promoted the folding of nucleosomal arrays into more compact structures by neutralizing negative surface charge. A construct containing the N-terminal and TRFH domains together altered the charge and radius of nucleosomal arrays similarly to full-length TRF2 suggesting that TRF2-driven changes in global chromatin structure were largely due to these regions. However, the most compact chromatin structures were induced by the isolated basic N-terminal region, as judged by both AAGE and atomic force microscopy. Although the N-terminal region condensed nucleosomal array fibers, the TRFH domain, known to alter DNA topology, was required for stimulation of a strand invasion-like reaction with nucleosomal arrays. Optimal strand invasion also required the C-terminal DNA binding domain. Furthermore, the reaction was not stimulated on linear histone-free DNA. Our data suggest that nucleosomal chromatin has the ability to facilitate this activity of TRF2 which is thought to be involved in stabilizing looped telomere structures.

  9. Acyl-CoA binding protein is an essential protein in mammalian cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jens; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, small interference RNA was used to knock-down acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) in HeLa, HepG2 and Chang cells. Transfection with ACBP-specific siRNA stopped growth, detached cells from the growth surface and blocked thymidine and acetate incorporation. The results show...... that depletion of ACBP in mammalian cells results in lethality, suggesting that ACBP is an essential protein....

  10. The Nuclear Cap-Binding Complex Mediates Meiotic Silencing by Unpaired DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan M. Decker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, cross walls between individual cells are normally incomplete, making the entire fungal network vulnerable to attack by viruses and selfish DNAs. Accordingly, several genome surveillance mechanisms are maintained to help the fungus combat these repetitive elements. One of these defense mechanisms is called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD, which identifies and silences unpaired genes during meiosis. Utilizing common RNA interference (RNAi proteins, such as Dicer and Argonaute, MSUD targets mRNAs homologous to the unpaired sequence to achieve silencing. In this study, we have identified an additional silencing component, namely the cap-binding complex (CBC. Made up of cap-binding proteins CBP20 and CBP80, CBC associates with the 5′ cap of mRNA transcripts in eukaryotes. The loss of CBC leads to a deficiency in MSUD activity, suggesting its role in mediating silencing. As confirmed in this study, CBC is predominantly nuclear, although it is known to travel in and out of the nucleus to facilitate RNA transport. As seen in animals but not in plants, CBP20’s robust nuclear import depends on CBP80 in Neurospora. CBC interacts with a component (Argonaute of the perinuclear meiotic silencing complex (MSC, directly linking the two cellular factors.

  11. Localization of cellular retinol-binding protein and retinol-binding protein in cells comprising the blood-brain barrier of rat and human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.N.; Ong, D.E.; Bok, D.

    1990-01-01

    Brain is not generally recognized as an organ that requires vitamin A, perhaps because no obvious histologic lesions have been observed in severely vitamin A-deficient animals. However, brain tissue does contain cellular vitamin A-binding proteins and a nuclear receptor protein for retinoic acid. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the cell-specific location of cellular retinol-binding protein in human and rat brain tissue. Cellular retinol-binding protein was localized specifically within the cuboidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, two primary sites of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. In addition, autoradiographic procedures demonstrated binding sites for serum retinol-binding protein in the choroidal epithelium. These observations suggest that a significant movement of retinol across the blood-brain barrier may occur

  12. Electrophilicities and Protein Covalent Binding of Demethylation Metabolites of Colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiucai; Lin, Dongju; Li, Weiwei; Wang, Kai; Peng, Ying; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-03-21

    Colchicine, an alkaloid existing in plants of Liliaceous colchicum, has been widely used in the treatment of gout and familial Mediterranean fever. The administration of colchicine was found to cause liver injury in humans. The mechanisms of colchicine-induced liver toxicity remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the electrophilicities of demethylation metabolites of colchicine and investigate the protein adductions derived from the reactive metabolites of colchicine. Four demethylated colchicine (1-, 2-, 3-, and 10-DMCs), namely, M1-M4, were detected in colchicine-fortified microsomal incubations. Four N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) conjugates (M5-M8) derived from colchicine were detected in the microsomes in the presence of NAC. M5 and M6 were derived from 10-DMC. M7 resulted from the reaction of 2-DMC or 3-DMC with NAC, and M8 originated from 10-DMC. Microsomal protein covalent binding was observed after exposure to colchicine. Two cysteine adducts (CA-1 and CA-2) derived from 10-DMC were found in proteolytically digested microsomal protein samples after incubation with colchicine. The findings allow us to define the chemical property of demethylation metabolites of colchicine and the interaction between protein and the reactive metabolites of colchicine generated in situ.

  13. Metals and Neuronal Metal Binding Proteins Implicated in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent age-related dementia affecting millions of people worldwide. Its main pathological hallmark feature is the formation of insoluble protein deposits of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau protein into extracellular plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, respectively. Many of the mechanistic details of this process remain unknown, but a well-established consequence of protein aggregation is synapse dysfunction and neuronal loss in the AD brain. Different pathways including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metal metabolism have been suggested to be implicated in this process. In particular, a body of evidence suggests that neuronal metal ions such as copper, zinc, and iron play important roles in brain function in health and disease states and altered homeostasis and distribution as a common feature across different neurodegenerative diseases and aging. In this focused review, we overview neuronal proteins that are involved in AD and whose metal binding properties may underlie important biochemical and regulatory processes occurring in the brain during the AD pathophysiological process. PMID:26881049

  14. Isolation and Purification of Thiamine Binding Protein from Mung Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWIRINI RETNO GUNARTI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine has fundamental role in energy metabolism. The organs mostly sensitive to the lack of thiamine levels in the body are the nervous system and the heart. Thiamine deficiency causes symptoms of polyneuritis and cardiovascular diseases. Because of its importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates, we need to measure the levels of thiamine in the body fluids by using an easy and inexpensive way without compromising the sensitivity and selectivity. An option to it is thiamine measurement based on the principle of which is analogous to ELISA, in which a thiamine binding protein (TBP act by replacing antibodies. The presence of TBP in several seeds have been reported by previous researchers, but the presence of TBP in mung beans has not been studied. This study was aimed to isolate and purify TBP from mung bean. The protein was isolated from mung bean through salting out by ammonium sulphate of 40, 70, and 90% (w/v. TBP has a negative charge as shown by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The result obtained after salting out by ammonium sulphate was further purified bymeans of DEAE-cellulose chromatography and affinity chromatography. In precipitation of 90% of salting out method, one peak protein was obtained by using affinity chromatography. The protein was analyzed by SDS PAGE electrophoresis. The result of SDS PAGE electrophoresis showed that TBP has a molecular weight of 72.63 kDa.

  15. Growth hormone-binding proteins in high-speed cytosols of multiple tissues of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, A C; Ymer, S; Roupas, P; Stevenson, J

    1986-04-11

    Soluble, specific binding protein(s) for growth hormone (GH) have been identified and partially characterized in high-speed cytosolic preparations from a number of rabbit tissues. The binding of 125I-labelled human GH to proteins in liver, heart, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and kidney cytosols was dependent on time and cytosolic protein concentration. By Scatchard analysis, the binding affinities (KA: (2-7) X 10(9) M-1) were somewhat higher than those generally reported for membrane GH receptors. The binding proteins had a greater specificity for somatotrophic hormones than lactogenic hormones, although the kidney appeared to have, in addition, a lactogen-binding protein. By gel filtration, the Mr of the cytosolic GH-binding protein was approximately 100 000 in all tissues. None of the binding proteins was detectable by the poly(ethylene glycol) precipitation method used widely for soluble hormone receptors. The cytosolic GH-binding proteins also cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the rabbit liver membrane GH receptor. These results indicate the ubiquitous presence of apparently naturally soluble GH-binding proteins in the cytosolic fractions of several tissues in the rabbit. Of great interest is their presence in muscle, where GH receptors or binding proteins have not previously been detected, despite muscle being recognized as a classical GH target tissue.

  16. Differential dissociation micromethod for the investigation of binding of metandrostenolone (Nerobol) to plasma proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojadzsieva, Milka; Kocsar, Laszlo; Kremmer, Tibor

    1985-01-01

    A micromethod was developed to determine the binding of anabolic streoids to plasma proteins. The new procedure combines precipitation with ammonium sulphate and differential dissociation. The binding parameters (association constant, specific binding capacity) are calculated on the basis of dissociation curves of sup(3)H-metandrostenolone from the precipitated sexual binding globuline. (L.E.)

  17. Differential dissociation micromethod for the investigation of binding of metandrostenolone (Nerobol) to plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojadzsieva, M.; Kocsar, L. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)); Kremmer, T. (Orszagos Onkologiai Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    A micromethod was developed to determine the binding of anabolic steroids to plasma proteins. The new procedure combines precipitation with ammonium sulphate and differential dissociation. The binding parameters (association constant, specific binding capacity) are calculated on the basis of dissociation curves of sup(3)H-metandrostenolone from the precipitated sexual binding globuline.

  18. Identification of novel DNA binding proteins using DNA affinity chromatography-pulldown

    OpenAIRE

    Jutras, Brandon L; Verma, Ashutosh; Stevenson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Methods are presented through which one may isolate and identify novel bacterial DNA-binding proteins. Briefly, the DNA sequence of interest is affixed to beads, then incubated with bacterial cytoplasmic extract. Washes with buffers containing non-specific DNA and low salt concentrations will remove non-adhering and low-specificity DNA-binding proteins, while subsequent washes with higher salt concentrations will elute more specific DNA-binding proteins. Eluted proteins may then be identified...

  19. ERK2-Mediated Phosphorylation of Transcriptional Coactivator Binding Protein PIMT/NCoA6IP at Ser298 Augments Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Kishore V. L.; Kain, Vasundhara; Behera, Soma; Suraj, Sashidhara Kaimal; Babu, Phanithi Prakash; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda; Zhu, Yi-jun; Jia, Yuzhi; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K.; Misra, Parimal

    2013-01-01

    PRIP-Interacting protein with methyl transferase domain (PIMT) serves as a molecular bridge between CREB-binding protein (CBP)/ E1A binding protein p300 (Ep300) -anchored histone acetyl transferase and the Mediator complex sub-unit1 (Med1) and modulates nuclear receptor transcription. Here, we report that ERK2 phosphorylates PIMT at Ser298 and enhances its ability to activate PEPCK promoter. We observed that PIMT is recruited to PEPCK promoter and adenoviral-mediated over-expression of PIMT in rat primary hepatocytes up-regulated expression of gluconeogenic genes including PEPCK. Reporter experiments with phosphomimetic PIMT mutant (PIMTS298D) suggested that conformational change may play an important role in PIMT-dependent PEPCK promoter activity. Overexpression of PIMT and Med1 together augmented hepatic glucose output in an additive manner. Importantly, expression of gluconeogenic genes and hepatic glucose output were suppressed in isolated liver specific PIMT knockout mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, consistent with reporter experiments, PIMTS298D but not PIMTS298A augmented hepatic glucose output via up-regulating the expression of gluconeogenic genes. Pharmacological blockade of MAPK/ERK pathway using U0126, abolished PIMT/Med1-dependent gluconeogenic program leading to reduced hepatic glucose output. Further, systemic administration of T4 hormone to rats activated ERK1/2 resulting in enhanced PIMT ser298 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of PIMT led to its increased binding to the PEPCK promoter, increased PEPCK expression and induction of gluconeogenesis in liver. Thus, ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of PIMT at Ser298 is essential in hepatic gluconeogenesis, demonstrating an important role of PIMT in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia. PMID:24358311

  20. Growth hormone receptor/binding protein: physiology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, A C; Ymer, S I; Stevenson, J L; Roupas, P

    1994-07-01

    Soluble truncated forms of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) are present in the circulation of many species and are also produced by many tissues/cell types. The major high-affinity forms of these GH-binding proteins (GHBP) are derived by alternative splicing of GHR mRNA in rodents, but probably by proteolytic cleavage in other species. Questions still remain with respect to the origins, native molecular form(s), physiology, and function of the GHBPs, however. The observation that GH induces dimerization of the soluble GHBP and membrane GHR, and that dimerization of GHR appears to be critical for GH bioactivity suggests that the presentation of GH to target cells, in an unbound form or as a monomeric or dimeric complex with GHBP, may have significant implications for the ability of GH to activate specific postreceptor signaling pathways (tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, G-protein pathways) known to be utilized by GH for its diverse biological effects. This minireview addresses some of these aspects and highlights several new questions which have arisen as a result of recent advances in our understanding of the structure, function, and signaling mechanisms of the membrane bound GHR.

  1. Growth hormone receptor/binding protein: Physiology and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herington, A.C.; Ymer, S.I.; Stevenson, J.L.; Roupas, P. [Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Soluble truncated forms of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) are present in the circulation of many species and are also produced by many tissues/cell types. The major high-affinity forms of these GH-binding proteins (GHBP) are derived by alternative splicing of GHR mRNA in rodents, but probably by proteolytic cleavage in other species. Questions still remain with respect to the origins, native molecular forms(s), physiology, and function of the GHBPs, however. The observation that GH induces dimerization of the soluble GHBP and a membrane GHR, and that dimerization of GHR appears to be critical for GH bioactivity suggests that the presentation of GH to target cells, in an unbound form or as a monomeric or dimeric complex with GHBP, may have significant implications for the ability of GH to activate specific postreceptor signaling pathways (tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, G-protein pathways) known to be utilized by GH for its diverse biological effects. This minireview addresses some of these aspects and highlights several new questions which have arisen as a result of recent advances in our understanding of the structure, function, and signaling mechanisms of the membrane bound GHR. 43 refs.

  2. Guanylate kinase domains of the MAGUK family scaffold proteins as specific phospho-protein-binding modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinwei; Shang, Yuan; Xia, Caihao; Wang, Wenning; Wen, Wenyu; Zhang, Mingjie

    2011-11-25

    Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are a large family of scaffold proteins that play essential roles in tissue developments, cell-cell communications, cell polarity control, and cellular signal transductions. Despite extensive studies over the past two decades, the functions of the signature guanylate kinase domain (GK) of MAGUKs are poorly understood. Here we show that the GK domain of DLG1/SAP97 binds to asymmetric cell division regulatory protein LGN in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The structure of the DLG1 SH3-GK tandem in complex with a phospho-LGN peptide reveals that the GMP-binding site of GK has evolved into a specific pSer/pThr-binding pocket. Residues both N- and C-terminal to the pSer are also critical for the specific binding of the phospho-LGN peptide to GK. We further demonstrate that the previously reported GK domain-mediated interactions of DLGs with other targets, such as GKAP/DLGAP1/SAPAP1 and SPAR, are also phosphorylation dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that other MAGUK GKs also function as phospho-peptide-binding modules. The discovery of the phosphorylation-dependent MAGUK GK/target interactions indicates that MAGUK scaffold-mediated signalling complex organizations are dynamically regulated.

  3. Determining Membrane Protein-Lipid Binding Thermodynamics Using Native Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wen; Liang, Xiaowen; Russell, David H; Laganowsky, Arthur

    2016-04-06

    Membrane proteins are embedded in the biological membrane where the chemically diverse lipid environment can modulate their structure and function. However, the thermodynamics governing the molecular recognition and interaction of lipids with membrane proteins is poorly understood. Here, we report a method using native mass spectrometry (MS), to determine thermodynamics of individual ligand binding events to proteins. Unlike conventional methods, native MS can resolve individual ligand binding events and, coupled with an apparatus to control the temperature, determine binding thermodynamic parameters, such as for protein-lipid interactions. We validated our approach using three soluble protein-ligand systems (maltose binding protein, lysozyme, and nitrogen regulatory protein) and obtained similar results to those using isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. We also determined for the first time the thermodynamics of individual lipid binding to the ammonia channel (AmtB), an integral membrane protein from Escherichia coli. Remarkably, we observed distinct thermodynamic signatures for the binding of different lipids and entropy-enthalpy compensation for binding lipids of variable chain length. Additionally, using a mutant form of AmtB that abolishes a specific phosphatidylglycerol (PG) binding site, we observed distinct changes in the thermodynamic signatures for binding PG, implying these signatures can identify key residues involved in specific lipid binding and potentially differentiate between specific lipid binding sites.

  4. Visualization of coupled protein folding and binding in bacteria and purification of the heterodimeric complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyong; Chong, Shaorong

    2003-01-01

    During overexpression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli, misfolded proteins often aggregate and form inclusion bodies. If an aggregation-prone recombinant protein is fused upstream (as an N-terminal fusion) to GFP, aggregation of the recombinant protein domain also leads to misfolding of the downstream GFP domain, resulting in a decrease or loss of fluorescence. We investigated whether the GFP domain could fold correctly if aggregation of the upstream protein domain was prevented in vivo by a coupled protein folding and binding interaction. Such interaction has been previously shown to occur between the E. coli integration host factors and , and between the domains of the general transcriptional coactivator cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein and the activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors. In this study, fusion of integration host factor or the CREB-binding protein domain upstream to GFP resulted in aggregation of the fusion protein. Coexpression of their respective partners, on the other hand, allowed soluble expression of the fusion protein and a dramatic increase in fluorescence. The study demonstrated that coupled protein folding and binding could be correlated to GFP fluorescence. A modified miniintein containing an affinity tag was inserted between the upstream protein domain and GFP to allow rapid purification and identification of the heterodimeric complex. The GFP coexpression fusion system may be used to identify novel protein-protein interactions that involve coupled folding and binding or protein partners that can solubilize aggregation-prone recombinant proteins.

  5. N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 14, a novel insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 binding partner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chen; Yao, Guangyin; Zou, Minji; Chen, Guangyu; Wang, Min; Liu, Jingqian; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Donggang

    2007-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is known to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in IGF-dependent and IGF-independent manners, but the mechanism underlying IGF-independent effects is not yet clear. In a yeast two-hybrid assay, IGFBP-3 was used as the bait to screen a human fetal liver cDNA library for it interactors that may potentially mediate IGFBP-3-regulated functions. N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 14 (GalNAc-T14), a member of the GalNAc-Tases family, was identified as a novel IGFBP-3 binding partner. This interaction involved the ricin-type beta-trefoil domain of GalNAc-T14. The interaction between IGFBP-3 and GalNAc-T14 was reconfirmed in vitro and in vivo, using GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays. Our findings may provide new clues for further study on the mechanism behind the IGF-independent effects of IGFBP-3 promoting apoptosis. The role of GalNAc-T14 as an intracellular mediator of the effects of IGFBP-3 need to be verified in future studies

  6. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RNA BINDING DOMAIN OF HUMAN STEM LOOP BINDING PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthi Kashyap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding the RNA binding domain (RBD of human stem loop binding protein (SLBP was cloned in pET 28a vector and over-expressed in E. coli codon plus cells. The over-expressed SLBP-RBD carried no tag and aggregated as inclusion bodies in the cell lysate. Inclusion bodies were semi-purified to >85% purity by establishing a method involving detergent washing and subsequently denatured in 8 M urea. Refolding of the denatured RBD was carried out by step dialysis in decreasing concentrations of urea and L-arginine. Refolded SLBP-RBD was analyzed using size exclusion chromatography that revealed its monomeric nature and folded state. Uniformly 15N and 15N,13C labeled SLBP-RBD was prepared at concentrations for solution NMR studies. Approximately, 60% of the sequence specific backbone resonance assignments have been achieved through standard triple resonance NMR experiments. Analyses of secondary chemical shifts reveal presence of a small helical secondary structural elements and large intrinsically disordered regions.

  7. Crystal structure of Methanococcus jannaschii TATA box-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Naruhiko; Senda, Miki; Natsume, Ryo; Senda, Toshiya; Horikoshi, Masami

    2008-11-01

    As the archaeal transcription system consists of a eukaryotic-type transcription apparatus and bacterial-type regulatory transcription factors, analyses of the molecular interface between the transcription apparatus and regulatory transcription factors are critical to reveal the evolutionary change of the transcription system. TATA box-binding protein (TBP), the central components of the transcription apparatus are classified into three groups: eukaryotic, archaeal-I and archaeal-II TBPs. Thus, comparative functional analysis of these three groups of TBP is important for the study of the evolution of the transcription system. Here, we present the first crystal structure of an archaeal-II TBP from Methanococcus jannaschii. The highly conserved and group-specific conserved surfaces of TBP bind to DNA and TFIIB/TFB, respectively. The phylogenetic trees of TBP and TFIIB/TFB revealed that they evolved in a coupled manner. The diversified surface of TBP is negatively charged in the archaeal-II TBP, which is completely different from the case of eukaryotic and archaeal-I TBPs, which are positively charged and biphasic, respectively. This difference is responsible for the diversification of the regulatory functions of TBP during evolution.

  8. Methods and systems for identifying ligand-protein binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2016-05-06

    The invention provides a novel integrated structure and system-based approach for drug target prediction that enables the large-scale discovery of new targets for existing drugs Novel computer-readable storage media and computer systems are also provided. Methods and systems of the invention use novel sequence order-independent structure alignment, hierarchical clustering, and probabilistic sequence similarity techniques to construct a probabilistic pocket ensemble (PPE) that captures even promiscuous structural features of different binding sites for a drug on known targets. The drug\\'s PPE is combined with an approximation of the drug delivery profile to facilitate large-scale prediction of novel drug- protein interactions with several applications to biological research and drug development.

  9. SFS, a Novel Fibronectin-Binding Protein from Streptococcus equi, Inhibits the Binding between Fibronectin and Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Hans; Guss, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    The obligate parasitic bacterium Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a serious disease of the upper respiratory tract in horses. In this study we have, using shotgun phage display, cloned from S. equi subsp. equi and characterized a gene, called sfs, encoding a protein termed SFS, representing a new type of fibronectin (Fn)-binding protein. The sfs gene was found to be present in all 50 isolates of S. equi subsp. equi tested and in 41 of 48 S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates tested. The sfs gene is down-regulated during growth in vitro compared to fnz, a previously characterized gene encoding an Fn-binding protein from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Sequence comparisons revealed no similarities to previously characterized Fn-binding proteins, but high scores were obtained against collagen. Besides similarity due to the high content of glycine, serine, and proline residues present in both proteins, there was a nine-residue motif present both in collagen and in the Fn-binding domain of SFS. By searching the Oklahoma S. pyogenes database, we found that this motif is also present in a potential cell surface protein from S. pyogenes. Protein SFS was found to inhibit the binding between Fn and collagen in a concentration-dependent way. PMID:10225899

  10. Acanthamoeba castellanii contains a ribosomal RNA enhancer binding protein which stimulates TIF-IB binding and transcription under stringent conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Radebaugh, C A; Kubaska, W; Geiss, G K; Paule, M R

    1995-01-01

    The intergenic spacer (IGS) of Acanthamoeba castellanii rRNA genes contains repeated elements which are weak enhancers for transcription by RNA polymerase I. A protein, EBF, was identified and partially purified which binds to the enhancers and to several other sequences within the IGS, but not to other DNA fragments, including the rRNA core promoter. No consensus binding sequence could be discerned in these fragments and bound factor is in rapid equilibrium with unbound. EBF has functional characteristics similar to vertebrate upstream binding factors (UBF). Not only does it bind to the enhancer and other IGS elements, but it also stimulates binding of TIF-IB, the fundamental transcription initiation factor, to the core promoter and stimulates transcription from the promoter. Attempts to identify polypeptides with epitopes similar to rat or Xenopus laevis UBF suggest that structurally the protein from A.castellanii is not closely related to vertebrate UBF. Images PMID:7501455

  11. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  12. Mannan-binding lectin in cerebrospinal fluid: a leptomeningeal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiber Hansotto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannan-binding lectin (MBL, a protein of the innate immune response is attracting increasing clinical interest, in particularly in relation to its deficiency. Due to its involvement in brain diseases, identifying the source of MBL in CSF is important. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF can provide data that discriminates between blood-, brain-, and leptomeninges-derived proteins. To detect the source of MBL in CSF we need to consider three variables: the molecular size-dependent concentration gradient between CSF and blood, the variation in transfer between blood and CSF, and the CSF MBL concentration correlation with the albumin CSF/serum quotient (QAlb, i.e., with CSF flow rate. Methods MBL was assayed in samples of CSF and serum with an ELISA, coated with anti MBL antibodies. Routine parameters such as albumin-, immunoglobulin- CSF/serum quotients, oligoclonal IgG and cell count were used to characterize the patient groups. Groups comprised firstly, control patients without organic brain disease with normal CSF and normal barrier function and secondly, patients without inflammatory diseases but with increased QAlb, i.e. with a blood CSF barrier dysfunction. Results MBL concentration in CSF was at least five-fold higher than expected for a molecular-size-dependent passage from blood. Secondly, in a QIgM/QAlb quotient diagram (Reibergram 9/13 cases showed an intrathecal fraction in some cases over 80% of total CSF MBL concentration 3 The smaller inter-individual variation of MBL concentrations in CSF of the control group (CV = 66% compared to the MBL concentrations in serum (CV = 146% indicate an independent source of MBL in CSF. 4 The absolute MBL concentration in CSF increases with increasing QAlb. Among brain-derived proteins in CSF only the leptomeningeal proteins showed a (linear increase with decreasing CSF flow rate, neuronal and glial proteins are invariant to changes of QAlb. Conclusions MBL in CSF is

  13. Peptide microarrays to probe for competition for binding sites in a protein interaction network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinzinger, M.D.S.; Ruttekolk, I.R.R.; Gloerich, J.; Wessels, H.; Chung, Y.D.; Adjobo-Hermans, M.J.W.; Brock, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular protein interaction networks are a result of the binding preferences of a particular protein and the entirety of interactors that mutually compete for binding sites. Therefore, the reconstruction of interaction networks by the accumulation of interaction networks for individual proteins

  14. Characterization of the retinoblastoma binding proteins RBP1 and RBP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattaey, A R; Helin, K; Dembski, M S

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product, pRB, regulates cell proliferation by binding to and inhibiting the activity of key growth promoting proteins. Several cellular proteins have been shown to bind directly to pRB and the genes encoding a number of them have been isolated. The protein product of one...

  15. Liposome-binding assays to assess specificity and affinity of phospholipid-protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julkowska, M.M.; Rankenberg, J.M.; Testerink, C.

    2013-01-01

    Protein-lipid interactions play an important role in cellular protein relocation, activation and signal transduction. The liposome-binding assay is a simple and inexpensive method to examine protein-lipid binding in vitro. The phospholipids used for liposome production are dried and hydrated.

  16. [Determination of plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin with ultrafiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Ying; Wang, Wei; Tan, Ri-Qiu; Dou, De-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    To determine the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin. The ultrafiltration combined with HPLC was employed to determine the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin as well as rat plasma and healthy human plasma proteins. The plasma protein binding rate of arctiin with rat plasma at the concentrations of 64. 29, 32.14, 16.07 mg x L(-1) were (71.2 +/- 2.0)%, (73.4 +/- 0.61)%, (78.2 +/- 1.9)%, respectively; while the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin with healthy human plasma at the above concentrations were (64.8 +/- 3.1)%, (64.5 +/- 2.5)%, (77.5 +/- 1.7)%, respectively. The plasma protein binding rate of arctigenin with rat plasma at the concentrations of 77.42, 38.71, 19.36 mg x L(-1) were (96.7 +/- 0.41)%, (96.8 +/- 1.6)%, (97.3 +/- 0.46)%, respectively; while the plasma protein binding rate of arctigenin with normal human plasma at the above concentrations were (94.7 +/- 3.1)%, (96.8 +/- 1.6)%, (97.9 +/- 1.3)%, respectively. The binding rate of arctiin with rat plasma protein was moderate, which is slightly higher than the binding rate of arctiin with healthy human plasma protein. The plasma protein binding rates of arctigenin with both rat plasma and healthy human plasma are very high.

  17. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  18. A tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins from PDB structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the research on protein functional sites, researchers often need to identify binding-site residues on a protein. A commonly used strategy is to find a complex structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB that consists of the protein of interest and its interacting partner(s and calculate binding-site residues based on the complex structure. However, since a protein may participate in multiple interactions, the binding-site residues calculated based on one complex structure usually do not reveal all binding sites on a protein. Thus, this requires researchers to find all PDB complexes that contain the protein of interest and combine the binding-site information gleaned from them. This process is very time-consuming. Especially, combing binding-site information obtained from different PDB structures requires tedious work to align protein sequences. The process becomes overwhelmingly difficult when researchers have a large set of proteins to analyze, which is usually the case in practice. Results In this study, we have developed a tool for calculating binding-site residues on proteins, TCBRP http://yanbioinformatics.cs.usu.edu:8080/ppbindingsubmit. For an input protein, TCBRP can quickly find all binding-site residues on the protein by automatically combining the information obtained from all PDB structures that consist of the protein of interest. Additionally, TCBRP presents the binding-site residues in different categories according to the interaction type. TCBRP also allows researchers to set the definition of binding-site residues. Conclusion The developed tool is very useful for the research on protein binding site analysis and prediction.

  19. Unified understanding of folding and binding mechanisms of globular and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Munehito

    2018-01-06

    Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of folding and binding of globular proteins, and coupled folding and binding of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The forces responsible for conformational changes and binding are common in both proteins; however, these mechanisms have been separately discussed. Here, we attempt to integrate the mechanisms of coupled folding and binding of IDPs, folding of small and multi-subdomain proteins, folding of multimeric proteins, and ligand binding of globular proteins in terms of conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms as well as the nucleation-condensation mechanism that is intermediate between them. Accumulating evidence has shown that both the rate of conformational change and apparent rate of binding between interacting elements can determine reaction mechanisms. Coupled folding and binding of IDPs occurs mainly by induced-fit because of the slow folding in the free form, while ligand binding of globular proteins occurs mainly by conformational selection because of rapid conformational change. Protein folding can be regarded as the binding of intramolecular segments accompanied by secondary structure formation. Multi-subdomain proteins fold mainly by the induced-fit (hydrophobic collapse) mechanism, as the connection of interacting segments enhances the binding (compaction) rate. Fewer hydrophobic residues in small proteins reduce the intramolecular binding rate, resulting in the nucleation-condensation mechanism. Thus, the folding and binding of globular proteins and IDPs obey the same general principle, suggesting that the coarse-grained, statistical mechanical model of protein folding is promising for a unified theoretical description of all mechanisms.

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF SILKWORM MIDGUT cDNA LIBRARY FOR SCREEN AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF PERITROPHIC MEMBRANE PROTEIN GENES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Jun; Xue, Bin; Li, Yang-Yang; Li, Fan-Chi; Ni, Min; Shen, Wei-De; Gu, Zhi-Ya; Li, Bing; Shen, Wei-De; Gu, Zhi-Ya; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Silkworm is an important economic insect and the model species for Lepidoptera. The midgut of silkworm is an important physiological barrier, as its peritrophic membrane (PM) can resist pathogen invasion. In this study, a silkworm midgut cDNA library was constructed in order to identify silkworm PM genes. The capacity of the initial library was 6.92 × 10(6) pfu/ml, along with a recombination rate of 92.14% and a postamplification titer of 4.10 × 10(9) pfu/ml. Three silkworm PM protein genes were obtained by immunoscreening, two of which were chitin-binding protein (CBP) genes and one of which was a chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene as revealed by sequence analysis. Three genes were named BmCBP02, BmCBP13, and BmCDA17, and their ORF sizes are 678, 1,029, and 645 bp, respectively; all of them contain sequences of chitin-binding domains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BmCBP02 has the highest consensus with Mamestra configurata CBP at 61.0%; BmCBP13 has the highest consensus with Loxostege sticticalis PM CBP at 53.35%; BmCDA17 has the highest consensus with Helicoverpa armigera CDA5a at 70.83%. Tissue transcriptional analysis revealed that all three genes were specifically expressed in the midgut, and during the developmental process of fifth-instar silkworms, the transcription of all the genes showed an upward trend. This study laid a foundation for further studies on the functions of silkworm PM genes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effects of GH and hormone replacement therapy on serum concentrations of mannan-binding lectin, surfactant protein D and vitamin D binding protein in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Lauridsen, Anna Lis

    2004-01-01

    function. In the present study we examined whether GH or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in Turner syndrome (TS) influence the serum concentrations of MBL and two other proteins partaking in the innate immune defence, surfactant protein D (SP-D) and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). DESIGN: Study 1...

  2. Cerium oxide nanoparticles promote neurogenesis and abrogate hypoxia-induced memory impairment through AMPK–PKC–CBP signaling cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya A

    2016-03-01

    binding (AMPK-PKC-CBP protein pathway. Our present study results suggest that nanoceria can be translated as promising therapeutic molecules for neurodegenerative diseases. Keywords: cerium oxide nanoparticles, oxidative stress, memory, hypoxia, neuroprotection

  3. Amphipathic small molecules mimic the binding mode and function of endogenous transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrlage, Sara J; Bates, Caleb A; Rowe, Steven P; Minter, Aaron R; Brennan, Brian B; Majmudar, Chinmay Y; Wemmer, David E; Al-Hashimi, Hashim; Mapp, Anna K

    2009-05-15

    Small molecules that reconstitute the binding mode(s) of a protein and in doing so elicit a programmed functional response offer considerable advantages in the control of complex biological processes. The development challenges of such molecules are significant, however. Many protein-protein interactions require multiple points of contact over relatively large surface areas. More significantly, several binding modes can be superimposed upon a single sequence within a protein, and a true small molecule replacement must be preprogrammed for such multimodal binding. This is the case for the transcriptional activation domain or TAD of transcriptional activators as these motifs utilize a poorly characterized multipartner binding profile in order to stimulate gene expression. Here we describe a unique class of small molecules that exhibit both function and a binding profile analogous to natural transcriptional activation domains. Of particular note, the small molecules are the first reported to bind to the KIX domain within the CREB binding protein (CBP) at a site that is utilized by natural activators. Further, a comparison of functional and nonfunctional small molecules indicates that an interaction with CBP is a key contributor to transcriptional activity. Taken together, the evidence suggests that the small molecule TADs mimic both the function and mechanism of their natural counterparts and thus present a framework for the broader development of small molecule transcriptional switches.

  4. Is vitamin D binding protein a novel predictor of labour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Liong

    Full Text Available Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP has previously been identified in the amniotic fluid and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF of pregnant women. The biological functions of VDBP include acting as a carrier protein for vitamin D metabolites, the clearance of actin that is released during tissue injury and the augmentation of the pro-inflammatory response. This longitudinal observational study was conducted on 221 healthy pregnant women who spontaneously laboured and delivered either at term or preterm. Serial CVF samples were collected and VDBP was measured by ELISA. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the utility of VDBP as a predictor of labour. VDBP in the CVF did not change between 20 and 35 weeks' gestation. VDBP measured in-labour was significantly increased 4.2 to 7.4-fold compared to 4-7, 8-14 and 15-28 days before labour (P<0.05. VDBP concentration was 4.3-fold significantly higher at 0-3 days compared to 15-28 days pre-labour (P<0.05. The efficacy of VDBP to predict spontaneous labour onset within 3 days provided a positive and negative predictive value of 82.8% and 95.3% respectively (area under receiver operator characteristic curve  = 0.974. This longitudinal study of pregnant women suggests that VDBP in the CVF may be a useful predictor of labour.

  5. QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Studies of Metal Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Vidossich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM simulations have strongly contributed to providing insights into the understanding of several structural and mechanistic aspects of biological molecules. They played a particularly important role in metal binding proteins, where the electronic effects of transition metals have to be explicitly taken into account for the correct representation of the underlying biochemical process. In this review, after a brief description of the basic concepts of the QM/MM method, we provide an overview of its capabilities using selected examples taken from our work. Specifically, we will focus on heme peroxidases, metallo-β-lactamases, α-synuclein and ligase ribozymes to show how this approach is capable of describing the catalytic and/or structural role played by transition (Fe, Zn or Cu and main group (Mg metals. Applications will reveal how metal ions influence the formation and reduction of high redox intermediates in catalytic cycles and enhance drug metabolism, amyloidogenic aggregate formation and nucleic acid synthesis. In turn, it will become manifest that the protein frame directs and modulates the properties and reactivity of the metal ions.

  6. Identification of pheromone components and their binding affinity to the odorant binding protein CcapOBP83a-2 of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siciliano, P.; He, X. L.; Woodcock, C.; Pickett, J. A.; Field, L. M.; Birkett, M. A.; Kalinová, Blanka; Gomulski, L. M.; Scolari, F.; Gasperi, G.; Malacrida, A. R.; Zhou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 48, May (2014), s. 51-62 ISSN 0965-1748 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : medfly * Ceratitis capitata * olfaction * odorant binding protein * pheromone binding protein * pheromone * binding studies * protein expression * electroantennography * GC-EAG * fluorescence displacement Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.450, year: 2014

  7. Surfactant protein D binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 and inhibits HIV replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meschi, Joseph; Crouch, Erika C; Skolnik, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains highly conserved mannosylated oligosaccharides. These glycoconjugates contribute to resistance to antibody neutralization, and binding to cell surface lectins on macrophages and dendritic cells. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL......) binds to gp120 and plays a role in defence against the virus. In this study it is demonstrated that surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds to gp120 and inhibits HIV infectivity at significantly lower concentrations than MBL. The binding of SP-D was mediated by its calcium-dependent carbohydrate...... defence against HIV. A chimeric protein containing the N-terminal and collagen domains of SP-D linked to the neck and carbohydrate-recognition domains of MBL (called SP-D/MBL(neck+CRD)) had greater ability to bind to gp120 and inhibit virus replication than either SP-D or MBL. The enhanced binding of SP...

  8. Adsorption of DNA binding proteins to functionalized carbon nanotube surfaces with and without DNA wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yu; Oura, Shusuke; Umemura, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    We examined the adsorption of DNA binding proteins on functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). When SWNTs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG-SWNT), moderate adsorption of protein molecules was observed. In contrast, nanotubes functionalized with CONH 2 groups (CONH 2 -SWNT) exhibited very strong interactions between the CONH 2 -SWNT and DNA binding proteins. Instead, when these SWNT surfaces were wrapped with DNA molecules (thymine 30-mers), protein binding was a little decreased. Our results revealed that DNA wrapped PEG-SWNT was one of the most promising candidates to realize DNA nanodevices involving protein reactions on DNA-SWNT surfaces. In addition, the DNA binding protein RecA was more adhesive than single-stranded DNA binding proteins to the functionalized SWNT surfaces.

  9. Conformational Dynamics of the Receptor Protein Galactose/Glucose Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Troy; Talaga, David

    2006-03-01

    We have performed time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) anisotropy and Stokes Shift measurements on bulk solutions of galactose/glucose binding protein. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to provide a single cysteine amino acid near the sugar-binding center of the protein (glutamine 26 to cysteine -- Q26C). The cysteine was covalently labeled with the environmentally-sensitive fluorophore acrylodan, and a long-lived ruthenium complex was covalently attached to the N-terminus to provide a fluorescent reference. The TCSPC data were analyzed using global convolute-and-compare fitting routines over the entire glucose titration and temperature range to provide minimal reduced chi-squared values and the highest time resolution possible. Using a standard ligand-binding model, the resulting distributions show that the closed (ligand-bound) conformation exists even at zero glucose concentration. At 20^oC, the relative abundance of this conformation is as high as 40%. The temperature dependence of this conformational study will be discussed and related to the ligand-binding free energy surface.

  10. Metal binding is critical for the folding and function of laminin binding protein, Lmb of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Ragunathan

    Full Text Available Lmb is a 34 kDa laminin binding surface adhesin of Streptococcus agalactiae. The structure of Lmb reported by us recently has shown that it consists of a metal binding crevice, in which a zinc ion is coordinated to three highly conserved histidines. To elucidate the structural and functional significance of the metal ion in Lmb, these histidines have been mutated to alanine and single, double and triple mutants were generated. These mutations resulted in insolubility of the protein and revealed altered secondary and tertiary structures, as evidenced by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies. The mutations also significantly decreased the binding affinity of Lmb to laminin, implicating the role played by the metal binding residues in maintaining the correct conformation of the protein for its binding to laminin. A highly disordered loop, proposed to be crucial for metal acquisition in homologous structures, was deleted in Lmb by mutation (ΔLmb and its crystal structure was solved at 2.6 Å. The ΔLmb structure was identical to the native Lmb structure with a bound zinc ion and exhibited laminin binding activity similar to wild type protein, suggesting that the loop might not have an important role in metal acquisition or adhesion in Lmb. Targeted mutations of histidine residues confirmed the importance of the zinc binding crevice for the structure and function of the Lmb adhesin.

  11. GenProBiS: web server for mapping of sequence variants to protein binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konc, Janez; Skrlj, Blaz; Erzen, Nika; Kunej, Tanja; Janezic, Dusanka

    2017-07-03

    Discovery of potentially deleterious sequence variants is important and has wide implications for research and generation of new hypotheses in human and veterinary medicine, and drug discovery. The GenProBiS web server maps sequence variants to protein structures from the Protein Data Bank (PDB), and further to protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-compound, and protein-metal ion binding sites. The concept of a protein-compound binding site is understood in the broadest sense, which includes glycosylation and other post-translational modification sites. Binding sites were defined by local structural comparisons of whole protein structures using the Protein Binding Sites (ProBiS) algorithm and transposition of ligands from the similar binding sites found to the query protein using the ProBiS-ligands approach with new improvements introduced in GenProBiS. Binding site surfaces were generated as three-dimensional grids encompassing the space occupied by predicted ligands. The server allows intuitive visual exploration of comprehensively mapped variants, such as human somatic mis-sense mutations related to cancer and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms from 21 species, within the predicted binding sites regions for about 80 000 PDB protein structures using fast WebGL graphics. The GenProBiS web server is open and free to all users at http://genprobis.insilab.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Fc-Binding Ligands of Immunoglobulin G: An Overview of High Affinity Proteins and Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weonu Choe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing application of antibodies has inspired the development of several novel methods to isolate and target antibodies using smart biomaterials that mimic the binding of Fc-receptors to antibodies. The Fc-binding domain of antibodies is the primary binding site for e.g., effector proteins and secondary antibodies, whereas antigens bind to the Fab region. Protein A, G, and L, surface proteins expressed by pathogenic bacteria, are well known to bind immunoglobulin and have been widely exploited in antibody purification strategies. Several difficulties are encountered when bacterial proteins are used in antibody research and application. One of the major obstacles hampering the use of bacterial proteins is sample contamination with trace amounts of these proteins, which can invoke an immune response in the host. Many research groups actively develop synthetic ligands that are able to selectively and strongly bind to antibodies. Among the reported ligands, peptides that bind to the Fc-domain of antibodies are attractive tools in antibody research. Besides their use as high affinity ligands in antibody purification chromatography, Fc-binding peptides are applied e.g., to localize antibodies on nanomaterials and to increase the half-life of proteins in serum. In this review, recent developments of Fc-binding peptides are presented and their binding characteristics and diverse applications are discussed.

  13. A robust assay to measure DNA topology-dependent protein binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tamara R; Solà, Maria; Holt, Ian J; Neuman, Keir C

    2015-04-20

    DNA structure and topology pervasively influence aspects of DNA metabolism including replication, transcription and segregation. However, the effects of DNA topology on DNA-protein interactions have not been systematically explored due to limitations of standard affinity assays. We developed a method to measure protein binding affinity dependence on the topology (topological linking number) of supercoiled DNA. A defined range of DNA topoisomers at equilibrium with a DNA binding protein is separated into free and protein-bound DNA populations using standard nitrocellulose filter binding techniques. Electrophoretic separation and quantification of bound and free topoisomers combined with a simple normalization procedure provide the relative affinity of the protein for the DNA as a function of linking number. Employing this assay we measured topology-dependent DNA binding of a helicase, a type IB topoisomerase, a type IIA topoisomerase, a non-specific mitochondrial DNA binding protein and a type II restriction endonuclease. Most of the proteins preferentially bind negatively supercoiled DNA but the details of the topology-dependent affinity differ among proteins in ways that expose differences in their interactions with DNA. The topology-dependent binding assay provides a robust and easily implemented method to probe topological influences on DNA-protein interactions for a wide range of DNA binding proteins. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Identification and quantification of calcium-binding proteins in squid axoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinks, M.H.; Klee, C.B.; Pant, H.C.; Gainer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The identities and quantities of calcium-binding proteins were determined in axoplasm isolated from the squid giant axon. 45 Ca-binding assays on nitrocellulose filters containing axoplasm proteins separated by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis revealed 4 major calcium-binding bands. These included the high-molecular-weight (Mr greater than 330 and 220 X 10(3] neurofilament proteins, an unidentified protein band that migrated around Mr 55,000, and a diverse group of proteins that migrated together around Mr 17,000. The low-molecular-weight (Mr 17,000) calcium-binding proteins could be resolved into calmodulin (ca. 120 mumol/kg axoplasm), 2 other Mr 17,000 calcium-binding proteins, and a small amount of calcineurin B. It is estimated that these calcium-binding proteins in squid axoplasm could theoretically bind about 1 mmol Ca 2+ /kg axoplasm. 125 I-Calmodulin overlay and Western blot analyses disclosed a number of calmodulin-binding proteins in axoplasm. These included fodrin, calcineurin A, and Ca 2+ /CaM protein kinase II subunits

  15. Interspecies In Vitro Evaluation of Stereoselective Protein Binding for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Raihana Wan Aasim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is becoming more common worldwide. To date, there is no information available on stereoselectivity of MDMA protein binding in humans, rats, and mice. Since stereoselectivity plays an important role in MDMA’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in this study we investigated its stereoselectivity in protein binding. The stereoselective protein binding of rac-MDMA was investigated using two different concentrations (20 and 200 ng/mL in human plasma and mouse and rat sera using an ultrafiltration technique. No significant stereoselectivity in protein binding was observed in both human plasma and rat serum; however, a significant stereoselective binding (p<0.05 was observed in mouse serum. Since the protein binding of MDMA in mouse serum is considerably lower than in humans and rats, caution should be exercised when using mice for in vitro studies involving MDMA.

  16. CXCL4 is a novel nickel-binding protein and augments nickel allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, T; Bando, K; Tanaka, Y; Shishido, K; Kinbara, M; Ogawa, T; Muramoto, K; Endo, Y; Sugawara, S

    2017-08-01

    Nickel (Ni) is the most frequent metal allergen and induces a TH 1 -dependent type-IV allergy. Although Ni 2+ is considered to bind to endogenous proteins, it currently remains unclear whether these Ni-binding proteins are involved in Ni allergy in vivo. We previously reported the adjuvant effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a Ni allergy mouse model. As LPS induces a number of inflammatory mediators, we hypothesized that Ni-binding protein(s) are also induced by LPS. The objective of this study was to purify and identify Ni-binding protein(s) from serum taken from LPS-injected mice (referred as LPS serum) and examined the augmenting effects of these Ni-binding protein(s) on Ni allergy in an in vivo model. BALB/cA mice were sensitized with an i.p. injection of NiCl 2 and LPS. Ten days after sensitization, mice were challenged with NiCl 2 by an i.d. injection into ear pinnae. Ni-binding protein(s) were purified by Ni-affinity column chromatography and gel filtration. Lipopolysaccharide serum, but not serum taken from saline-injected mice, augmented ear swelling induced by Ni-allergic inflammation. Ni-binding, but not non-binding fraction, purified from LPS serum augmented Ni-allergic inflammation. Mass spectrometry and Western blotting detected CXCL4 in the active fraction. A batch analysis with Ni-sepharose and a surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed direct binding between CXCL4 and Ni 2+ . Recombinant CXCL4 augmented Ni-allergic inflammation and exerted adjuvant effects at the sensitization phase. These results indicate that CXCL4 is a novel Ni-binding protein that augments Ni allergy at the elicitation and sensitization phases. This is the first study to demonstrate that the Ni-binding protein augments Ni allergy in vivo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Muscle Lim Protein and myosin binding protein C form a complex regulating muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Demetrios A; Vafiadaki, Elizabeth; Papalouka, Vasiliki; Sanoudou, Despina

    2017-12-01

    Muscle Lim Protein (MLP) is a protein with multiple functional roles in striated muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Herein, we demonstrate that MLP directly binds to slow, fast, and cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) during myogenesis, as shown by yeast two-hybrid and a range of protein-protein interaction assays. The minimal interacting domains involve MLP inter-LIM and MyBP-C [C4]. The interaction is sensitive to cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations changes and to MyBP-C phosphorylation by PKA or CaMKII. Confocal microscopy of differentiating myoblasts showed MLP and MyBP-C colocalization during myoblast differentiation. Suppression of the complex formation with recombinant MyBP-C [C4] peptide overexpression, inhibited myoblast differentiation by 65%. Suppression of both MLP and MyBP-C expression in myoblasts by siRNA revealed negative synergistic effects on differentiation. The MLP/MyBP-C complex modulates the actin activated myosin II ATPase activity in vitro, which could interfere with sarcomerogenesis and myofilaments assembly during differentiation. Our data demonstrate a critical role of the MLP/MyBP-C complex during early myoblast differentiation. Its absence in muscles with mutations or aberrant expression of MLP or MyBP-C could be directly implicated in the development of cardiac and skeletal myopathies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing protein-ligand docking for the binding of organometallic compounds to proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Carrasco, Elisabeth; Lledós, Agusti; Maréchal, Jean-Didier

    2014-01-30

    Organometallic compounds are increasingly used as molecular scaffolds in drug development projects; their structural and electronic properties offering novel opportunities in protein-ligand complementarities. Interestingly, while protein-ligand dockings have long become a spearhead in computer assisted drug design, no benchmarking nor optimization have been done for their use with organometallic compounds. Pursuing our efforts to model metal mediated recognition processes, we herein present a systematic study of the capabilities of the program GOLD to predict the interactions of protein with organometallic compounds. The study focuses on inert systems for which no alteration of the first coordination sphere of the metal occurs upon binding. Several scaffolds are used as test systems with different docking schemes and scoring functions. We conclude that ChemScore is the most robust scoring function with ASP and ChemPLP providing with good results too and GoldScore slightly underperforming. This study shows that current state-of-the-art protein-ligand docking techniques are reliable for the docking of inert organometallic compounds binding to protein. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cost Function Network-based Design of Protein-Protein Interactions: predicting changes in binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viricel, Clément; de Givry, Simon; Schiex, Thomas; Barbe, Sophie

    2018-02-20

    Accurate and economic methods to predict change in protein binding free energy upon mutation are imperative to accelerate the design of proteins for a wide range of applications. Free energy is defined by enthalpic and entropic contributions. Following the recent progresses of Artificial Intelligence-based algorithms for guaranteed NP-hard energy optimization and partition function computation, it becomes possible to quickly compute minimum energy conformations and to reliably estimate the entropic contribution of side-chains in the change of free energy of large protein interfaces. Using guaranteed Cost Function Network algorithms, Rosetta energy functions and Dunbrack's rotamer library, we developed and assessed EasyE and JayZ, two methods for binding affinity estimation that ignore or include conformational entropic contributions on a large benchmark of binding affinity experimental measures. If both approaches outperform most established tools, we observe that side-chain conformational entropy brings little or no improvement on most systems but becomes crucial in some rare cases. as open-source Python/C ++ code at sourcesup.renater.fr/projects/easy-jayz. thomas.schiex@inra.fr and sophie.barbe@insa-toulouse.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Efficient identification of phosphatidylserine-binding proteins by ORF phage display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caberoy, Nora B.; Zhou, Yixiong; Alvarado, Gabriela; Fan, Xianqun; Li, Wei

    2009-01-01

    To efficiently elucidate the biological roles of phosphatidylserine (PS), we developed open-reading-frame (ORF) phage display to identify PS-binding proteins. The procedure of phage panning was optimized with a phage clone expressing MFG-E8, a well-known PS-binding protein. Three rounds of phage panning with ORF phage display cDNA library resulted in ∼300-fold enrichment in PS-binding activity. A total of 17 PS-binding phage clones were identified. Unlike phage display with conventional cDNA libraries, all 17 PS-binding clones were ORFs encoding 13 real proteins. Sequence analysis revealed that all identified PS-specific phage clones had dimeric basic amino acid residues. GST fusion proteins were expressed for 3 PS-binding proteins and verified for their binding activity to PS liposomes, but not phosphatidylcholine liposomes. These results elucidated previously unknown PS-binding proteins and demonstrated that ORF phage display is a versatile technology capable of efficiently identifying binding proteins for non-protein molecules like PS.

  1. Influence of binding pH and protein solubility on the dynamic binding capacity in hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Pascal; Baumgartner, Kai; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-05-29

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is one of the most frequently used purification methods in biopharmaceutical industry. A major drawback of HIC, however, is the rather low dynamic binding capacity (DBC) obtained when compared to e.g. ion exchange chromatography (IEX). The typical purification procedure for HIC includes binding at neutral pH, independently of the proteins nature and isoelectric point. Most approaches to process intensification are based on resin and salt screenings. In this paper a combination of protein solubility data and varying binding pH leads to a clear enhancement of dynamic binding capacity. This is shown for three proteins of acidic, neutral, and alkaline isoelectric points. High-throughput solubility screenings as well as miniaturized and parallelized breakthrough curves on Media Scout RoboColumns (Atoll, Germany) were conducted at pH 3-10 on a fully automated robotic workstation. The screening results show a correlation between the DBC and the operational pH, the protein's isoelectric point and the overall solubility. Also, an inverse relationship of DBC in HIC and the binding kinetics was observed. By changing the operational pH, the DBC could be increased up to 30% compared to the standard purification procedure performed at neutral pH. As structural changes of the protein are reported during HIC processes, the applied samples and the elution fractions were proven not to be irreversibly unfolded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The interaction between anticoagulant protein S and complement regulatory C4b-binding protein (C4BP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poel, R. H.; Meijers, J. C.; Bouma, B. N.

    2000-01-01

    An important mechanism of regulation of blood coagulation is the anticoagulant protein C pathway. In this pathway, the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C is increased by its cofactor protein S. The cofactor activity of protein S can be regulated by binding to complement regulatory

  3. Regulatory pathways for ATP-binding cassette transport proteins in kidney proximal tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masereeuw, R.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transport proteins (ABC transporters) represent important determinants of drug excretion. Protective or excretory tissues where these transporters mediate substrate efflux include the kidney proximal tubule. Regulation of the transport proteins in this tissue requires

  4. Standardization for cortisol determination in human blood by competitive protein-binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.

    1978-01-01

    Standardization for determination of cortisol from human plasma (17-hydroxycorticosteroids) using competitive protein-binding method is presented. Activated carbon coated with dextrans is used for separation of the hormone-protein complexe and hormone labelled free [pt

  5. Extreme sequence divergence but conserved ligand-binding specificity in Streptococcus pyogenes M protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic microorganisms evade host immunity through extensive sequence variability in a protein region targeted by protective antibodies. In spite of the sequence variability, a variable region commonly retains an important ligand-binding function, reflected in the presence of a highly conserved sequence motif. Here, we analyze the limits of sequence divergence in a ligand-binding region by characterizing the hypervariable region (HVR of Streptococcus pyogenes M protein. Our studies were focused on HVRs that bind the human complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP, a ligand that confers phagocytosis resistance. A previous comparison of C4BP-binding HVRs identified residue identities that could be part of a binding motif, but the extended analysis reported here shows that no residue identities remain when additional C4BP-binding HVRs are included. Characterization of the HVR in the M22 protein indicated that two relatively conserved Leu residues are essential for C4BP binding, but these residues are probably core residues in a coiled-coil, implying that they do not directly contribute to binding. In contrast, substitution of either of two relatively conserved Glu residues, predicted to be solvent-exposed, had no effect on C4BP binding, although each of these changes had a major effect on the antigenic properties of the HVR. Together, these findings show that HVRs of M proteins have an extraordinary capacity for sequence divergence and antigenic variability while retaining a specific ligand-binding function.

  6. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of human FK506 binding protein 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajit; Shin, Joon; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2015-04-01

    Human FKBP25, a nuclear protein, is a member of FK506 binding protein family (FKBP) and binds to immunosuppressive drugs such as FK506 and rapamycin. Human FKBP25 interacts with several nuclear proteins and regulates nuclear events. To understand the molecular basis of such interactions, we have performed NMR studies. Here, we report (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonance assignments of the full-length human FKBP25 protein.

  7. Protein kinase A regulates AKAP250 (gravin) scaffold binding to the β2-adrenergic receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Jiangchuan; Wang, Hsien-yu; Malbon, Craig C.

    2003-01-01

    A-kinase-anchoring protein 250 (AKAP250; gravin) acts as a scaffold that binds protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C and protein phosphatases, associating reversibly with the β2-adrenergic receptor. The receptor-binding domain of the scaffold and the regulation of the receptor–scaffold association was revealed through mutagenesis and biochemical analyses. The AKAP domain found in other members of this superfamily is essential for the scaffold–receptor interactions. Gravin constructs lackin...

  8. Dominant Alcohol-Protein Interaction via Hydration-Enabled Enthalpy-Driven Binding Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yuan; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan; Wu, Yue

    2015-04-30

    Water plays an important role in weak associations of small drug molecules with proteins. Intense focus has been on binding-induced structural changes in the water network surrounding protein binding sites, especially their contributions to binding thermodynamics. However, water is also tightly coupled to protein conformations and dynamics, and so far little is known about the influence of water-protein interactions on ligand binding. Alcohols are a type of low-affinity drugs, and it remains unclear how water affects alcohol-protein interactions. Here, we present alcohol adsorption isotherms under controlled protein hydration using in situ NMR detection. As functions of hydration level, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of binding were determined from the temperature dependence of isotherms. Two types of alcohol binding were found. The dominant type is low-affinity nonspecific binding, which is strongly dependent on temperature and the level of hydration. At low hydration levels, this nonspecific binding only occurs above a threshold of alcohol vapor pressure. An increased hydration level reduces this threshold, with it finally disappearing at a hydration level of h ≈ 0.2 (g water/g protein), gradually shifting alcohol binding from an entropy-driven to an enthalpy-driven process. Water at charged and polar groups on the protein surface was found to be particularly important in enabling this binding. Although further increase in hydration has smaller effects on the changes of binding enthalpy and entropy, it results in a significant negative change in Gibbs free energy due to unmatched enthalpy-entropy compensation. These results show the crucial role of water-protein interplay in alcohol binding.

  9. Dominant Alcohol-Protein Interaction via Hydration-Enabled Enthalpy-Driven Binding Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yuan; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Water plays an important role in weak associations of small drug molecules with proteins. Intense focus has been on binding-induced structural changes in the water network surrounding protein binding sites, especially their contributions to binding thermodynamics. However, water is also tightly coupled to protein conformations and dynamics, and so far little is known about the influence of water-protein interactions on ligand binding. Alcohols are a type of low-affinity drugs, and it remains unclear how water affects alcohol-protein interactions. Here, we present alcohol adsorption isotherms under controlled protein hydration using in-situ NMR detection. As functions of hydration level, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of binding were determined from the temperature dependence of isotherms. Two types of alcohol binding were found. The dominant type is low-affinity nonspecific binding, which is strongly dependent on temperature and the level of hydration. At low hydration levels, this nonspecific binding only occurs above a threshold of alcohol vapor pressure. An increased hydration level reduces this threshold, with it finally disappearing at a hydration level of h~0.2 (g water/g protein), gradually shifting alcohol binding from an entropy-driven to an enthalpy-driven process. Water at charged and polar groups on the protein surface was found to be particularly important in enabling this binding. Although further increase in hydration has smaller effects on the changes of binding enthalpy and entropy, it results in significant negative change in Gibbs free energy due to unmatched enthalpy-entropy compensation. These results show the crucial role of water-protein interplay in alcohol binding. PMID:25856773

  10. Competitive protein binding analysis for thyroxine using Sephadex column (Tetralute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Kiyoshi; Katayama, Yoshiaki; Sawazaki, Norio; Ishibashi, Kaichiro; Kawashima, Minoru.

    1975-01-01

    The method of competitive protein binding analysis of thyroxine (T 4 ) using Tetralute kit was evaluated. The net retention was decreased when the procedure of competition and separation was performed at a higher temperature but the final T 4 -I values were constant when the standard and test sera were treated identically. Coefficient of variation (C.V.) was 4% (within-assay) and 6% (between-assay) respectively. However, the T 4 -I values of pooled serum for quality control were slightly lower in earlier experiments in which correction factors (1.03--1.62 in 18 out of 21 assays) were necessary. T 4 -I values were determined by the Tetralute in 155 cases. They were as follows: 4.9+-0.8 μg/dl (euthyroid subjects), 6.4+-1.2 μg/dl (cord serum), 7.1+-1.1 μg/dl (pregnant women). 9.0+-3.6 μg/dl (trophoblastic disease), 13.3+-4.8 μg/dl (Graves' disease), 6.3+-1.6 μg/dl (Plummer's disease), 4 -I values determined by Tetralute and Res-O-Mat T 4 (r=0.96). Following oral administration of Telepaque the serum protein-bound iodine was markedly elevated, while the T 4 -I determined by Tetralute did not change. In vitro addition of diphenylhydantoin (500 μg/ml), salicylate (4 mg/ml) and phenobarbital (1 mg/ml) had no or little effect on T 4 determination by Tetralute. A high concentration of benzbromarone (0.1 mg/ml) caused a higher value of T 4 -I determined by Tetralute when added to a TBG solution but there was only a slight increase when it was added to serum. (auth.)

  11. Role of the PY Motif Containing Protein, WBP-2 in ER, PR Signaling and Breast Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Class III includes WW- domains interacting with proline-rich sequence that contains arginines or lysines . WW-domains binding phosphoserine or...by antagonizing the functions of WBP-2 and YAP1. Taken together our data estab-lished the role of WBP-2 and YAP1 as coactivators and WWOX1 as a...the CBP (CREB-binding protein)/p300 family [50], coactivator- associated arginine methyltransferase (CARM-1) [51, 52], and E6-AP [10]. We have

  12. Characterization of vanadium-binding sites of the vanadium-binding protein Vanabin2 by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Tatsuya; Kawakami, Norifumi; Toshishige, Masaaki; Matsuo, Koichi; Gekko, Kunihiko; Michibata, Hitoshi

    2009-10-01

    Vanabins are a unique protein family of vanadium-binding proteins with nine disulfide bonds. Possible binding sites for VO2+ in Vanabin2 from a vanadium-rich ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis samea have been detected by nuclear magnetic resonance study, but the metal selectivity and metal-binding ability of each site was not examined. In order to reveal functional contribution of each binding site, we prepared several mutants of Vanabin2 by in vitro site-directed mutagenesis and analyzed their metal selectivity and affinity by immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography and Hummel Dreyer method. Mutation at K10/R60 (site 1) markedly reduced the affinity for VO2+. Mutation at K24/K38/R41/R42 (site 2) decreased the maximum binding number, but only slightly increased the overall affinity for VO2+. Secondary structure of both mutants was the same as that of the wild type as assessed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Mutation in disulfide bonds near the site 1 did not affect its high affinity binding capacity, while those near the site 2 decreased the overall affinity for VO2+. These results suggested that the site 1 is a high affinity binding site for VO2+, while the site 2 composes a moderate affinity site for multiple VO2+.

  13. Crystal Structures and Binding Dynamics of Odorant-Binding Protein 3 from two aphid species Megoura viciae and Nasonovia ribisnigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northey, Tom; Venthur, Herbert; De Biasio, Filomena; Chauviac, Francois-Xavier; Cole, Ambrose; Ribeiro, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Grossi, Gerarda; Falabella, Patrizia; Field, Linda M; Keep, Nicholas H; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2016-04-22

    Aphids use chemical cues to locate hosts and find mates. The vetch aphid Megoura viciae feeds exclusively on the Fabaceae, whereas the currant-lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri alternates hosts between the Grossulariaceae and Asteraceae. Both species use alarm pheromones to warn of dangers. For N. ribisnigri this pheromone is a single component (E)-β-farnesene but M. viciae uses a mixture of (E)-β-farnesene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. Odorant-binding proteins (OBP) are believed to capture and transport such semiochemicals to their receptors. Here, we report the first aphid OBP crystal structures and examine their molecular interactions with the alarm pheromone components. Our study reveals some unique structural features: 1) the lack of an internal ligand binding site; 2) a striking groove in the surface of the proteins as a putative binding site; 3) the N-terminus rather than the C-terminus occupies the site closing off the conventional OBP pocket. The results from fluorescent binding assays, molecular docking and dynamics demonstrate that OBP3 from M. viciae can bind to all four alarm pheromone components and the differential ligand binding between these very similar OBP3s from the two aphid species is determined mainly by the direct π-π interactions between ligands and the aromatic residues of OBP3s in the binding pocket.

  14. Effects of single-stranded DNA binding proteins on primer extension by telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomit; Jacob, Eyal; Manor, Haim

    2004-08-12

    We present a biochemical analysis of the effects of three single-stranded DNA binding proteins on extension of oligonucleotide primers by the Tetrahymena telomerase. One of them, a human protein designated translin, which was shown to specifically bind the G-rich Tetrahymena and human telomeric repeats, slightly stimulated the primer extension reactions at molar ratios of translin/primer of primers, rather than by a direct interaction of this protein with telomerase. A second protein, the general human single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA), similarly affected the primer extension by telomerase, even though its mode of binding to DNA differs from that of translin. A third protein, the E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), whose binding to DNA is highly cooperative, caused more substantial stimulation and inhibition at the lower and the higher molar ratios of SSB/primer, respectively. Both telomere-specific and general single-stranded DNA binding proteins are found in living cells in telomeric complexes. Based on our data, we propose that these proteins may exert either stimulatory or inhibitory effects on intracellular telomerases, depending on their local concentrations. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Li

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications.Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2 for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1 exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition.Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. r

  16. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. rGmolGOBP1 has

  17. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Chen, Xiulin; Li, Boliao; Zhang, Guohui; Li, Yiping; Wu, Junxiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs) within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications. Methodology/Principal Finding Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs) of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2) for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC) experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1) exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition. Conclusion Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different

  18. Retinol binding protein 4, obesity, and insulin resistance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldi Noor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a global problem. Even in poor and developing countries, obesity has reached alarming levels. In childhood, obesity may lead to insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein (RBP4, secreted primarily by liver and adipose tissues, was recently proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. The role of RBP4 in pediatric obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance have not been well elucidated. Objective To compare RBP4 levels in obese and lean adolescents and to assess for a relationship between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in three senior high schools in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Subjects were adolescents aged 14-18 years, who were obese or normal weight (n=56. We measured subjects’ body mass index (BMI and serum RBP4 concentrations. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. Results Similar RBP4 levels were found in the obese and normoweight groups (P>0.05. Higher RBP4 levels were found in the insulin resistant compared to the non-insulin resistant group, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion There is no significant difference in mean RBP4 levels in obese adolescents compared to normoweight adolescents. Nor are mean RBP4 levels significantly different between obese adolescents with and without insulin resistance.

  19. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein inhibits DNA binding by the retinoblastoma gene product.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirdivant, S M; Huber, H E; Patrick, D R; Defeo-Jones, D; McAvoy, E M; Garsky, V M; Oliff, A; Heimbrook, D C

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus E7 gene can transform murine fibroblasts and cooperate with other viral oncogenes in transforming primary cell cultures. One biochemical property associated with the E7 protein is binding to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product (pRB). Biochemical properties associated with pRB include binding to viral transforming proteins (E1A, large T, and E7), binding to cellular proteins (E2F and Myc), and binding to DNA. The mechanism by which E7 stimulates cell growt...

  20. Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.

  1. Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors in tethered cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Meyer, Bruno H.; Hovius, Ruud

    2003-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large class of seven transmembrane proteins, which bind selectively agonists or antagonists with important consequences for cellular signaling and function. Comprehension of the molecular details of ligand binding is important for the understanding...

  2. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Isaac; Hanson, Corrine; Sayles, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP.......Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP....

  3. Species Differences in the Carbohydrate Binding Preferences of Surfactant Protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouch, Erika C.; Smith, Kelly; McDonald, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Interactions of surfactant protein D (SP-D) with micro-organisms and organic antigens involve binding to the trimeric neck plus carbohydrate recognition domain (neck+CRD). In these studies, we compared the ligand binding of homologous human, rat, and mouse trimeric neck+CRD fusion proteins, each...

  4. Species Differences in the Carbohydrate Binding Preferences of Surfactant Protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouch, Erika C.; Smith, Kelly; McDonald, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Interactions of surfactant protein D (SP-D) with micro-organisms and organic antigens involve binding to the trimeric neck plus carbohydrate recognition domain (neck+CRD). In these studies, we compared the ligand binding of homologous human, rat, and mouse trimeric neck+CRD fusion proteins, each ...

  5. A small cellulose binding domain protein (CBD1) is highly variable in the nonbinding amino terminus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small cellulose binding domain protein CBD1 is tightly bound to the cellulosic cell wall of the plant pathogenic stramenophile Phytophthora infestans. Transgene expression of the protein in plants has also demonstrated binding to plant cell walls. A study was undertaken using 47 isolates of P. ...

  6. Viral Proteins That Bind Double-Stranded RNA: Countermeasures Against Host Antiviral Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Several animal viruses encode proteins that bind double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to counteract host dsRNA-dependent antiviral responses. This article discusses the structure and function of the dsRNA-binding proteins of influenza A virus and Ebola viruses (EBOVs).

  7. Effects of protein binding on the biodistribution of PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles post oral administration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Semete, B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available of surface coating with various concentrations of polymeric surfactants (PEG and Pluronics F127) on the in vitro protein binding as well as the tissue biodistribution, post oral administration, of PLGA nanoparticles. The in vitro protein binding varied...

  8. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Biogenic Amine-binding Proteins in Soft Ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Andersen, John F. (NIH)

    2008-08-19

    Two highly abundant lipocalins, monomine and monotonin, have been isolated from the salivary gland of the soft tick Argas monolakensis and shown to bind histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), respectively. The crystal structures of monomine and a paralog of monotonin were determined in the presence of ligands to compare the determinants of ligand binding. Both the structures and binding measurements indicate that the proteins have a single binding site rather than the two sites previously described for the female-specific histamine-binding protein (FS-HBP), the histamine-binding lipocalin of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding sites of monomine and monotonin are similar to the lower, low affinity site of FS-HBP. The interaction of the protein with the aliphatic amine group of the ligand is very similar for the all of the proteins, whereas specificity is determined by interactions with the aromatic portion of the ligand. Interestingly, protein interaction with the imidazole ring of histamine differs significantly between the low affinity binding site of FS-HBP and monomine, suggesting that histamine binding has evolved independently in the two lineages. From the conserved features of these proteins, a tick lipocalin biogenic amine-binding motif could be derived that was used to predict biogenic amine-binding function in other tick lipocalins. Heterologous expression of genes from salivary gland libraries led to the discovery of biogenic amine-binding proteins in soft (Ornithodoros) and hard (Ixodes) tick genera. The data generated were used to reconstruct the most probable evolutionary pathway for the evolution of biogenic amine-binding in tick lipocalins.

  9. Mannan-binding protein forms complexes with alpha-2-macroglobulin. A protein model for the interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, P; Holm Nielsen, E; Skriver, E

    1995-01-01

    We report that alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) can form complexes with a high molecular weight porcine mannan-binding protein (pMBP-28). The alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes was isolated by PEG-precipitation and affinity chromatography on mannan-Sepharose, protein A-Sepharose and anti-IgM Sepharose......-PAGE, which reacted with antibodies against alpha 2M and pMBP-28, respectively, in Western blotting. Furthermore, alpha 2M/pMBP-28 complexes were demonstrated by electron microscopy. Fractionation of pMBP-containing D-mannose eluate from mannan-Sepharose on Superose 6 showed two protein peaks which reacted...

  10. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein inhibits DNA binding by the retinoblastoma gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirdivant, S M; Huber, H E; Patrick, D R; Defeo-Jones, D; McAvoy, E M; Garsky, V M; Oliff, A; Heimbrook, D C

    1992-05-01

    The human papillomavirus E7 gene can transform murine fibroblasts and cooperate with other viral oncogenes in transforming primary cell cultures. One biochemical property associated with the E7 protein is binding to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product (pRB). Biochemical properties associated with pRB include binding to viral transforming proteins (E1A, large T, and E7), binding to cellular proteins (E2F and Myc), and binding to DNA. The mechanism by which E7 stimulates cell growth is uncertain. However, E7 binding to pRB inhibits binding of cellular proteins to pRB and appears to block the growth-suppressive activity of pRB. We have found that E7 also inhibits binding of pRB to DNA. A 60-kDa version of pRB (pRB60) produced in reticulocyte translation reactions or in bacteria bound quantitatively to DNA-cellulose. Recombinant E7 protein used at a 1:1 or 10:1 molar ratio with pRB60 blocked 50 or greater than 95% of pRB60 DNA-binding activity, respectively. A mutant E7 protein (E7-Ala-24) with reduced pRB60-binding activity exhibited a parallel reduction in its blocking of pRB60 binding to DNA. An E7(20-29) peptide that blocks binding of E7 protein to pRB60 restored the DNA-binding activity of pRB60 in the presence of E7. Peptide E7(2-32) did not block pRB60 binding to DNA, while peptide E7(20-57) and an E7 fragment containing residues 1 to 60 partially blocked DNA binding. E7 species containing residues 3 to 75 were fully effective at blocking pRB60 binding to DNA. These studies indicate that E7 protein specifically blocks pRB60 binding to DNA and suggest that the E7 region responsible for this property lies between residues 32 and 75. The functional significance of these observations is unclear. However, we have found that a point mutation in pRB60 that impairs DNA-binding activity also blocks the ability of pRB60 to inhibit cell growth. This correlation suggests that the DNA-binding activity of retinoblastoma proteins contributes to their biological

  11. D-fructose-binding proteins in bull seminal plasma: Isolation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liberda, J.; Kraus, Marek; Ryšlavá, H.; Vlasáková, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Tichá, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2001), s. 113-119 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/99/0357; GA ČR GV524/96/K162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : bull seminal plasma * non-heparin-binding and heparin-binding proteins * D-fructose-binding proteins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  12. Cartilage Acidic Protein 2 a hyperthermostable, high affinity calcium-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Liliana; Gomes, Ana S; Melo, Eduardo P; Canário, Adelino V; Power, Deborah M

    2013-03-01

    Cartilage Acidic Protein 2 (CRTAC2) is a novel protein present from prokaryotes to vertebrates with abundant expression in the teleost fish pituitary gland and an isoform of CRTAC1, a chondrocyte marker in humans. The two proteins are non-integrins containing N-terminal integrin-like Ca(2+)-binding motifs and their structure and function remain to be assigned. Structural studies of recombinant sea bream (sb)CRTAC2 revealed it is composed of 8.8% α-helix, 33.4% β-sheet and 57.8% unordered protein. sbCRTAC2 bound Ca(2+) with high affinity (K(d)=1.46nM) and favourable Gibbs free energy (∆G=-12.4kcal/mol). The stoichiometry for Ca(2+) bound to sbCRTAC2 at saturation indicated six Ca(2+) ligand-binding sites exist per protein molecule. No conformational change in sbCRTAC2 occurred in the presence of Ca(2+). Fluorescence emission revealed that the tertiary structure of the protein is hyperthermostable between 25°C and 95°C and the fully unfolded state is only induced by chemical denaturing (4M GndCl). sbCRTAC has a widespread tissue distribution and is present as high molecular weight aggregates, although strong reducing conditions promote formation of the monomer. sbCRTAC2 promotes epithelial cell outgrowth in vitro suggesting it may share functional homology with mammalian CRTAC1, recently implicated in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein kinase Calpha contains two activator binding sites that bind phorbol esters and diacylglycerols with opposite affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, S J; Ho, C; Kelly, M B; Larkin, J D; Taddeo, F J; Yeager, M D; Stubbs, C D

    1996-03-01

    Based on marked differences in the enzymatic properties of diacylglycerols compared with phorbol ester-activated protein kinase C (PKC), we recently proposed that activation induced by these compounds may not be equivalent (Slater, S. J., Kelly, M. B., Taddeo, F. J., Rubin, E., and Stubbs, C. D. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 17160-17165). In the present study, direct evidence is provided showing that phorbol esters and diacylglycerols bind simultaneously to PKC alpha. Using a novel binding assay employing the fluorescent phorbol ester, sapintoxin-D (SAPD), evidence for two sites of high and low affinity was obtained. Thus, both binding and activation dose-response curves for SAPD were double sigmoidal, which was also observed for dose-dependent activation by the commonly used phorbol ester, 4beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). TPA removed high affinity SAPD binding and also competed for the low affinity site. By contrast with TPA, low affinity binding of SAPD was inhibited by sn-1,2-dioleoylglycerol (DAG), while binding to the high affinity site was markedly enhanced. Again contrasting with both TPA and DAG, the potent PKC activator, bryostatin-I (B-I), inhibited SAPD binding to its high affinity site, while low affinity binding was unaffected. Based on these findings, a model for PKC activation is proposed in which binding of one activator to the low affinity site allosterically promotes binding of a second activator to the high affinity site, resulting in an enhanced level of activity. Overall, the results provide direct evidence that PKCalpha contains two distinct binding sites, with affinities that differ for each activator in the order: DAG > phorbol ester > B-I and B-I > phorbol ester > DAG, respectively.

  14. The human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein displays distinct kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA binding and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yufeng; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2017-08-04

    The human mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein (mtSSB) is a homotetrameric protein, involved in mtDNA replication and maintenance. Although mtSSB is structurally similar to SSB from Escherichia coli (EcoSSB), it lacks the C-terminal disordered domain, and little is known about the biophysics of mtSSB-ssDNA interactions. Here, we characterized the kinetics and thermodynamics of mtSSB binding to ssDNA by equilibrium titrations and stopped-flow kinetic measurements. We show that the mtSSB tetramer can bind to ssDNA in two distinct binding modes: (SSB) 30 and (SSB) 60 , defined by DNA binding site sizes of 30 and 60 nucleotides, respectively. We found that the binding mode is modulated by magnesium ion and NaCl concentration, but unlike EcoSSB, the mtSSB does not show negative intersubunit cooperativity. Global fitting of both the equilibrium and kinetic data afforded estimates for the rate and equilibrium constants governing the formation of (SSB) 60 and (SSB) 30 complexes and for the transitions between the two binding modes. We found that the mtSSB tetramer binds to ssDNA with a rate constant near the diffusion limit (2 × 10 9 m -1 s -1 ) and that longer DNA (≥60 nucleotides) rapidly wraps around all four monomers, as revealed by FRET assays. We also show that the mtSSB tetramer can directly transfer from one ssDNA molecule to another via an intermediate with two DNA molecules bound to the mtSSB. In conclusion, our results indicate that human mtSSB shares many physicochemical properties with EcoSSB and that the differences may be explained by the lack of an acidic, disordered C-terminal tail in human mtSSB protein. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Polysomes of Trypanosoma brucei: Association with Initiation Factors and RNA-Binding Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Klein

    Full Text Available We report here the results of experiments designed to identify RNA-binding proteins that might be associated with Trypanosoma brucei polysomes. After some preliminary mass spectrometry of polysomal fractions, we investigated the distributions of selected tagged proteins using sucrose gradients and immunofluorescence. As expected, the polysomal fractions contained nearly all annotated ribosomal proteins, the translation-associated protein folding complex, and many translation factors, but also many other abundant proteins. Results suggested that cap-binding proteins EIF4E3 and EIF4E4 were associated with both free and membrane-bound polysomes. The EIF4E binding partners EIF4G4 and EIF4G3 were present but the other EIF4E and EIF4G paralogues were not detected. The dominant EIF4E in the polysomal fraction is EIF4E4 and very few polysomal mRNAs are associated with EIF4G. Thirteen potential mRNA-binding proteins were detected in the polysomes, including the known polysome-associated protein RBP42. The locations of two of the other proteins were tested after epitope tagging: RBP29 was in the nucleus and ZC3H29 was in the cytoplasm. Quantitative analyses showed that specific association of an RNA-binding protein with the polysome fraction in sucrose gradients will not be detected if the protein is in more than 25-fold molar excess over its target binding sites.

  16. Change of conformation and internal dynamics of supercoiled DNA upon binding of Escherichia coli single-strand binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langowski, J.; Benight, A.S.; Fujimoto, B.S.; Schurr, J.M.; Schomburg, U.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of Escherichia coli single-strand binding (SSB) protein on the conformation and internal dynamics of pBR322 and pUC8 supercoiled DNAs has been investigated by using dynamic light scattering at 632.8 and 351.1 nm and time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy of intercalated ethidium. SSB protein binds to both DNAs up to a stoichiometry that is sufficient to almost completely relax the superhelical turns. Upon saturation binding, the translational diffusion coefficients (D 0 ) of both DNAs decrease by approximately 20%. Apparent diffusion coefficients (D/sub app/) obtained from dynamic light scattering display the well-known increase with K 2 (K = scattering vector), leveling off toward a plateau value (D/sub plat/) at high K 2 . For both DNAs, the difference D/sub plat/ - D 0 increases upon relaxation of supercoils by SSB protein, which indicates a corresponding enhancement of the subunit mobilities in internal motions. Fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurements on free and complexed pBR322 DNA indicate a (predominantly) uniform torsional rigidity for the saturated DNA/SSB protein complex that is significantly reduced compared to the free DNA. These observations are all consistent with the notion that binding of SSB protein is accompanied by a gradual loss of supercoils and saturates when the superhelical twist is largely removed

  17. Modulation of protein A binding allows single-step purification of mouse bispecific antibodies that retain FcRn binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Anthony A.; Pardinas, Jose R.; Zheng, Songmao; Brosnan, Kerry; Emmell, Eva; Luo, Jeffrey; Chiu, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increased number of bispecific antibodies (BsAb) under therapeutic development has resulted in a need for mouse surrogate BsAbs. Here, we describe a one-step method for generating highly pure mouse BsAbs suitable for in vitro and in vivo studies. We identify two mutations in the mouse IgG2a and IgG2b Fc region: one that eliminates protein A binding and one that enhances protein A binding by 8-fold. We show that BsAbs harboring these mutations can be purified from the residual parental monoclonal antibodies in one step using protein A affinity chromatography. The structural basis for the effects of these mutations was analyzed by X-ray crystallography. While the mutation that disrupted protein A binding also inhibited FcRn interaction, a bispecific mutant in which one subunit retained the ability to bind protein A could still interact with FcRn. Pharmacokinetic analysis of the serum half-lives of the mutants showed that the mutant BsAb had a serum half-life comparable to a wild-type Ab. The results describe a rapid method for generating panels of mouse BsAbs that could be used in mouse studies. PMID:28898162

  18. Mannose-Binding Lectin Binds to Amyloid Protein and Modulates Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykol Larvie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a soluble factor of the innate immune system, is a pattern recognition molecule with a number of known ligands, including viruses, bacteria, and molecules from abnormal self tissues. In addition to its role in immunity, MBL also functions in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. We present evidence here that MBL binds to amyloid β peptides. MBL binding to other known carbohydrate ligands is calcium-dependent and has been attributed to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, a common feature of other C-type lectins. In contrast, we find that the features of MBL binding to Aβ are more similar to the reported binding characteristics of the cysteine-rich domain of the unrelated mannose receptor and therefore may involve the MBL cysteine-rich domain. Differences in MBL ligand binding may contribute to modulation of inflammatory response and may correlate with the function of MBL in processes such as coagulation and tissue homeostasis.

  19. Lactoferrin binding protein B - a bi-functional bacterial receptor protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas K H Ostan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin binding protein B (LbpB is a bi-lobed outer membrane-bound lipoprotein that comprises part of the lactoferrin (Lf receptor complex in Neisseria meningitidis and other Gram-negative pathogens. Recent studies have demonstrated that LbpB plays a role in protecting the bacteria from cationic antimicrobial peptides due to large regions rich in anionic residues in the C-terminal lobe. Relative to its homolog, transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB, there currently is little evidence for its role in iron acquisition and relatively little structural and biophysical information on its interaction with Lf. In this study, a combination of crosslinking and deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, information-driven computational docking, bio-layer interferometry, and site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe LbpB:hLf complexes. The formation of a 1:1 complex of iron-loaded Lf and LbpB involves an interaction between the Lf C-lobe and LbpB N-lobe, comparable to TbpB, consistent with a potential role in iron acquisition. The Lf N-lobe is also capable of binding to negatively charged regions of the LbpB C-lobe and possibly other sites such that a variety of higher order complexes are formed. Our results are consistent with LbpB serving dual roles focused primarily on iron acquisition when exposed to limited levels of iron-loaded Lf on the mucosal surface and effectively binding apo Lf when exposed to high levels at sites of inflammation.

  20. A rapid and simple assay for growth hormone-binding protein activity in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, G.; Shaw, M.A.; Amburn, K.

    1988-01-01

    The newly discovered circulating growth hormone binding proteins dictate a re-evaluation of the state of GH in plasma in health and disease as the binding proteins are known to affect GH metabolism and action. We describe a rapid and simple GH-binding assay that allows determination of free and complexed plasma GH, as well as GH-binding protein activity as an index of GH-binding protein levels, with relative ease. The method is based on incubation of plasma with 125 I-GH and separation of bound from free GH on small DEAE-cellulose columns; it can be used on a large scale for routine determinations. The results obtained by this method are comparable to those obtained with the previously used slow and more cumbersome gel filtration technique. Initial data obtained in normal subject and certain disease states show that the bound fraction of plasma GH is similar in men, women and children, is unaffected by pregnancy or acute infection, but is marginally decreased in liver cirrhosis. In acromegaly, binding protein activity also appears normal when allowance is made for partial saturation of the binding proteins by the high prevailing GH levels. The technique we describe should facilitate investigations of normal and abnormal regulation of the GH binding proteins. (author)

  1. Dynamic SPR monitoring of yeast nuclear protein binding to a cis-regulatory element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Grace; Brody, James P.

    2007-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by protein complexes binding to short specific sequences of DNA, called cis-regulatory elements. Expression of most eukaryotic genes is controlled by dozens of these elements. Comprehensive identification and monitoring of these elements is a major goal of genomics. In pursuit of this goal, we are developing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based assay to identify and monitor cis-regulatory elements. To test whether we could reliably monitor protein binding to a regulatory element, we immobilized a 16 bp region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome 5 onto a gold surface. This 16 bp region of DNA is known to bind several proteins and thought to control expression of the gene RNR1, which varies through the cell cycle. We synchronized yeast cell cultures, and then sampled these cultures at a regular interval. These samples were processed to purify nuclear lysate, which was then exposed to the sensor. We found that nuclear protein binds this particular element of DNA at a significantly higher rate (as compared to unsynchronized cells) during G1 phase. Other time points show levels of DNA-nuclear protein binding similar to the unsynchronized control. We also measured the apparent association complex of the binding to be 0.014 s -1 . We conclude that (1) SPR-based assays can monitor DNA-nuclear protein binding and that (2) for this particular cis-regulatory element, maximum DNA-nuclear protein binding occurs during G1 phase

  2. NMR-based modelling and binding studies of a ternary complex between chicken liver bile acid binding protein and bile acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasell, S.; Ragona, L.; Zetta, L.; Assfalg, M.; Ferranti, P.; Longhi, R.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Molinari, H.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken liver bile acid binding protein (cL-BABP) is involved in bile acid transport in the liver cytosol. A detailed study of the mechanism of binding and selectivity of bile acids binding proteins towards the physiological pool of bile salts is a key issue for the complete understanding of the

  3. Phenanthrene binding by humic acid–protein complexes as studied by passive dosing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Zhenyu; Ghosh, Saikat; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the binding behavior of phenanthrene by humic acids (HA-2 and HA-5), proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), lysozyme and pepsin), and their complexes using a passive dosing technique. All sorption isotherms were fitted well with Freundlich model and the binding capability followed an order of HA-5 > HA-2 > BSA > pepsin > lysozyme. In NaCl solution, phenanthrene binding to HA-BSA complexes was much higher than the sum of binding to individual HA and BSA, while there was no enhancement for HA-pepsin. Positively charged lysozyme slightly lowered phenanthrene binding on both HAs due to strong aggregation of HA-lysozyme complexes, leading to reduction in the number of binding sites. The binding enhancement by HA-BSA was observed under all tested ion species and ionic strengths. This enhancement can be explained by unfolding of protein, reduction of aggregate size and formation of HA-BSA complexes with favorable conformations for binding phenanthrene. Highlights: • Phenanthrene binding capability followed an order: HA-5>HA-2>BSA>pepsin>lysozyme. • Phenanthrene binding to HA-BSA was enhanced relative to individual HA and BSA. • Binding enhancement to HA-BSA was observed under all tested solution conditions. • The enhancement is related to BSA unfolding, size reduction and HA-BSA complexation. -- Phenanthrene binding to HA-BSA complexes is much higher than the sum to individual HA and BSA while there was no binding enhancement to HA-pepsin or HA-lysozyme

  4. Technical advance: identification of plant actin-binding proteins by F-actin affinity chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Kovar, D. R.; Staiger, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Roux, S. J.; Muday, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton often modulate the dynamics or organization of the cytoskeleton or use the cytoskeleton to control their localization. In plants, very few actin-binding proteins have been identified and most are thought to modulate cytoskeleton function. To identify actin-binding proteins that are unique to plants, the development of new biochemical procedures will be critical. Affinity columns using actin monomers (globular actin, G-actin) or actin filaments (filamentous actin, F-actin) have been used to identify actin-binding proteins from a wide variety of organisms. Monomeric actin from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) hypocotyl tissue was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and shown to be native and competent for polymerization to actin filaments. G-actin, F-actin and bovine serum albumin affinity columns were prepared and used to separate samples enriched in either soluble or membrane-associated actin-binding proteins. Extracts of soluble actin-binding proteins yield distinct patterns when eluted from the G-actin and F-actin columns, respectively, leading to the identification of a putative F-actin-binding protein of approximately 40 kDa. When plasma membrane-associated proteins were applied to these columns, two abundant polypeptides eluted selectively from the F-actin column and cross-reacted with antiserum against pea annexins. Additionally, a protein that binds auxin transport inhibitors, the naphthylphthalamic acid binding protein, which has been previously suggested to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, was eluted in a single peak from the F-actin column. These experiments provide a new approach that may help to identify novel actin-binding proteins from plants.

  5. Crystallographic structure and substrate-binding interactions of the molybdate-binding protein of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Andrea; Santacruz-Pérez, Carolina; Moutran, Alexandre; Ferreira, Luís Carlos Souza; Neshich, Goran; Gonçalves Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro

    2008-02-01

    In Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac or X. citri), the modA gene codes for a periplasmic protein (ModA) that is capable of binding molybdate and tungstate as part of the ABC-type transporter required for the uptake of micronutrients. In this study, we report the crystallographic structure of the Xac ModA protein with bound molybdate. The Xac ModA structure is similar to orthologs with known three-dimensional structures and consists of two nearly symmetrical domains separated by a hinge region where the oxyanion-binding site lies. Phylogenetic analysis of different ModA orthologs based on sequence alignments revealed three groups of molybdate-binding proteins: bacterial phytopathogens, enterobacteria and soil bacteria. Even though the ModA orthologs are segregated into different groups, the ligand-binding hydrogen bonds are mostly conserved, except for Archaeglobus fulgidus ModA. A detailed discussion of hydrophobic interactions in the active site is presented and two new residues, Ala38 and Ser151, are shown to be part of the ligand-binding pocket.

  6. A novel signal transduction protein: Combination of solute binding and tandem PAS-like sensor domains in one polypeptide chain: Periplasmic Ligand Binding Protein Dret_0059

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R. [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Wilton, R. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Cuff, M. E. [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Endres, M. [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Babnigg, G. [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Edirisinghe, J. N. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Henry, C. S. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Joachimiak, A. [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Structural Biology Center, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Schiffer, M. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439; Pokkuluri, P. R. [Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439

    2017-03-06

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of a novel periplasmic ligand-binding protein, Dret_0059, from Desulfohalobium retbaense DSM 5692, an organism isolated from the Salt Lake Retba in Senegal. The structure of the protein consists of a unique combination of a periplasmic solute binding protein (SBP) domain at the N-terminal and a tandem PAS-like sensor domain at the C-terminal region. SBP domains are found ubiquitously and their best known function is in solute transport across membranes. PAS-like sensor domains are commonly found in signal transduction proteins. These domains are widely observed as parts of many protein architectures and complexes but have not been observed previously within the same polypeptide chain. In the structure of Dret_0059, a ketoleucine moiety is bound to the SBP, whereas a cytosine molecule is bound in the distal PAS-like domain of the tandem PAS-like domain. Differential scanning flourimetry support the binding of ligands observed in the crystal structure. There is significant interaction between the SBP and tandem PAS-like domains, and it is possible that the binding of one ligand could have an effect on the binding of the other. We uncovered three other proteins with this structural architecture in the non-redundant sequence data base, and predict that they too bind the same substrates. The genomic context of this protein did not offer any clues for its function. We did not find any biological process in which the two observed ligands are coupled. The protein Dret_0059 could be involved in either signal transduction or solute transport.

  7. Identification of Cisplatin-Binding Proteins Using Agarose Conjugates of Platinum Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Takatoshi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M.; Steyger, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is widely used as an antineoplastic drug, but its ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects, as well as the inherent or acquired resistance of some cancers to cisplatin, remain significant clinical problems. Cisplatin's selectivity in killing rapidly proliferating cancer cells is largely dependent on covalent binding to DNA via cisplatin's chloride sites that had been aquated. We hypothesized that cisplatin's toxicity in slowly proliferating or terminally differentiated cells is primarily due to drug-protein interactions, instead of drug-DNA binding. To identify proteins that bind to cisplatin, we synthesized two different platinum-agarose conjugates, one with two amino groups and another with two chlorides attached to platinum that are available for protein binding, and conducted pull-down assays using cochlear and kidney cells. Mass spectrometric analysis on protein bands after gel electrophoresis and Coomassie blue staining identified several proteins, including myosin IIA, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), calreticulin, valosin containing protein (VCP), and ribosomal protein L5, as cisplatin-binding proteins. Future studies on the interaction of these proteins with cisplatin will elucidate whether these drug-protein interactions are involved in ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, or contribute to tumor sensitivity or resistance to cisplatin treatment. PMID:23755301

  8. Identification of cisplatin-binding proteins using agarose conjugates of platinum compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoshi Karasawa

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is widely used as an antineoplastic drug, but its ototoxic and nephrotoxic side-effects, as well as the inherent or acquired resistance of some cancers to cisplatin, remain significant clinical problems. Cisplatin's selectivity in killing rapidly proliferating cancer cells is largely dependent on covalent binding to DNA via cisplatin's chloride sites that had been aquated. We hypothesized that cisplatin's toxicity in slowly proliferating or terminally differentiated cells is primarily due to drug-protein interactions, instead of drug-DNA binding. To identify proteins that bind to cisplatin, we synthesized two different platinum-agarose conjugates, one with two amino groups and another with two chlorides attached to platinum that are available for protein binding, and conducted pull-down assays using cochlear and kidney cells. Mass spectrometric analysis on protein bands after gel electrophoresis and Coomassie blue staining identified several proteins, including myosin IIA, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, calreticulin, valosin containing protein (VCP, and ribosomal protein L5, as cisplatin-binding proteins. Future studies on the interaction of these proteins with cisplatin will elucidate whether these drug-protein interactions are involved in ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, or contribute to tumor sensitivity or resistance to cisplatin treatment.

  9. CYP 2D6 Binding Affinity Predictions Using Multiple Ligand and Protein Conformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovorka Perić-Hassler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large flexibility and malleability of Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs, in silico prediction of CYP binding affinities to drugs and other xenobiotic compounds is a true challenge. In the current work, we use an iterative linear interaction energy (LIE approach to compute CYP binding affinities from molecular dynamics (MD simulation. In order to improve sampling of conformational space, we combine results from simulations starting with different relevant protein-ligand geometries. For calculated binding free energies of a set of thiourea compounds binding to the flexible CYP 2D6 isoform, improved correlation with experiment was obtained by combining results of MD runs starting from distinct protein conformations and ligand-binding orientations. This accuracy was obtained from relatively short MD simulations, which makes our approach computationally attractive for automated calculations of ligand-binding affinities to flexible proteins such as CYPs.

  10. Mapping Protein Binding Sites and Conformational Epitopes Using Cysteine Labeling and Yeast Surface Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Tariq Ahmad; Khare, Shruti; Pandey, Rajesh; Gupta, Satish K; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2017-03-07

    We describe a facile method for mapping protein:ligand binding sites and conformational epitopes. The method uses a combination of Cys scanning mutagenesis, chemical labeling, and yeast surface display. While Ala scanning is widely used for similar purposes, often mutation to Ala (or other amino acids) has little effect on binding, except at hotspot residues. Many residues in physical contact with a binding partner are insensitive to substitution with Ala. In contrast, we show that labeling of Cys residues in a binding site consistently abrogates binding. We couple this methodology to yeast surface display and deep sequencing to map conformational epitopes targeted by both monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera as well as a protein:ligand binding site. The method does not require purified protein, can distinguish buried and exposed residues, and can be extended to other display formats, including mammalian cells and viruses, emphasizing its wide applicability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Binding specificity and in vivo targets of the EH domain, a novel protein-protein interaction module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; Confalonieri, S; Doria, M

    1997-01-01

    EH is a recently identified protein-protein interaction domain found in the signal transducers Eps15 and Eps15R and several other proteins of yeast nematode. We show that EH domains from Eps15 and Eps15R bind in vitro to peptides containing an asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF) motif. Direct...

  12. Protein S binding to human endothelial cells is required for expression of cofactor activity for activated protein C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackeng, T. M.; Hessing, M.; van 't Veer, C.; Meijer-Huizinga, F.; Meijers, J. C.; de Groot, P. G.; van Mourik, J. A.; Bouma, B. N.

    1993-01-01

    An important feedback mechanism in blood coagulation is supplied by the protein C/protein S anticoagulant pathway. In this study we demonstrate that the binding of human protein S to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is required for the expression of cofactor activity of

  13. Heat Shock Protein 27 Inhibits Apoptosis by Binding Cytochrome C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carper, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    ...) and cytochrome c in the inhibition of apoptosis. The scope of the study will include: measuring the binding of hsp27to cytochrome c in vivo, determining why hsp27 binds to cytochrome c and determining the fate of the hsp27...

  14. Heat Shock Protein 27 Inhibits Apoptosis by Binding Cytochrome c

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carper, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    ...) and cytochrome c in the inhibition of apoptosis. The scope of the study was to include: measuring the binding of hsp27 to cytochrome c in vivo, determining why hsp27 binds to cytochrome c and determining the fate of the hsp27...

  15. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a state-of-the-art classifica- tion technique. Using canonical binding model, the C2H2 zinc finger protein–DNA interaction interface is modelled by the pairwise amino acid–base interactions. Using a classification framework, known examples of non-binding ZF–DNA pairs.

  16. Genome-Wide Motif Statistics are Shaped by DNA Binding Proteins over Evolutionary Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Qian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of a genome with respect to all possible short DNA motifs impacts the ability of DNA binding proteins to locate and bind their target sites. Since nonfunctional DNA binding can be detrimental to cellular functions and ultimately to organismal fitness, organisms could benefit from reducing the number of nonfunctional DNA binding sites genome wide. Using in vitro measurements of binding affinities for a large collection of DNA binding proteins, in multiple species, we detect a significant global avoidance of weak binding sites in genomes. We demonstrate that the underlying evolutionary process leaves a distinct genomic hallmark in that similar words have correlated frequencies, a signal that we detect in all species across domains of life. We consider the possibility that natural selection against weak binding sites contributes to this process, and using an evolutionary model we show that the strength of selection needed to maintain global word compositions is on the order of point mutation rates. Likewise, we show that evolutionary mechanisms based on interference of protein-DNA binding with replication and mutational repair processes could yield similar results and operate with similar rates. On the basis of these modeling and bioinformatic results, we conclude that genome-wide word compositions have been molded by DNA binding proteins acting through tiny evolutionary steps over time scales spanning millions of generations.

  17. Identification of Lipid Binding Modulators Using the Protein-Lipid Overlay Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tuo-Xian; Xiong, Wen; Finkielstein, Carla V; Capelluto, Daniel G S

    2017-01-01

    The protein-lipid overlay assay is an inexpensive, easy-to-implement, and high-throughput methodology that employs nitrocellulose membranes to immobilize lipids in order to rapid screen and identify protein-lipid interactions. In this chapter, we show how this methodology can identify potential modulators of protein-lipid interactions by screening water-soluble lipid competitors or even the introduction of pH changes during the binding assay to identify pH-dependent lipid binding events.

  18. myo-Inositol and d-Ribose Ligand Discrimination in an ABC Periplasmic Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrou, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The periplasmic binding protein (PBP) IbpA mediates the uptake of myo-inositol by the IatP-IatA ATP-binding cassette transmembrane transporter. We report a crystal structure of Caulobacter crescentus IbpA bound to myo-inositol at 1.45 Å resolution. This constitutes the first structure of a PBP bound to inositol. IbpA adopts a type I PBP fold consisting of two α-β lobes that surround a central hinge. A pocket positioned between the lobes contains the myo-inositol ligand, which binds with submicromolar affinity (0.76 ± 0.08 μM). IbpA is homologous to ribose-binding proteins and binds d-ribose with low affinity (50.8 ± 3.4 μM). On the basis of IbpA and ribose-binding protein structures, we have designed variants of IbpA with inverted binding specificity for myo-inositol and d-ribose. Five mutations in the ligand-binding pocket are sufficient to increase the affinity of IbpA for d-ribose by 10-fold while completely abolishing binding to myo-inositol. Replacement of ibpA with these mutant alleles unable to bind myo-inositol abolishes C. crescentus growth in medium containing myo-inositol as the sole carbon source. Neither deletion of ibpA nor replacement of ibpA with the high-affinity ribose binding allele affected C. crescentus growth on d-ribose as a carbon source, providing evidence that the IatP-IatA transporter is specific for myo-inositol. This study outlines the evolutionary relationship between ribose- and inositol-binding proteins and provides insight into the molecular basis upon which these two related, but functionally distinct, classes of periplasmic proteins specifically bind carbohydrate ligands. PMID:23504019

  19. VASP: a volumetric analysis of surface properties yields insights into protein-ligand binding specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Y Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms that compare protein structures can reveal similarities that suggest related biological functions, even at great evolutionary distances. Proteins with related function often exhibit differences in binding specificity, but few algorithms identify structural variations that effect specificity. To address this problem, we describe the Volumetric Analysis of Surface Properties (VASP, a novel volumetric analysis tool for the comparison of binding sites in aligned protein structures. VASP uses solid volumes to represent protein shape and the shape of surface cavities, clefts and tunnels that are defined with other methods. Our approach, inspired by techniques from constructive solid geometry, enables the isolation of volumetrically conserved and variable regions within three dimensionally superposed volumes. We applied VASP to compute a comparative volumetric analysis of the ligand binding sites formed by members of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR-related lipid transfer (START domains and the serine proteases. Within both families, VASP isolated individual amino acids that create structural differences between ligand binding cavities that are known to influence differences in binding specificity. Also, VASP isolated cavity subregions that differ between ligand binding cavities which are essential for differences in binding specificity. As such, VASP should prove a valuable tool in the study of protein-ligand binding specificity.

  20. Guanine nucleotide binding proteins in zucchini seedlings: Characterization and interactions with the NPA receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeberg, M.; Jacobs, M.

    1989-01-01

    A microsomal membrane preparation from hypocotyls of dark-grown Cucurbita pepo L. seedlings contains specific high-affinity binding sites for the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-[γ-thio] triphosphate (GTP-γ-S). Both the binding affinity and the pattern of binding specificity for GTP and GTP analogs are similar to animal G-proteins, and two zucchini membrane proteins are recognized in western blots by antiserum specific for the σ subunit of platelet G s protein. GTP-γ-S can increase specific naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) binding in zucchini microsomal membrane preparations, with its stimulation increasing with large tissue age. Al +3 and F - agents known to activate G-proteins - decreased NPA specific binding by ca. 15%. In tests of in vitro auxin transport employing zucchini plasma membrane vesicles, AlF - 4 strongly inhibited 3 H-indoleacetic acid nor accumulation; GTP-γ-S effects on this system will be discussed

  1. Bacterial binding to extracellular proteins - in vitro adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, C.; Fiehn, N.-E.

    1999-01-01

    Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis......Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis...

  2. Multiple DNA Binding Proteins Contribute to Timing of Chromosome Replication in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. DnaA associated with either ATP or ADP binds to a set of strong DnaA binding sites in oriC, whereas only DnaAATP is capable of binding additional and weaker sites to promote initiation. Additional DNA binding proteins act to ensure that initiation occurs timely by affecting either the cellular mass at which DNA replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on oriC for modulation of its activity but also at additional regulatory sites to control the nucleotide bound status of DnaA. Here we review the contribution of key DNA binding proteins to the tight regulation of chromosome replication in E. coli cells. PMID:27446932

  3. Functional recruitment of human complement inhibitor C4B-binding protein to outer membrane protein Rck of Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek K Ho

    Full Text Available Resistance to complement mediated killing, or serum resistance, is a common trait of pathogenic bacteria. Rck is a 17 kDa outer membrane protein encoded on the virulence plasmid of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. When expressed in either E. coli or S. enterica Typhimurium, Rck confers LPS-independent serum resistance as well as the ability to bind to and invade mammalian cells. Having recently shown that Rck binds the inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement, factor H (fH, we hypothesized that Rck can also bind the inhibitor of the classical and lectin pathways, C4b-binding protein (C4BP. Using flow cytometry and direct binding assays, we demonstrate that E. coli expressing Rck binds C4BP from heat-inactivated serum and by using the purified protein. No binding was detected in the absence of Rck expression. C4BP bound to Rck is functional, as we observed factor I-mediated cleavage of C4b in cofactor assays. In competition assays, binding of radiolabeled C4BP to Rck was reduced by increasing concentrations of unlabeled protein. No effect was observed by increasing heparin or salt concentrations, suggesting mainly non-ionic interactions. Reduced binding of C4BP mutants lacking complement control protein domains (CCPs 7 or 8 was observed compared to wt C4BP, suggesting that these CCPs are involved in Rck binding. While these findings are restricted to Rck expression in E. coli, these data suggest that C4BP binding may be an additional mechanism of Rck-mediated complement resistance.

  4. Protein F, a fibronectin-binding protein, is an adhesin of the group A streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, E; Caparon, M

    1992-07-01

    Binding to fibronectin has been suggested to play an important role in adherence of the group A streptococcus Streptococcus pyrogenes to host epithelial cells; however, the identity of the streptococcal fibronectin receptor has been elusive. Here we demonstrate that the fibronectin-binding property of S. pyogenes is mediated by protein F, a bacterial surface protein that binds fibronectin at high affinity. The gene encoding protein F (prtF) produced a functional fibronectin-binding protein in Escherichia coli. Insertional mutagenesis of the cloned gene generated a mutation that resulted in the loss of fibronectin-binding activity. When this mutation was introduced into the S. pyrogenes chromosome by homologous recombination with the wild-type allele, the resulting strains no longer produced protein F and lost their ability to bind fibronectin. The mutation could be complemented by prtF introduced on a plasmid. Mutants lacking protein F had a much lower capacity to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that protein F is an important adhesin of S. pyogenes.

  5. Characterization of a Chitin-Binding Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Arora

    Full Text Available Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis produce insecticidal proteins. These strains have been isolated from diverse ecological niches, such as soil, phylloplane, insect cadavers and grain dust. To effectively propagate, these strains produce a range of molecules that facilitate its multiplication in a competing environment. In this report, we have examined synthesis of a chitin-binding protein and evaluated its effect on fungi encountered in environment and its interaction with insecticidal proteins synthesized by B. thuringiensis. The gene encoding chitin-binding protein has been cloned and expressed. The purified protein has been demonstrated to interact with Cry insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac by Circular Dichrosim spectroscopy (CD and in vitro pull down assays. The chitin-binding protein potentiates insecticidal activity of bacillar insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. Further, chitin-binding protein was fungistatic against several soil fungi. The chitin binding protein is expressed in spore mother cell and deposited along with insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. It interacts with Cry1Ac to potentiate its insecticidal activity and facilitate propagation of Bacillus strain in environment by inhibiting growth of certain fungi.

  6. Characterization of a Chitin-Binding Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Naresh; Sachdev, Bindiya; Gupta, Rani; Vimala, Y; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2013-01-01

    Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis produce insecticidal proteins. These strains have been isolated from diverse ecological niches, such as soil, phylloplane, insect cadavers and grain dust. To effectively propagate, these strains produce a range of molecules that facilitate its multiplication in a competing environment. In this report, we have examined synthesis of a chitin-binding protein and evaluated its effect on fungi encountered in environment and its interaction with insecticidal proteins synthesized by B. thuringiensis. The gene encoding chitin-binding protein has been cloned and expressed. The purified protein has been demonstrated to interact with Cry insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac by Circular Dichrosim spectroscopy (CD) and in vitro pull down assays. The chitin-binding protein potentiates insecticidal activity of bacillar insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. Further, chitin-binding protein was fungistatic against several soil fungi. The chitin binding protein is expressed in spore mother cell and deposited along with insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. It interacts with Cry1Ac to potentiate its insecticidal activity and facilitate propagation of Bacillus strain in environment by inhibiting growth of certain fungi.

  7. Characterization of a Chitin-Binding Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rani; Vimala, Y.; Bhatnagar, Raj K.

    2013-01-01

    Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis produce insecticidal proteins. These strains have been isolated from diverse ecological niches, such as soil, phylloplane, insect cadavers and grain dust. To effectively propagate, these strains produce a range of molecules that facilitate its multiplication in a competing environment. In this report, we have examined synthesis of a chitin-binding protein and evaluated its effect on fungi encountered in environment and its interaction with insecticidal proteins synthesized by B. thuringiensis. The gene encoding chitin-binding protein has been cloned and expressed. The purified protein has been demonstrated to interact with Cry insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac by Circular Dichrosim spectroscopy (CD) and in vitro pull down assays. The chitin-binding protein potentiates insecticidal activity of bacillar insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. Further, chitin-binding protein was fungistatic against several soil fungi. The chitin binding protein is expressed in spore mother cell and deposited along with insecticidal protein, Cry1Ac. It interacts with Cry1Ac to potentiate its insecticidal activity and facilitate propagation of Bacillus strain in environment by inhibiting growth of certain fungi. PMID:23824872

  8. Biomimetic conformation-specific assembly of proteins at artificial binding sites nano-patterned on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rica, Roberto; Matsui, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Biomolecules such as enzymes and antibodies possess binding sites where the molecular architecture and the physicochemical properties are optimum for their interaction with a particular target, in some cases even differentiating between stereoisomers. Here, we mimic this exquisite specificity via the creation of a suitable chemical environment by fabricating artificial binding sites for the protein calmodulin (CaM). By downscaling well-known surface chemical modification methodologies to the nanometer scale via silicon nanopatterning, the Ca2+-CaM conformer was found to selectively bind the biomimetic binding sites. The methodology could be adapted to mimic other protein-receptor interactions for sensing and catalysis. PMID:19757782

  9. Exploring the composition of protein-ligand binding sites on a large scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay A Khazanov

    Full Text Available The residue composition of a ligand binding site determines the interactions available for diffusion-mediated ligand binding, and understanding general composition of these sites is of great importance if we are to gain insight into the functional diversity of the proteome. Many structure-based drug design methods utilize such heuristic information for improving prediction or characterization of ligand-binding sites in proteins of unknown function. The Binding MOAD database if one of the largest curated sets of protein-ligand complexes, and provides a source of diverse, high-quality data for establishing general trends of residue composition from currently available protein structures. We present an analysis of 3,295 non-redundant proteins with 9,114 non-redundant binding sites to identify residues over-represented in binding regions versus the rest of the protein surface. The Binding MOAD database delineates biologically-relevant "valid" ligands from "invalid" small-molecule ligands bound to the protein. Invalids are present in the crystallization medium and serve no known biological function. Contacts are found to differ between these classes of ligands, indicating that residue composition of biologically relevant binding sites is distinct not only from the rest of the protein surface, but also from surface regions capable of opportunistic binding of non-functional small molecules. To confirm these trends, we perform a rigorous analysis of the variation of residue propensity with respect to the size of the dataset and the content bias inherent in structure sets obtained from a large protein structure database. The optimal size of the dataset for establishing general trends of residue propensities, as well as strategies for assessing the significance of such trends, are suggested for future studies of binding-site composition.

  10. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nikita; Paul, Blessy; Ragnarsson, Lotten; Lewis, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP). AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.

  11. Escherichia coli Protein Expression System for Acetylcholine Binding Proteins (AChBPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Abraham

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR are ligand gated ion channels, identified as therapeutic targets for a range of human diseases. Drug design for nAChR related disorders is increasingly using structure-based approaches. Many of these structural insights for therapeutic lead development have been obtained from co-crystal structures of nAChR agonists and antagonists with the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP. AChBP is a water soluble, structural and functional homolog of the extracellular, ligand-binding domain of nAChRs. Currently, AChBPs are recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems for structural and biophysical studies. Here, we report the establishment of an Escherichia coli (E. coli expression system that significantly reduces the cost and time of production compared to the existing expression systems. E. coli can efficiently express unglycosylated AChBP for crystallography and makes the expression of isotopically labelled forms feasible for NMR. We used a pHUE vector containing an N-terminal His-tagged ubiquitin fusion protein to facilitate AChBP expression in the soluble fractions, and thus avoid the need to recover protein from inclusion bodies. The purified protein yield obtained from the E. coli expression system is comparable to that obtained from existing AChBP expression systems. E. coli expressed AChBP bound nAChR agonists and antagonists with affinities matching those previously reported. Thus, the E. coli expression system significantly simplifies the expression and purification of functional AChBP for structural and biophysical studies.

  12. Identification of Arsenic Direct-Binding Proteins in Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of arsenic direct-binding proteins is essential for determining the mechanism by which arsenic trioxide achieves its chemotherapeutic effects. At least two cysteines close together in the amino acid sequence are crucial to the binding of arsenic and essential to the identification of arsenic-binding proteins. In the present study, arsenic binding proteins were pulled down with streptavidin and identified using a liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS. More than 40 arsenic-binding proteins were separated, and redox-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1, heat shock 70 kDa protein 9 (HSPA9 and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2, were further studied using binding assays in vitro. Notably, PKM2 has a high affinity for arsenic. In contrast to PKM2, GSTP1and HSPA9 did not combine with arsenic directly in vitro. These observations suggest that arsenic-mediated acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL suppressive effects involve PKM2. In summary, we identified several arsenic binding proteins in APL cells and investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of arsenic trioxide for APL. Further investigation into specific signal pathways by which PKM2 mediates APL developments may lead to a better understanding of arsenic effects on APL.

  13. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. 14 C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell

  14. Binding of acyl CoA by fatty acid binding protein and the effect on fatty acid activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrier, R.E.; Manson, C.R.; Brecher, P.

    1987-05-01

    The ability of purified rat liver and heart fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) to bind oleoyl CoA and modulate acyl CoA synthesis by microsomal membranes was investigated. Using binding assays employing either Lipidex 1000 or multilamellar liposomes to sequester unbound ligand, rat liver but not rat heart FABP was shown to bind radiolabeled acyl CoA. Binding studies suggest that liver FABP has a single binding site for acyl CoA which is separate from the two binding sites for fatty acids. Experiments were then performed to determine how binding may influence acyl CoA metabolism by liver microsomes or heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. Using liposomes as fatty acid donors, liver FABP stimulated acyl CoA production whereas heart FABP did not stimulate production over control values. /sup 14/C-Fatty acid-FABP complexes were prepared, incubated with membranes and acyl CoA synthetase activity was determined. Up to 70% of the fatty acid could be converted to acyl CoA in the presence of liver FABP but in the presence of heart FABP, only 45% of the fatty acid was converted. The amount of product formed was not changed by additional membrane, enzyme cofactor, or incubation time. Liver but not heart FABP bound the acyl CoA formed and removed it from the membranes. These studies suggest that liver FABP can increase the amount of acyl CoA by binding this ligand thereby removing it from the membrane and possibly aiding transport within the cell.

  15. GTP-dependent binding and nuclear transport of RNA polymerase II by Npa3 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staresincic, Lidija; Walker, Jane; Dirac-Svejstrup, A Barbara

    2011-01-01

    transport of RNAPII. Surprisingly, we were unable to detect interactions between Npa3 and proteins in the classical importin a/ß pathway for nuclear import. Interestingly, Npa3-RNAPII binding is significantly increased by the addition of GTP or its slowly hydrolyzable analogue guanosine 5'-3-O......-(thio)triphosphate (GTP¿S). Moreover, the Npa3 mutant that binds GTP, but cannot hydrolyze it, binds RNAPII even in the absence of added GTP, whereas the mutant that cannot bind GTP is unable to bind the polymerase. Together, our data suggest that Npa3 defines an unconventional pathway for nuclear import of RNAPII, which...

  16. Distribution in rat tissues of modulator-binding protein of particulate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, K.; Muramoto, Y.; Kakiuchi, S.; Yamazaki, R.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on Ca 2+ -activatable cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase led to the discovery of a protein modulator that is required for the activation of this enzyme by Ca 2+ . Later, this protein has been shown to cause the Ca 2+ -dependent activation of several enzymes that include phosphodiesterase, adenylate cyclase, a protein kinase from muscles, phosphorylase b kinase, actomyosin ATPase, membranous ATPase from erythrocytes and nerve synapses. Thus, modulator protein appears to be an intracellular mediator of actions of Ca 2+ . The present work shows the distribution of this particulate modulator-binding component in rat tissues. This paper also describes the labeling of modulator protein with tritium without deteriorating its biological activities and application of this 3 H-modulator protein to the determination of the Ca ++ dependent binding of modulator protein with membranous protein. This technique proves to be useful in studying enzymes or proteins whose functions are regulated by Ca ++ /modulator protein system. (Auth.)

  17. Probing the binding between norbixin and dairy proteins by spectroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-08-15

    Annatto (norbixin) has been used to color cheeses for centuries, but there is very little knowledge about interactions between the pigment and dairy proteins. In this study, binding of norbixin with whey protein isolate (WPI), sodium caseinate (NaCN), and 6 individual dairy proteins was investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Norbixin was observed to effectively quench the fluorescence of WPI and NaCN by forming complexes. The binding affinity between NaCN and norbixin was higher than that of WPI-norbixin. For individual proteins, bovine serum albumin had higher binding affinity with norbixin than β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin, while κ-casein bound with norbixin better than α- and β-caseins. Binding changed the conformation of WPI and NaCN, but the extent and trend varied for individual proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting binding affinities of protein ligands from three-dimensional models: application to peptide binding to class I major histocompatibility proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognan, D; Lauemoller, S L; Holm, A

    1999-01-01

    A simple and fast free energy scoring function (Fresno) has been developed to predict the binding free energy of peptides to class I major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins. It differs from existing scoring functions mainly by the explicit treatment of ligand desolvation and of unfavorable protein...... coordinates of the MHC-bound peptide have first been determined with an accuracy of about 1-1.5 A. Furthermore, it may be easily recalibrated for any protein-ligand complex.......) and of a series of 16 peptides to H-2K(k). Predictions were more accurate for HLA-A2-binding peptides as the training set had been built from experimentally determined structures. The average error in predicting the binding free energy of the test peptides was 3.1 kJ/mol. For the homology model-derived equation...

  19. Development and application of an ELISA method for the analysis of protein-based binding media of artworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hae Young; Atlasevich, Natalya; Granzotto, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Development and application of an ELISA method for the analysis of protein-based binding media of artworks.......Development and application of an ELISA method for the analysis of protein-based binding media of artworks....

  20. Binding, tuning and mechanical function of the 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid chromophore in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Michael A; Arents, Jos C; Kort, Remco; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    The bacterial photoreceptor protein photoactive yellow protein (PYP) covalently binds the chromophore 4-hydroxy coumaric acid, tuning (spectral) characteristics of this cofactor. Here, we study this binding and tuning using a combination of pointmutations and chromophore analogs. In all photosensor

  1. Binding, tuning and mechanical function of the 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid chromophore in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.A. van der; Arents, J.C.; Kort, R.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial photoreceptor protein photoactive yellow protein (PYP) covalently binds the chromophore 4-hydroxy coumaric acid, tuning (spectral) characteristics of this cofactor. Here, we study this binding and tuning using a combination of pointmutations and chromophore analogs. In all photosensor

  2. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  3. Recombinant expression and purification of human TATA binding protein using a chimeric fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Robert; Saxena, Krishna; Kudlinzki, Denis; Schwalbe, Harald

    2012-09-01

    The TATA binding protein (TBP) is the central core protein of the transcription factor II D that binds directly to the TATA box and therefore plays an integral part in eukaryotic transcription. This pivotal position of TBP is underlined by the vast number of interaction partners involved. Expression and purification of human TATA binding protein (hTBP) has remained a challenge due to protein instability and the protein loss during expression and purification involved. Here, we present a novel approach for high yield expression and purification of human TBP core (hTBPc) protein. Protein fold and activity are verified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis (MST). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Trivedi, B.

    1987-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that human serum contains a protein that specifically binds human growth hormone (hGH). This protein has the same restricted specificity for hGH as the membrane-bound GH receptor. To determine whether the GH-binding protein is a derivative of, or otherwise related to, the GH receptor, the authors have examined the serum of three patients with Laron-type dwarfism, a condition in which GH refractoriness has been attributed to a defect in the GH receptor. The binding of 125 I-labeled hGH incubated with serum has been measured after gel filtration of the serum through an Ultrogel AcA 44 minicolumn. Results are expressed as percent of specifically bound 125 I-hGH and as specific binding relative to that of a reference serum after correction is made for endogenous GH. The mean +/- SEM of specific binding of sera from eight normal adults (26-46 years of age) was 21.6 +/- 0.45%, and the relative specific binding was 101.1 +/- 8.6%. Sera from 11 normal children had lower specific binding of 12.5 +/- 1.95% and relative specific binding of 56.6 +/- 9.1%. Sera from three children with Laron-type dwarfism lacked any demonstrable GH binding, whereas sera from 10 other children with other types of nonpituitary short stature had normal relative specific binding. They suggest that the serum GH-binding protein is a soluble derivative of the GH receptor. Measurement of the serum GH-binding protein may permit recognition of other abnormalities of the GH receptor

  5. Calculation of Relative Binding Free Energy in the Water-Filled Active Site of Oligopeptide-Binding Protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Maurer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The periplasmic oligopeptide binding protein A (OppA represents a well-known example of water-mediated protein-ligand interactions. Here, we perform free-energy calculations for three different ligands binding to OppA, using a thermodynamic integration approach. The tripeptide ligands share a high structural similarity (all have the sequence KXK, but their experimentally-determined binding free energies differ remarkably. Thermodynamic cycles were constructed for the ligands, and simulations conducted in the bound and (freely solvated unbound states. In the unbound state, it was observed that the difference in conformational freedom between alanine and glycine leads to a surprisingly slow convergence, despite their chemical similarity. This could be overcome by increasing the softness parameter during alchemical transformations. Discrepancies remained in the bound state however, when comparing independent simulations of the three ligands. These difficulties could be traced to a slow relaxation of the water network within the active site. Fluctuations in the number of water molecules residing in the binding cavity occur mostly on a timescale larger than the simulation time along the alchemical path. After extensive simulations, relative binding free energies that were converged to within thermal noise could be obtained, which agree well with available experimental data.

  6. Structures of Orf Virus Chemokine Binding Protein in Complex with Host Chemokines Reveal Clues to Broad Binding Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couñago, Rafael M; Knapp, Karen M; Nakatani, Yoshio; Fleming, Stephen B; Corbett, Michael; Wise, Lyn M; Mercer, Andrew A; Krause, Kurt L

    2015-07-07

    The chemokine binding protein (CKBP) from orf virus (ORFV) binds with high affinity to chemokines from three classes, C, CC, and CXC, making it unique among poxvirus CKBPs described to date. We present its crystal structure alone and in complex with three CC chemokines, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL7. ORFV CKBP possesses a β-sandwich fold that is electrostatically and sterically complementary to its binding partners. Chemokines bind primarily through interactions involving the N-terminal loop and a hydrophobic recess on the ORFV CKBP β-sheet II surface, and largely polar interactions between the chemokine 20s loop and a negatively charged surface groove located at one end of the CKBP β-sheet II surface. ORFV CKBP interacts with leukocyte receptor and glycosaminoglycan binding sites found on the surface of bound chemokines. SEC-MALLS and chromatographic evidence is presented supporting that ORFV CKBP is a dimer in solution over a broad range of protein concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations in riboflavin binding by human plasma: identification of immunoglobulins as the major proteins responsible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, W.S.; McCormick, D.B.; Merrill, A.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Riboflavin binding by plasma proteins from healthy human subjects was examined by equilibrium dialysis using a physiological concentration of [2-14C]riboflavin (0.04 microM). Binding ranged from 0.080 to 0.917 pmole of riboflavin/mg of protein (with a mean +/- SD of 0.274 +/- 0.206), which corresponded to 4.14 to 49.4 pmole/ml of plasma (15.5 +/- 11.0) (N = 34). Males and females yielded similar results. Upon fractionation of plasma by gel filtration, the major riboflavin-binding components eluted with albumin and gamma-globulins. Albumin was purified and found to bind riboflavin only very weakly (Kd = 3.8 to 10.4 mM), although FMN and photochemical degradation products (e.g., lumiflavine and lumichrome) were more tightly bound. Binding in the gamma-globulin fraction was attributed to IgG and IGA because the binding protein(s) and immunoglobulins copurified using various methods were removed by treatment of plasma with protein A-agarose, and were coincident upon immunoelectrophoresis followed by autoradiography to detect [2-14C]riboflavin. Differences among the plasma samples correlated with the binding recovered with the immunoglobulins. Binding was not directly related to the total IgG or IgA levels of subjects. Hence, it appears that the binding is due to a subfraction of these proteins. These findings suggest that riboflavin-binding immunoglobulins are a major cause of variations in riboflavin binding in human circulation, and may therefore affect the utilization of this micronutrient

  8. The Leptospiral Antigen Lp49 is a Two-Domain Protein with Putative Protein Binding Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Giuseppe,P.; Oliveira Neves, F.; Nascimento, A.; Gomes Guimaraes, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. Currently available vaccines have limited effectiveness and therapeutic interventions are complicated by the difficulty in making an early diagnosis of leptospirosis. The genome of Leptospira interrogans was recently sequenced and comparative genomic analysis contributed to the identification of surface antigens, potential candidates for development of new vaccines and serodiagnosis. Lp49 is a membrane-associated protein recognized by antibodies present in sera from early and convalescent phases of leptospirosis patients. Its crystal structure was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using selenomethionine-labelled crystals and refined at 2.0 Angstroms resolution. Lp49 is composed of two domains and belongs to the all-beta-proteins class. The N-terminal domain folds in an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, whereas the C-terminal domain presents a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. Structural analysis of Lp49 indicates putative protein-protein binding sites, suggesting a role in Leptospira-host interaction. This is the first crystal structure of a leptospiral antigen described to date.

  9. New human erythrocyte protein with binding sites for both spectrin and calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, K.; Bennett, V.

    1986-01-01

    A new cytoskeletal protein that binds calmodulin has been purified to greater than 95% homogeneity from human erythrocyte cytoskeletons. The protein is a heterodimer with subunits of 103,000 and 97,000 and M/sub r/ = 197,000 calculated from its Stokes radius of 6.9 nm and sedimentation coefficient of 6.8. A binding affinity of this protein for calmodulin has been estimated to be 230 nM by displacement of two different concentrations of 125 I-azidocalmodulin with increasing concentrations of unmodified calmodulin followed by Dixon plot analysis. This protein is present in red cells at approximately 30,000 copies per cell and contains a very tight binding site(s) on cytoskeletons. The protein can be only partially solubilized from isolated cytoskeletons in buffers containing high salt, but can be totally solubilized from red cell ghost membranes by extraction in low ionic strength buffers. Affinity purified IgG against this calmodulin-binding protein identifies crossreacting polypeptide(s) in brain, kidney, testes and retina. Visualization of the calmodulin-binding protein by negative staining, rotary shadowing and unidirectional shadowing indicate that it is a flattened circular molecule with molecular height of 5.4 nm and a diameter of 12.4 nm. Preliminary cosedimentation studies with purified spectrin and F-actin indicate that the site of interaction of this calmodulin-binding protein with the cytoskeleton resides on spectrin

  10. Multifunctionality and mechanism of ligand binding in a mosquito antiinflammatory protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Eric; Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Andersen, John F.; (NIH)

    2009-04-07

    The mosquito D7 salivary proteins are encoded by a multigene family related to the arthropod odorant-binding protein (OBP) superfamily. Forms having either one or two OBP domains are found in mosquito saliva. Four single-domain and one two-domain D7 proteins from Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (AeD7), respectively, were shown to bind biogenic amines with high affinity and with a stoichiometry of one ligand per protein molecule. Sequence comparisons indicated that only the C-terminal domain of AeD7 is homologous to the single-domain proteins from A. gambiae, suggesting that the N-terminal domain may bind a different class of ligands. Here, we describe the 3D structure of AeD7 and examine the ligand-binding characteristics of the N- and C-terminal domains. Isothermal titration calorimetry and ligand complex crystal structures show that the N-terminal domain binds cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) with high affinities (50-60 nM) whereas the C-terminal domain binds biogenic amines. The lipid chain of the cysLT binds in a hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain, whereas binding of norepinephrine leads to an ordering of the C-terminal portion of the C-terminal domain into an alpha-helix that, along with rotations of Arg-176 and Glu-268 side chains, acts to bury the bound ligand.

  11. Aptamer-Conjugated Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Reducing Diabetes Risk via Retinol Binding Protein 4 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Raheleh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Amanlou, Massoud; Pasalar, Parvin

    2017-06-01

    Inhibition of the binding of retinol to its carrier, retinol binding protein 4, is a new strategy for treating type 2 diabetes; for this purpose, we have provided an aptamer-functionalized multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticle. First, calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized and conjugated to the aptamer. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles releases the process of aptamer from nanoparticles and their inhibition function of binding retinol to retinol binding protein 4. After synthesizing and characterizing the multishell calcium phosphate nanoparticles and observing the noncytotoxicity of conjugate, the optimum time (48 hours) and the pH (7.4) for releasing the aptamer from the nanoparticles was determined. The half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value for inhibition of retinol binding to retinol binding protein 4 was 210 femtomolar (fmol). The results revealed that the aptamer could prevent connection between retinol and retinol binding protein 4 at a very low IC 50 value (210 fmol) compared to other reported inhibitors. It seems that this aptamer could be used as an efficient candidate not only for decreasing the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes, but also for inhibiting the other retinol binding protein 4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global analysis of small molecule binding to related protein targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the integration of pharmacological data and homology information for a large scale analysis of small molecule binding to related targets. Differences in small molecule binding have been assessed for curated pairs of human to rat orthologs and also for recently diverged human paralogs. Our analysis shows that in general, small molecule binding is conserved for pairs of human to rat orthologs. Using statistical tests, we identified a small number of cases where small molecule binding is different between human and rat, some of which had previously been reported in the literature. Knowledge of species specific pharmacology can be advantageous for drug discovery, where rats are frequently used as a model system. For human paralogs, we demonstrate a global correlation between sequence identity and the binding of small molecules with equivalent affinity. Our findings provide an initial general model relating small molecule binding and sequence divergence, containing the foundations for a general model to anticipate and predict within-target-family selectivity.

  13. Steric and allosteric factors prevent simultaneous binding of transferrin-binding proteins A and B to transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leslie P; Yu, Rong-hua; Calmettes, Charles; Yang, Xue; Moraes, Trevor F; Schriemer, David C; Schryvers, Anthony B

    2012-06-01

    The ability to acquire iron directly from host Tf (transferrin) is an adaptation common to important bacterial pathogens belonging to the Pasteurellaceae, Moraxellaceae and Neisseriaceae families. A surface receptor comprising an integral outer membrane protein, TbpA (Tf-binding protein A), and a surface-exposed lipoprotein, TbpB (Tf-binding protein B), mediates the iron acquisition process. TbpB is thought to extend from the cell surface for capture of Tf to initiate the process and deliver Tf to TbpA. TbpA functions as a gated channel for the passage of iron into the periplasm. In the present study we have mapped the effect of TbpA from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae on pTf (porcine Tf) using H/DX-MS (hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to MS) and compare it with a previously determined binding site for TbpB. The proposed TbpA footprint is adjacent to and potentially overlapping the TbpB-binding site, and induces a structural instability in the TbpB site. This suggests that simultaneous binding to pTf by both receptors would be hindered. We demonstrate that a recombinant TbpB lacking a portion of its anchor peptide is unable to form a stable ternary TbpA-pTf-TbpB complex. This truncated TbpB does not bind to a preformed Tf-TbpA complex, and TbpA removes pTf from a preformed Tf-TbpB complex. Thus the results of the present study support a model whereby TbpB 'hands-off' pTf to TbpA, which completes the iron removal and transport process.

  14. Facilitating identification of minimal protein binding domains by cross-linking mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Qingyang; Remmelzwaal, Sanne; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Liu, Fan

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of protein interaction domains is crucial for understanding protein functions. Here we combine cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) with deletion analysis to accurately locate minimal protein interaction domains. As a proof of concept, we investigated in detail the binding

  15. Structural determinants required to target penicillin-binding protein 3 to the septum of Escherichia coli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piette, A.; Aarsman, M.E.G.; Fraipont, C.; den Blaauwen, T.; Pastoret, S.; Nguyen-Disteche, M.

    2004-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, cell division is mediated by the concerted action of about 12 proteins that assemble at the division site to presumably form a complex called the divisome. Among these essential division proteins, the multimodular class B penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), which is

  16. Design and synthesis of ATP-based nucleotide analogues and profiling of nucleotide-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Justina. C.; Roelfes, Gerard; Poolman, Bert

    Two nucleotide-based probes were designed and synthesized in order to enrich samples for specific classes of proteins by affinity-based protein profiling. We focused on the profiling of adenine nucleotide-binding proteins. Two properties were considered in the design of the probes: the bait needs to

  17. Mechanosensitive kinetic preference of actin-binding protein to actin filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Taiji

    2016-04-01

    The kinetic preference of actin-binding proteins to actin filaments is altered by external forces on the filament. Such an altered kinetic preference is largely responsible for remodeling the actin cytoskeletal structure in response to intracellular forces. During remodeling, actin-binding proteins and actin filaments interact under isothermal conditions, because the cells are homeostatic. In such a temperature homeostatic state, we can rigorously and thermodynamically link the chemical potential of actin-binding proteins to stresses on the actin filaments. From this relationship, we can construct a physical model that explains the force-dependent kinetic preference of actin-binding proteins to actin filaments. To confirm the model, we have analyzed the mechanosensitive alternation of the kinetic preference of Arp2/3 and cofilin to actin filaments. We show that this model captures the qualitative responses of these actin-binding proteins to the forces, as observed experimentally. Moreover, our theoretical results demonstrate that, depending on the structural parameters of the binding region, actin-binding proteins can show different kinetic responses even to the same mechanical signal tension, in which the double-helix nature of the actin filament also plays a critical role in a stretch-twist coupling of the filament.

  18. An overview of the prediction of protein DNA-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jingna; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Rongling

    2015-03-06

    Interactions between proteins and DNA play an important role in many essential biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and repair. The identification of amino acid residues involved in DNA-binding sites is critical for understanding the mechanism of these biological activities. In the last decade, numerous computational approaches have been developed to predict protein DNA-binding sites based on protein sequence and/or structural information, which play an important role in complementing experimental strategies. At this time, approaches can be divided into three categories: sequence-based DNA-binding site prediction, structure-based DNA-binding site prediction, and homology modeling and threading. In this article, we review existing research on computational methods to predict protein DNA-binding sites, which includes data sets, various residue sequence/structural features, machine learning methods for comparison and selection, evaluation methods, performance comparison of different tools, and future directions in protein DNA-binding site prediction. In particular, we detail the meta-analysis of protein DNA-binding sites. We also propose specific implications that are likely to result in novel prediction methods, increased performance, or practical applications.

  19. An Overview of the Prediction of Protein DNA-Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingna Si

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins and DNA play an important role in many essential biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and repair. The identification of amino acid residues involved in DNA-binding sites is critical for understanding the mechanism of these biological activities. In the last decade, numerous computational approaches have been developed to predict protein DNA-binding sites based on protein sequence and/or structural information, which play an important role in complementing experimental strategies. At this time, approaches can be divided into three categories: sequence-based DNA-binding site prediction, structure-based DNA-binding site prediction, and homology modeling and threading. In this article, we review existing research on computational methods to predict protein DNA-binding sites, which includes data sets, various residue sequence/structural features, machine learning methods for comparison and selection, evaluation methods, performance comparison of different tools, and future directions in protein DNA-binding site prediction. In particular, we detail the meta-analysis of protein DNA-binding sites. We also propose specific implications that are likely to result in novel prediction methods, increased performance, or practical applications.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, Eric; Tardie, Mark; Carty, Maynard; Brown Phillips, Tracy; Wang, Ing-Kae; Soeller, Walt; Qiu, Xiayang; Karam, George

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) with a bound palmitate is reported at 1.5 Å resolution. Human adipocyte lipid-binding protein (aP2) belongs to a family of intracellular lipid-binding proteins involved in the transport and storage of lipids. Here, the crystal structure of human aP2 with a bound palmitate is described at 1.5 Å resolution. Unlike the known crystal structure of murine aP2 in complex with palmitate, this structure shows that the fatty acid is in a folded conformation and that the loop containing Phe57 acts as a lid to regulate ligand binding by excluding solvent exposure to the central binding cavity

  1. An autoactive mutant of the M flax rust resistance protein has a preference for binding ATP, whereas wild-type M protein binds ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon J; Sornaraj, Pradeep; deCourcy-Ireland, Emma; Menz, R Ian; Kobe, Bostjan; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N; Anderson, Peter A

    2011-08-01

    Resistance (R) proteins are key regulators of the plant innate immune system and are capable of pathogen detection and activation of the hypersensitive cell death immune response. To understand the molecular mechanism of R protein activation, we undertook a phenotypic and biochemical study of the flax nucleotide binding (NB)-ARC leucine-rich repeat protein, M. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in flax cotyledons, site-directed mutations of key residues within the P-loop, kinase 2, and MHD motifs within the NB-ARC domain of M were shown to affect R protein function. When purified using a yeast expression system and assayed for ATP and ADP, these mutated proteins exhibited marked differences in the quantity and identity of the bound nucleotide. ADP was bound to recombinant wild-type M protein, while the nonfunctional P-loop mutant did not have any nucleotides bound. In contrast, ATP was bound to an autoactive M protein mutated in the highly conserved MHD motif. These data provide direct evidence supporting a model of R protein function in which the "off" R protein binds ADP and activation of R protein defense signaling involves the exchange of ADP for ATP.

  2. Subcellular distribution of calcium-binding proteins and a calcium-ATPase in canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, S.K.; Towers, T.

    1990-01-01

    Using a 45Ca blot-overlay assay, we monitored the subcellular fractionation pattern of several Ca binding proteins of apparent molecular masses 94, 61, and 59 kD. These proteins also appeared to stain blue with Stains-All. Additionally, using a monoclonal antiserum raised against canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase, we examined the subcellular distribution of a canine pancreatic 110-kD protein recognized by this antiserum. This protein had the same electrophoretic mobility as the cardiac protein against which the antiserum was raised. The three Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase cofractionated into the rough microsomal fraction (RM), previously shown to consist of highly purified RER, in a pattern highly similar to that of the RER marker, ribophorin I. To provide further evidence for an RER localization, native RM were subjected to isopycnic flotation in sucrose gradients. The Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase were found in dense fractions, along with ribophorin I. When RM were stripped of ribosomes with puromycin/high salt, the Ca binding proteins and the Ca-ATPase exhibited a shift to less dense fractions, as did ribophorin I. We conclude that, in pancreas, the Ca binding proteins and Ca-ATPase we detect are localized to the RER (conceivably a subcompartment of the RER) or, possibly, a structure intimately associated with the RER

  3. Does protein binding modulate the effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Maillard

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAngiotensin II AT 1-receptor antagonists are highly bound to plasma proteins (≥ 99%. With some antagonists, such as DuP-532, the protein binding was such that no efficacy of the drug could be demonstrated clinically. Whether protein binding interferes with the efficacy of other antagonists is not known. We have therefore investigated in vitro how plasma proteins may affect the antagonistic effect of different AT1-receptor antagonists.MethodsA radio-receptor binding assay was used to analyse the interaction between proteins and the ability of various angiotensin II (Ang II antagonists to block AT1-receptors. In addition, the Biacore technology, a new technique which enables the real-time monitoring of binding events between two molecules, was used to evaluate the dissociation rate constants of five AT1-receptor antagonists from human serum albumin.ResultsThe in vitro AT 1-antagonistic effects of different Ang II receptor antagonists were differentially affected by the presence of human plasma, with rightward shifts of the IC50 ranging from one to several orders of magnitude. The importance of the shift correlates with the dissociation rate constants of these drugs from albumin. Our experiments also show that the way that AT1-receptor antagonists bind to proteins differs from one compound to another. These results suggest that the interaction with plasma proteins appears to modulate the efficacy of some Ang II antagonists.ConclusionAlthough the high binding level of Ang II receptor antagonist to plasma proteins appears to be a feature common to this class of compounds, the kinetics and characteristics of this binding is of great importance. With some antagonists, protein binding interferes markedly with their efficacy to block AT1-receptors.

  4. ICBP90, a Novel Methyl K9 H3 Binding Protein Linking Protein Ubiquitination with Heterochromatin Formation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianni, Panagiota; Amazit, Larbi; Qin, Jun; Wong, Jiemin

    2008-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 is critical for diverse biological processes including transcriptional repression, heterochromatin formation, and X inactivation. The biological effects of histone methylation are thought to be mediated by effector proteins that recognize and bind to specific patterns of methylation. Using an unbiased in vitro biochemical approach, we have identified ICBP90, a transcription and cell cycle regulator, as a novel methyl K9 H3-specific binding protein. ICBP90 and its murine homologue Np95 are enriched in pericentric heterochromatin of interphase nuclei, and this localization is dependent on H3K9 methylation. Specific binding of ICBP90 to methyl K9 H3 depends on two functional domains, a PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that defines the binding specificity and an SRA (SET- and RING-associated) domain that promotes binding activity. Furthermore, we present evidence that ICBP90 is required for proper heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells. PMID:17967883

  5. ICBP90, a novel methyl K9 H3 binding protein linking protein ubiquitination with heterochromatin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianni, Panagiota; Amazit, Larbi; Qin, Jun; Wong, Jiemin

    2008-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 is critical for diverse biological processes including transcriptional repression, heterochromatin formation, and X inactivation. The biological effects of histone methylation are thought to be mediated by effector proteins that recognize and bind to specific patterns of methylation. Using an unbiased in vitro biochemical approach, we have identified ICBP90, a transcription and cell cycle regulator, as a novel methyl K9 H3-specific binding protein. ICBP90 and its murine homologue Np95 are enriched in pericentric heterochromatin of interphase nuclei, and this localization is dependent on H3K9 methylation. Specific binding of ICBP90 to methyl K9 H3 depends on two functional domains, a PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that defines the binding specificity and an SRA (SET- and RING-associated) domain that promotes binding activity. Furthermore, we present evidence that ICBP90 is required for proper heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells.

  6. In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Irakoze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p

  7. High-affinity single-domain binding proteins with a binary-code interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Akiko; Gilbreth, Ryan N; Esaki, Kaori; Tereshko, Valentina; Koide, Shohei

    2007-04-17

    High degrees of sequence and conformation complexity found in natural protein interaction interfaces are generally considered essential for achieving tight and specific interactions. However, it has been demonstrated that specific antibodies can be built by using an interface with a binary code consisting of only Tyr and Ser. This surprising result might be attributed to yet undefined properties of the antibody scaffold that uniquely enhance its capacity for target binding. In this work we tested the generality of the binary-code interface by engineering binding proteins based on a single-domain scaffold. We show that Tyr/Ser binary-code interfaces consisting of only 15-20 positions within a fibronectin type III domain (FN3; 95 residues) are capable of producing specific binding proteins (termed "monobodies") with a low-nanomolar K(d). A 2.35-A x-ray crystal structure of a monobody in complex with its target, maltose-binding protein, and mutation analysis revealed dominant contributions of Tyr residues to binding as well as striking molecular mimicry of a maltose-binding protein substrate, beta-cyclodextrin, by the Tyr/Ser binary interface. This work suggests that an interaction interface with low chemical diversity but with significant conformational diversity is generally sufficient for tight and specific molecular recognition, providing fundamental insights into factors governing protein-protein interactions.

  8. Oligosaccharide binding proteins from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis reveal a preference for host glycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Garrido

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO. Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs, part of ABC transporters and associated with the import of oligosaccharides. In this study we have used the Mammalian Glycan Array to determine the specific affinities of these proteins. This was correlated with binding protein expression induced by different prebiotics including HMO. Half of the F1SBPs in B. infantis were determined to bind mammalian oligosaccharides. Their affinities included different blood group structures and mucin oligosaccharides. Related to HMO, other proteins were specific for oligomers of lacto-N-biose (LNB and polylactosamines with different degrees of fucosylation. Growth on HMO induced the expression of specific binding proteins that import HMO isomers, but also bind blood group and mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting coregulated transport mechanisms. The prebiotic inulin induced other family 1 binding proteins with affinity for intestinal glycans. Most of the host glycan F1SBPs in B. infantis do not have homologs in other bifidobacteria. Finally, some of these proteins were found to be adherent to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study represents further evidence for the particular adaptations of B. infantis to the infant gut environment, and helps to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process.

  9. A Comparison Study for DNA Motif Modeling on Protein Binding Microarray

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2015-06-11

    Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBSs) are relatively short (5-15 bp) and degenerate. Identifying them is a computationally challenging task. In particular, Protein Binding Microarray (PBM) is a high-throughput platform that can measure the DNA binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner; for instance, a typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all possible DNA k-mers (k=810). Since proteins can often bind to DNA with different binding intensities, one of the major challenges is to build motif models which can fully capture the quantitative binding affinity data. To learn DNA motif models from the non-convex objective function landscape, several optimization methods are compared and applied to the PBM motif model building problem. In particular, representative methods from different optimization paradigms have been chosen for modeling performance comparison on hundreds of PBM datasets. The results suggest that the multimodal optimization methods are very effective for capturing the binding preference information from PBM data. In particular, we observe a general performance improvement using di-nucleotide modeling over mono-nucleotide modeling. In addition, the models learned by the best-performing method are applied to two independent applications: PBM probe rotation testing and ChIP-Seq peak sequence prediction, demonstrating its biological applicability.

  10. Human TFDP3, a novel DP protein, inhibits DNA binding and transactivation by E2F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Huan; Di Stefano, Luisa; Tian, Chan

    2006-01-01

    The two known DP proteins, TFDP1 and -2, bind E2Fs to form heterodimers essential for high affinity DNA binding and efficient transcriptional activation/repression. Here we report the identification of a new member of the DP family, human TFDP3. Despite the high degree of sequence similarity, TFD...

  11. Distorted octahedral coordination of tungstate in a subfamily of specific binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollenstein, K.; Comellas-Bigler, M.; Bevers, L.E.; Feiters, M.C.; Meyer-Klaucke, W.; Hagedoorn, P.L.; Locher, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea import molybdenum and tungsten from the environment in the form of the oxyanions molybdate (MoO4 2?) and tungstate (WO4 2?). These substrates are captured by an external, high-affinity binding protein, and delivered to ATP binding cassette transporters, which move them across

  12. Identification and characterization of riboflavin-binding proteins in human circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis-Whitehouse, W.S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Riboflavin binding by plasma proteins from healthy human subjects was examined by equilibrium dialysis and binding was observed to vary over a greater than 10-fold range. Upon fractionation of plasma by gel filtration, the major riboflavin-binding components eluted with albumin and gamma-globulins. Albumin was purified and found to bind riboflavin only very weakly, although FMN and photo-chemical degradation products were more tightly bound. Most of the binding occurred in the gamma-globulin fraction and was attributed to immunoglobulins because the binding proteins and immunoglobulins copurified using various methods, were removed by treatment of plasma with protein A-agarose, and were coincident upon immuno-electrophoresis followed by autoradiography to detect [2- 14 C]-riboflavin. Binding differences among plasma samples were reflected in the binding recovered with the immunoglobulin fractions; however, there was not a direct relationship between the amount of immunoglobulin and the amount of [2- 14 C]riboflavin bound. Hence, it appeared that the binding was due to a subfraction of immunoglobulins

  13. Dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding amino acid residues in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuraj, Karthe; Saravanan, Konda Mani

    2017-04-01

    A protein can interact with DNA or RNA molecules to perform various cellular processes. Identifying or analyzing DNA/RNA binding site amino acid residues is important to understand molecular recognition process. It is quite possible to accurately model DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues in experimental protein-DNA/RNA complex by using the electron density map whereas, locating/modeling the binding site amino acid residues in the predicted three dimensional structures of DNA/RNA binding proteins is still a difficult task. Considering the above facts, in the present work, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding site amino acid residues by using a classical Ramachandran map. We have computed backbone dihedral angles of non-DNA/RNA binding residues and used as control dataset to make a comparative study. The dihedral angle preference of DNA and RNA binding site residues of twenty amino acid type is presented. Our analysis clearly revealed that the dihedral angles (φ, ψ) of DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues prefer to occupy (-89° to -60°, -59° to -30°) bins. The results presented in this paper will help to model/locate DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues with better accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrophils and the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 mediate carrageenan-induced antinociception in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana L. Pagano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that the calcium-binding protein MRP-14 secreted by neutrophils mediates the antinociceptive response in an acute inflammatory model induced by the intraperitoneal injection of glycogen in mice.

  15. Binding of low molecular mass compounds to proteins studied by liquid chromatographic techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2003), s. 353-360 ISSN 0269-3879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : protein binding Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2003

  16. Proteoform-specific protein binding of small molecules in complex matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing the specific binding between protein targets and small molecules is critically important for drug discovery. Conventional assays require isolation and purification of small molecules from complex matrices through multistep chromatographic fractionation, which may alter their original ...

  17. Effects of thermal denaturation on binding between bixin and whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhong, Qixin

    2012-08-01

    Heating is commonly used in the manufacture of dairy products, but impacts of thermal denaturation on binding between whey protein and molecules such as pigments are poorly understood. The objective of this work was to study the impacts of thermal denaturation on binding between bixin, a pigment relevant to colored cheeses, and whey proteins using several complementary techniques. Fluorescence spectroscopy data showed that heat treatment caused tryptophan in β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin to be exposed to a more polar environment, but the opposite was observed for bovine serum albumin. The fluorescence quenching study indicated that the quenching of whey protein fluorescence by bixin was static quenching, and the affinity of binding with bixin was enhanced after thermal denaturation, caused by a higher extent of unordered structures, as revealed by results from circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectra. β-Lactoglobulin was responsible for overall impacts of thermal denaturation on binding between bixin and whey protein isolate.

  18. Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow: An Intricate Subfamily of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegen A. Ackermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C consists of a family of thick filament associated proteins. Three isoforms of MyBP-C exist in striated muscles: cardiac, slow skeletal, and fast skeletal. To date, most studies have focused on the cardiac form, due to its direct involvement in the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Here we focus on the slow skeletal form, discuss past and current literature, and present evidence to support that: (i MyBP-C slow comprises a subfamily of four proteins, resulting from complex alternative shuffling of the single MyBP-C slow gene, (ii the four MyBP-C slow isoforms are expressed in variable amounts in different skeletal muscles, (iii at least one MyBP-C slow isoform is preferentially found at the periphery of M-bands and (iv the MyBP-C slow subfamily may play important roles in the assembly and stabilization of sarcomeric M- and A-bands and regulate the contractile properties of the actomyosin filaments.

  19. Electrostatics, structure prediction, and the energy landscapes for protein folding and binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Yeh; Zheng, Weihua; Balamurugan, D; Schafer, Nicholas P; Kim, Bobby L; Cheung, Margaret S; Wolynes, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    While being long in range and therefore weakly specific, electrostatic interactions are able to modulate the stability and folding landscapes of some proteins. The relevance of electrostatic forces for steering the docking of proteins to each other is widely acknowledged, however, the role of electrostatics in establishing specifically funneled landscapes and their relevance for protein structure prediction are still not clear. By introducing Debye-Hückel potentials that mimic long-range electrostatic forces into the Associative memory, Water mediated, Structure, and Energy Model (AWSEM), a transferable protein model capable of predicting tertiary structures, we assess the effects of electrostatics on the landscapes of thirteen monomeric proteins and four dimers. For the monomers, we find that adding electrostatic interactions does not improve structure prediction. Simulations of ribosomal protein S6 show, however, that folding stability depends monotonically on electrostatic strength. The trend in predicted melting temperatures of the S6 variants agrees with experimental observations. Electrostatic effects can play a range of roles in binding. The binding of the protein complex KIX-pKID is largely assisted by electrostatic interactions, which provide direct charge-charge stabilization of the native state and contribute to the funneling of the binding landscape. In contrast, for several other proteins, including the DNA-binding protein FIS, electrostatics causes frustration in the DNA-binding region, which favors its binding with DNA but not with its protein partner. This study highlights the importance of long-range electrostatics in functional responses to problems where proteins interact with their charged partners, such as DNA, RNA, as well as membranes. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  20. Nucleos: a web server for the identification of nucleotide-binding sites in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parca, Luca; Ferré, Fabrizio; Ausiello, Gabriele; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2013-07-01

    Nucleos is a web server for the identification of nucleotide-binding sites in protein structures. Nucleos compares the structure of a query protein against a set of known template 3D binding sites representing nucleotide modules, namely the nucleobase, carbohydrate and phosphate. Structural features, clustering and conservation are used to filter and score the predictions. The predicted nucleotide modules are then joined to build whole nucleotide-binding sites, which are ranked by their score. The server takes as input either the PDB code of the query protein structure or a user-submitted structure in PDB format. The output of Nucleos is composed of ranked lists of predicted nucleotide-binding sites divided by nucleotide type (e.g. ATP-like). For each ranked prediction, Nucleos provides detailed information about the score, the template structure and the structural match for each nucleotide module composing the nucleotide-binding site. The predictions on the query structure and the template-binding sites can be viewed directly on the web through a graphical applet. In 98% of the cases, the modules composing correct predictions belong to proteins with no homology relationship between each other, meaning that the identification of brand-new nucleotide-binding sites is possible using information from non-homologous proteins. Nucleos is available at http://nucleos.bio.uniroma2.it/nucleos/.

  1. Balance between hydration enthalpy and entropy is important for ice binding surfaces in Antifreeze Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauperl, Michael; Podewitz, Maren; Ortner, Teresa S; Waibl, Franz; Thoeny, Alexander; Loerting, Thomas; Liedl, Klaus R

    2017-09-19

    Antifreeze Proteins (AFPs) inhibit the growth of an ice crystal by binding to it. The detailed binding mechanism is, however, still not fully understood. We investigated three AFPs using Molecular Dynamics simulations in combination with Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, exploring their hydration thermodynamics. The observed enthalpic and entropic differences between the ice-binding sites and the inactive surface reveal key properties essential for proteins in order to bind ice: While entropic contributions are similar for all sites, the enthalpic gain for all ice-binding sites is lower than for the rest of the protein surface. In contrast to most of the recently published studies, our analyses show that enthalpic interactions are as important as an ice-like pre-ordering. Based on these observations, we propose a new, thermodynamically more refined mechanism of the ice recognition process showing that the appropriate balance between entropy and enthalpy facilitates ice-binding of proteins. Especially, high enthalpic interactions between the protein surface and water can hinder the ice-binding activity.

  2. A Universal Stress Protein (USP) in Mycobacteria Binds cAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arka; Adolph, Ramona S.; Gopalakrishnapai, Jayashree; Kleinboelting, Silke; Emmerich, Christiane; Steegborn, Clemens; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria are endowed with rich and diverse machinery for the synthesis, utilization, and degradation of cAMP. The actions of cyclic nucleotides are generally mediated by binding of cAMP to conserved and well characterized cyclic nucleotide binding domains or structurally distinct cGMP-specific and -regulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, adenylyl cyclase, and E. coli transcription factor FhlA (GAF) domain-containing proteins. Proteins with cyclic nucleotide binding and GAF domains can be identified in the genome of mycobacterial species, and some of them have been characterized. Here, we show that a significant fraction of intracellular cAMP is bound to protein in mycobacterial species, and by using affinity chromatography techniques, we identify specific universal stress proteins (USP) as abundantly expressed cAMP-binding proteins in slow growing as well as fast growing mycobacteria. We have characterized the biochemical and thermodynamic parameters for binding of cAMP, and we show that these USPs bind cAMP with a higher affinity than ATP, an established ligand for other USPs. We determined the structure of the USP MSMEG_3811 bound to cAMP, and we confirmed through structure-guided mutagenesis, the residues important for cAMP binding. This family of USPs is conserved in all mycobacteria, and we suggest that they serve as “sinks” for cAMP, making this second messenger available for downstream effectors as and when ATP levels are altered in the cell. PMID:25802331

  3. Anomalous DNA binding by E2 regulatory protein driven by spacer sequence TATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhiqun; Zhang, Yongli; Hegde, Rashmi S; Shakked, Zippora; Crothers, Donald M

    2010-06-01

    We have investigated the anomalously weak binding of human papillomavirus (HPV) regulatory protein E2 to a DNA target containing the spacer sequence TATA. Experiments in m