WorldWideScience

Sample records for binder feed supplementation

  1. Effects of prebiotic and mycotoxin binder feed supplementation on the quality of the eggs produced by the hens in the end of their laying period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    conducted at the Animal Husbandry Faculty's Experimental Farm in Iasi, Romania, during a period of 4 weeks. A total of 90 hens, 57-week-old ISA Brown layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments, with 30 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted in feeding hens a corn soybean meal basal diet with supplementation of 0.1% Bio-Mos (treatment A1) and of 0.2% Mycosorb (treatment A2). The parameters studied included: living weight and feed intake dynamics, feed conversion ratio, laying intensity, egg mass production, egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, shell index, Haugh Index. Both groups received fodder additives given superior results, concerning the production performances, the internal and external egg quality, as shown. Major influence on the laying hens' health and production is given by the relationship existing between intestinal bacterial population, gut morphology, immune system and nutrients absorption, as previously stated in the reference literature. Some production indexes were improved due to the supplementation of the laying hens feed with Bio-Mos (+ 0,1%) and Mycosorb (+ 0,2% ): - egg mass production increased with 1.67%, respectively with 3.00%; - feed conversion ratio decreased with 1.85%, respectively with 6.61%. - Some egg quality indexes were also improved: - shell thickness increased with 3.86% at the eggs respectively with 2.84%, these effects being mostly observed since the 4th week of usage;- - the amount of eggs with unconformities decreased. Thus, the amount of integer shell eggs was 5.60% higher in A1 treatment, respectively 3.98% higher in A2 treatment, as compared to the control group

  2. Binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnavskiy, A.P.; Bayda, Yu.V.; Danyushevskiy, V.S.; Ignat' yev, N.I.

    1979-01-30

    A binder is proposed which includes a slag component and alkaline metal silicate. In order to improve stability to hydrosulfide aggression the binder contains ferromolybdenum slag as the slag component and it also contains sodium fluorosilicate. In order to estimate the hydrogen sulfide resistance of the hardened samples made from the proposed binder the stability factor is determined, which is the ratio of strength during compression of samples, which are stored in an industrial gas pipeline with hydrogen sulfide-containing gas to the strength limit of tested control samples. The binder is corrosion proof, if the stability factor is greater than 0.85. The stability factor of the proposed binder if 1.00--1.03, and for existing ones it is 0.71--0.05.

  3. The use of bentonite and zeolite as caesium-binders in feed to reindeer - experiences from Sweden

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    Birgitta Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is used in Sweden to lower radiocaesium levels in reindeer before slaughter. In feeds used for this purpose, bentonite is added as a caesium-binder to prevent absorption of radiocaesium, since the animals usually have som access to contaminated pasture in their corrals. Bentonite is efficient as a caesium-binder but increases water consumption and excretion of urine. Zeolite has been used as a caesium-binder to reindeer in a few experiments. The effect, however, has been inferior to that of bentonite. It seems that zeolite, mixed in feeds, loose some of its effect as the feed is stored. The need of a caesium-binder is demonstrated by results from practical feeding of reindeer where radiocaesium levels have not decreased as expected when feed without bentonite has been used.

  4. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60Co or 177Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

  5. Glucose polymer supplementation of feeds for very low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Raffles, A; Schiller, G; Erhardt, P; Silverman, M

    1983-01-01

    The feeds of 14 very low birthweight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) were supplemented with a glucose polymer (Caloreen) at the rate of 6 g/kg body weight daily. Seven day periods of supplementation were alternated with seven day periods of normal feeding. Adding the glucose polymer significantly increased the rate of weight gain in these infants from 105 g/week to 140 g/week; growth rates in terms of length and head circumference were not affected. No adverse effects were noted. Gluc...

  6. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  7. Effect of phosphate binders on supplemental iron absorption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchnicki, Maria C; Coyle, James D; Hoshaw-Woodard, Stacy; Bay, William H

    2002-10-01

    A single-dose, prospective, randomized, four-treatment, four-period crossover study was conducted to determine the acute effect of therapeutically equivalent doses of three commonly used phosphate binders on oral iron absorption. Twenty-three healthy subjects received 65 mg of elemental iron alone and with each phosphate binder (calcium carbonate 3000 mg, calcium acetate 2668 mg, or sevelamer HCl 2821 mg). Area under the change in plasma iron concentration-time curve over 6 hours postdosing was measured. ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance of differences in iron absorption among the treatments. The relative bioavailability of iron administered with each phosphate binder compared to iron administered alone was estimated. The relative iron bioavailabilities (95% confidence intervals) for the calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, and sevelamer HCI treatments were 0.81 (0.70, 0.94), 0.73 (0.63, 0.85), and 0.90 (0.78, 1.05), respectively. Thus, single doses of both calcium-based phosphate binders significantly reduced single-dose iron absorption, while sevelamer HCl did not. PMID:12362933

  8. Gamma-irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage represents a vast resource of nutrients that could be useful in supplemental feeding of livestock, especially ruminants, which can subsist on cellulosic and hemicellulosic herbage when supplemented with nitrogen and minerals. A large scale, long term research project at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has evaluated dried solids from primary (''undigested'') sewage sludge as a supplemental feed for cattle and sheep. Dried sewage solids were subjected to γ-irradiation, 10 Gy (1 Mrad), using 137Cs, as a means of pathogen reduction. Digestibility of energy was about 60%, digestibility of N about 70%, and biological value of N (retention of absorbed N) about 65%. Intake and digestibility of poor quality roughages were improved about equally by experimental supplements with sewage solids or cottonseed meal. Reproduction of beef cows on arid range was improved, and calf weaning weights increased about equally by cottonseed meal and by experimental supplements with 50% or more sewage solids. Mature ewes fed irradiated sewage solids as 7% of total diet for over two years reproduced as well as ewes fed conventionally, but ewe lambs fed 7% irradiated sewage solids from weaning through early mating (at 8 months old) reproduced poorly. Tissue uptakes of heavy metals and halogenated hydrocarbons were low, and no induction of mixed function oxidase was observed. Prospective benefits from use of sewage products seem substantial and risks of toxicants seem manageable. Constraints on feeding of sewage products could be removed by means of appropriate selection and processing of sludges and application of technology to ensure safety and efficacy of products. (author)

  9. Optimization of stocking density for the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in pond culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanxin; Dong, Shuanglin; Tan, Fuyi; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Dong, Yunwei; Gao, Qinfeng

    2009-09-01

    Optimal stocking densities were investigated for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in net enclosures for 333 d. Substantial weight loss occurred during the aestivation phase (AE). Decreased growth rates were also observed during the winter phase (WT). In contrast, sea cucumbers showed rapid growth during the spring (SP) and autumn (AU) phases. Feeding regimes considerably influenced the growth performance, i.e., sea cucumbers grew faster under feed-supplement regime than under non-feed-supplement regime ( P < 0.05). The average survival rates of sea cucumbers under feed-supplement regime were higher than those under non-feed-supplement regime for both the autumn phase and spring phase, but the differences were only significant for the latter phase ( P < 0.05). The fitted B-N curves showed that the optimal stocking densities, in terms of net production, were 22.3 ind. m-2 for feed-supplement regime and 14.1 ind. m-2 for non-feed-supplement regime.

  10. Optimization of Stocking Density for the Sea Cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, Under Feed-Supplement and Non-Feed-Supplement Regimes in Pond Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Chuanxin; DONG Shuanglin; TAN Fuyi; TIAN Xiangli; WANG Fang; DONG Yunwei; GAO Qinfeng

    2009-01-01

    Optimal stocking densities were investigated for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in net enclosures for 333 d. Substantial weight loss occurred during the aestivation phase (AE).Decreased growth rates were also observed during the winter phase (WT). In contrast, sea cucumbers showed rapid growth during the spring (SP) and autumn (AU) phases. Feeding regimes considerably influenced the growth performance, i.e., sea cucumbers grew faster under feed-supplement regime than under non-feed-supplement regime (P< 0.05). The average survival rates of sea cucumbers under feed-supplement regime were higher than those under non-feed-supplement regime for both the autumn phase and spring phase,but the differences were only significant for the latter phase (P<0.05). The fitted B-N curves showed that the optimal stocking densities, in terms of net production, were 22.3 ind. m-2 for feed-supplement regime and 14.1 ind. m-2 for non-feed-supplement regime.

  11. EFFECT OF FEEDS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS COWS

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    KIRAN KUMAR DIVYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous cows, on farm level, kept on feeding supplemented with powdered root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.. It was observed that feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed increased percentage milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids significantly without altering quality and natural attributes of milk. Significant residual effect of feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed was also observed in terms of percentage increase in milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids (TS up to ten days after Shatavari roots supplemented was stopped to cows.

  12. Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x105 up to 1.7x107 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g, 1.0x104 up to 1.2x106 per g, 4.0x105 up to 2.2x107 per g, 1.8x103 per g, and 1.0x102 up to 5.4x103 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

  13. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

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    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  14. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, R. K.; Praveen Kumar; A. Adil and G.K. Arya

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group). [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000): 193-194

  15. Use of natural feed supplements that help to improve health status of calves

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    Luboš ZÁBRANSKÝ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis for each cattle farming are healthy and strong individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which of the given feed supplements have the greatest effect on liveweight gain of calves in the early period after weaning from mother to infant milk substitutes. The research was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014. After the birth calves were weaned into individual boxes in the barn, where during the first 21 days of life their feeding ration was enriched with feed supplements. On the basis of the added supplement calves were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. First weighing of calves was done after birth and the second after 30 days. From the results of observations it can be concluded that feed supplements are accepted positively by calves in the first days of life and have a positive beneficial effect on weight gain and general health of calves.

  16. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mardalena; L. Warly; E. Nurdin; W.S.N. Rusmana; Farizal

    2011-01-01

    Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS) as source of antioxidants (AOX). FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM) each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dai...

  17. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid, A.; Chojnacka, K.; Korczyński, M.; Korniewicz, D.; Dobrzański, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima....

  18. [Supplementation of swine feed rations with zeolite during cage rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, P; Chabada, J; Vrzgula, L; Solár, I; Blazovský, J

    1983-07-01

    The effect of the addition of zeolite to pig feed ration was studied in the cage rearing system under production conditions. Zeolite was mixed in the COS I and COS II feed mixtures directly in the feed plant, the mixing ratio being 100 kg feed mixture + 5 kg zeolite. The feed mixture was administered in granular form ad libitum. The test group had 648 weanlings and the control group 674 weanlings; the piglets, kept in two-story cages in four sections, were arranged so that the test group could be a mirror-like reflection of the control group. The trial lasted 45 days. The piglets given the fortified feed ration had daily weight gains higher by 0.017 kg and feed consumption lower by 0.234 kg per 1 kg of gain, as compared with the control animals. The costs of the feed ration required for producing a kilogram of gain were 8.55 Cz. crowns in the zeolite group and 9.422 crowns in the control group. PMID:6312666

  19. High performance liquid chromatographic method fo pyrantel tartrate in swine feeds and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goras, J T

    1981-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pyrantel tartrate in swine feed an supplements has been developed because the current official AOAC method is not applicable to feeds co-medicated with tylosin. The new method involves: (a) leaching of drug from feed with methanolic NaCl solution, (b) removal of interfering substances by ion pair liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, and (c) quantitation of pyrantel tartrate by monitoring the ultraviolet absorption of the effluent stream at 313nm. The method of standard addition is used to compensate for the effect of the feed matrix on drug recovery. No interference is encountered from tylosin, carbadox, lincomycin, non-drug components of feeds and supplements, or potential degradation products of pyrantel tartrate, i.e., cis isomer of pyrantel tartrate and (E)-N-(3-methylaminopropyl)-2-thiopheneacrylamide. Results for the assay of 3 lots each of feeds and supplements containing 0.0106 and 0.106% pyrantel tartrate, respectively, were within +/-4% of label claim. Coefficients of variation ranged from 1.6 to 1.8% for feeds and from 1.9 to 3.9% for supplements. PMID:7309651

  20. Confinement of Reinforced-Concrete Columns with Non-Code Compliant Confining Reinforcement plus Supplemental Pen-Binder

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    Anang Kristianto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for earthquake resistant building related to confinement is the use of seismic hooks in the hoop or confining reinforcement of reinforced-concrete column elements. However, installation of a confining reinforcement with a 135-degree hook is not easy. Therefore, in practice, many construction workers apply a confining reinforcement with a 90-degreehook (non-code compliant. Based on research and records of recent earthquakes in Indonesia, the use of a non-code compliant confining reinforcement for concrete columns produces structures with poor seismic performance. This paper presents a study that introduces an additional element that is expected to improve the effectiveness of concrete columns confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement. The additional element, named a pen-binder, is used to keep the non-code compliant confining reinforcement in place. The effectiveness of this element under pure axial concentric loading was investigatedcomprehensively.The specimens tested in this study were 18 concrete columns,with a cross-section of 170 mm x 170 mm and a height of 480 mm. The main test variables were the material type of the pen-binder, the angle of the hook, and the confining reinforcement configuration.The test results indicate that adding pen-binders can effectively improve the strength and ductility of the column specimens confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement

  1. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  2. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  3. Impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Anja; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-03-01

    Baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. An often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on large herbivores in North America. While the objectives of supplemental feeding and baiting typically differ, the effects on disease transmission of these practices are largely the same. Both feeding and baiting provide wildlife with natural or non-natural food at specific locations in the environment, which can result in large congregations of individuals and species in a small area and increased local densities. Feeding can lead to increased potential for disease transmission either directly (via direct animal contact) or indirectly (via feed functioning as a fomite, spreading disease into the adjacent environment and to other animals). We identified numerous diseases that currently pose a significant concern to the health of individuals and species of large wild mammals across North America, the spread of which are either clearly facilitated or most likely facilitated by the application of supplemental feeding or baiting. Wildlife diseases also have important threats to human and livestock health. Although the risk of intra- and inter-species disease transmission likely increases when animals concentrate at feeding stations, only in a few cases was disease prevalence and transmission measured and compared between populations. Mostly these were experimental situations under controlled conditions, limiting direct scientific evidence that feeding practices exacerbates disease occurrence, exposure, transmission, and spread in the environment. Vaccination programs utilizing

  4. CANOLA CROP TAKES UP SELENIUM PROVIDES BIOFUEL AND FEED SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the Brassica plant taxi that are candidates for phytoremediation of selenium also produce products that be used for refining into biodiesel, as well as selenium enriched animal feeds. These include canola (Brassica napus) that is planted in the Westside soils of central California (Oxalis si...

  5. Harvesting and Processing Zooplankton for Use as Supplemental Fry Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the methods that we used to capture and dry large zooplankton from ponds to feed to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fry. Using a submersible pump and canister filter, we were able to capture about 1.0 kg (wet weight; 200 g in terms of dry weight) of zooplankton from well-fertilized po...

  6. The effect of propolis feed supplementation on hygiene and performance

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    M. G. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural substance produced by worker bees from trees and leaf buds. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of two concentrations (200, 400 mg/kg diet of propolis on some performance traits and hygienic parameters of broiler chickens body weight, feed conversion, feed consumption, during an eight weeks experiment, weights of internal organs, and dressing percentage also recorded. The results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to significant increase (P<0.05 in eighth-week body weight (2306.27 g, feed consumption especially in the fourth week, maximum daily growth rate (55.52 gm was obtained from the treatment of 400 mg/kg in the seventh week period. Also propolis lead to improve feed conversion efficiency in the second, third and fourth week of age for the broilers fed diet with 400 mg/kg (1.35, 1.59, 1.95, respectively. Average of proportional weights for each of the liver, heart, thighs, and dressing percentage (74.0% were improved among birds of this treatment, too.

  7. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs was studied. The non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in the selected feed ingredient oats were characterized. Distinct populations of arabinoxylans (AXs) were observed in oats,...

  8. New legislation on the marketing and use of feed: status of nutritional supplements

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    Simona Sturzu,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "nutritional supplements" for animals is found first in the "Proposal for the European Parliament and of the Board amending Directive 93/74/EEC on feedingstuffs intended for particular nutritional purposes and amending Directives 74/63/EEC, 79/373/EEC and 82/471/EEC”, submitted by the European Commission to the European Parliament and Council Director for approval on July 28, 1997. The proposal was not approved, for the reasons that this category of "supplement animal nutrition” is already regulated at EU level onlegislation to feed, supplementary feed, feed premixes, food for particular nutritional purposes. In order to harmonize the conditions for the marketing and use of feed, to clarify of divergences anduncertainties due existing legislative vacuum, in order to ensure a high level of protection of public health and to provide adequate information to users and consumers, The Regulation (EC No 767/2009 of the European Parliament and the Council on the marketing and use of feed, amending Regulation (EC No 1831/2003 and repealing Council Directive 79/373/EEC, Council Directive 80/511/EEC, Directives 82/471/CEE, 83/228/EEC, 93/74/EEC, 93/113/EC and 96/25/EC and Commission Decision 2004/217/EC (1 aproved. The new regulation simplifies and clarifies the existing procedures and renewal the legislation for themarketing and use of feed materials, compound feed and bioproteine, including dietary feed.

  9. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  10. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics i

  11. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardalena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  12. Bioassay based screening of steroid derivatives in animal feed and supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Ashwin, H.M.; Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Groot, M.J.; Heskamp, H.H.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor binding transcription activation bioassays are valuable tools for the screening of steroid hormones in animal feed and supplements. However, steroid derivatives often lack affinity for their cognate receptor and do not show any direct hormonal activity by themselves. These compounds are thu

  13. Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P gluten feed, producers can reduce the frequency of supplementation to every other day without reducing digestibility or N retention. PMID:22064733

  14. Comparison of protein and energy supplementation to mineral supplementation on feeding behavior of grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rita Kelly Couto; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Dias, Daniel Lucas Santos; Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida; Filho, George Abreu; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Barroso, Daniele Soares; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein-energy or mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of dairy steers on pasture in the post-weaning phase during the rainy to dry season transition. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu dairy steers with an average initial body weight of 234 ± 16 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design into two groups: protein-energy supplementation and mineral supplementation offered ad libitum. The steers receiving protein-energy supplementation showed higher (P rumination and time per period in idle (P > 0.05). The supply of protein-energy supplement does not change the feeding behavior, except for an increase in the time spent feeding at the trough. The intake of protein-energy supplement improved the of DM and NDF feed efficiencies in grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition. PMID:27386377

  15. Effects of supplemental feeding interval on adult cows in western Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, J E; Lippke, H; Forbes, T D; Holloway, J W; Machen, R V

    1999-11-01

    Two experiments involving Brangus and Hereford x Brangus cows (3 to 10 yr) were conducted at four locations in western Texas to determine the effects of supplemental feeding interval on serum urea nitrogen (SUN) patterns, intake of supplement and forage, and winter changes in live body weight and condition score. Treatments were control (Control; no supplemental feed) and the equivalent of .91 kg/d of cottonseed meal (CSM) fed daily (Daily), three times per week (3T/WK), or one time per week (WK). At each location, one pasture group was given all four treatments (four cows/treatment) using Calan gates. In Exp. 1, conducted in 1994-95, blood samples were obtained for determining SUN during the last week of the study. Experiment 2, conducted in 1995-96, included both an individually fed herd and four additional herds at each location that were group-fed the four treatments. Experiment 2 included estimates of intakes of both CSM and forage in both individually fed and group-fed herds. A bolus containing chromium (Cr-bolus) was used to estimate fecal output in the individually fed cows. A double marker technique was used to determine total (Cr-bolus) and CSM (Yb) intakes in the group-fed cows. Data included initial and final cow weights and condition scores (Exp. 1 and 2), SUN patterns (Exp. 1), and supplement, forage, and total intakes (Exp. 2). Feeding CSM to range cows increased SUN concentrations (Exp. 1), reduced losses in live body weight and body condition score (Exp. 1 and 2), and tended to decrease forage intake by the approximate amount of the supplement (Exp. 2). Generally, providing supplement as infrequently as once per week reduced losses in live body weight and body condition score compared with control and was as effective as once daily supplementation. For the group-fed cows, supplement intake, forage intake, and live body weight change were more variable within groups with once daily feeding than when supplement was fed less frequently. These data

  16. The effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in village chicken in Bamenda area of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in Ndop and Santa zones of the Bamenda area in the Republic of Cameroon on the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in backyard poultry. The results of the study showed that there was an increase in egg production and weight gain in the vaccinated birds which received feed supplement as compared to the non-vaccinated and without feed supplements. The mortality pattern did not reflect the effect of feed supplementation suggesting that other factors may be responsible for mortality. An economic analysis of the impact of the two interventions on backyard poultry production was carried out using the partial farm budget analysis. It was evident from the results that feed supplementation was beneficial to rural poultry performance and that the inclusion of a vaccination programme against Newcastle disease made the intervention even more beneficial. (author)

  17. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  18. Use of a molasses–based liquid feed supplement to deliver Ivermectin to cattle to control ectoparasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two different dosages of ivermectin were used to medicate a liquid molasses feed supplement for free-choice consumption by cattle. Calves that fed on supplement medicated at 25 ppm with ivermectin had a 14 day mean consumption of 0.62 ± 0.07 kg supplement/animal/day producing an average dose of 15....

  19. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  20. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so thatuncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortableconditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixturepineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. Thisexperiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milkquality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experimentthat conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments wereR0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX,R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result ofphytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen,mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference(p<0.05 among treatments on blood and milk cholesterol and milk lactose, but there were no difference(P>0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was thefeed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  1. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  2. The Optimizing of Growth and Quality of Chlorella vulgaris as ASUH feed supplement for Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvia Salvia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella is spherical single celled freshwater micro-algae.   Chlorella  has potentials as element of ration or natural ASUH (safe, healthy, whole and halal feed supplement for it contains nutrition and active component, decreases cholesterol level and resulting darker yolk.  Chlorella vulgaris  is type of green algae   which, its economical potential need to be revealed. Variety of components of growing media is one of factors determining quality of microalgae. In terms of mass production, it is important to find correct, cheap and easy to feed nutrition for breeders. The objective of the research is to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of Chlorella vulgaris   as ASUH feed supplement for broiler. Test using sedgwick rafter method conducted to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of  Chlorella vulgaris  while AOAC method applied to test quality of its nutrition. The result shows that.  Chlorella vulgaris  grew well at technical medium 10 % of Phyto-s, crude protein 57.63%, fat  5.84%, b Carotene 6.44 mg/gram, Vitamin C 4.12 mg/gram and vitamin E 1.32 mg/gram. We can say that Chlorella vulgaris  potential to be natural and ASUH feed supplement and Phyto-s can be used as nutrition for mass production.

  3. Lectin binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lectins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, many of them being well characterized in their chemical structure and the effects they have on alien biological systems such as erythrocytes or lymphocytes. The biological function of plant lectins remains speculative. We therefore inspected plant extracts from components which might bind specifically to the lectin from the respective plant. Single proteins (lectin binders) could be isolated from each plant extract. The interaction of these proteins with lectins was demonstrated and qualified by several methods. Similar to the lectins, the lectin binders are localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to them, however, they persist during germination and plant growth. Their precise role in the plant is not known, but they are likely to be associated with lectins not only in vitro but also in vivo. They also interact with alien cells, and are able to stimulate mitosis in murine lymphocytes. Some lectin binders act specifically on B lymphocytes, leaving T cells uninfluenced

  4. Effect of different feed supplements on selected quality indicators of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different feed additives (bee pollen extract, propolis extract, and probiotic on meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old broiler chicks of mixed sex (Ross 308 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet, free of supplements (control group; C;  basal diet  plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E1; basal diet  plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. In the experiment, the probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU.g-1 of bearing medium was used. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. Meat quality was evaluated by following technological properties: cooling, freezing and roasting loss; colour parameters based on CIELab system; and shear force. Both dietary supplementations led to decrease in cooling (p ≤0.05 and freezing (p ≥0.05 losses compared with control. On the contrary, the supplemented diet tended to increase roasting losses (p ≤0.05 and shear force values in thigh muscle (p ≤0.05. Significantly higher L* values (p ≤0.05 in breast and thigh muscles, as well as the b* values in thigh muscle, were found when broiler chickens were fed the supplements, especially bee pollen extract and probiotics. In addition, the supplements improve redness (a* of meat. The redness of breast muscle appeared to be the most affected (p ≥0.05 by propolis extract plus probiotics supplementation, while thigh muscle had the highest value (p ≤0.05 in bee pollen extract plus probiotics supplemented group. These findings suggested that the supplements have a beneficial effect on quality of chicken meat due to positive changes in most of quality indicators investigated in the

  5. Optimized Batch Fermentation of Cheese Whey-Supplemented Feedlot Waste Filtrate to Produce a Nitrogen-Rich Feed Supplement for Ruminants †

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, M D; Reddy, C. Adinarayana

    1986-01-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been ...

  6. Effects of supplemental feeding and aggregation on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristal, Victoria E.; Creel, Scott; Taper, Mark L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cross, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modifications and supplemental feeding artificially aggregate some wildlife populations, with potential impacts upon contact and parasite transmission rates. Less well recognized, however, is how increased aggregation may affect wildlife physiology. Crowding has been shown to induce stress responses, and increased glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations can reduce immune function and increase disease susceptibility. We investigated the effects of supplemental feeding and the aggregation that it induces on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations (fGCM) in elk (Cervus elaphus) using observational and experimental approaches. We first compared fGCM levels of elk on supplemental feedgrounds to neighboring elk populations wintering in native habitats using data from 2003 to 2008. We then experimentally manipulated the distribution of supplemental food on feedgrounds to investigate whether more widely distributed food would result in lower rates of aggression and stress hormone levels. Contrary to some expectations that fed elk may be less stressed than unfed elk during the winter, we found that elk on feedgrounds had fecal GC levels at least 31% higher than non-feedground populations. Within feedgrounds, fGCM levels were strongly correlated with local measures of elk density (r2 = 0.81). Dispersing feed more broadly, however, did not have a detectable effect on fGCM levels or aggression rates. Our results suggest that increases in aggregation associated with winter feedgrounds affects elk physiology, and the resulting increases in fGCM levels are not likely to be mitigated by management efforts that distribute the feed more widely. Additional research is needed to assess whether these increases in fGCMs directly alter parasite transmission and disease dynamics.

  7. NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Witkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properties of a new product. The effect of duckweed enriched with microelements on the productivity parameters of laying hens was studied in zootechnical research. Birds feed was supplemented with duckweed enriched by biosorption process with microelements (Cu(II, Zn(II, Co(II, Cr(III. In the feeding experiment, laying hens were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. The feeding experiment was conducted for 41 days. Samples of egg yolk, albumen, eggshells, blood, feathers and droppings were collected and the content of metal ions was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulizer. The amount of a given microelement transferred into the egg yolk and egg white was calculated. The eggshells thicknesses were measured with micrometer screw. The research showed that enriched Lemna minor improved the egg quality parameters. In all experimental groups, the increase of eggshell thickness was observed. In three of four experimental groups of hens, fed with diet containing biological form of microelements (Co(II, Zn(II, Cr(III, the quantity of given microelement in the egg content increased. Therefore, the biosorption process can be applied not only for the supplementation of microelements in hens feed, but also to produce eggs biofortified with microelements-new functional food for human.

  8. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  9. The effect of feed supplementation on the onset of puberty in Brazilian dairy heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Brazilian dairy production is conducted by small holders whose general management skills and feeding programmes are often deficient. One common problem directly attributed to underfeeding is that heifers rarely reach sexual maturity before 15 months of age. Two experiments were carried out using growing heifers to determine the effect of protein supplementation (0.3 kg/heifer/day of a mixture of commercial concentrate with 18.59% crude protein (CP) and cottonseed meal with 28.43% CP) on sexual maturity (Experiment 1); and protein supplementation plus anthelmintic treatment (benzimidazole, 10 mg/kg body weight) on sexual maturity (Experiment 2). All but one of the 23 females in the supplemented group (96%), and only 12 of the 23 heifers in the control group (52%) reached sexual maturity before 18 months of age (P<0.01) in Experiment 1. The first ovulation occurred at 513 ± 44 and 573 ± 36 days (x-bar ± SE, P<0.01) in supplemented and control groups, respectively. Daily body weight gains from beginning of the trial to the first ovulation were 378 ± 0.02 and 331 ± 0.04 g for supplemented and control groups. Height at withers and body condition score did not differ between the two groups. In Experiment 2, only 52.2% of the heifers in the not-supplemented groups (11 of 23), but 95.7% in supplemented groups (22 of 23), reached sexual maturity before the age of 18 months (P<0.01). Groups that had received supplementation presented higher concentrations of haemoglobin and elevated hematocrit throughout the year than the controls (P<0.01). Animals with anthelmintic treatment had better growth performance than the controls (P<0.01). (author) 19 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Supplement feeding in late gestation to improve the performance of ewes in a dry area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritionally, late gestation is an extremely critical production phase in the ewe flock. This is the period of the majority of foetal growth and the period when the majority of the ewe's mammary system develops. Restriction, during foetal life, will exhibit suboptimal development of the small and large intestine, deposit less bone, less muscle and fatter to weaning, and may resulted lower birth weights and weaning weights of lambs. It is essential that a specialized feeding program be used pre-lambing to support the nutrient requirements in the ewe flock. Supplement feeding pregnant ewes with molasses and cottonseed meal resulted in a higher weight of lambs at birth day, 3 months old and 6 month old In this study, the effect of supplementary feeding on the performance of pregnant ewes, grazing in a dry area of Borazjan, located at northern of Bushehr province in south Iran, was considered. In a completely randomize design, thirty pregnant ewes with average body weight of 43.2 ± 3.4 Kg, were tested for supplementary feeding with 2 treatment groups against a control group. The supplementary feeding started from 120 d of gestation and prolonged till parturition. All animals were grazed in dry land pasture and cereal crops residues all the day times but the treatment groups received concentrate supplement mixed up of: I) wheat bran +sugar cane molasses +cotton seed meal +vitamins and II) wheat bran +sugar cane molasses +urea +vitamins to provide extra macro and micro nutrients with different portion of rumen degradable and undegradable protein between treatments as described. The lambing rate was recorded and the live weight of lambs was measured at birthday, 3 and 6-month age. Results showed that the lambing rate, based on the number of lambs per groups, were similar in both treatment groups and the control as well. As it is shown in Table II, lams born from the ewes received supplement feed, had significantly (P < 0.05) higher birth weight comparing to the control

  11. Measurement of natural radioactivity in animal feed supplements samples by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is to determine the radiation levels found in animal feed supplements due to natural radioactivity. Knowledge of the radiation levels in samples of animal and poultry feed supplements is important, because they directly or indirectly form part of the human diet. In order to obtain this data, gamma-ray spectrometry technique was used, employing a p-type HPGe detector of 30% of relative efficiency, with an energy resolution of 1.9 KeV for the 60Co 1332.46 KeV line. The radioactivity due to radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and its respective decay series was measured. The accommodation recipient of the samples was a 250 cc cylindrical plastic container. The 238U series radioactivity was calculated through 214Pb and 214Bi activities, and the 232Th series' activity was calculated through the 228Ac, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl values. The animal feed supplements samples measured in this work were samples received in this laboratory for radioactivity test certification. Among the samples, the radioactivity concentration of Uranium-238, Thorium-232, Radium-226 and Potassium-40 in animal supplement was found to be in the range of 1.4 ± 0.2 to 32.7 ± 5.7 Bq/kg, 1.8 ± 0.2 to 44.5 ± 6.6 Bq/kg, 4.0 ± 1. 2 to 105.2 ± 10.2 Bq/kg and 13.1 ± 3.6 to 397.2 ± 19.9 Bq/kg respectively. (author)

  12. Assessing the economic impacts of commercial poultry feeds supplementation and vaccinating against Newcastle disease in local chickens, in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of the rapid growth in poultry population in the past decade, various constraints continue to adversely affect the productivity of local birds in Kenya. Sustainable cost effective interventions are necessary if full potential is to be realised. The impact of Newcastle disease (ND) control using vaccination and commercial poultry feed supplementation was assessed in 16 farms found in Kiambu district (ECZ II). Information on flock size, flock structure and disease control was gathered from these farms. F strain ND vaccine administration and commercial poultry feed supplementation was also done. Generally there was a notable increase in flock size when birds were supplemented and vaccinated. There was marked increase in numbers of growers and chicks with feed supplementation and vaccination. It was economically profitable to supplement and vaccinate local birds as returns were >1.0. Vaccination gave the highest return on investment (3,36) and feed supplementation the least (1,15). The high cost of commercial poultry feed discourages farmers from supplementing local chicken; therefore farm formulations using locally available materials should be encouraged. There is need to produce thermostable vaccines locally to use in local birds which would bring vaccine costs further down. (author)

  13. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Aanesen, Lise; Lind, Vibeke; Larsen, Hans Jørgen S.; Jensen, Søren K; Govasmark, Espen; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant and vitamin E source is synthetic all-rac-α-tocopheryl acteate. The objective of the present study was to compare potential vitamin E and immune stimulant sources with synthetic vitamin E regarding bioact...

  14. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  15. Effects of some selective supplemental feeds on the survival and growth of catfish (Clarias batrachus Lin.) fry

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. A.; Bhadra, A.; Begum, N.; Hussain, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Feeding experiments were conducted for 21 days to study the effect of live food (Tubifex sp.) and three prepared supplemental feeds on the growth and survival of 13 day old magur (C. batrachus) fry. It was observed that the growth of fry varied significantly (p

  16. The Effect of Probiotic and Prebiotic Feed Supplementation on Chicken Health and Gut Microflora: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth T.S. Ofongo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial poultry production is ranked among the highest source of animal protein in the world. Microbial infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella, Clostridium perfringes and parasites particularly Eimeria has continued to challenge the poultry industry. Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP have been traditionally used to counter microbial infections in poultry. But due to public health concerns, the use of AGP in poultry is either restricted or out rightly banned in several countries. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting alternative feed supplements that can enhance performance and protect the chickens from microbial infections. The study found that dietary supplements containing probiotic, prebiotic and enzymes are able to enhance performance while protecting the chickens from microbial infection.

  17. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  18. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  19. Effect of Six Feed Supplements on Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Amino Acid Profile of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of degradation characteristics of six feed supplements on ruminal volatile fatty acid and amino acid production and profile using three ruminally cannulated male sheep. The sheep were fed a concentrate to forage ratio of 35:65. The supplements came from Soybean Meal (SBM, Corn Meal (CM, Meat and Bone Meal (MBM, Feather Meal (FtM, Blood Meal (BM, and distillers Dried Gain with Soluble (DDGs. Sheep were fed at 6 h interval for 42 days. Ruminal parameters such as pH, NH4+, temperature, NO3-, and Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA were measured over a 12 h period after feeding. Concentrations of pH, NH4+, and NO3- showed significant difference (p<0.001 across all dietary treatments. Sheep fed BM had higher pH (6.64 vs. 5.81, NH4+ (262.31 vs. 1.95 ppm, and NO3- (559.71 vs. 77.40 ppm values than did those fed CM whereas FtM showed intermediate values. The C2/ (C3+C4 ratio of the major VFA showed a significant difference (p<0.001. Ruminal profile (% of the sum of amino acids measured was similar among feeds, except Asp, isoleucine, lysine, and proline, respectively. Specific first limiting AA was methionine for SBM while lysine was co-limiting for FtM and DDGs. In general, ruminal parameters were clearly influenced by dietary treatments, with a lower ruminal pH and a higher NH4+ in BM than CM. Overall, the concentration of both total EAA and NEAA were similar among feeds, but numerically SBM had more EAA concentrations followed by CM, MBM, DDGs, BM, and FtM.

  20. Use of inexpensive feed supplementation to improve reproductive efficiency of Pelibuey sheep in the tropics. Effect of pre- and post-partum supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of pre- and post-partum supplementation of Pelibuey ewes on the nutritional status and resumption of ovarian activity of the dams, as well as on the performance of the lambs. Pregnant Pelibuey ewes (n = 109) were used. Two months before the expected lambing data, 52 of animals were randomly assigned to a supplemented group, while the other 57 remained non-supplemented. After lambing, half of the animals from each feeding group were assigned to the opposite treatment. Supplementation consisted of a concentrate containing 3000 kcal/kg and 16% crude protein, and was supplied daily in amounts equal to 2% body weight. The animals in all groups gained weight during the last 2 months of pregnancy. All groups lost weight during lactation, but the loss was larger in the groups that were not supplemented during lactation. Net weight loss from the beginning to the end of the experiment was significantly smaller (P<0.05) in the 2 groups that were supplemented during lactation than in the other 2 groups. There were no effects of supplementation on the intervals from lambing to first ovulation or to first oestrus. Pre-partum supplementation increased the birth weight of the lambs, and post-partum supplementation increased the weaning weight of the lambs. It is concluded that there was a beneficial effect of supplementation of Pelibuey ewes during lactation, since it caused a significant increase on the growth rate of the lambs and a reduction in the weight loss and body conditions loss of the dams during lactation. Under the conditions of this trial, pre-partum supplementation did not provide an additional advantage if the ewes were supplemented during lactation. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  2. Nutrient Utilization, Lactational Performance, and Profitability of Dairy Cows by Feeding Protein Supplements in High-Forage Lactation Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow release urea (SRU; Optigen) and ruminal escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in high-forage [(54% of total dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilizati...

  3. Economic benefits of using prebiotic and probiotic products as supplements in stimulation feeds administered to bee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    PATRUICA, Silvia; HUTU, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Spring stimulation feeding of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera carpatica) is a very important technique for the encouragement of productive foraging. In addition to improving bee health by creating favorable conditions for the development of a beneficial intestinal bacterial flora, the use of prebiotic and probiotic supplements in the feed promotes good colony development, thus increasing the forager population. This paper presents the results for the economic benefit measured following use ...

  4. Effect of Feeding Different Protein and Energy Supplements on Performance and Health of Beef Calves During the Backgrounding Period

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Robert Jesse

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS ON PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF BEEF CALVES DURING THE BACKGROUNDING PERIOD By R. Jesse Austin Committee Chair: Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) Newly received or weaned calves are highly susceptible to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease. In addition to high levels of stress, decreased feed intake and exposure to foreign antigens result in increased morbidity and possib...

  5. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Sharma; Mahendra Singh; Ashwani Kumar Roy; Sunita Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body conditi...

  6. Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Strategic supplementation of feeds with legume forages and non-conventional plant resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification and evaluation of potential plant resources and their dissemination among rural farmers have been attempted. The work was done in three phases. In the first phase, laboratory evaluation of proximate components, in vitro digestibility and energy contents was carried out. Fifteen plant species were evaluated in this phase. Some of the plant species (Sesbania, Dhaincha, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were promising, containing relatively large amounts of protein (18 - 34%) and having high digestibility values (53 - 60%). Some species contained reasonably good levels of metabolizd energy (6.5- 8.5 MJ/kg). In the second phase, four promising species (Sesbania, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were offered as supplements to lactating and growing cattle, in four in vivo feeding trials carried out on-station. Supplementation with Sesbania gave significantly (P <0.01) higher milk yields, resulting from increased feed intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF). Lathyrus also gave similar results in terms of milk yield and digestibility but had little effect on feed intake. Leucaena supplementation also significantly (P <0.05) increased milk yield but not feed intake or digestibility. Crotalaria gave a significant (P <0.05) increase in live-weight gain of growing calves. In the third phase, Sesbania, Lthyrus and Leucaena forages were grown by rural smallholders for feeding to their cattle. The forages were fed to lactating cows as supplements to straw-based diets. All the forage supplements resulted in increased milk yield compared to the control diets, however, Sesbania gave the best result in terms of output. The practice of cultivating legume forages and feeding to cattle receiving straw diets created enormous interest among the farmers as the increase in milk yield was cost effective. (author)

  7. Study Of Trace Elements On UMMB As A Feed Supplement n Ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the trace element contents in Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) as ruminant feed supplement such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Pb. The X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) was used for measuring of these trace elements. The samples counting were done all at once by putting . the sample on the surface of detector and irradiated by radioisotope excitation source for a half an hour. the result indicates that the UMMB no. I contains Mn: 5.31 ppm, Fe: 53.76 ppm, Cu: 0.65 ppm, and Pb: 17.5 ppm, UMMB No.2 contains Mn: 0.35 ppm, Fe: 20.36 ppm, and Pb: 5.84 ppm, and UMMB no.3 consist of Mn: 3.12 ppm, Fe: 58.82 ppm, Cu: 3.12 ppm, Se: 1.84 ppm and Pb: 112.24 ppm. The trace elements content in each UMMB were in normal level and also not in poisoning level to be used for woof supplement

  8. Effect of Feed Supplementation with Propolis on Liver and Kidney Morphology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Babińska*, K. Kleczek1, W. Makowski1 and J. Szarek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin-like mixture produced by bees and composed of natural substances demonstrating a broad range of biological activity, e.g. antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidizing, immunostimulating and immunomodulating effects. Among abundant research on its properties has been carried out but a few reports concerning the use of this substance in animal production, particularly in poultry breeding are available. There is little information about its effects upon the morphology of individual organs and tissues predisposed to damage as a result of intensive fattening of poultry. A-day old 400 chicks were divided into equal four groups. Group 1 and 2 served as negative and positive control, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were kept on propolis (10 and 50 mg/kg of feed supplemented feed for 42 days, respectively. At the end, randomly selected 12 birds from each group were killed humanly. Gross lesions were noted and liver and kidney samples were processed for histopathological studies. The results demonstrated a protective effect of propolis particularly upon the liver of broiler chickens, in which it reduced the intensity of regressive lesions. This protective effect was noticeable especially in the group of birds receiving a higher dose of propolis.

  9. CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM KELP AND COPPER SULFATE: INITIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIOXIN FORMATION IN MINERAL FEED SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  10. Stress, nutrition and parental care in a teleost fish: exploring mechanisms with supplemental feeding and cortisol manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolderdo, A J; Algera, D A; Lawrence, M J; Gilmour, K M; Fast, M D; Thuswaldner, J; Willmore, W G; Cooke, S J

    2016-04-15

    Parental care is an essential life-history component of reproduction for many animal species, and it entails a suite of behavioural and physiological investments to enhance offspring survival. These investments can incur costs to the parent, reducing their energetic and physiological condition, future reproductive capabilities and survival. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on how these physiological costs are mediated. Male smallmouth bass provide parental care for developing offspring until the brood reaches independence. During this energetically demanding life stage, males cease active foraging as they vigorously defend their offspring. Experimental manipulation of cortisol levels (via implantation) and food (via supplemental feeding) in parental males was used to investigate the fitness consequences of parental care. Improving the nutritional condition of nest-guarding males increased their reproductive success by reducing premature nest abandonment. However, supplemental feeding and cortisol treatment had no effect on parental care behaviours. Cortisol treatment reduced plasma lymphocyte numbers, but increased neutrophil and monocyte concentrations, indicating a shift in immune function. Supplemental feeding improved the physiological condition of parental fish by reducing the accumulation of oxidative injury. Specifically, supplemental feeding reduced the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) on DNA nucleotides. Increasing the nutritional condition of parental fish can reduce the physiological cost associated with intensive parental activity and improve overall reproductive success, illustrating the importance of nutritional condition as a key modulator of parental fitness. PMID:26896551

  11. Evaluation of an experimental chlorate product as a pre-harvest feed supplement to reduce Salmonella in meat producing birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of experimental chlorate product (ECP) feed supplementation on Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the crop and ceca of market-age broilers. In trial 1, 160 market-age broilers were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups, and replicated twice, with 20 broile...

  12. Prospects of in ovo feeding and nutrient supplementation for poultry: the science and commercial applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Mukund M; Barekatain, Mohammad R; Bhanja, Subrat K; Iji, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    In ovo supplementation of poultry embryos was first reported several decades ago, but it is only recently that concerted research has been directed at developing the technology for this process to be routinely used by the poultry industry. Although the technology of in ovo feeding was patented more than 10 years ago, it has not been widely adopted by the poultry industry. This review examines the early development of the enteric system of the poultry embryo; defines and distinguishes between in ovo feeding and in ovo nutrient administration; highlights the importance of early feeding of the chick; and discusses the development of in ovo feeding technology and its effects on hatchability, growth, gut health and immune response of chicks. The range of possible nutrients that can be administered is also explored. The limitations associated with embryo development and nutrient metabolism are highlighted, leading to the prediction of the future role of in ovo feeding in the poultry industry. PMID:23847062

  13. Reducing Reliance on Supplemental Winter Feeding in Elk (Cervus canadensis): An Applied Management Experiment at Deseret Land and Livestock Ranch, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mangus, Dax L

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers have fed elk in North America for nearly 100 years. Giving winter feed to elk can compensate for a shortage of natural winter range and may boost elk populations while also helping prevent commingling with livestock and depredation of winter feed intended for livestock. In contrast to these benefits of supplemental feeding, there are economic and environmental costs associated with feeding, and elk herds that winter on feeding grounds have a higher risk of contracting and ...

  14. SUPPLEMENTATION OF VITAMIN E AND C IN FEED ON MEAT QUALITY, THIOBARBITURIC ACID REACTIVE SUBSTANCE (TBARS AND MYOGLOBIN LEVEL OF MUSCOVY DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tugiyanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to analyze vitamin E and C supplementation in feed on meet quality,thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and myoglobin level of muscovy duck. This researchused 84 Indonesian muscovy duck divided into 7 group of experimental diet, namely E0C0 : basal feedwithout vitamin E and C supplementation, E400 : basal feed with 400 IU of vitamin E supplementation,E600 : basal feed with 600 IU of vitamin E supplementation, C400 : basal feed with 400mg vof itamin Csupplementation, C600 : basal feed with 600mg of vitamin C supplementation, E200C200 : basal with 200 IUof vitamin E and 200mg of vitamin C supplementation, E300C300 : basal feed with 300 IU of vitamin Eand 300mg of vitamin C. A completely randomized design was applied and each treatment had 4replications. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance showed thattreatments significantly affect (P>0.01 meat quality, myoglobin level and TBARS level. Vitamin E andC was proven able to improve final pH of muscovy duck meat. Supplementation of 300 IU of vitamin Eand 300mg of vitamin C at feed with 21% of protein and 3100 kcal/kg of energy could improve DIA,cooking loss, flavor, and color of muscovy duck meat; however, the highest meat tenderness wasresulted from 400 IU vitamin E supplementation.

  15. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to analyse the combined effect of lactation stage and fat supplementation. Either protected or unprotected fat was fed to dairy cows to quantify effects on dry matter intake (DMI), mammary nutrient uptake, energy corrected milk (ECM) yield, milk composition, and energy, N and feed...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...... efficiency. Additionally, we studied the effect of adding Hydroxy-methionine-analogue-isobutyrate (HMBi) to the ration supplemented with protected fat. A total of 107 Holstein cows and 54 Jersey cows were assigned to one of four different mixed dietary treatments: Control (CON), control supplemented with...

  16. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  17. Evaluation of lesser-known feed supplements for dairy cattle in the North-East of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)

  18. Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755 (average weight of 0.45g were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May. The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplementalfeeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. Afeed conversion ratio (FCR of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR of 4.96%/day. Thehigh survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nurseryproduction trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensuressufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nurseryproduction. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (< 1g of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stockingdensities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternativeapproaches in the nursery production of this fish.

  19. Effect of supplementation of feed with Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Mazhar Hussain; Ali, Shujait; Zubair, Muhammad; Jamil, Huma; Ahmad, Nazir

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls. Methods In this study, 12 adult healthy bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad district Sahiwal, were used. These bulls were divided into three equal groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, while in groups B and C supplementation of feed was provided by using flaxseed oil @125 ml/day and 250 ml/...

  20. 日粮添加不同水平的奶牛专用霉菌毒素吸附剂对粪中双歧杆菌数量和乳中黄曲霉毒素含量的影响%The Effect of Different Mycotoxin Binder Levels Supplementation on Feces Bifidobacterium Bifidum Number and Milk AFM1 Content in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤月明; 黄谢江; 刘仕军

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxin in feed can bring negative effect on dairy health and decrease production of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes of feces bifidobacterium bifidum number and milk AFM1 concentration when dietary different levels mycotoxin binder was supplemented in lactating dairy cattle. Eighty Chinese Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to control group with 20g powdered zeolite for a cow per day. The three experimental group received supplementation of 10g mycotoxin binder and 10g powdered zeolite for a cow per day, 15g mycotoxin binder and 5g powdered zeolite, or 20g mycotoxin binder. Meantime, all cows were fed the same basal diets. It was shown that dietary different levels of mycotoxin binder adding can decline bifidobacterium bifidum number of feces, but there was no significant difference. In contrast with before the experiment, aflatoxin M1 of raw milk in experimental treatment declined(P<0.05 ), and aflatoxin M1 residues was in less with mycotoxin binder enhancing. Milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in control treatment did not change compared with start of experiment. Therefore, the study indicated that different levels mycotoxin binder may improve raw milk quality.%奶牛饲料原料中霉菌毒素广泛存在,并严重地威胁着奶牛健康,影响着奶牛生产性能的发挥.本试验选择年龄、胎次、产奶量、泌乳天数相近的荷斯坦牛80头探讨日粮添加4种剂量(0、10、15、20g)的霉菌毒素吸附剂对奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌数量和原料奶中黄曲霉毒素残留量的影响.与对照组(添加霉菌毒素吸附剂0g)相比,试验组奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌的外排量明显降低,但各实验组之间差异不显著,仅有数值上的变化.同时,随着霉菌毒素吸附剂含量的增加,原料奶中体细胞数呈现下降的趋势.与试验前相比,原料奶中黄曲霉毒素含量显著降低(P<0.05),且随着添加剂量的增加其黄曲霉毒素残留量

  1. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  2. The Impact of the Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Supplement in the Feed Ration on the Quality of Poultry Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pebriansyah, Akhir

    2014-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) (SB) is a shrub which belongs to the family Elaeagnaceae, it have been used in Asia, Europe, and North America for human consumption, cosmetics, and also animal feeding as a dried by-product after fruit processing for juices. This study was aimed to find any positive effect of the SB supplement in feed ration on the laying hens´ productivity and quality of eggs. Two experiments were conducted at the ITP (International Testing of Poultry) in Ústrašice, Czech...

  3. Dietary Supplementation with Allspice Pimenta dioica Reduces the Occurrence of Streptococcal Disease during First Feeding of Mozambique Tilapia Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014. PMID:25229484

  4. Pre- and post-partum feed supplementation to improve sheep productivity in small-holder farms in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried out to assess the effect of feed supplementation in ewes during the pre- and post-partum period and subsequent ewe-lamb growth rates and reproductive performance during their first breeding season. In the first experiment, 50 Romney Marsch ewes on one farm were used and half were supplemented for 50 days before and after lambing with 500 g dry matter of grassland silage/day, and half were not supplemented. In the second experiment, six small flocks of Criollo ewes belonging to Mapuche farmers were used. Three flocks (total 30 ewes) were supplemented with a commercial multinutrient block (molasses, urea and mineral salts) for 50 days before and after lambing. The other 3 flocks (total 45 ewes) were maintained without supplementation. In both experiments, ewe live weight, body condition score (BCS), lamb birth weight and the subsequent ewe-lamb growth rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. The birth weight of ewe-lambs born to the supplemented dams in Experiment 1 was not statistically different (P>0.05) from the control group (3.9 kg vs. 4.2 kg). There was, however, a significant improvement (P0.05). However, differences (P<0.05) were found between ewe-lambs born to the supplemented dams and non-supplemented dams on weaning weight (21.8 vs. 17.2 kg), BCS, the age at onset of luteal activity (269 vs. 290 days) and pregnancy rate at the end of the first breeding season (55.6 vs. 30%). The results indicates that pre- and post-partum supplementation of ewes can improve ewe-lamb performance within their first reproductive season. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  5. The Use of Local Mineral Formulas as a Feed Block Supplement for Beef Cattle Fed on Wild Forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to study the diversity of mineral contents of wild forages and to evaluate the beneficial effect of mineral feed supplement formulated by using locally available materials on the performances of beef cattle. The present research was initiated by analyzing mineral contents of wild forages grown around Limau Manis campus areas. Forage samples were collected at 9 sampling areas scattered at plantation, conservation and idle lands. Samples were then analyzed for macro minerals of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S and micro minerals of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn. Feeding trial was then conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of supplementation of local mineral formulas (LMF produced by using locally available materials on the performances of cattle. Feeding trial was conducted for 6 weeks by using 9 Simmentals cross bred heifers. The trial consisted of 3 treatments, i.e., P1: only grass without supplementation, P2: grass + LMF and P3: grass + mineral premix enriched LMF. Variables measured were: body weight, feed intake, FCR, feed cost and net return. Results showed that the highest macro mineral content of wild forages was Na of about 13.05±2.22 g/kg, varied from 4.1 to 23.8 g/kg, followed by K (11.09±1.43 g/kg and Ca (6.10±1.09 g/kg DM. Three minerals of Mg, P, and S were found in relatively small concentrations of 1.34±0.30, 0.83±0.23, and 0.17±0.01 g/kg, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in relatively high concentrations. The highest concentration of micro minerals was Fe of about 613.8±128.9 mg/kg, followed by Mn of 143.9±23.3 mg/kg, while Zn and Cu were found in relatively small amount of about 31.3±5.5 and 13.2±2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Heifers supplemented with LMF (P2 and mineral premix enriched LMF (P3 showed higher body weight gain, lower FCR and net return than those cattle fed only grass (P1. The most profitable feeding strategy was by supplementation of heifers with mineral premix

  6. Effect of supplementation, breed, season and location on feed intake and performance of scavenging chickens in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Minh, Do Viet

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to evaluate the nutrient status of local and improved scavenging hens in different seasons and locations by crop content analysis (Paper I), and the effects of scavenging and supplementing energy, protein, lysine and methionine on feed intake, performance, carcass quality and economic efficiency of different breeds of growing chickens and laying hens (Paper II, III and IV). In Paper I, the nutrient, metabolisable energy (ME) and amino acid intakes of scavenging Ri...

  7. Effect of phosphorous supplementation in the formulated fish feed on carcass quality of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M.R.U.; Yakupitiyage, A.; Lin, C.K.; Little, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorus supplementation in the formulated fish diet on carcass quality of Nile tilapia in net-cages suspended in fertilized earthen ponds. In the experiment 3% di-calcium phosphate (DCP), 3% triple supper phosphate (TSP) and 7% 16:20 inorganic fertilizer were added as phosphorous sources to three diets containing fish meal as main protein ingredient. Feeding tilapia in net-cages with these diets significantly (p

  8. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  9. Effects of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Feed Supplement on Milk Production and its Composition in Tunisian Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamouri O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 105-day feed trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feed supplement containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk yield and its composition in Holstein Friesian cows. The trial was conducted in the region of Sidi Bouzid in the west of Tunisia. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated on eight Holstein Friesian cows randomly divided into two groups of four animals on the basis of age, body weight, average milk yield, and lactation number. The first group was supplemented with 2.5 g/cow/day of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.5 1010 CFU/day and the second group (control was without the yeast. The study showed that supplementation with 2.5 g of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae per cow per day or 2.5 1010 CFU/day tended (P < 0.06 to increase milk production by 1.1 kg/cow. By cons, there was a significant increase of fat (P < 0.01; 52.8 and 46.9 g/cow/day and protein (P < 0.05; 41.7 and 38.7 g/cow/day content both for treated and control group, respectively. It is concluded that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.5 1010 CFU/day in the diet of dairy cows may have positive influence on milk fat and protei n yield (g/cow/day.

  10. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. PMID:25352682

  11. Influence of Bacillus spp culture supplementation through feed or drinking water on the performance of layer chiken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Kompiang

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Three thousands 65 weeks old layers were used and divided into 3 groups of 1000 birds, and further divided into 4 sum group (250 birds/group as treatment replicates, and distributed randomly.Layer in group 1 were fed a basal diet + antibiotic (AB, group 2 were fed a basal diet + 10^9 CFU Bacillus spp culture (PB-M and group 3 were fed a basal diet and Bacillus spp culture was supplemented in their drinking water (10^9 CFU/litre (PB-A. The trial was conducted for 14 weeks (2 weeks adaptation period, 10 weeks the feeding treatments, and 2 weeks post treatment, where the AB group continues supplemented with antibiotic, while the PB-M and PB-A group, the Bacillus spp culture supplementation was withdrawned. During the treatment period,% HD production and its FCR of the bird supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were highly significant (P<0.001 better than the one receiving antibiotic. There was no significant different between the PB-M and the PB-A groups. Prosentage HD production and its FCR during post treatment, the birds previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were remained significantly better than the one recieving antibiotic. The birds which were previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture in the feed had significantly (P<0.01 better % HD production and FCR.It is concluded that Bacillus spp culture, could be used to replace antibiotics as a growth promotor, it even gave better results.

  12. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  13. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity. PMID:26561741

  14. Haemato-immunological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fry fed with Aloe vera extract supplemented feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Haghighi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera extract on the immunity responses and haematological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fry to develop alternative drug to chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Methods: Six hundred rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fry were randomly allocated into two treatment groups including 1 placebo-treated group (control, 2 Aloe vera extract-treated group, each of three replicates. The fishes were hand-fed once a day with diet medicated AE or placebo at the rate of 1% in feed in the first feeding for 10 weeks. At the end of the identical every two weeks 24 h after feeding, some of haematological and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results: The results showed that serum total protein, albumin and globulin, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity and serum lysozyme activity vary among the two treatment groups which were found to be higher in Aloe vera extract-treated group (P0.05. Conclusions: It was concluded that supplementation of AE at a rate of 1% in feed registered higher immunological responses in compared to placebo group. Therefore, supplementation of AE in fish diets enhances non-specific immune system in fish. It may use in fish diets particularly at time of outbreaks.

  15. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  16. Haemato-immunological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry fed with Aloe vera extract supplemented feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Haghighi; Mostafa Sharif Rohani; Hamid Pourmoghim; Tayebeh Toliat; Meysam Samadi; Meysam Tavoli; Maryam Islami; Rahmat Yusefi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera extract on the immunity responses and haematological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry to develop alternative drug to chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Methods:Six hundred rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry were randomly allocated into two treatment groups including 1) placebo-treated group (control), 2) Aloe vera extract-treated group, each of three replicates. The fishes were hand-fed once a day with diet medicated AE or placebo at the rate of 1%in feed in the first feeding for 10 weeks. At the end of the identical every two weeks 24 h after feeding, some of haematological and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results:The results showed that serum total protein, albumin and globulin, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity and serum lysozyme activity vary among the two treatment groups which were found to be higher in Aloe vera extract-treated group (P0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that supplementation of AE at a rate of 1%in feed registered higher immunological responses in compared to placebo group. Therefore, supplementation of AE in fish diets enhances non-specific immune system in fish. It may use in fish diets particularly at time of outbreaks.

  17. [Feed supplementation with selenium in relation to the vitamin E-selenium deficiency syndrome in pigs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K B; Simesen, M G

    1977-01-01

    After the addition of selenium to swine feed (max. 0.1 ppm) was legalized in Denmark in 1975, a marked reduction has occurred in the incidence of hepatosis dietetica (HD) in the material received at the State Veterinary Serum Laboratory for diagnostic examination, while the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) appears to be unchanged (Table I). In a material collected before the addition of selenium to swine feed was permitted, the selenium content in liver and heart was found to be significantly lower in the pigs that had died of MHD than in normal pigs, but higher than in pigs that had died of HD (Table II). These observations tend to support the view that feed supplementation with selenium is more effective to prevent HD than MHD. PMID:866121

  18. Role of live microbial feed supplements with reference to anaerobic fungi in ruminant productivity:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil K Puniya; Ravinder Kumar; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Sanjay Kumar; Sumit S Dagar; Gareth W Grififth; Monica Puniya; Sreenivas R Ravella; Nikhil Kumar; Tejpal Dhewa

    2015-01-01

    To keep the concept of a safe food supply to the consumers, animal feed industries world over are showing an increasing interest in the direct-fed microbials (DFM) for improved animal performance in terms of growth or productivity. This becomes al the more essential in a situation, where a number of the residues of antibiotics and/or other growth stimulants reach in milk and meat with a number of associated potential risks for the consumers. Hence, in the absence of growth stimulants, a positive manipulation of the rumen microbial ecosystem to enhance the feedstuff utilization for improved production ef-ifciency by ruminants has become of much interest to the researchers and entrepreneurs. A few genera of live microbes (i.e., bacteria, fungi and yeasts in different types of formulations from paste to powder) are infrequently used as DFM for the domestic ruminants. These DFM products are live microbial feed supplements containing natural y occurring microbes in the rumen. Among different DFM possibilities, anaerobic rumen fungi (ARF) based additives have been found to improve ruminant productivity consistently during feeding trials. Administration of ARF during the few trials conducted, led to the increased weight gain, milk production, and total tract digestibility of feed components in ruminants. Anaerobic fungi in the rumen display very strong cel-wal degrading cel ulolytic and xylanolytic activities through rhizoid development, resulting in the physical disruption of feed structure paving the way for bacterial action. Signiifcant improvements in the ifber digestibil-ity were found to coincide with increases in ARF in the rumen indicating their role. Most of the researches based on DFM have indicated a positive response in nutrient digestion and methane reducing potential during in vivo and/or in vitro sup-plementation of ARF as DFM. Therefore, DFM especial y ARF wil gain popularity but it is necessary that al the strains are thoroughly studied for their

  19. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2015-07-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (pzoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:26104399

  20. Feed supplementation of dairy cattle in the North-Eastern region of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)

  1. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  2. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil, Thomas De; Devreese, Mathias; Saeger, Sarah De; Eeckhout, Mia; Backer, Patrick De; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX. PMID:26902900

  3. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  4. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  5. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites. PMID:23527144

  6. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( wheat middlings diets without xylanase (64.50 vs. 54.67% and 52.88 vs. 31.69%, respectively), but supplementation of xylanase did not impact AID of GE and NDF when liquid wheat middlings diets were fed. Xylanase in liquid DDGS diets increased ( wheat middlings diets improved ( wheat middlings diets without xylanase (80.37 vs. 78.07% and 80.23 vs. 77.94%, respectively). However, there was no effect of xylanase in DDGS diets. Pigs fed DDGS diets had greater concentrations of butyrate in the cecum ( = 0.001) than pigs fed wheat middlings diets (27.6 vs. 20.4 mmol/L). Pigs fed DDGS diets with xylanase had deeper crypts ( wheat middlings diets. Results suggest that liquid feeding and xylanase supplementation had limited potential to enhance nutrient digestibility in pigs fed DDGS-based diets. However, xylanase supplementation in dry wheat

  7. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique, ''thermoradiation'' to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge is described. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of (1) use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and (2) use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 650C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies

  8. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States

  9. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  10. Use of vitamin D supplements during infancy in an international feeding trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita;

    2014-01-01

    age). Less than 2% of infants in the U.S.A. and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the infants received vitamin D...... ages of 1 month and 6 months. SUBJECTS: Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia. RESULTS: Daily use of vitamin D...... supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the U.S.A. and Australia very few were given supplementation....

  11. Effect of strategic feed supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six experiments were carried out to study the effect of strategic supplementation during the critical period of the dry season on milk production and reproductive performance in two locations (Tucupido and Tucacas) in Venezuela. Fish meal as a source of undergrade protein was used in two experiments without significant biological responses on production or reproductive performance. However, in two other experiments using either fish meal or cotton-seed meal, higher milk production and improved reproductive performance were found in supplemented animals that had higher body condition at calving (e.g. 15.3 vs 13.3 kg milk/cow/day and 136 vs 200 days interval from calving to conception for cotton-seed supplemented cows with ≥ 2.5 body condition -Nird and non-supplemented cows with <2.5 body condition, P <0.05). In another experiment, cows were supplemented with multinutrient blocks (Urea-molasses blocks - UMB) in the pre-partum period and with undergrade protein during the post-partum period. There was an interaction between pre-partum supplementation and body condition. Cows with Nird <2.5 at calving and consuming UMB had an inferior reproductive response compared to those without blocks (days to resumption to ovarian cyclicity 90.2 vs 62.8, days open 140.4 vs 98.2, pregnancy rate at 200 days post-partum 60 vs 80, respectively, P<0.05). In the last experiment, lipid supplementation and calf rearing systems (restricted suckling and artificial rearing) were compared. Lipid supplementation did not affect production or reproductive performance whereas cows with restricted suckling had longer calving-conception intervals than cows without suckling (117.0 vs 93.0 days, P<0.05). (author). 29 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  13. Tambaqui responses to stress due to transport after feeding with b-glucan supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses to stress of tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum fed with β-glucan supplemented diet undergoing transportation in a closed system. To do so, tambaquis (35.06±0.80g; 11.8±0.09cm were fed with a β-glucan supplemented diet (0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.4; and 0.8%.kg-1 for 60 days. After this period, fishes were transported on road for 3h in a closed system. Responses to stress were evaluated through hormonal, biochemical, and hematological indicators within the following periods: before transportation, immediately after transportation, and 24 and 48h after transportation. Immediately after transportation, there was a significant increase in the plasma concentrations of cortisol and glucose in all treatments when compared to the concentration before transportation; there was an increase in the hemoglobin concentration in fishes fed without a b-glucan supplementation diet; and there was an increase in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin in fishes fed without supplementation or supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% of b-glucan. The results allowed us to establish that the hormonal, biochemical, and hematological changes occurred immediately after transportation, with return to the basal concentrations after 24h. β-glucan supplementation in the tambaqui diet wasn’t effective to relieve the responses to stress due to transport.

  14. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a con...

  15. Effects of multi-nutrient feed supplement in beef cattle on methane production, manure quality and rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the experiments was to determine the effect of a multi-nutrient feed supplement (MFS) on methane production, and the effect of processing on animal waste to produce compost to improve crop production. Methane is one of the gases that contribute towards global warming and a significant proportion of global methane is produced by rumen fermentation and the breakdown of animal waste. The first of the integrated experimental program carried was the effect of the additional MFS in corn leaf silage with concentrate diet compared to MFS in a low quality of basal diet (rice straw) with a concentrate in beef cattle. Rumen fermentation products including methane gas production were measured along with digestibility, and DLWG. The second phase of the experiment involved the measurement of manures for the nutrient content of the compost and the effect of compost applications on rice yield. The results of the Experiment 1 showed that MFS supplementation increase dry matter digestibility by 15.6%, feed consumption by 7.5%, DLWG by 200% and improve the feed conversion ratio by 187%. The enhanced nutrition improved microbial populations and decreasing methane product from 88.0 to 21.7 mM. The result of the in vitro study found that the feed commonly supplied by farmers to their animal could be improved by the use of MFS with methane production decreasing from 42 ml to 25 ml. An in vivo experiment using the same rations showed an increase of 5.9, 11.4, 6.6, 4.6, 26.4% in DM consumption, CP consumption, GE consumption, DM digestibility and DLWG, respectively, and improving feed efficiency by 21.3%. N total content of compost derived from control and MFS feeding treatments without and with improved manure management was 168, 156, 150 and 146 g/day. Compost application to paddy rice also increased rice yields 76.5% for dried rice harvesting, and 67.4% for dried rice milling. (author)

  16. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  17. The feeding value of the ration based on alfalfa haylage supplemented with high moisture corn in wether sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine the effects of high moisture corn (HMC supplementation to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N balance in wether sheep. The study consisted of three feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMC d-1kg-1 body weight of Suffolk wethers. Inclusion of HMC in the AH based ration had negative linear effects on acid detergent fibre (ADF intake (p<0.001 and digestibility (p<0.05 while a positive on the digestibility of dry matter (DM (p<0.05, organic matter (OM (p<0.01 and the digestibility of OM in DM (D-value (p<0.01. A positive associative response of AH and HMC was observed for DM and OM ad libitum intake (g kg-1M0.75d-1 (quadratic, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Negative linear effects of AH and HMC were observed for nitrogen (N intake (p<0.05. The inclusion of HMC into AH based ration did not influence N balance in wether sheep. It was concluded that a positive associative response of the two forages was recorded for a limited number of parameters, probably due to lower quality of HMC than required for improved utilization of the AH based ration.

  18. The Effect of Prebiotic and Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Wax Glands of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pătruică

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of acidifying substances (lactic acid or acetic acid, Enterobiotics products(Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14 and Bifidobacterium lactis BI-04 and Enterolactis Plus (Lactobacillus casei onthe wax glands of worker bees. The research was conducted in Timis County, Romania, between March 25 and April20, 2011, on 110 colonies of bees (Apis mellifera carpatica, allocated to 11 experimental treatment groups. Coloniesin the experimental groups were given three weekly feeds of sugar syrup supplemented with acidifying substances(lactic acid or cider vinegar and/or probiotic products (Enterobiotics or Enterolactis Plus. Three weeks after theadministration of the experimental diets, 10 worker bees from each treatment group were sampled for histologicalexamination of their wax glands. Gland development was shown to be influenced by administration of prebioticand/or probiotic supplements. Wax gland cell sizes ranged from 25.1 microns for the control group to between 27.8and 31.8 microns in the group fed with acidifying substances and between 26.9 and 29.2 microns in bees fed withprobiotic products. Bees supplemented with both lactic acid and probiotic product (group LE9 and LE10 showedmean wax cell sizes of 31.8 microns.

  19. Supplemental arginine administered in ovo or in the feed reduces the susceptibility of broilers to pulmonary hypertension syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, A; Haghighat, M; Khajali, F

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine if in ovo and in-feed arginine (ARG) supplementation is effective in the prevention of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens reared at high altitude. 2. In Experiment I, a total of 300 fertile eggs were divided into two equal groups. On d 5 of incubation, one group was injected with 0.5 ml of ARG (20 mg/ml) and the other remained untreated and served as controls. After hatching, male chicks (64 chickens per treatment) were selected and given a commercial maize-soyabean meal diet up to 48 d of age. 3. In Experiment II, a total of 128 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to two treatments, a control group that were fed on a basal diet that met ARG requirements and the second was fed on the basal diet supplemented with 1.5 g ARG per kg of diet. 4. Cumulative mortality from ascites was recorded in both experiments. Results from Experiment I indicated that in ovo injection of ARG significantly decreased ascites mortality of broilers (18.8 vs. 43.8%). Results from Experiment II showed a similar effect so that ascites mortality in the group that were given Arg supplement was significantly lower than the control (28.1 vs. 43.8%). PMID:24286504

  20. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  1. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters. PMID:18777140

  2. High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of carbadox and pyrantel tartrate in swine feed and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowie, D M; Teague, R T; Quick, F E; Foster, C L

    1983-05-01

    A rapid yet reliable procedure for the simultaneous extraction and assay of carbadox and pyrantel tartrate is described. The feed is extracted with water-acetonitrile-methanol and cleaned up on a short alumina column. The eluant is separated by high pressure liquid chromatography and the compounds are detected at different wavelengths. The drugs of interest are well resolved in all feeds studied. The procedure has also been applied to a wide range of feeds which contained either one of the drugs or both in combination. No significant interferences were observed. Spiked sample recoveries were 97% for carbadox and 101% for pyrantel tartrate. Ruggedness test coefficients of variation were 2.0% for carbadox and 2.1% for pyrantel tartrate. PMID:6863181

  3. Vitamin D supplementation prevents hypocalcemia and cortical bone loss associated with chronic feeding in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary cholecalciferol supplementation alone or combined with calcium has shown great promise in improving bone health, which has been attributed to endocrine actions involved in calcium regulation and/or paracrine/autocrine actions within bone. Indeed, we and others have suggested that dietary su...

  4. Feed intake, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed a diet supplemented with soluble fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Bodas, Raúl; López, Secundino; Rodríguez, Ana Belén; Andrés, Sonia; Mantecón, Ángel R; Giráldez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Merino lambs (8-9 weeks of age and 15.3 +/- 0.13 kg of initial liveweight) were used to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of 120 g sugar beet pulp (replacing barley) and the addition of 20 g sodium bicarbonate per kg concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, animal performance and carcass characteristics in fattening lambs. Animals were housed individually and fed barley straw and the corresponding experimental concentrate feed ad libitum [ basal diet composed of (g/kg) barley...

  5. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  6. Enzyme Supplementation of Broiler Feeds with Reduced Mineral and Energy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating enzyme blends on the performance, carcass traits, and bone mineralization of broilers. In total, 928 one-day-old Cobb 500 male chicks of were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 29 birds each was adopted. The evaluated treatments were: 1- Positive Control (PC, feed containing the nutritional recommendations of the genetic company's manual; 2- Negative Control (NC, feed with reductions of 75 kcal/kg AME and 0.10 and 0.12 percent points of phosphorus and calcium, respectively; 3 - NC + enzyme blend (amylase + b-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase; 250 g/t of feed and 4 - NC + enzyme complex (phytase, amylase, xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease; 200 g/t of feed. Birds fed the diet with reduced nutrient levels (NC presented the worst performance (p0.05 carcass or parts yields. The broilers fed the reduced-nutrient and energy diet presented lower (p<0.05 tibial ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents that the other treatments. The use of enzyme combinations improved the performance of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient and energy levels.

  7. A Comprehensive Review on Physiological and Nutritional Properties of Prebiotics as Poultry Feed Supplement - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/comprehe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Ganguly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the effect of dietary prebiotics viz., dietary organic acid (OA supplements, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS and β-glucan supplementation on different body growth parameters of poultry birds at their various growing stages. The article stresses on the effect on live body weight gain, dressing percentage, weight of vital organs and muscles and mean villus lengths in digestive tract of poultry birds along with their application as growth promoters in commercial poultry feed.

  8. Effects of inclusion of poultry by-product meal and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation in grower diets on performance and feed digestibility of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpinar, F; Açikgöz, Z; Bozkurt, M; Ayhan, V

    2004-04-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of poultry by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation on grower diet digestibility and the performance of broilers. 2. Six grower diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using three graded levels of poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of the diet with and without supplementation of enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne of feed and prebiotic preparation at the rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The experimental diets were used from 3 to 6 weeks of age. 3. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by poultry by-product; however, enzyme-prebiotic had a significant positive effect on feed conversion efficiency at 0 to 6 weeks in experiment 1. 4. Crude protein digestibility was decreased by feeding the diet containing poultry by-product while ether extract digestibility was increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 25 g per kg of feed only. Dry matter retention, crude fibre digestibility and organic matter retention were not affected by poultry by-product. Dry matter and organic matter retentions, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre digestibilities were not affected by enzyme-prebiotic. 5. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 40 g per kg of feed and addition of enzyme-prebiotic. PMID:15222425

  9. Effect of feeding maize silage supplemented with concentrate and legume hay on growth in Nellore ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Malisetty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main intension of this research work is to develop a feeding system for growing Nellore ram lambs by feeding maize silage based rations supplemented with concentrate and or legume hay at certain levels to investigate the growth rate. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (Nellore ram lambs were purchased from local sandy and maize silage was prepared at village by using silos (9''L X 9''W X 8''D and concentrate mixture was prepared at feed mill located at department by using locally available ingredients. Animals were housed in well ventilated sheds and were dewormed and vaccinated against diseases. Fortnightly body weights were taken by using spring balance and calculated the total weight gain and ADG. The experimental animals were divided into seven groups based on their body weight to contain six in each and were fed intensively for five months with sole maize silage (R-I, silage + concentrate at 0.5 per cent body weight (R-II, silage + concentrate at 1.0 per cent body weight (R-III, silage + concentrate at 1.5 per cent body weight (R-IV, silage + lucerne hay (R-V and silage + GN haulms (R-VI and sweet sorghum bagasse based complete diet (R-VII to study the growth rate. Results: Significantly (P<0.01 increase in ADG was observed in ram lambs fed R-IV ration was 16.58, 20.49, 24.10, 29.74, 38.28 and 62.01 per cent, respectively in comparison to those fed R-VII, R-V, R-III, R-VI, R-II and R-I rations. Almost similar ADG was noticed in lambs fed R-III, R-V and R-VII rations and the supplementation of concentrate at 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of body weight plus maize silage ad lib has increased the growth/gain in ram lambs by 62.48, 99.81 and 163.25 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole silage feeding. Similarly, supplementation of lucerne hay and groundnut haulms with maize silage has increased the weight gain by 109.31 and 84.97 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole maize silage fed animals. Sole sweet sorghum bagasse

  10. Research and application of radiation degraded chitosan for poultry feed supplement to enhance efficiency in raising chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiated chitosan in dry flek form was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The obtained results showed that the molecular weight of chitosan after irradiation was decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. Chitosans were irradiated of 20-30 kGy their molecular weight was 282 kDa and 10 kDa at dose of 300 kGy. The effect of irradiated chitosan on the growth development and the survival ratio of breeding chickens in the process were also studied. Field test results showed that the chicken feed supplemented by 300 ppm chitosan with molecular weight of 282 kDa, the weight of chickens increased by 113% and survival ratio was 100% while the normal survival ratio was only 93.34%. (author)

  11. Feed Supplementation with Thermo-Tolerant, Lactic Acid-Producing Bacteria as Probiotics for Swine Husbandry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research work had an objective to employ the thermo tolerant, lactic acid-producing bacteria, Bacillus coagulans strain NF17 as feed additive for swine raising. The bacterial isolate NF17, kept in the culture collection of Khon Kaen University that could tolerate high temperature and produce lactic acid, was employed in this experiment. Cell suspension of isolate NF17 was exposed to gamma irradiation at various doses (1-5 KGy). The isolated survivors were screened on the basis of forming larger colonies and clear zones than the parent strain NF17 when grown on Glucose- Yeast extract-Peptone (GYP) containing CaCO3. We obtained 55 effective isolates which the isolate L5I2 to 14(5), designated as K14 was chosen for further experiments. Isolate K14 together with the parent strain were characterized using morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. They were all identified as Bacillus coagulans. All isolates had optimal growth pH of 6.5 and grew best at 42.50 oC. The strain K14 could tolerate the temperature as high as 59 oC and was then employed in the fermentation of food waste that collected from the university cafeteria. It was found that food waste could support growth of Bacillus K14 and produce about 107 to 108 CFU/g food waste within 1-3 days. Nutritional value of the fermented food waste in the form of protein was also increased. When mixing this selected bacterium as feed additive in daily pig rations, it was found that Bacillus K14 helped increase feed conversion ratio and reduced the mortality in weaned piglets. Experiments were also performed with the growing pigs. It showed that Bacillus Sp. K14 significantly improved the feed conversion ratio

  12. Examination of facilitators and barriers to home-based supplemental feeding with ready-to-use food for underweight children in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Scott Bradley; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Myhre, Jennifer A; Adair, Linda S; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Handa, Sudhanshu; Bentley, Margaret E; Ammerman, Alice S

    2012-01-01

    Poor complementary feeding practices and low-quality complementary foods are significant causes of growth faltering and child mortality throughout the developing world. Ready-to-use foods (RUF) are energy-dense, lipid-based products that do not require cooking or refrigeration that have been used to prevent and treat malnutrition among vulnerable children. The effectiveness of these products in improving child nutritional status depends on household use by caregivers. To identify the key facilitators and barriers that influence appropriate in-home RUF consumption by supplemental feeding program beneficiaries, we conducted individual interviews among caregivers (n = 80), RUF producers (n = 8) and program staff (n = 10) involved in the Byokulia Bisemeye mu Bantu supplemental feeding program in Bundibugyo, Uganda. By documenting caregiver perceptions and feeding practices related to RUF, we developed a conceptual framework of factors that affect appropriate feeding with RUF. Findings suggest that locally produced RUF is well received by caregivers and children, and is perceived by caregivers and the community to be a healthy supplemental food for malnourished children. However, child feeding practices, including sharing of RUF within households, compromise the nutrient delivery to the intended child. Interventions and educational messages informed by this study can help to improve RUF delivery to targeted beneficiaries. PMID:22136223

  13. Chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives (chito-oligosaccharides) as feed supplements in poultry and swine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Wlosek, A; Jozefiak, D

    2015-02-01

    Chitosan is a non-toxic polyglucosamine, widespread in nature, which is deacetylated to varying degrees form of chitin, a component of exoskeleton of shrimps, crabs and insects. Because chitosan contains reactive functional groups, that is, amino acids and hydroxyl groups, it is characterised by antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, antitumor, immunostimulatory and hypocholesterolemic properties when fed as dietary additive for farm animals. This article reviews and discusses the results of studies on the effects of dietary chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives on performance and metabolic response in poultry and pigs, that is, haematological, biochemical and immunological blood characteristics, microbiological profile of intestines, intestinal morphology and digestibility of nutrients, as well as on the quality of meat and eggs. The results of most of the experiments presented in this review indicate that chitosan used as a feed additive for poultry and pigs has some beneficial, biological effects, including immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, antimicrobial and hypocholesterolemic properties. These properties of chitosan, unlike many other kinds of feed additives, were often reflected in improved growth performance (body weight gain and/or feed conversion ratio) of young animals, that is, broiler chickens and weaned pigs. PMID:25041091

  14. In Vitro Test of Feed Supplements Quality in Urea Multi nutrient Molase Block (UMMB) Derived from Several Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted due to the huge number of UMMB manufacturers in the suburbs, using local supplements which feed quality is not yet known. Feed supplements of UMMB came from P3TIR as sample A (from soy sauce dregs), and sample B (from soy oil cake), South Sulawesi, Bali, Bandung, Padang as Saka Block, Wonosobo, Sleman, Blora, Malang, and Boyolali. Quality parameters which are measured are dry matter (DM), crude fibre (CF), crude fatty acid (CFA), Ash, crude protein (CP), Ca, P, NaCl and comparison of bacterium and protozoa ratio with 32P. Result of analysis shows highest ash content (mineral) of UMMB was found in soy oil cake of P3TIR, which is equal to 28.88% Saka block from Padang is the lowest which is equal to 11.94%. The highest crude protein is from P3TIR and the lowest is from Malang equal to 32.21 and 5.21 % respectively. The highest crude fibre is form Blora 15.55% and Malang is lowest 4.83. The highest crude fat is from soy sauce dregs from P3TIR 9.43 and Bandung is the lowest with 0.81. The highest ratio of bacterium and protozoa of UMMB come from Malang 27 : 1 and the lowest is from Boyolali 2 : 1 and in grass 0.25 : 1. Source of protein mostly comes from coconut oil cakes. All energy source come from, brans, with dried cassava flour added, milled maize seed, waste of tapioca etc. While for mineral source used are TSP, agriculture calcify, sulfur and there are some added with scallop-shell or prawn-head. (author)

  15. Effects of supplemental feeding on survivorship, reproduction, and dispersal in San Joaquin kit foxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Previous field studies at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California indicated that a decline in tie population size of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox might be linked to declining prey abundance. To evaluate whether kit fox populations we limited by food resources; survival probabilities, sources of mortality, reproductive success, and dispersal rates were compared between foxes with access to supplemental food and foxes without access to supplemental food (controls). Of foxes born in 1988, the probabilities of supplementary fed foxes surviving to age one and age two were higher than corresponding probabilities of control foxes. Survival probabilities of fed foxes from the 1988 cohort also were higher than the average survival probabilities of foxes born in the previous eight years. Most foxes that died during their first year of life died in June, July, or August. Monthly probabilities of survival were higher for fed pups than control pups curing the months of July and August of 1988. Survival probabilities of fed foxes originally r captured as adults and fed foxes born in 1989 were not significantly different than survival probabilities of corresponding control groups. Most foxes for which a cause of death could be determined were lolled by predators. Average dispersal distances were not significantly different between fed and control groups but the two longest dispersal distances were made by control foxes. These results indicate that food availability affects survival, reproduction, and dispersal by kit foxes and provides evidence that kit fox populations may at times be limited by food abundance.

  16. Feeding Supplemental Iodine to Adult Mink;Effect on Thyroid Hormones in Adult and offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RossE.Jones; RichardJ.Aulerich; 等

    1993-01-01

    We fed adult mink diets containing supplemental iodine,from o 50 320ppm,for one or seven months prior to breeding.Bllod samples collected from the adults and their offspring(kits)at 4wk post-partum were assayed for total thyroxine(T4),triiodothyronine(T3),reverse T3(rT3),and T4-binding indices.As expected T4 concentrations of the adult and kit mink varied inversely with the level of supplemental iodine.In addition,T3 and r T3 concentrations decreased gradually in kits from the long-term experiment in response to the increased dietary iodine of the dams.T3 concentrations of kits from dams fed iodine short-term decreased markedly while r T3 concentrations were elevated greatly in response to increased dietary iodine of the dam.These decreases in hormone levels are due to serum odine blocking the thyroid uptake of iodine and subsequent decrease of hormone synthesis,Excess iodine may also block the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone.The T4-binding indices of the adults,in general,were depressed,while the T4-binding indices of the kits were more variable.These effects are probably due to fluctuations in thyroglobulin.

  17. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  18. Effect of in-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde and caprylic acid on chicken cecal microbiome in response to Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen causing enteric illnesses in humans, with undercooked eggs and poultry meat as the primary sources of infection. Our previous research revealed that in-feed supplementation of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status, natural compounds,...

  19. Effect of chamomile supplements to feeding doses on antimicrobial parameters in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to a ban of use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry it is necessary to look for alternative solutions. The use of some herbs showing antimicrobial effects can be one of such alternatives. In this experiment, effects of three different concentrations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla extract, (0.3%; 0.6% and 1.2% in feeding doses on the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chickens were studied. The main attention was paid to the population of Clostridium perfringens and to numbers of coliform microbes. Clostridia were cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 46 °C on the Tryptone Sulfite Neomycin (TSN agar for a period of 24 hours. Coliform microbes were grown on the violet red bile lactose (VRBL agar at 37 °C for a period of 24 hours. The experiment lasted 39 days and involved 80 chicks that were slaughtered in the course of their growth period at the age of 18, 25, 32 and 39 days; there were 5 chicks in each group. The obtained results indicated that increasing doses of chamomile in the feeding ration decreased numbers of coliform microbes in the digestive tract of chicks and also reduced the population of C. perfingens.

  20. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  1. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  2. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  3. Antioxidant protection of proteins and lipids in processed pork loin chops through feed supplementation with avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Galindo-García, Jorge; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the impact of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins during pork processing. Loins from control (fed basic diet) and treated pigs (fed on avocado-supplemented diet) were roasted (102 °C/20 min) and subsequently packed in trays wrapped with oxygen-permeable films and chilled at 4 °C for 12 days. At each processing stage (raw, cooked and cooked & chilled), pork samples from both groups were analyzed for the concentration of TBARS, the loss of tryptophan and free thiols, and the formation of protein carbonyls, disulphide bonds and Schiff bases. Processing led to a depletion of tryptophan and sulfur-containing amino acids and an increase of lipid and protein oxidation products. Dietary avocado was not able to protect against the oxidation of tryptophan and thiols but cooked & chilled loins from treated pigs had significantly lower concentration of lipid and protein carbonyls than control counterparts. Likewise, dietary avocado alleviated the formation of Schiff bases during cooking. These results illustrate the benefits of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of processed pork loins. PMID:27478235

  4. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  5. The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

  6. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers. PMID:25865420

  7. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  8. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htoo, Nay Nang; Khaing, Aung Tun; Abba, Yusuf; Htin, Nwe Nwe; Abdullah, Jesse Faez Firdaus; Kyaw, Than; Khan, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (pkids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (pkids. PMID:27065636

  9. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2, 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3 and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4. The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001 higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001 also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.3 kg. The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05 higher than those reared in the control (T1 (54.0 g/goat/day and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4 had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good

  10. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  11. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filt...

  12. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with ...

  13. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  14. Sustainable improvement of livestock production through strategic supplementation with urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) and other feed resources available in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are a vital source of meat and milk, and livestock production is an integral part of agriculture in Pakistan. The ruminant feeding system is based on low quality roughages that can be improved by creating conditions in the rumen for maximizing fibre digestion. A solidified urea-molasses multi-nutrient Block (UMMB), prepared with commonly available, cheap ingredients to provide critical nutrients for microbial fermentation, was formulated and tested. Another constraint to livestock production is the scarcity and fluctuation of quality and quantity of animal feed supply throughout the year. To overcome these problems, particularly in salt-affected wastelands, non-conventional and low-cost feed resources require evaluation. The present project attempts to introduce new management practices based on proven technologies for improvement of productivity and reproductive efficiency of livestock. Pilot farms were selected to evaluate the effects of UMMB feeding and various studies conducted on cattle and buffalo have shown its positive effects. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in improvements in intake of low quality roughages, digestibility, weight gain, milk production and resumption of post-partum oestrus. Supplementation of animals raised on low quality fodders with UMMB may be an alternative to other forms of supplementation especially when these become unavailable or too expensive. The cheapest source of nitrogen as well as of energy available has proved to be UMMB. The UMMB technology can also be utilized for the control of parasites in livestock through its potential as a carrier of anthelmintics, traditional herbal medicines and plants with anthelmintic properties. Effectiveness of medicated UMMB feed blocks to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goat was tested. The medicated UMMB and conventional anthelmintics were both found to be highly effective but conventional therapies were thought to be most appropriate for application in most

  15. Antimicrobial ability and growth promoting effects of feed supplemented with probiotic bacterium isolated from gut microlfora of Cirrhinus mrigala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita Bhatnagar; Ritu Lamba

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to isolate, select, identify and characterize gut bacteria as antimicrobial and growth promoting agent for the feed of economical y important ifsh Cirrhinus mrigala. Intestinal microlfora were isolated, counted, and identiifed, and their in vitro antibacterial properties were determined. The results have revealed that occurrence of Gram-negative rods was around 75%and of Gram-positive rods was 25%. Among the isolates Gram-positive were main-tained in nutrient agar slants at 4°C. Of these, eight strains were replica-plated on agar seeded with Aeromonas hydrophila and only one strain CM2 (C. mrigala 2) exhibited antibacterial properties in vitro showing inhibition against ifsh pathogen by wel diffusion assay. This isolated strain was identiifed as Bacil us cereus. This bacterium was mass cultured and incorpo-rated in the pel eted diet (40%protein and 18 kJ g–1 gross energy) of C. mrigala to investigate its effect on growth perfor-mance, digestibility, nutrient retention and activities of digestive enzymes. The results of feeding trial revealed signiifcantly (P<0.05) high growth performance in terms of speciifc growth rate, growth percent gain in body weight (BD) (272.4±1.5)%, high apparent protein digestibility ((79.9±0.30)%) and low food conversion ratio in the group of ifshes fed on diet containing B. cereus in comparison to the ifshes fed on diet without probiotics. The carcass composition also revealed high accumula-tion of proteins ((15.28±0.15) g 100 g–1) in ifshes fed on diet containing probiotics. Intestinal enzyme activities of protease, amylase and cel ulase were also signiifcantly (P<0.05) high in the group of ifshes fed on diet supplemented with probiotics indicating the extracel ular enzyme production by B. cereus. These results indicate that probiotics stimulate the digestion through the supply of digestive enzyme and certain essential nutrients to animals. Also signiifcantly (P<0.05) low excretion of

  16. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...... collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition...

  17. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  18. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  19. Extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth using inexpensive contraptions, and the use of the VFAs as feed supplements in conventional biogas digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar Ganesh, P.; Ramasamy, E.V.; Gajalakshmi, S.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Univ., Pondicherry (India). Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed and a readily available organic waste which can be fermented anaerobically. However, it cannot be fed to conventional biogas digesters because the phytomass is lighter than water and therefore floats on top of the digester contents and clogs the digester. This study used a simple and low-cost apparatus to extract volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth. The VFAs were then used as a supplement feed in cow dung-fed floating dome biogas digesters which are widely used in third World countries. The objective was to provide such digesters with feed derived from phytomass, particularly for times when animal dung is in short supply. The extraction of VFA occurs by aerobic degradation of water hyacinth. Methanogenesis takes place when the VFAs are fed into the biogas digesters, resulting in methane rich biogas. This newly developed VFA extraction method enables phytomass to be used as a feed supplement for biogas digesters without the adverse effects of solid accumulation, frothing or clogging that occurs with phytomass feed. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Evaluation of Rice Bran and Wheat Bran as Supplemental Feed Compared to a Commercial Feed for Monoculture of GIFT Strain of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Sakhawat; HOSSAIN Md. Arshad; MAMUN Md. Abdullah-Al; ALI Md. Zulfikar; BULBUL Mahbuba; Koshio, Shunsuke; Kader, Md. Abdul; コシオ, シュンスケ; 越塩, 俊介

    2011-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of rice bran and wheat bran as supplementary feed in comparison to a commercial feed for monoculture of GIFT strain of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets such as commercial tilapia diet, rice bran, wheat bran, and a mixture of rice bran and wheat bran (50:50) were assigned to four treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Triplicate groups of fish (initial mean weight 2.80 g) were delivered the test diet...

  1. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N

    1999-07-01

    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P effect of time and treatment on the glucose response, but there was no difference between treatments at the first and last tests or between the results for these tests or between the endAC and endHF tests. No significant effect of treatment or time was seen on the TOL glucose response (% change from Time '0') although there was a trend for the glucose concentrations to be lower and the insulin responses higher (nonsignificant) in the S treatment group. No significant effect of treatment on haematological parameters, monitored monthly, was found. Total protein and gamma glutamyl transferase remained within the normal range throughout. There was a significant effect of treatment (P effect of time. Overall, the total resting plasma fatty acid content was significantly higher (P effects of feeding either diet on apparent coat condition or

  2. The effect of grape seed extract and vitamin C feed supplementation on some blood parameters and HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens suffering from chronic heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosna Hajati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of hydroalcoholic grape seed extract (GSE and vitamin C feed supplementation on some blood parameters and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens suffering from chronic heat stress was investigated. Experimental diets included control diet (with no additive, 3 levels of GSE (150, 300, 450 mg/kg, and one level of vitamin C (300 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to 5 replicates of 12 male chicks each, from d 1 to 42. The birds suffered from chronic daily heat stress under 34±1°C temperature with 65 to 70% relative humidity for 5 h from 29 to 42 d of age. Results showed that 300 mg/kg GSE supplementation increased body weight of broilers both before and after heat stress condition (at 28 and 42 d, respectively. Also, birds fed 300 mg GSE/kg diet had higher European production efficiency factor during the whole period of the experiment. Supplementation of GSE decreased the concentration of serum glucose at 28 and 42 d; at 42 d (during heat stress condition and at 450 mg/kg diet it decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, lowand very low density lipoprotein concentration of serum blood. Vitamin C supplementation decreased serum cholesterol concentration of broilers suffering from heat stress. HSP70 gene expression in heart and liver of broilers reduced by GSE and vitamin C supplementation pre- and during chronic heat stress condition.

  3. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  4. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus, and green mungbeans (Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  5. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans ((Phaseolus aureus,and green mungbeans ((Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  6. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    processing which are intended to improve the performance of pellet binders, and have directly saved energy by increasing filtration rates of the pelletization feed by as much as 23%.

  7. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    This study compared physiological, health, and productive parameters in dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (OMN; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the transition period. Thirty-eight nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (n=19) or not (CON; n=19) OMN at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis) beginning 35 d before expected date of calving. Before calving, cows were maintained in single drylot pen with ad libitum access to corn silage, and received (as-fed basis) 3kg/cow daily of a concentrate. After calving, cows were moved to an adjacent drylot pen, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after both milkings. Cows received OMN individually as top-dressing in the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -35 relative to expected calving date. After calving and until 46 d in milk, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded, and milk samples were collected daily for total solids and somatic cell count analyses. Blood was sampled daily from 0 to 7 d in milk, every other day from 9 to 21 d in milk, and every 5 d from 26 to 46 d in milk. On 30 and 46 d in milk, cows were evaluated for endometritis via cytobrush technique, based on % of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in 100 total cell count (PMN + endometrial cells). On 48.7±1.6 d in milk, 9 cows/treatment received a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (0.25μg/kg of BW), and blood was sampled hourly from -2 to 8 h, at 12-h intervals from 12 to 72 h, and at 24-h intervals form 96 to 120 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment differences were detected on BW, BCS, serum concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose, haptoglobin, cortisol, and

  8. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  9. Effects of phytoestrogen supplementation in the feed on the shell gland of laying hens at the end of the laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistedt, A; Ridderstråle, Y; Wall, H; Holm, L

    2012-08-01

    Shell quality decreases as laying hens age and the aim of present study was to investigate how a supplement of daidzein, a natural phytoestrogen in soya, affects key factors in the shell gland and eggshell quality in late-stage laying hens. Hybrids of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB), received either a daidzein diet (50 mg/kg feed) or a control diet from 60 to 72 weeks of age. Both the total number of capillaries and capillaries with carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity were higher in the LSL hybrid than in the LB. After daidzein supplementation the number of CA positive capillaries was unaffected in the LSL but increased in the LB hybrid indicating a higher sensitivity to daidzein in this hybrid. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ) were localized and the complete picture of the two ERs can now be described in shell gland of domestic hens. Nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was generally stronger for ERβ, while membrane associated staining was present only for ERα. Interestingly, capillary endothelium contained only ERβ and since estrogen regulation of CA is well documented, the presence of an endothelial ER provides one possible route for the increase in CA positive capillaries found in LB hybrids. Eggshell quality or egg production was not affected by daidzein supplementation. The hybrids used in this study showed anatomical differences and reacted differently to daidzein supplementation, but if this can be explained by the divergences in ERβ localization noted between the hybrids remains to be clarified. PMID:22835656

  10. Environmental assessment of Ronozyme (R) p5000 CT phytase as an alternative to inorganic phosphate supplementation to pig feed used in intensive pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    used as an alternative to inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Methods. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling of...... intensive pig production is justified by major advantages in terms of avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural...

  11. Environmental Assessment of Ronozyme® P5000 CT Phytase as an Alternative to Inorganic Phosphate Supplementation to Pig Feed Used in Intensive Pig Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling of the two considered systems is...... avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural land use for enzyme production is small and unimportant unless use of...

  12. Radiosotopic assay and binder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and less costly radioisotopic assay for measuring the concentration of folate in blood serum is described. This procedure utilizes 3H-pteroylmonoglutamate, unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and a partially purified folate binder, such as for example a folate binder extracted from hog kidney. The procedure involves radioisotopically relating the bound amounts of a labeled folate and a known folate at various concentrations of the known folate in a system containing a predetermined amount of the labeled folate, a predetermined amount of the binder factor for the folates, and a predetermined amount of defolated test serum. 16 claims, 8 drawing figures

  13. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of Pulvis Curcuma Longa on the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and Growth performance of Broiler rabbits under summer stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj

    Full Text Available Eighteen four weeks’ old weaned Broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with Turmeric (Curcuma longa Rhizoid Powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mg and T2 ( basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Feeding cum growth trial and digestion trial were during summer months of April, May and June to study voluntary feed intake, growth rate and nutrient utilization by the experimental animals. TRP included in the diets of experimental groups consisting 6.72 % CP, 5.04% ether extract, 3.96% crude fibre, 7.85% total ash. Depression in voluntary feed intake due to summer stress did not alter due to the inclusion of turmeric powder. The weekly mean body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of nutrients did not show significant difference by the supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder in the diets of rabbit in present study. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 369-372

  15. Dietary supplementation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum preventing streptococcal disease during first-feeding of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdan Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary cumin (Cuminum cyminum powder (CP as a feed additive on growth performance and disease resistance during first-feeding of Mozamique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isocaloric (18.9 kj g-1 diets were formulated to contain 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0% CP. In a 45-day feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L were stocked with 40 fry (0.012 ± 0.001 g each. After feeding experiment, fish were infected with Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that a dietary CP level of 1.14% provided the best survival rate challenge infection with S. iniae, growth performance and feed utilization. In conclusion, CP can be used as growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in tilapia fry, and it can be also used as an antimicrobial agent during first-feeding of O. mossambicus. Therefore, CP can be suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture.

  16. Supplementation with different energy and protein sources on the feeding behavior and performance of dairy heifers grazing Marandu during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation different energy and protein sources in the dry season of the year, on body development and diurnal feeding behavior of crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy heifers 12.8 ± 4.6 months old, 215.50 ± 43.2 kg average body weight were distributed in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture with supplements being offered daily in proportion of 0.75% of the body weight. A completely randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used, with six replicates per treatment. Supplements contained whole soybean (WS or whole cottonseed (WC as the protein sources and citrus pulp (CPU or corn (C as the energy sources. Marandu grass pasture was managed according a rotational grazing system, six days grazing and 30 days of rest period. It was recorded the animals weight, height at withers, heart girt, rump length and corporal score after the grazing cycle. The considered behavioral variables were grazing time, ruminating time, idle time, trough time. No significant differences on the initial, heart girt, height at withers, rump length and corporal score final and initial to protein and energy sources. However, a significant effect was observed (P<0.05 in heifers supplemented with WC had greater final body weight and heart girt and average daily gain live weight (271.1 kg, 152.2 cm and 0.382 kg/animal, respectively in comparison to those with WS (251.1 kg, 148.7 cm and 0.255 kg/animal, respectively. The CPU base supplement resulted in smaller grazing time and greater ruminating and idle time (P>0.05. The WS base supplemented animals had kept lesser time eating supplement in comparison to the WC base supplemented ones (P<0.05, with no variation in grazing, rumination or idle times regarding protein font (P>0.05. The hour of the day influenced all the considered behaviors (P<0.01.

  17. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  18. 鱼油在鲤饲料中的适宜用量%Optimum level of fish oil supplementation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任泽林; 郭庆; 霍启光; 卢建军

    2001-01-01

    在高蛋白质半纯化饲料中分别添加0、30、50、70、90 g/kg的未加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油,投喂58 g左右2龄鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鱼种46 d,结果表明:添加新鲜鱼油量为30 g/kg时,鲤生产性能最佳;鲤肝体比(HSI)、肝胰脏脂肪含量、肌肉营养不良症和肌肉渗出性损失随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续上升,而肌肉和肾脏氧化稳定性则随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续下降,当添加鱼油量升至30、70、70、50、70、70 g/kg时,上述6项指标与对照组差异显著(P<0.05)。综合各项指标,未添加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油在高蛋白质鲤饲料中适宜用量以不超过30 g/kg为宜。%Juvenile carp of 58 g were fed a high protein semi-purified feed supplemented with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 g/kg fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant (Peroxide value,POV,0.64 mmol/kg ) for 46 days. The results showed that the carp had the best performance at 30 g/kg supplementation of fish oil. With the increment of fish oil supplementation, hepatopancreas somatic indices (HSI), fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy and muscular exudative losses were increased, while oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney were reduced. There were significant differences in fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy, and oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney between the control group (no fish oil supplementation) and the 70 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). HSI of the control group was significantly different with that at 30 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the muscular exudative losses was significantly different at 50 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups(P<0.05). In conclusion, fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant should be supplemented in carp feed with high protein at no more than 30 g/kg.

  19. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate

  20. Binding Autobiographies: Torah Binders Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Oicherman, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis investigates contemporary textile practice and its links to traditional forms of textile art. It focuses on the 19th century German circumcision binders (“Jewishing cloths”), ceremonial Torah scroll wrappings, which documented male births. The case study examines images on the seams of a 1836 binder, showing that the seams acted as a transitional territory, where the embroiderer consciously played around with traditional images, transposing the concern with birth and fertility into...

  1. Soybean meal enriched with microelements by biosorption--a new biological feed supplement for laying hens. Part I. Performance and egg traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Z; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Świniarska, M; Saeid, A; Opaliński, S; Dobrzański, Z

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of soybean meal enriched with Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) by biosorption on egg traits (egg weight, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, yolk colour, albumen height) and performance of laying hens. Also, the effect of increased microelement doses in biological form on egg quality parameters and hens performance was investigated. A consumer questionnaire was undertaken to evaluate the organoleptic parameters of the eggs. Generally, our study showed that in the groups fed with the new biological supplement, egg quality parameters improved, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, albumen height and yolk colour. The biological form of microelements also improved the feed conversion rate, especially in the group fed with a biological form of Cr(III). Moreover, the new supplement improved organoleptic parameters of the eggs, in comparison to the inorganic form of microelements as well as to chelate. Enriched soybean meal could constitute an alternative for currently used feed additives with microelements. PMID:24423506

  2. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p garlic powder decreased the blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-esterified fatty acids (p garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. PMID:26608665

  3. In vitro sensitivity of poultry Brachyspira intermedia isolates to essential oil components and in vivo reduction of Brachyspira intermedia in rearing pullets with cinnamaldehyde feed supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, M; Pasmans, F; Mahu, M; Vande Maele, L; De Pauw, N; Yang, Z; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

    2013-05-01

    Cecal enteritis due to Brachyspira infections tends to be chronic in laying hens. Limited availability of antimicrobial drugs for use in laying hens emphasizes the need for alternative control measures. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia field isolates from laying hen flocks to components of essential oils (EO). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions, obtained for 8 EO components, were all monomodal. Cinnamaldehyde had the lowest MIC values (40 to 80 mg/L), followed by nerolidol, capsaicin, carvacrol, and thymol (80 to 320 mg/L), eugenol (160 to 640 mg/L), and linalool (320 to 1,280 mg/L). The MIC ranges of piperine were mostly above the test range of 1,280 mg/L. In an in vivo experiment, coated trans-cinnamaldehyde was supplemented to the feed of rearing pullets. A completely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates each (replicate = group of seven 1-d-old laying hen chickens) was applied. The negative and positive controls received a conventional feed during the whole trial. The positive controls were orally inoculated on 3 consecutive days (d 22, 23, and 24) with 1 mL of 1.0 × 10(8) cfu/mL of a B. intermedia field isolate. Two treatment groups (preventive and curative), identically inoculated, received the coated trans-cinnamaldehyde-supplemented feed (500 mg/kg of trans-cinnamaldehyde), the preventive group from d 1, the curative from d 25. On d 32, ceca were collected for bacteriologic Brachyspira enumeration. The mean enumeration of Brachyspira cells was decreased (P poultry Brachyspira isolates, including isolates with acquired resistance for classic antimicrobial drugs. Reduction of Brachyspira colonization in young pullets was obtained, in a curative way, in an in vivo study using feed supplemented with coated trans-cinnamaldehyde. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mode of action of the coated trans-cinnamaldehyde in reducing

  4. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime;

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar...... rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high......-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  5. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (Pacids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (Pacid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (Pacids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health. PMID:26051447

  6. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  7. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  8. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Nutritional strategies for ruminants fed on local feed supplemented with molasses multi-nutrient blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)

  9. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  10. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, K L; Larsen, T; Svensson, C

    2012-01-01

    semi-parametric survival models (Cox proportional hazards models) controlling for the effect of parity, breed, calving season, milk yield and the clustering effect of herd. There was no difference in time to FLA between the cows in group C and in group GLY or PG. No differences in time to FAI or in...... 450 g GLY, 300 g PG or nothing (control, C). The supplements were given twice daily during 0–21 days in milk as a top dress on concentrates. Data on calving date, insemination dates, gynaecological examinations, as well as breed, parity and monthly milk yield were collected. From a subset of 308 cows...... in seven herds, milk samples for progesterone analysis were taken twice weekly and used to determine the time for onset of luteal activity. The effects of supplements on the intervals from calving to first luteal activity (FLA), first AI (FAI) and conception (CON), respectively, were analysed using...

  11. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V;

    2014-01-01

    vitamin E source is synthetic all-rac-α-tocopheryl acteate. The objective of the present study was to compare potential vitamin E and immune stimulant sources with synthetic vitamin E regarding bioactivity associated with immunological parameters in order to identify alternatives to synthetic vitamin E...... for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546 g...... Ascophylum nodosum/kg), natural vitamin E (NatE: 562.5 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), synthetic vitamin E (SyntE: 1125 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), or no extra seaweed or vitamin E (control). The supplements were fed at an isoenergetic daily rate, on average 144 g DM/ewe for SW and 114 g DM/ewe for...

  12. Supplemental Feeding for Ecotourism Reverses Diel Activity and Alters Movement Patterns and Spatial Distribution of the Southern Stingray, Dasyatis americana

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, Mark J.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D.; Chapman, Demian D.; Harvey, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world’s most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture...

  13. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  14. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Muhammad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%, T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%/kg feed. After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14% and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04% accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat. Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products.

  15. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  16. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  17. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.;

    2016-01-01

    plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might......There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post......-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85...

  18. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    in an oven for 24 hours. Before use, these pellets were grounded to powder form in a mixture and preserved in airtight containers for further use. The average weight of fry at the beginning of the experiment was recorded and 40 numbers of randomly... as unconventional source of plant proteins to develop suitable fish feeds (edwards et al., 1985; Devaraj et al., 1986). In tropical developing countries, where algal production rates are high, algae have been receiving increasing attention as an alternate protein...

  19. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  20. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera) Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron; I Made Damriyasa; Nyoman Adi Suratma

    2015-01-01

    Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR) and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of ani...

  1. Feeding Value and in vitro Digestibility of Date-Palm Leaves Supplemented with Different Supplementary Energy

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ziaei; S.M.M. Sharifi Hosseini

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding value and also the effect of different supplementary energy on increasing in vitro DM digestibility of date-palms leaves obtained in pruning. A randomized complete design with different energy supplementary with 3 replicates was conducted. Harvested date-palm leaves were air-dried, ground through a 5 mm screen, then palm leaves (L) ensiled with different levels of urea (U) and other supplementary energy. Combination, mixture was packed tightly...

  2. Effect of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental zinc and chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, B M; Edenburn, B M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2014-09-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn) and Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) to finishing steers on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Angus cross steers (n = 142; BW = 527 ± 14 kg) were blocked by BW into 4 blocks (6 pens/block, 5 to 6 steers/pen). Steers targeted at an average 12th rib back fat thickness of 1.3 cm via ultrasound, by block, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary supplements for the final 35 d of feeding before slaughter: 1) no supplementation, where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.82 and 0.98 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (CONT), 2) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride·steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.38 and 0.96 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC), or 3) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride, 1.0 g of Zn supplied as Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn), and 3 mg of Cr supplied as Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 159.73 and 1.25 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC+TM). All steers were fed the same basal diet of 20% corn silage, 20% dried distillers grains, 50% corn, and 10% mineral-vitamin supplement (DM basis). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a fixed effect of treatment and a random effect of block. Average daily gain and G:F were increased (P < 0.01) by 16% in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT. However, ADG and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.61) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Furthermore, HCW was increased (P = 0.04) by 1.87% (6.61 kg) in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT, whereas HCW was not different (P = 0.80) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Back fat thickness and marbling were not different (P ≥ 0.14) between steers fed RAC and CONT or (P ≥ 0.34) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Warner-Bratzler shear force tended to be greater (less tender; P = 0.06) in steers fed RAC when

  3. Supplementing an emissions tax by a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity to address learning spillovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of learning spillovers related to renewable energy technologies, an optimal strategy to mitigate climate change should complement an emissions tax by a subsidy for renewables. This article addresses the question how such subsidy should be designed. It is shown that the widely-used approach of a revenue-neutral fixed feed-in tariff can yield an optimal outcome under restrictive conditions only. It has to be adapted continuously as the electricity price changes. Moreover, funding the tariff by a surcharge on the electricity price has important implications for the design of the emission tax. The optimal tax rate has to be below the Pigovian level, differentiated across fossil fuels and adapted over time as the patterns of technological development change. These requirements may pose a formidable challenge for practical decision-making. However, it is important to point out that the eventual choices made with respect to the design and funding of a feed-in tariff have to be based on a careful and more comprehensive policy assessment, including, inter alia, economic effects beyond the electricity sector and existing institutional constraints. - Highlights: • Learning spillovers may warrant a combination of emissions and technology policies. • A revenue-neutral feed-in tariff can correct learning spillovers efficiently. • Optimal implementation of this approach is tedious in practice though. • Tariff and emissions tax have to be differentiated and adapted continuously. • Eventual policy decision depends on institutional constraints and economy-wide effects

  4. Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore

  5. The performance of village chickens in selected rural areas of Uganda, given Newcastle disease I-2 thermostable vaccine, Levamisole[registered] treatment and feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry health and management interventions for Newcastle disease, endo-parasite control and feed supplementation were introduced to a free-range poultry production system in six villages in two Agro-ecological zones of Uganda to improve chicken productivity. Newcastle disease vaccination using a locally produced I-2 thermostable vaccine of Embryo-infective dose (EID50) of 108 per ml and LaSota cold chain vaccine of Embryo infective dose (EID50) of 109 ml, one for each zone, where given to chickens by the eye drop method on a 3 month-interval-vaccination schedule for 9 months. Endo parasite control using Levamisole[registered] was given twice in the wet and once in the dry season. Feed supplementation, using commercial chick mash, at estimated quantity of 30 gm per chick per day was provided for chicks for 3 months in two villages. Serum-samples, collected one month after each vaccination from 8 chickens per household were tested by the Haemagglutination inhibition test (HI). Faecal samples, also collected from 4 chickens per household were used to establish the helminth parasite infestation rates. The chick numbers and their weights were established weekly in each household for 3 months. Protection in chickens against Newcastle disease increased to mean HI log2 titres of 4.5 and 3.7 with mean protection levels of 83% and 80% for I-2 thermostable and LaSota vaccines respectively. Mean parasite infestation rates dropped by 27%. Mean chick survival rates improved by 29% and chick age weights increased significantly. Overall, there was an increase in poultry stock numbers, mean household flock sizes and egg production. The health interventions were cost effective by cost benefit analysis. (author)

  6. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  7. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR. PMID:24773570

  8. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  9. Effect of strategic feed supplementation with multinutrient blocks on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out on four commercial farms in Guarico state, Venezuela to evaluate the effectiveness of multinutrient blocks (UMB) on the body condition score (BCS), milk production and reproductive performance of dual-purpose cows. Forty crossbred animals (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) in each farm were randomly allocated to supplemented and not-supplemented groups through a period of 105 days. The UMB composition was: 46% sugar-cane molasses, 10% urea, 10% Glyricidia sepium, 5% mineral mixture, 11% calcium hydroxide, 5% triple superphosphate, 10% maize crop residue and 3% animal fat. UMB intake was recorded every two days and individual milk production was registered daily or twice a week. Block consumption was higher during the dry season than in the rainy season. There were no significant differences in total milk production during the first 15 weeks of lactation between treatments in Farms 1 and 3. Body condition at calving and during the early post-partum period may explain some of the improvements on reproductive performance which occurred during the dry season. This indicates the importance of nutritional status of cows before calving on post-partum reproductive activity. 25 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  10. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used. PMID:16030435

  11. The effect of supplementation level of concentrate feeding (25 vs. 75%) on rice straw treated with urine on Ongole Crossbred cattle productivity and methane emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .3 and 240.4 L/d, respectively. This was an unexpected result. Normally, methane production will lower in higher quality feeding regimes. This phenomenon might be explained by an effect of rice straw, the roughage supplemented with. Rice straw is highly fibre fibrous feed and low digestibility; therefore the retention time in gastrointestinal tract will be longer, and within this period the fermentation process resulting methane. This reason might be different at high quality concentrate supplementation that might activate microbial fermentation in straw in which resulting a shorter retention time. However, this shorter retention time did not resulting in lower methane production, because when rumen distension lowers it will sign animal to eat, and therefore, the total daily DMI in both treatments was similar (6.72 and 7.59 kg/d). This result agreed with the statement of Shibata et al., that methane production is highly correlated with DMI. The significant different of LWG, however, if taken into calculation of methane production per kg LWG found the C75 was lower (P = 0.0186) than that of C25, being 205.8 vs. 967.2 L/kg LWG, respectively. The present study showed that supplementation of high quality concentrate in the low quality diet such as rice straw, did not lower the methane production quantitatively, but if the animal product such as live weight gain taking in the consideration, the significant mitigation of methane was clearly observed. The results of the present study are similar to our previous study by using soybean pulp to supplement Napier grass hay. This study showed that high quality concentrate feeding could relatively maintain methane production at promising level by increasing the production, and suggested that combination of rice straw treated with urine and wheat bran and beer cake - both was by-product of food industries could lead to a significant productivity and mitigation of methane from cattle or other ruminants in tropical climates. (author)

  12. Hexacyanoferrates and bentonite as binders of radiocaesium for reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of varying doses of caesium binders (Bentonite and several forms of iron-hexacyanoferrates) on radiocaesium accumulation in red blood cells and on radiocaesium transfer to urine and faeces were studied in feeding experiments with reindeer calves. The caesium binders were added to a ration of lichen (containing 9.5 kBq of 134Cs+137Cs originating from the Chernobyl accident) and fed together with a pelleted reindeer feed (RF-71) for 42 days. A 50% reduction in red blood cell radiocaesium concentration was obtained with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg body weigth of ammoniumironhexacyanoferrate (AFCF) and with 500 mg/kg of bentonite. Three mg/kg of AFCF or 2 g/kg of bentonite reduced both urinary excretion and RBC concentrations with more than 80%. It is concluded that iron-hexacyanoferrates, as a result of their high caesium binding capacity, are particularly useful as caesium binders for free ranging ruminants like the reindeer. (author)

  13. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (placebo, 15 (1 drink, and 30 (2 drinks g alcohol (ethanol/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24 when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006 when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion.

  14. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  15. 'Leaves and eats shoots': direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Grey

    Full Text Available We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the feeding dynamics of a population of red swamp crayfish in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, after the crash of submerged macrophytes and associated macroinvertebrates, and during a natural draw-down of the lake water level. We expected a heavy reliance upon a diet of detrital matter to sustain the population as a consequence, and indeed, for the majority of the crayfish population caught from the lake, we saw a concomitant shift in isotopic values reflecting a dietary change. However, we also caught individual crayfish that had occupied the footprints of hippopotamus and effectively extended their range beyond the lake up to 40 m into the riparian zone. Isotopic analysis confirmed limited nocturnal observations that these individuals were consuming living terrestrial plants in the vicinity of the footprints. These are the first empirical data to demonstrate direct use of terrestrial resources by an aquatic crayfish species and further highlight the traits that make red swamp crayfish such opportunistic and successful invaders.

  16. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabir, Somdat; Baer, David J; Johnson, Laura L; Dorgan, Joanne F; Campbell, William; Brown, Ellen; Hartman, Terryl J; Clevidence, Beverly; Albanes, Demetrius; Judd, Joseph T; Taylor, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d) for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed 0 (placebo), 15 (1 drink), and 30 (2 drinks) g alcohol (ethanol)/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24) when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006) when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P < 0.0001) on 15 g of alcohol per day and 9.2% (P < 0.0001) when 30 g alcohol was consumed per day. Trend tests across doses for both estrone sulfate (P = 0.0006) and DHEAS (P < 0.0001) were significant. We found no significant differences between the absolute levels of serum estrone sulfate at week 4 versus week 8 (P = 0.32) across all doses. However, absolute DHEAS levels increased from week 4 to week 8 (P < 0.0001) at all three dose levels. Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion. PMID:15353002

  17. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  18. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Paccess and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID:21929638

  19. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements. PMID:23687998

  20. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos para bezerros Nelore em creep-feeding: desempenho produtivo, consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Energy sources in multiple supplements for Nellore calves in creep-feeding: productive performance, nutrient intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo, o consumo e a digestibilidade em bezerros Nelore em fase de amamentação em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementada com diferentes fontes de energia. A área foi dividida em cinco piquetes de 6,8 ha, com disponibilidade média de matéria seca e matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 4,10 e 2,38 t/ha, respectivamente. Foram utilizados 45 bezerros Nelore, com peso e idade iniciais de 96,0 ± 11,0 kg e 101 ± 12 dias, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5 × 2 (cinco suplementos e dois sexos. Os suplementos foram: MM - mistura mineral (controle; GM - farelo de soja (FS + grão de milho triturado (GM e mistura mineral; FTGM - farelo de soja + farelo de trigo + grão de milho triturado e mistura mineral; FA - farelo de soja + farelo de arroz e mistura mineral; GMS - farelo de soja + grão de milho triturado + grão de sorgo triturados e mistura mineral, fornecidos diariamente na quantidade de 60 g/animal para o grupo controle e 500 g/animal para os demais suplementos. Os animais que receberam suplemento múltiplo com milho e sorgo como fonte de energia proporcionaram ganho diário médio adicional de 100 g/animal (16,39% em comparação à mistura mineral. O uso do suplemento múltiplo à base de grão de milho como fonte de energia reduziu o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica de pasto e fibra em detergente neutro em relação às fontes energéticas farelo de arroz e à combinação de milho com sorgo. A suplementação com as fontes de energia, sobretudo as combinações de farelo de trigo e milho ou de milho e sorgo, podem proporcionar ganhos adicionais em animais em creep-feeding. A suplementação múltipla aumenta o consumo de pasto quando se utilizam grão de milho e sorgo combinados como fonte de energia.The performance, intake and digestibility were evaluated in Nellore beef calves supplemented with different energy sources in Brachiaria decumbens pasture

  1. Co-ordinated research programme on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRP on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques'' commenced in late 1989 as a second phase using funds available from the IAEA's Regular Budget. The major factors affecting livestock productivity previously identified were nutrition inadequacies, especially in the dry season, and lack of management expertise to enable livestock to maximize production utilizing existing resources. This present CRP was formulated around infrastructures already established and experience and knowledge gained from the previous Programme. The CRP aimed to defined the nutritional factors, both macro- and micro-nutrients, which reduce the reproductive efficiency and productivity of ruminant livestock enterprises on typical small-holder farms; and thereafter to devise and test feed supplementation strategies taking into account the use of locally available feedstuffs. 1 fig

  2. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  3. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  4. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    OpenAIRE

    J. Łabaj; M. Jodkowski; Szeja, W.; Helhmann, J.; Kozioł, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  5. Rheological characteristics of aged asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪慧; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 朱国军

    2008-01-01

    Different aging levels(RTFOT,PAV-10h,PAV-20h and PAV-30 h) of asphalt binders with various mass ratios of mineral powder to asphalt(0,0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6,2.0) were used to investigate the rheological properties of aged asphalt binders with respect to their short and long terms aging characteristics.Viscosity test,dynamic shear test and creep test were conducted.The test results indicate that the viscosity of aged asphalt binder increases sharply with the extension of aging period.Complex shear modulus of aged asphalt increases,which indicates that the stiffness of asphalt binders can increase.The phase angle for aged asphalt binders reduces,which indicates that the elastic portion for viscoelastic property of asphalt binders increases.|G*|·sin δ increases after aging procedure which means that the fatigue resistance becomes poor.The creep test results show that creep strain curves varies remarkably for virgin and aged asphalt binders.The total strain during loading period and the permanent strain decreases significantly for aged asphalt binders,which implies that the elastic portion increases and the viscous portion decreases.

  6. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  7. Modeling binder removal in ceramic compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incledon, Matthew L.

    Binder is often added to ceramic systems to provide mechanical strength to the green bodies during processing. The binder removal sequence for an individual system is difficult to predict due to the thermal reaction and mass transport of the volatile products. The objective of this work is to use computational methods to predict the kinetics of binder removal as a function of composition, particle size, pore size and tortuosity, temperature, body size and shape, etc.. The model will be used to predict the composition, temperature, and pore pressure as a function of time, position within the body, and heating sequence parameters. This will provide the ability to predict optimum heating sequences that minimize processing time and energy input while avoiding harmful high internal pressures and temperatures. Since there are many binder systems in use, a few specific cases will be considered. TGA (thermogravimetric analysis) of binders will be used to measure kinetics parameters that are inputs for the computational model. A framework will be developed to assess the binder removal sequence for a binder and ceramic system. The input for the model, computed in COMSOL Multiphysics, will be determined through analysis of TGA weight loss data and green body characterization. A set of tools will be presented that assist in the fitting of the TGA data, including the binder degrading into multiple species, higher order reactions, parallel and series reactions, etc.. The use of these ideas and tools will allow the modeler to better predict the heating sequence required for a ceramic and binder system to successfully remove all binder material.

  8. Alkali-activated binders : a review : part 2. about materials and binders manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge about alkali-activated binders, by reviewing previously published work. As it is shown in Part 1, alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary Portland cement) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact. The subjects of Part 2 of this paper are prime materials, alkaline activators, additives, curing type and constituents mixing order. Practical problems and theoretical questions are discussed. To...

  9. Volatile binders for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to form and sinter nuclear fuel particles made of uranium dioxide (or other uranium compounds) to which a volatile binder (about 0.5 to 7 wt.%) is added for better processing. Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, and other ammonium compounds are mentioned as binders. The components are mixed, pressed, preheated, then further heated and sintered, and cooling takes place in a controlled atmosphere. 3 examples illustrate the method. (UA)

  10. UPDATED INSIGHT ON FOAM BINDER GRANULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli

    2013-01-01

    To have updated handy reference as source of outstanding knowledge on foam binder granulation process in granulating the material(s). Granulation considered being important unit operation for producing pharmaceutical oral dosage forms. Revolutionising binder application methodology as advancement of wet granulation process best owed said process. It is a modified version of atomised spraying method and gaining wide acceptance. Product and process development calls for method of optimisation i...

  11. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabryś

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved abilit...

  12. 双低菜籽饼在育肥羔羊精料中的适宜添加量%Optimal Supplement Dosage of Double-Low Rapeseed Meal in Concentrated Feed of Fattening Lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志有; 侯生珍; 王兴福

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To determine the optimal supplement dosage of double-low rapeseed meal in concentrated feed of fattening lambs. [ Method ] A total of 120 Tibetan lambs at the age of 50 d were selected and divided randomly into four groups. The lambs in these four groups were fed with diets respsetively supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 50,100,150 and 200 g/kg. Their diets had the same nutritional levels of energy and protein. The experimental period was 120 d. [ Result] Daily gain,feed conservation ratio and economic benefits were largely increased in the lambs fed with diets supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 150 g/kg (Daily gain,P <0.01 ). However,the daily gain and feed conservation ratio were largely decreased in the lambs fed with diets supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 200 g/kg. Moreover,serum transaminase and thyroxine levels were not significant between the four groups. [ Conclusion] The optimal supplement dosage of the double-low rapeseed meal is 150 g/kg in fattening lambs.%[目的]确定双低菜籽饼在育肥羔羊精料中的适宜添加量.[方法]选择120只50日龄藏羔羊,随机分为4组,分别饲喂双低菜籽饼添加量为50、100、150和200 g/kg且能量和蛋白水平一致的混合精饲料.试验期为120 d.[结果]精料中添加150 g/kg双低菜籽饼能显著提高羔羊的日增重(P<0.01)、饲料转化率和经济效益.精料中添加200 g/kg双低菜籽饼则明显降低羔羊的采食量和饲料转化率.各组间血清转氨酶活性和血清甲状腺素水平均差异不显著.[结论]育肥羔羊精料中双低菜籽饼的适宜添加量为150 g/kg.

  13. A Comprehensive Review on Physiological and Nutritional Properties of Prebiotics as Poultry Feed Supplement - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/comprehe

    OpenAIRE

    Subha Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    The present article highlights the effect of dietary prebiotics viz., dietary organic acid (OA) supplements, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and β-glucan supplementation on different body growth parameters of poultry birds at their various growing stages. The article stresses on the effect on live body weight gain, dressing percentage, weight of vital organs and muscles and mean villus lengths in digestive tract of poultry birds along with their application as growth promoters in commercial poul...

  14. Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica fruits as dry season feed supplements for goats in a semi-arid environment: Summary of a DFID funded project in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indehiscent fruits of six tree species, common in Matabeleland were examined in in vitro and in vivo trials. The results for two of them, Acacia nilotica and Dichrostachys cinerea are presented here. Acacia nilotica contained more total phenolics than D. cinerea, but less nitrogen (N) and fibre (ADF and NDF). After 48 h incubation, in vitro OMD of both species was increased by PEG and NaOH or wood ash treatment, except when NaOH or wood ash were used in combination with PEG with D. cinerea fruits. DM intake, DMD were lowest and N-retention negative in goats fed A. nilotica as supplement. However when fed a supplement of D. cinerea, untreated or treated with PEG or NaOH, digestibility and N-retention were highest, and similar to a commercial goat meal, with the untreated fruit. In a trial in which milking does were supplemented with D. cinerea fruits, for 65 before and 65 days after kidding, kid birthweight and weaning weight were increased by supplementation. Deaths of twin-born kids were lowest in the supplemented but unmilked group. Supplementation with D. cinerea fruit resulted in improved goat performance. The only treatment applied of practical significance, wood ash, is currently being tested in an in vivo study. More research is required on detoxification of tannins, especially with A. nilotica. (author)

  15. Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica fruits as dry season feed supplements for goats in a semi-arid environment: Summary of a DFID funded project in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: timsmith2@btopenworld.com; Mlambo, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, P.O. Luvengo (Swaziland); Sikosana, J.L.N.; Maphosa, V. [Department of Agricultural Research and Extension, Matopos Research Station, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe); Mueller-Harvey, I.; Owen, E. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Indehiscent fruits of six tree species, common in Matabeleland were examined in in vitro and in vivo trials. The results for two of them, Acacia nilotica and Dichrostachys cinerea are presented here. Acacia nilotica contained more total phenolics than D. cinerea, but less nitrogen (N) and fibre (ADF and NDF). After 48 h incubation, in vitro OMD of both species was increased by PEG and NaOH or wood ash treatment, except when NaOH or wood ash were used in combination with PEG with D. cinerea fruits. DM intake, DMD were lowest and N-retention negative in goats fed A. nilotica as supplement. However when fed a supplement of D. cinerea, untreated or treated with PEG or NaOH, digestibility and N-retention were highest, and similar to a commercial goat meal, with the untreated fruit. In a trial in which milking does were supplemented with D. cinerea fruits, for 65 before and 65 days after kidding, kid birthweight and weaning weight were increased by supplementation. Deaths of twin-born kids were lowest in the supplemented but unmilked group. Supplementation with D. cinerea fruit resulted in improved goat performance. The only treatment applied of practical significance, wood ash, is currently being tested in an in vivo study. More research is required on detoxification of tannins, especially with A. nilotica. (author)

  16. Solidification of radioactive wastes with inorganic binders (literature survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is provided on solidification of radioactive waste solutions, sludges and tritium waste water through cement and other inorganic binders. A general survey of the possibilities described in the literature is followed by a somewhat more detailed description of the work carried on at four research establishments in the United States, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, supplemented by personal information. Additional sections describe the experiences with various types of cement and the possibilities for improvement of solidification products through preliminary fixation of the toxic nuclides (transformation into insoluble products or absorption); there is a further possibility of post-treatment through polymer impregnation. Finally, definition and determination of leachability are provided and some results compiled. 74 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  17. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  18. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  19. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major - Gabryś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved ability to reclamation as well as in accelerated biodegradation of binding material leftovers of mechanical reclamation.

  20. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration... § 205.603 may be used as feed additives and supplements. (b) The producer of an organic operation must... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or...

  1. Innovative organic binders for metallurgy and the refractories industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zemlyanoi, K. G.; Kiik, A. A.; Markova, S. V.; Kormina, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    Questions related to the use of binders for briquetting in industry are considered. Results of pilot-plant and industrial tests of domestically produced innovative binders are presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  2. Effect of moisture on the aging behavior of asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Huang, Xiao-Ming; Mahmoud, Enad; Garibaldy, Emil

    2011-08-01

    The moisture aging effect and mechanism of asphalt binder during the in-service life of pavement were investigated by laboratory simulating tests. Pressure aging vessel (PAV) test simulating the long-term aging of binder during the in-service life of pavement was modified to capture the long-term moisture aging effect of binder. Penetration grade tests including penetration test, soften point test, and ductility test as well as Superpave™ performance grade tests including viscosity test, dynamic shear rheometer test, and bending beam rheometer test were conducted to fully evaluate the moisture aging effect of binder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test and Gel-permeation chromatography test were applied to provide a fundamental understanding of the moisture aging mechanism of binder. The results indicate that moisture condition can accelerate the aging of asphalt binder and shorten the service life of asphalt binder. The modified PAV test with moisture condition can well characterize the moisture aging properties of asphalt binder.

  3. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Liang; Kefu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and the mechanism of binder migration were studied in this paper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, the degree of binder migration was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wet sample just after coating application, the real information of binder distribution was kept by quenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed by freeze-drying. The results showed: under the condition of this research, binder migration occurred both in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred during coating application was much little than that occurred during drying. The mechanism of binder migration during the process of coating application was studied by force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposed that was binder migration was caused by Magnus force and Saffman force.

  4. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YunLiang; KefuChen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and themechanism of binder migration were studied in thispaper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, thedegree of binder migration was measured byenergy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wetsample just after coating application, the realinformation of binder distribution was kept byquenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed byfreeze-drying. The results showed: under thecondition of this research, binder migration occurredboth in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred duringcoating application was much little than that occurredduring drying. The mechanism of binder migrationduring the process of coating application was studiedby force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposedthat was binder migration was caused by Magnusforce and Saffman force.

  5. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  6. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  7. Assessing ''last mile'' tools for affinity binder databases

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, David James; Golenetskaya, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    International audience The EU ProteomeBinders coordination action helped define community standards for reporting and comparing binder and binder-target properties, with an eye toward quality control. This included reporting standards, an ontology for unambiguously describing binders and their properties, and a database schema for storing the experimental molecular interaction evidence used to support claims about those properties. But it left unresolved the question of how best to enable ...

  8. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as posit...

  9. Improved maturation of pond-reared, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using fish oil and astaxanthin feed supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Paibulkichakul, C.; Piyatiratitivorakul, S.; Sorgeloos, P.; Menasveta, P.

    2008-01-01

    Penaeus monodon female (49 g) and male (37 g) shrimp were fed formulated diets supplemented with 3 or 8% fish oil and 100 or 500 mg kg- 1 astaxanthin, in addition to fresh squid during a 120 day trail using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Four formulated diets were provided with different combinations of high and low concentrations of lipid (fish oil) and astaxanthin. We found that fish oil addition, at the concentrations we used did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect shrimp growth, but there ...

  10. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  11. Phenomena during thermal removal of binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Kenneth Edward

    The research presented herein has focused on debinding of an ethylene copolymer from a SiC based molded ceramic green body. Examination of the binder burnout process was carried out by breaking down the process into two distinct regions: those events which occur before any weight loss begins, and those events occurring during binder removal. Below the temperature of observed binder loss (175sp°C), both reversible and irreversible displacement was observed to occur. The displacement was accounted for by relaxation of molding stresses, thermal expansion of the system, and melting of the semicrystalline copolymer occurring during heating. Upon further heating the binder undergoes a two stage thermal degradation process. In the first stage, acetic acid is the only degradation product formed, as determined by GC/MS analysis. In this stage, component shrinkage persisted and it was found that one unit volume of shrinkage corresponded with one unit volume of binder removed, indicating that no porosity developed. The escaping acetic acid effluents must diffuse through liquid polymer filled porous regions to escape. The gas pressure of the acetic acid species produced in the first stage of the thermal degradation may exceed the ambient pressure promoting bubble formation. Controlling the heating rate of the specimen maintains the gas pressure below the bubbling threshold and minimizes the degradation time. Experiments have determined the kinetics of the reaction in the presence of the high surface area (10-15msp2/g) ceramic powder and then verified that acetic acid was diffusing through the polymer phase to the specimen surface where evaporation is taking place. The sorption method measured the diffusivity and activity of acetic acid within the filled ceramic system within a TGA. These data were incorporated into a Fickian type model which included the rate of generation of the diffusing species. The modeling process involved prediction of the bloating temperature as a

  12. Comparison of the effects of feeding Indian fish liver oils supplemented with or without cholesterol and bile salts on certain enzymes in liver, heart and serum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanksale K

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes viz. glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, cholesterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13, aspartate amino transferase (EC 2.6.1.1 and alanine amino transferase (2.6.1.2 are intimately related to lipid metabolism. Hence their activities are bound to be affected by the type of dietary fat and substances like bile salts and cholesterol which also influence the lipid metabolism. This relationship between dietary lipid constituent and enzymes was studied in albino rats maintained on diets containing three Indian Shark Liver Oils viz. Waghbeer, Khada mushi and Pisori supple-mented with or without cholesterol and bile salts, Enzyme activities were studied in liver, heart and serum. It was noted that higher unsaturation of dietary fat increased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase enzyme while activities of transaminases and chole-sterol esterase were lowered. Addition of cholesterol and bile salts to these diets decreased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase and hydrolytic activity of cholesterol esterase. There was increase in the activities of transaminases and esterifying activity of choles-terol esterase due to supplementation with cholesterol and bile salts.

  13. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Badii; Arianna Buccioni; Carolina Pugliese; Maria Paola Ponzetta; Oreste Franci; Anna Acciaioli; Mauro Antongiovanni

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average) and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. Th...

  14. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  15. Quantification of the effects of crumb rubber in CRM binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Bradley James

    Since the mid-1960s, crumb rubber has been used to modify asphalt binders. The crumb rubber, also referred to as crumb rubber modifier (CRM), is produced by grinding scrap tires into fine powders with particulate sizes generally smaller than 2 mm. In most cases, CRM is incorporated into binder using the "wet" method, where the crumb rubber is blended with the asphalt binder. The binder modification that occurs during this blending process is physical in nature, where the lighter oils of the binder diffuse into the CRM particles. As the rubber particles absorb the oils, the particles swell; therefore, increasing the viscosity and stiffness of the CRM binder. This research evaluated the viscosity and complex shear modulus (G*) of 36 different laboratory-produced CRM binder combinations (two CRM processing methods, two CRM contents, three CRM sizes, and three binder sources) and three base binders. From this investigation, a method was developed to quantify the effects of the crumb rubber modification. These effects were identified as the interaction effect (IE) resulting from the diffusion of the lighter binder factions into the rubber particles and the particle effect (PE), which is the result of the change in the rheological properties due to the filling effect of the particulate CRM. Following statistical analyses of the results, it was determined that CRM binders had greater viscosity and complex shear modulus (G*) values than the base binders. These values increased with CRM content. The CRMs having higher surface area (i.e., ambient ground and finer CRM) generally had higher IE values, while the PE generally increased with particle size. HP-GPC testing indicated that the CRM binders also had higher large molecular size (LMS) fractions and lower small molecular size (SMS) fractions as determined from the HP-GPC profiles. As the LMS increased and the SMS decreased, the IE increased. Two of the three binder sources followed this trend, indicating that those

  16. Assessment of nutritional value of single-cell protein from waste-activated sludge as a protein supplement in poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M; Lebitso, Moses T

    2012-12-01

    The amount of protein wasted through sludge in Gauteng, South Africa, amounts to 95 000 metric tonne/yr, with the order of magnitude of the national protein requirement of approximately 145 000 metric tonne/yr. Waste-activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that treat domestic wastewater contains protein in a ratio of 2:1 against fishmeal. This protein source has not been utilized because of the high content of toxic heavy metals and other potential carcinogenic pollutants in the sludge. In this study, a pretreatment method of modified aqua regia dilute acid wash was used to lower the metal content by approximately 60%. However, this resulted in a 33% loss of amino acids in the acid-washed WAS. A feed substitution test in poultry with different fishmeal-sludge ratios (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% WAS as percent substitution of fishmeal) showed no impact of sludge single-cell protein (SCP) on mortality rate. However, sludge substitution in the feed yielded weight gains and cost savings up to 46%. PMID:23342942

  17. Curing Reaction Model of Epoxy Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Leilei; WANG Yaqi; SHEN Jialin

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the strength developing law of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a curing reaction model of the epoxy asphalt binder was proposed based upon the thermokinetic analysis.Given some assumptions,the model was developed by applying the Kissinger law as well as Arrhenius equation,and the differential scanning calorimetry was performed for estimating the model parameters.To monitor the strength development of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a strength test program was employed and then results were compared to those produced from the proposed model.The comparative evaluation shows that a good consistency exists between the outputs from test program and the proposed model,indicating that the proposed model can be used effectively for simulating the curing reaction process for the epoxy asphalt binder and predicting the strength development for the epoxy asphalt mixture.

  18. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss. PMID:18433998

  19. UPDATED INSIGHT ON FOAM BINDER GRANULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To have updated handy reference as source of outstanding knowledge on foam binder granulation process in granulating the material(s. Granulation considered being important unit operation for producing pharmaceutical oral dosage forms. Revolutionising binder application methodology as advancement of wet granulation process best owed said process. It is a modified version of atomised spraying method and gaining wide acceptance. Product and process development calls for method of optimisation involving multidisciplinary activity and creates difficulties as several rudiments needed to be achievable, associated with umpteen features. Depth knowledge on process and formulation properties, monitoring granulation behaviour and its performance, is prerequisite. In this regard, information collected and presented as a handy note. Presented note will give insight on associated technicality and will assist researchers in getting optimised granule, having applicability in product evolution. This considered being offering outstanding knowledge and helping hand for getting granule with excellent feature.

  20. New pharmaceutical applications for macromolecular binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Nicolas; Gauthier, Marc A; Bouvet, Céline; Moreau, Pierre; Petitjean, Anne; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Leblond, Jeanne

    2011-10-30

    Macromolecular binders consist of polymers, dendrimers, and oligomers with binding properties for endogenous or exogenous substrates. This field, at the frontier of host/guest chemistry and pharmacology, has met a renewed interest in the past decade due to the clinical success of several sequestrants, like sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel®) or sugammadex (Bridion®). In many instances, multivalent binding by the macromolecular drugs can modify the properties of the substrate, and may prevent it from reaching its site of action and/or trigger a biological response. From small (e.g., ions) to larger substrates (e.g., bacteria and cells), this review presents the state-of-the-art of macromolecular binders and provides detailed illustrative examples of recent developments bearing much promise for future pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21571017

  1. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-02-01

    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m2, it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa).

  2. High Performance Binder for EMCDB Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel block polymer has been synthesised from caprolactone using hydroxy terminated polybutadiene as ring opening initiator. Usefulness of this polymer as propellant binder has been studied by generating data on physico-chemical properties of the polymer. The polymer exhibited high miscibility with nitrate ester and high solid loading capability. Preliminary data generated on typical propellant formulation indicated higher performance as compared to composite propellant.

  3. Towards a microalgae-based road binder

    OpenAIRE

    AUDO, Mariane; Queffelec, Clémence; LEPINE, Olivier; Legrand, Jack; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky viscoelastic petroleum industry by-product, used in sealing surface but mostly as aggregates binder in road pavement. For about seven years, the worldwide petroleum production didn’t increase anymore. In that context, refining strategies are changing: for example, high molecular fractions can be cracked into lighter fuel fractions and consequently, in the future, it could be difficult to answer to the worldwide needs in asphalt. To avoid this problem, some biomass-ba...

  4. Suplementación pre y post parto en ovejas. Efecto sobre la pubertad y actividad reproductiva de sus hijas Pre and postpartum feed supplementation in ewes; effect on puberty and reproductive activity of the ewelambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. SEPÚLVEDA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar en ovejas la suplementación alimenticia durante el período pre y postparto y su efecto sobre la tasa de crecimiento y actividad reproductiva de sus hijas durante su primera estación reproductiva. Se utilizaron 50 ovejas de la raza Romney Marsh, divididas en dos grupos: un grupo fue suplementado (OS durante 50 días antes del parto y 50 días después del parto con 2 kg de ensilaje de pradera por día; el otro grupo de ovejas se mantuvo como control (OC. Cada quince días se controló el peso, la condición corporal, además, el peso de los corderos al nacimiento, y la actividad reproductiva de las borregas en su primera estación de reproducción. El peso al nacimiento no fue diferente (p0, 05 entre los corderos nacidos de diferentes grupos de ovejas, sin embargo, al destete el peso de los corderos fue significativamente superior (pFifty mature pregnant Romney Marsh ewes were used to investigate the influence of feed supplementation during the pre and post lambing period and subsequent ewe-lambs growth rates and pubertal events and reproductive activity during their first breeding season. Ewes were maintained in a pasture and divided into two groups: one group (n=25 was supplemented (OS for 50 days after and 50 days before lambing with 2 kg of grassland silage/day, and the other group (n=25 was not-supplemented (OC. Ewe liveweight, body condition score (BCS, lamb birthweight and ewe-lamb reproductive performance at first reproductive season was evaluated trough progesterona measurement in blood serum, using RIA technique. Lamb birthweight were not statistically different (P0,05 from the OC and OS groups. There was, however, significant improvement (p<0,05 of weights (OC=31,2 kg and OS=35,8 kg, age of puberty of ewe-lambs (210 days and 178 days, and lambing rate for ewe lamb (33% v/s 58% for OC and OS groups. In conclusion the ewe-lambs from supplemented dams improved their growing rate and reproductive

  5. RSS Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/rss.html RSS Feeds To use the sharing features on this page, ... NLM RSS Feeds and Podcasts . General Interest RSS Feeds What's New: MedlinePlus Announcements and Special Features The ...

  6. Biodegradable materials as binders for IVth generation moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major-Gabry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders?compositions for foundry moulding and core sands. Results showed that there is a great possibility of using available biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sand binders. Using biodegradable materials as partial content of new binders, or additives to moulding sands may not only decrease the toxicity and increase reclamation ability of tested moulding sands, but also accelerate the biodegradation rate of used binders, and the new biodegradable additive (PCL did not decrease the strength and thermal properties. In addition, using polycaprolactone (PCL as a biodegradable material may improve the flexibility of moulding sands with polymeric binder and reduce toxicity.

  7. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    OpenAIRE

    St.M. Dobosz; K. Major-Gabryś

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid),polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding s...

  8. Fabrication and properties of binder for powder extrusion molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By optimizing formulation and fabrication methods, a new binder for plasticizing powder extrusion molding ofhard metal, with excellent integrated properties and uniform distribution characters, has been developed. Thermal debond-ing mechanism and the extruding rheological behaviours have been studied. The technology of fabrication of binder andthermal debonding process have also been investigated. Using the novel binder, the hard-metal extrusion-molding rods withdiameter up to 25mm, have been manufactured.

  9. Effects of Environmental Temperature and Dietary Ascorbic Acid on the Diurnal Feeding Pattern of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Hasan Rüştü

    2000-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the diurnal feeding patterns of broiler chickens given a choice between ascorbic acid (AA) supplemented and unsupplemented feeds under heated or unheated conditions. Broiler chickens were offered supplemented (with 200 mg AA/kg feed) and unsupplemented feeds, and the feeding behaviour for each feed was monitored by continuous recording of the weight of the feed container for 4 days under unheated (UH) and the next 4 days under heated (H) cond...

  10. Thermal Reactivity and Structure of Carbonized Binder Pitches

    OpenAIRE

    Madshus, Stian

    2005-01-01

    Pitches are used on a large scale in the manufacture of carbon anodes for the production of primary aluminium. The role of the pitch is to act as a binder between the petroleum coke grains. The structure of the carbonized pitch binder (pitch coke) has an important impact on the overall performance of the anode. Even though the binder pitch is the minor constituent in an anode, it is impossible to make a good quality anode without a good quality binder pitch.Pitch is an extremely complex mixtu...

  11. Thermal debinding dynamics of novel binder system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继承; 黄伯云; 张传福; 刘业翔

    2001-01-01

    The thermal debinding dynamics of newly developed binders for cemented carbides extrusion molding was studied. It is shown that the thermal debinding processes can be divided into two stages: low temperature region, in which the low molecular mass components (LMMCs) are removed; and high temperature region, in which the polymer components are removed. The rate of thermal debinding is controlled by diffusion mechanism. The thermal debinding activation energies were solved out by differential method and integral method. The results show that the addition of other components acted as a catalyzer can effectively decrease the activation energy of thermal debinding processes.

  12. Rheological Properties of Mixtures of 316L Stainless Stell Powders With Polyproplylen Based Binders

    OpenAIRE

    KARATAŞ, Çetin

    1998-01-01

    The flowabilities of feedstocks for powder injection molding (PIM), of 316L stainless steel powders (mean diameters 5.84, 30.42, 40.35, 67.42 mm) with thermoplastic binders (60% paraffin, 35% polypropylene, 5% stearic acid) were investigated. For this purpose, a capillary rheometer was designed and constructed. The rheometer was heated in 30 minutes to 300 °C with an accuracy of \\pm 1 °C. Its load range was 63-55.000 grams. The best flow measurements were made at 175 °C for all feed...

  13. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of a CRP completed in 1989 and entitled ''Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Milk, Meat and Fibre Producing Livestock with the Use of Radioimmunoassay Techniques'' clearly indicated that nutritional inadequacies and livestock management deficiencies were the major factors affecting livestock productivity in Latin America. Based on these conclusions a CRP entitled ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques'' was initiated late in the same year. The primary aim of the Programme was to improve the productivity of indigenous ruminant livestock species maintained on typical small-holder farms in the region. Central to the approach was to first identify the nutritional and management constraints which affect reproductive and productive efficiency, and subsequently to devise and test corrective measures which would be practical, sustainable and economically viable. Important related goals of the Programme were to enhance the level of expertise and the educational quality within animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact between scientists and institutions in developing and developed countries and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr3C2 cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders

  15. Dynamic linear viscoelastic properties and extensional failure of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yonghong

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in USA to maintain old pavements that are badly cracked. In order to reduce this expenditure, it is desirable to have criteria for selecting asphalts with superior cracking resistance that will provide pavements with longer durability. Literature reports indicate that the ductility of binders recovered from asphalt pavements correlates with cracking failure. However, ductility measurement is a time and material consuming process, and subject to reproducibility difficulties, as are all failure tests. In addition, ductility measurement does not belong to the currently used Superpave(TM) specification. Correlations between ductility and dynamic viscoelastic properties (measured with the dynamic shear rheometer, DSR), which are much easier and faster to perform and may be included into the Superpave(TM) system, are studied for both straight and modified binders. Ductility correlates quite well with G'/(eta '/G') for conventional asphalt binders aged at different conditions, especially when ductility is below 10 cm. However, for modified asphalts, there is no universal correlation between ductility and G'/(eta'/G'), even in the low ductility region. As far as the asphalt binder in pavement is concerned, the loss due to oxidative aging of its ductility is an important reason for pavement cracking. Polymer modification modifies the rheological and oxidative hardening properties of asphalt binders. The effect of polymeric modifiers on various properties of asphalt binders was investigated. Modifiers studied were diblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene) rubber (SBR), triblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), and tire rubber. Polymer modified binders have a lower hardening and oxidation rate than their corresponding base asphalts. In addition, modified binders have lower hardening susceptibility compared with their base materials and in some cases the results can be dramatic. Polymer modification improves asphalt binders' shear

  16. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  17. Development of Silane Hydrolysate Binder for Thermal-Control Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Technical report describes theoretical and experimental development of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) hydrolysate binder for white, titanium dioxidepigmented thermal-control coatings often needed on satellites. New coating is tougher and more abrasion-resistant than conventional coating, S-13G, which comprises zinc oxide in hydroxyl-therminated dimethylsiloxane binder.

  18. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  19. Environmentally Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Production of Portland cement (PC), the ubiquitous binding material for construction works, is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nearly half of these emissions arise from the decomposition of calcareous raw materials, and the other half from kiln fuel combustion and cement clinker grinding operations. As such, PC production contributes significantly to global warming and climate change. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower associated green house gas emissions. An important class of such binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders have very low CO2 emissions from grinding of the starting material, and some from the production of the activating chemical. The total CO2 emission from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/5th - 1/10th of those of Portland cement concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time makes their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Perlite is a volcanic aluminosilicate glass abundant in Turkey, China, Japan, the US and several EU countries. It has been used in its expanded form, for horticulture, for insulation, and for producing lightweight concrete. Turkish perlites contain more than 70 % SiO2, and have a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ~5.5. This study shows that ground perlite can be mixed with alkaline activators like sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate to yield mortars with strengths comparable to those of portland cement mortars. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in 24 h or less. Since perlite is natural, perlite geopolymers can have environmental, energetic, and

  20. A novel binder and binder extraction method for powder injection molding of tungsten cemented carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝宝军; 曲选辉; 陶颖

    2003-01-01

    An improved wax-based multi-component binder and a new debinding method termed high-pressure condensed solvent extraction were developed for powder injection molding of tungsten cemented carbide. The results indicate that a critical powder loading of 65% (volume fraction) and an ideal rheological properties were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. High debinding rate and specimens with high strength were obtained by the debinding method. Moreover, by making high temperature holding time adjustable, it makes the subsequent thermal degradation process more flexible to debinding atmosphere and carbon content of the as debinded specimens controllable. The transverse rupture strength, hardness and density of the as-sintered specimens made by an optimized PIM process are 2.48Gpa, HRA90 and 14.72g/cm3, respectively. Good shape retention and about 0.02% dimension deviation were achieved.

  1. High Speed Machining of Bio-Titanium Alloy with a Binder-Less PcBN Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaki, Kenichi; Shintani, Kazuhiro; Kato, Hideharu; Asakura, Fumi; Matsuo, Kazuya

    Using a binder-less PcBN tool, improvement of processing efficiency was tried in machining of a vanadium-free titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta which was recently applied for a surgical implant material. The tool which is prepared through the direct conversion sintering of h-BN under both high pressure and temperature, exhibits an improved high thermal durability. It was confirmed that a binder-less PcBN tool exhibited lower flank wear and kept sharper cutting edge compared to the tools made of materials such as sintered carbide, conventional PcBN and polycrystalline diamond with Co-based binder, after turning in cutting speed of 4.2m/s, feed rate of 0.15mm/rev, depth of cut of 0.5mm under an application of a high pressure coolant. Also, milling tests were conducted with a radius end mill tool whose tip was made of the binder-less PcBN material. As a result, the possibility of high speed milling at cutting speed of 8.3m/s was found.

  2. Rheology of crumb-rubber modified asphalt binders and mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Vikas Rameshchandra

    Laboratory test procedures are presented to determine the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA) binders and mixes. These tests provide simple, fast, and cost-effective alternatives to evaluate the performance (rutting and cracking potential) of binders and mixes used for pavement construction. Viscoelastic properties of CRMA binders are measured using dynamic shear analysis. Master curves were generated using the principle of time-temperature superposition to evaluate the effects of aging, rubber concentration, and curing conditions on the rheology of the modified binder. Results indicate that the rheology of CRMA binders can be divided into three regions of viscoelasticity: glassy region at high frequencies, transition/viscoelastic region at intermediate frequencies, and viscous region at low frequencies. Modification of the asphalt by addition of rubber leads to an improvement in both the high and low temperature properties, as reflected by changes in Gsp' and Gsp{''}, which causes the binder to have a greater resistance to specific pavement failure mechanisms. Both transient and dynamic properties of CRMA mixes were measured in the laboratory using the creep and recovery, direct tension, and frequency sweep tests. Rheological properties of the mix generated from the test data were compared to those of the binder to evaluate the effect of aging, rubber concentration, and curing conditions on mix performance. Several rheological parameters have been identified to characterize the rutting and cracking potential of mixes. A power law equation was found to give good correlations between several mix rheological parameters. Analysis of binder and mix failure energies show that work of cohesion of the binder is negligible compared to the failure energies. A unique relationship between Paris law material parameters has been confirmed. It is also shown that mix failure properties bear a one-to-one correlation with binder failure properties. Based

  3. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  4. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali mucilage (Basella alba as tablet binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ramu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basella alba leaf mucilage was investigated as a binder in paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Mucilage at four levels (concentrations of mucilage binders: 4, i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w were studied. No significant work has been reported to use it as a tablet binder. The evaluation of granules showed 0.62 to 0.76 mm granule size, 28°47′ to 30°27′ angle of repose and 31.57 to 23.45% fines. Moisture content of the different granulations was less than 1%. The tablets were prepared and evaluated for average weight and weight variation, thickness, content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro dissolution profiles. All the batches of tablets exhibited good uniformity in content. The hardness was within the range of 4.5 to 5.5 kg/cm 2 . The hardness was increased and friability decreased with the increasing concentration of binding agent. The disintegration time also increased with increasing binder concentrations. The evaluation of tablet showed 0.434 to 0.410% friability, 9 to 18 minutes disintegration time and the drug release was more than 70% in 60 minutes. Tablets at 7.5% w/w binder concentration showed more optimum results as tablet binder. The B. alba mucilage was found to be good as a binder to paracetamol tablets.

  5. Performance prediction of hot mix asphalt from asphalt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)

  6. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  7. Feed efficiency in Mangalarga Marchador foals fed diet supplemented with probiotics or phytase Eficiência alimentar de potros da raça Mangalarga Marchador alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos ou fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effect of probiotic or phytase supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion (FC in 24 Mangalarga Marchador foals (16 males, 8 females, with 241.6 ± 23.2 days of age, and 216.7 ± 27.8 kg of body weight (BW. The study lasted 28 days, the first 23 days for diet and handling adaptation, and the last five days for feces collection. The basal diet consisted of Cynodon pasture and pelleted concentrate (1.2 kg/100 kg BW, as well as water and mineral salt ad libitum. Treatments groups were assigned as follows: basal diet (control; basal diet + 5 g/day of live yeast culture (10(9 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; basal diet + 2 g/day of live bacteria (10(8 CFU/g of B. bifidum, E. faecium, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and yeast culture (10(5 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; and basal diet + 1250 FTU/day of phytase. Pasture DMI was estimated with an external marker (LIPE™ associated with cecal in situ digestibility of dry matter. All foals were randomized, by replicated, using a 4 × 2 factorial, and results were compared using Student t-test, taking into consideration the effect of initial BW as covariate for the percentage DMI per BW. Among foals, DMI varied from 2.4 to 2.8% BW, with foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast having lower DMI (total diet and forage. All animals had an ADG of 0.33 kg/day, and foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast had FC 32.42 to 43.83% lower than foals supplemented with phytase or fed only basal diet. The phytase dose of 205 FTU/kg DM in the basal diet had no effects. Probiotic composed of live bacteria and yeast culture improved feed efficiency of forage and can be used as a nutritional strategy to maintain body condition in foals during the dry season.O trabalho foi realizado visando avaliar a influência da suplementação de probióticos ou fitase sobre o consumo diário de matéria seca (CMS, o ganho de peso diário (GPD e a conversão alimentar

  8. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sports supplements often use persuasive before and after pictures that make it look easy to get a muscular, toned body. But the goal of supplement advertisers is to make money by selling more supplements, and many claims may be misleading. Teens and kids may seem like an easy sell ...

  9. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali mucilage (Basella alba) as tablet binder

    OpenAIRE

    Ramu, G.; G. Krishna Mohan; Jayaveera, K N

    2011-01-01

    Basella alba leaf mucilage was investigated as a binder in paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Mucilage at four levels (concentrations of mucilage binders: 4, i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w) were studied. No significant work has been reported to use it as a tablet binder. The evaluation of granules showed 0.62 to 0.76 mm granule size, 28°47′ to 30°27′ angle of repose and 31.57 to 23.45% fines. Moisture content of the different granulations was less than 1%. The tablets were...

  10. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  11. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  13. A Redox-Active Binder for Electrochemical Capacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Corentin; Demeter, Dora; Bélanger, Daniel; Cougnon, Charles

    2016-04-18

    A promising strategy for increasing the performance of supercapacitors is proposed. Until now, a popular strategy for increasing the specific capacity of the electrode consists of grafting redox molecules onto a high surface area carbon structure to add a faradaic contribution to the charge storage. Unfortunately, the grafting of molecules to the carbon surface leads to a dramatic decrease of the electrochemical performances of the composite material. Herein, we used the organic binder as an active material in the charge/discharge process. Redox molecules were attached onto its polymeric skeleton to obtain a redox binder with the dual functionalities of both the binder and the active material. In this way, the electrochemical performance was improved without detrimentally affecting the properties of the porous carbon. Results showed that the use of a redox binder is promising for enhancing both energy and power densities. PMID:26997572

  14. COLOR ASPHALT CONCRETE COATING ON POLIMER-TAR BINDER

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotarev, V.; Golovenchic, S.; Oksak, S.; S. Efremov

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of receiving of color asphalt concrete on polimer-tar binder is found. Principal moments of production technology of coloured mixtures and device of asphalt concrete coating have been revealed.

  15. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Seshadri; M Selvaraj; R Kesava Moorthy; K Varatharajan; M P Srinivasan; K B Lal

    2003-02-01

    The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature. The binder plays an important role in that it not only helps in adjustment of sol viscosity but also helps in binding the sol particle with porous support. Here a comparative study on the role of different binders, viz. polyvinyl alcohol, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylamide, effect of their viscosity and surface tension effect on the morphology of the titania membrane is presented. The results show that among the three binders studied polyvinyl alcohol gave rise to membranes of desired characteristics when the sol viscosity was 0.08 pa.s.

  16. Rheological Evaluation of Polymer Modiifed Asphalt Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; CHANG Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and dynamic rheological characteristics of asphalt containing different polymer modifiers (crumb rubber, styrene-butadiene-styrene and crumb rubber mix with styrene-butadiene-styrene) at mid and high service temperature levels were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) and repeat creep test. The main objective of the investigation was to rank the modifiers based on their effect on performance characteristics of asphalt under service conditions. To evaluate the effect of different modiifers on the viscoelastic response of asphalt, the temperature and frequency dependences of the dynamic viscoelastic properties were compared. The mid-temperature fatigue resistance and high-temperature rutting resistance of three polymer modiifed asphalts were evaluated to predict their ifeld performance in roads. Based on the current results, an improved rutting factor was proposed to determine the rutting resistance of asphalt pavements. In addition, the viscous stiffness (Gv), deifned as the reciprocal of viscous compliance, was used to evaluate the high-temperature deformation resistance of asphalt mixtures. The experimental results indicate that the asphalt containing crumb rubber only shows superior performance at mid and high service temperatures in all three modiifed asphalt binders due to the action of the crumb rubber.

  17. Development of composite solid propellent using dicyclopentadien binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Stephen Ray

    Through the history of composite solid propellant binders new chemicals are introduced as binders to improve upon the previous generation. Sometimes this is done to improve upon the flaws or shortcomings of a previous binder. Other time it is to meet a new set of requirements desired by industry. Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) is a hydrocarbon monomer being considered for its potential as a new binder in the composite propellant industry. The binder of a composite solid propellant is arguably the most important feature of the propellant. It is the binder that provides the majority of the structural characteristics of the propellant while also contributing itself as fuel to the combustion process. A binder in composite propellants must also be able to accept the introduction of a large quantity of solid filler; oxidizer, fuel, and other energetic and non-energetic particles. Many of the composite propellants used in industry today have over 80% of their weight composed of non-binder solid or liquid fillers. These requirements must be met by the binder in some form or fashion to produce a propellant able to compete with binders currently in use. When DCPD is polymerized it produces an extremely tough plastic with excellent tensile and impact strength. Experimentation has found that DCPD is able to support a large quantity of solid materials, over 80% weight of the mixture, while still retaining a great portion of its original strength. When compared to another similarly loaded binder currently used in industry, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), it was found that DCPD composite propellant had nearly 1.5 times the stress capacity while still exhibiting over 75% of the strain capacity of HTPB based composite propellant. In addition it was also shown that DCPD composite propellant allows for tailoring of its mechanical properties with the addition of plasticizers. The DCPD based composite propellant also exhibits a burning rate nearly twice that HTPB. These factors

  18. Chemistry principles for thermoplastic polymer binder formula selection for powder injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁叔全; 唐艳; 黄伯云; 李少强

    2004-01-01

    The polymer binder selection is one of the very important aspects for the powder injection molding.However, even nowadays the binder selection is still mainly performed by try and error method. Six commercial or intensive studied binder formulas were analyzed according to state diagram and chemical characteristics of ingredients in each binder formula. In addition, the interactions between the binder components and additives were also taken into account. Based on the analysis, the optimum binder formula was selected and some selection criterions were put forward for the binder and additives.

  19. Realizing of Optimization of Binder Backfill Material Under Certain Strength with Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明义; 胡华

    2001-01-01

    The main factors deciding the compressive strength of binder backfill body are tailing density and binder dosage in binder backfill materials. Based on the antecedent of certain pulp density, the method of increasing the tailing density and reducing the binder dosage, or the manner of cutting down the tailing density and gaining the binder dosage are taken to guarantee the strength of backfill body. The problem that should be solved is how to determine the tailing density and the binder dosage rationally. This paper tries to realize the correct selection of the tailing density and the binder dosage in computer with the method of fuzzy mathematics.

  20. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For the calcinations of Portland cement, temperatures up to 1480 oC are needed, while the calcination of for instance hemihydrate requires a temperature of 170 oC

  1. Application of mineral binders during briquetting of zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies a possibility to use mineral binders for briqueting zircon-blaring concentrates subject to chloride treatment in shaft furnaces. The effect of chloride treatment time and carbon content in the brickets on concentrates component break-down is investigated. Efficiency of mineral binder (bentonite and sodium silicate) application is confirmed: power consumption and treatment time decrease 8-10 times, a high level of concentrate break-down is achieved

  2. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. THE STUDY OF CORE SAND MIXTURES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Natalia V. Zakharova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using foamed polystyrene waste as the binder in manufacturing core sand mixtures. The article provides experimental data obtained by studying the core sand mixtures properties depending on the methods of addition, foamed polystyrene solution amount, its viscosity and the method of drying. The author investigates the ways of using foamed polystyrene as the binder and as the polymeric additive.

  4. Reinforcing Effects of Carbon Black on Asphalt Binder for Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Sasaki, Iwao; Nishizaki, Itaru; Meiarashi, Seishi; Moriyoshi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    Carbon black, used as a reinforcing filler for rubber materials, was evaluated for asphalt binders in pavements. Carbon black added to straight asphalt within 20 wt% caused an increase in the elastic modulus and a decrease in the viscosity of the asphalt, especially at temperatures higher than room temperature. Addition of carbon black raised the maximum service temperature of asphalt in the category of the binder performance grade according to the SHRP (Strategic Highway Research Program) sp...

  5. Thermal deformation of moulding sands with biopolymer binders

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabryś; St. M. Dobosz; J. Jakubski

    2010-01-01

    Investigations concerning an application of biopolymer materials as binders for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Theseinvestigations constitute the continuation of examinations related to applications of various biopolymers as binding agents. The results ofstrength tests, obtained for the investigated sands (with the PLA2 biopolymer binder) prepared in a self-hardening sands technology andair as well as microwave hardened, are presented. Examinations of sand thermal deformations bas...

  6. The Binder syndrome: review of the literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedev, Plamen Kostov

    2008-10-01

    Binder syndrome or maxillo-nasal dysplasia (nasomaxillary hypoplasia) is an uncommon developmental anomaly affecting primarily the anterior part of the maxilla and nasal complex. A 4-year-old boy with maxillo-nasal dysplasia (Binder's syndrome), featuring maxillary hypoplasia and relative mandibular prognathism, combined with acute leucosis was presented. We review the literature and describe how three-dimensional CT scanning was used to evaluate the facial morphology. The principal features, diagnosis and management of the syndrome are discussed. PMID:18691769

  7. A Granule Model for Evaluating Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Orafai

    2003-01-01

    Granule capability is defined in terms of the strength of individual granule and friability of granulation batch to withstand breaking, abrasion and compactibility. Binder(s) are added to perform the above properties .The common methods to asses their capability are to test crushing strength of the granules directly and to make statistical analysis and /or testing the friability of bulk granulation. In this work four substrate models including polymethylmetacrylate beads(PMMA),glass powder, a...

  8. An Open Challenge Problem Repository for Systems Supporting Binders

    OpenAIRE

    A. Felty; A. Momigliano; B. Pientka

    2015-01-01

    A variety of logical frameworks support the use of higher-order abstract syntax in representing formal systems; however, each system has its own set of benchmarks. Even worse, general proof assistants that provide special libraries for dealing with binders offer a very limited evaluation of such libraries, and the examples given often do not exercise and stress-test key aspects that arise in the presence of binders. In this paper we design an open repository ORBI (Open challenge problem Repos...

  9. Efeito da suplementação nutricional com glicina e glutamina, por via oral, na cicatrização colônica em coelhos Effect of the nutritional supplementation with glicine and glutamine, oral feeding, in the colonic cicatrization in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Alves Figueiredo

    2009-04-01

    , according to the procedures performed on them: Group 1 - (n = 9 received supplemental feeding with glutamine for seven days before and as five days after the operation; Group 2 - (n = 9 received supplemental feeding with glycine for seven days before and five days after the operation; Group 3 - (n = 9 received supplemental feeding with glutamine for five days after the operation; Group 4 - (n = 9 received supplemental feeding with glycine for five days after the operation; Group 5 - (n = 9 did not receive any supplemental feeding. The resistance of the anastomoses was evaluated through the means of assay for pressure of rupture during intraluminal air insufflation. RESULTS: Group 2 was the only group that presented rupture values above those of Group 5 (p < 0.05. There was no difference among the groups concerning the histological aspects. CONCLUSION: Oral supplementation with glycine, in the pre and post-operative periods increases the tensile strength of colonic anastomoses after partial colectomy in rabbits. The oral supplementation with glutamine did not present detectable effect on the colonic anastomoses in rabbits.

  10. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  11. A Granule Model for Evaluating Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Orafai

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Granule capability is defined in terms of the strength of individual granule and friability of granulation batch to withstand breaking, abrasion and compactibility. Binder(s are added to perform the above properties .The common methods to asses their capability are to test crushing strength of the granules directly and to make statistical analysis and /or testing the friability of bulk granulation. In this work four substrate models including polymethylmetacrylate beads(PMMA,glass powder, acetaminophen, and para-aminobebzoic acid were chosen. The binder models were corn starch, gelatin, methylcellulose (MC and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC. After massing the substrates with the binder solutions, discs were produced by the mean of the mold technique. The discs were dried and conditioned and then tested for tensile strength while the failed areas were scanned by SEM. Various granulations were made and the results of friability and crush strength were compared with the discs strength .The bond areas in the SEM showed the trend with the binder concentration .A comparison of the standard deviation shows that discs have much lower level of the strength than granules. The resulting discs showed a higher performance which is related to the stems for the discs shape .In conclusion, this method is a simple and is applicable to differentiate efficacy of binder under studies.

  12. Aqueous Tape Casting Process with Styrene-acrylic Latex Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xue-min; OUYANG Shi-xi; HUANG Yong; YU Zhi-yong; ZHAO Shi-ke; WANG Chang-an

    2004-01-01

    A commercial styrene-acrylic latex binder has been investigated as a good binder for aqueous Al2O3 suspensions tape-casting process. This paper focuses on the forming film mechanism of latex binder, the rheological behaviors of the suspensions, physical properties of green tapes and drying process of aqueous slurries with latex binder system. The drying process of the alumina suspensions is shown to follow a two-stage mechanism (the first stage: evaporation controlled process; and the second stage: diffusion controlled process). During the drying stage of the suspensions, the compressive force presses the latex particles and makes them be distorted, which results in cross-linking structure in contacted latex particles of the solidified tapes.A smooth-surface and high-strength green tape was fabricated by aqueous tape casting with latex binder system. The results from the SEM images of the crossing section microstructure of green tapes show that the latex is a very suitable binder for aqueous tape casting.

  13. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  14. Development of an innovative bio-binder using Asphalt-rubber technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Williams, R. Christopher; Rover, Marjorie; Machado, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This research work evaluates several parameters that can affect Asphalt Rubber (AR) binder performance and applies the AR technology to the development of an innovative renewable bio-binder that can fully and cost-effectively replace asphaltic bitumen derived from petroleum in flexible pavement construction. The “Binder Accelerated Separator” method was used to divide the constituents of the Asphalt Rubber and bio-binder (residual binder and swelled rubber). The physical and chemi...

  15. Artificial Nutrition: Principles and Practice of Enteral Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, David A. J.; Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a commonly used form of nutritional supplementation for patients with intestinal failure, both in hospitals and in the community. This article concentrates on the basic principles of enteral feeding, including the physiological effects of feeding into the intestinal tract. It covers the indications for enteral feeding, the different methods of supplying enteral feeds to the gastrointestinal tract, and the potential complications. There is also a discussion of the indication...

  16. Glutamine supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formul...

  17. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  18. Effect of feed supplementation with a-ketoglutarate, combined with vitamin B6 or C, on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Filip, Rafal; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2007-01-01

    for 9 d (n=16) or 18 d (n=10). No significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), or feed efficiency were seen between the dextrose-treated control group and the AKG treated groups. The highest ADG and ADFI were seen in the AKG 2B rats. The AKG 2B and AKG 2C...

  19. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  20. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  1. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  2. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  3. Sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais Feeding systems and oyster shell meal supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Emygdio de Faria

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar diferentes sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos, determinados constituintes sangüíneos, e sobre a disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo dietéticos, em 120 galinhas Lohmann LSL, com 70 semanas de idade, distribuídas em 20 unidades experimentais com seis aves cada. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: sistemas de alimentação (ad libitum e jejum das 7 às 18 h e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras (0 e 6,5 g/ave/dia, totalizando quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada. Os resultados mostraram menor consumo de ração para as galinhas submetidas à restrição alimentar. Produção, peso e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar, porcentagem de casca, espessura de casca, densidade aparente dos ovos e os coeficientes de disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o fornecimento de ração após às 18 h e a suplementação de casca de ostras não se mostraram vantajosos para o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different feeding schedule and oyster shell supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality, determined blood constituents, and on the calcium and phosphorus apparent availability using 120 laying hens Lohmann LSL, aged 70 weeks, distributed in 20 experimental units with six hens each. A completely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2: feeding systems (ad libitum and fasting from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. and oyster shell meal supplementation (0 and 6.5 g/hen/day, totalizing four treatments with five replicates each. The results showed smaller feed intake with fasting. The characteristics egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed:gain ratio, shell percent, shell thickness, egg

  4. Study of radionuclides migration in hydraulic binders. Influence of binder alteration on transfer mechanisms and kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of low and medium activity wastes surface storage, hydraulic binders materials are usually used as containment barrier. The safety analysis of this storage mode involves the knowledge of their behaviour and of their retention capacity towards radionuclides, at short and long-term. The knowledge of diffusional processes inside their liquid phase and those of the interactions existing between the diffusing element and the cement matrix, as well as their kinetics, are essential elements for the study of their durability on 300 years. An experimental methodology has been defined, allowing the characterization of the transfer of an element j in a porous material by the determination of the diffusion coefficient of j in the pores of the material x and the determination of the local equilibrium constant characterizing the interaction of j with the material x. This can be made from the analytical expressions coming from the Fick laws. These parameters have been studied from diffusion and leaching experiments of radionuclides in pure cement pastes. A modelling of the leaching processes is proposed here. The decomposition of the hydraulic binders, by their leaching in a demineralized solution at 'aggressive' pH, leads essentially to their decalcification - whose kinetics answers to a pure diffusion law in √t - and an increase of their porosity. In these attack conditions, it seems that it exists a decalcification limit condition, from which a lattice of interconnected microcracks is developed in all the material. In consequence, the retention capacity of these degraded materials towards radionuclides decreases. The cesium transfer appears more sensitive to the degradation of the material than of those of the tritium. (O.M.)

  5. A Double-Blind, Randomised, Controlled Trial to Study the Effects of an Enteral Feed Supplemented with Glutamine, Arginine, and Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Predicted Acute Severe Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum B Pearce

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Context :Current best evidence is in favour of early institution of enteral feeding in acute severe pancreatitis with promising results from trials in immunonutrition on other patient groups. Objective: To identify which groups of patients and products are associated with benefit, we investigated immunonutrition in patients with predicted acute severe pancreatitis. Design :A randomised trial of a study feed containing glutamine, arginine, tributyrin and antioxidants versus an isocaloric isonitrogenous control feed was undertaken. Patients: Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis predicted to develop severe disease: 15 study feeds and 16 control feeds. Interventions: Enteral feeding via nasojejunal tube for 3 days. If patients required further feeding the study was continued up to 15 days. Main outcome measures :Reduction in Creactive protein (CRP by 40 mg/L after 3 days of enteral feeding was the primary endpoint. Carboxypeptidase B activation peptide (CAPAP levels were taken at regular intervals. Results :After 3 days of feeding, in the study group 2/15 (13% of patients had reduced their CRP by 40 mg/L or more. In the control group 6/16 (38% of patients had reduced their CRP by this amount. This difference was found to be near the statistical significant limit (P=0.220. Conclusions :The cause of the unexpectedly higher CRP values in the study group is unclear. The rise in CRP was without a commensurate rise in CAPAP or outcome measures so there was no evidence that this represented pancreatic necrosis. The contrast between the CRP and CAPAP results is of interest and we believe that specific pancreatic indices such as CAPAP should be considered in larger future studies.

  6. Análise dos teores de ácidos cianídrico e fítico em suplemento alimentar: multimistura Analysis of hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents in feeding supplements: multimixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Helbig

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou quantificar o teor de ácido cianídrico em folhas de mandioca, que receberam tratamento prévio antes da secagem, e a concentração de ácido fítico na multimistura submetida à cocção úmida. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a multimistura produzida pela Pastoral da Criança da cidade de Pelotas (RS, constituída por: farelos de trigo (30% e arroz (30%: farinhas de milho (15% e trigo (10%; pós de casca de ovo (5%, de folha de mandioca (5% e de sementes (5%, abóbora ou girassol. Foi realizada orientação ao fornecedor da folha de mandioca sobre a forma recomendada de preparo antes da secagem. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de ácidos cianídrico e fitatos no suplemento alimentar foram respectivamente de 85mg.kg-1 e 35.90mg.100-1. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que a mudança na forma de secagem das folhas de mandioca foi eficiente para a redução de glicosídeos cianogênicos, e que o processo de torrefação dos ingredientes foi suficiente para produzir a redução de ácido fítico da multimistura aos níveis preconizados pela legislação, não sendo observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes quando comparadas as amostras que também foram tratadas com calor úmido.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves that were treated before drying and the concentration of phytic acid in a multimixture submitted to wet cooking. METHODS: The multimixture produced by the Pastoral da Criança of the city of Pelotas (RS consisting of wheat flour (30%, rice flour (30%, corn flour (15%, wheat (10%, egg shell powder (5%, cassava leaves (5% and pumpkin or sunflower seeds (5% was used. The supplier was advised on how to process the cassava leaves before drying them. RESULTS: The hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents of the feeding supplement are 85mg.kg-1 and 35.90mg.100-1 respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing the way the cassava leaves were dried was efficient to reduce

  7. BINDER MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BRIQUETTING STEEL MILL RESIDUES; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternatives to the molasses-ordinary portland cement (OPC) binder as a binder for steel mill residues were extensively investigated. A large number of binder modifications were tested using a hand pelleting apparatus to identify effective compositions. The more effective compositions were evaluated in a series of three briquetting matrices using the Komarek press. Evaluations consisted of drop tests, compression tests of given and cured pellets, and tumble tests of cured pellets. Pyrolysis odor tests were performed to determine the effects of certain compositions on the disagreeable wet campfire odor produced during heating of the molasses-OPC briquettes. Several scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology studies were conducted to examine the nature of structures formed during pelleting or briquetting

  8. Performance Characterization of Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Saboo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue sensitivity of four different asphalt binders and three different asphalt mixes was evaluated in the study. Binders were subjected to Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS test at three temperatures of 10, 20, and 30°C. Four-point beam bending test (4PBBT was conducted on the asphalt mixes at a temperature of 20°C for strain amplitudes varying from 200 to 1000 microstrains. Tests like retained Marshall Stability and indirect tensile strength (ITS were also carried out to judge the mix performance. Experimental studies demonstrated that elastomeric modified binder and mixes gave the best performance in fatigue. Plastomeric modification was found to be highly strain susceptible and resulted in poor fatigue performance. The fatigue life of stone mastic asphalt (SMA was found to be almost five times higher than the dense graded mixes. For similar strain levels, the results of LAS test could be linearly correlated with the 4PBBT results.

  9. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  10. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tavakoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

  12. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  13. Influence of conductive additive on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少鹏; 李波; 陈筝; 黄旭

    2008-01-01

    The effects of graphite on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders were investigated by penetration test,Ring & Ball softening point test and viscosity test.And penetration index(IP),viscosity-temperature susceptibility(SVT),and penetration-viscosity numbers(NPV) were introduced to evaluate the effects.The results show that the penetration,softening point and viscosity of asphalt binder increase with the increase of content of graphite.This means that the addition of graphite makes asphalts stiffer.The results from IP,NPV and SVT show that temperature susceptibility is reduced by the addition of graphite.

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. PMID:26684056

  16. Supplemental Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lookup > COPD > Diagnosing and Treating COPD Supplemental Oxygen Sometimes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung ... in people with severe lung disease Three Ways Oxygen Therapy Is Supplied Compressed oxygen gas and liquid ...

  17. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  18. Nepali Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  19. Osmolality of Elemental and Semi-Elemental Formulas Supplemented with Nonprotein Energy Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Pitta-Grós Dias, M; Virella, D; Serelha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Elemental and semi-elemental formulas are used to feed infants with short bowel syndrome, who may not be able to tolerate feeds of more than 310 mOsm kg(-1). The present study aimed to measure the osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, with and without the addition of nonprotein energy supplements.

  20. Feeding guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  1. Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of recent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floege, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is treated by dietary measures, dialysis techniques and/or phosphate binders. For the present review PubMed was searched for new publications on phosphate binders appearing between January 2010 and October 2015. This review summarizes the latest information on non-pharmacological measures and their problems in lowering phosphate in CKD patients, effects of phosphate binders on morbidity and mortality, adherence to phosphate binder therapy as well as new information on specific aspects of the various phosphate binders on the market: calcium acetate, calcium carbonate, magnesium-containing phosphate binders, polymeric phosphate binders (sevelamer, bixalomer, colestilan), lanthanum carbonate, ferric citrate, sucroferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum-containing phosphate binders, and new compounds in development. The review also briefly covers the emerging field of drugs targeting intestinal phosphate transporters. PMID:26800972

  2. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  3. Respuesta productiva de becerros en pastoreo de praderas de pangola, suplementados con alimento comercial y harina de Cacahuananche (Gliricidia sepium - Productive response the calf in grazing of pangola grass sward supplemented with commercial feed and Cacahuananche flour (Gliricidia sepium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, Herminio Aniano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa investigación se realizó en Santiago Llano Grande, Oaxaca, México,con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta productiva, el consumo desuplemento, cambios de peso vivo (PV de becerros y relaciónbeneficio:costo (RBC por efecto de la suplementación en condiciones de pastoreo.SummaryThe trial was carried out in Santiago Llano Grande, Oaxaca, México, with the objective of determine the productive response, the supplement intake, live weight changes, benefict:cost ratio, for effect of the supplementation.

  4. Effect of type of binder on growth, digestibility, and energetic balance of Octopus maya

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, C; Tut, J; Baeza, J.; Sanchez, A.; Sosa, V.; Pascual, C; L. Arena; Domingues, P; Cuzon, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, total apparent digestibility, and some elements of the energetic balance of early O. maya juveniles. Two experiments were performed. One was aimed at evaluating the effect of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, and energetic balance and the other at knowing the effect of the binder on total apparent digestibility of O. maya. Binder type affected growth and survival of early O....

  5. Alkali – activated binders: a review part 1. Historical background, terminology, reaction mechanisms and hydration products

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    The disintegration of concrete structures made of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a worrying topic of increasing significance. The development of new binders with longer durability is therefore needed. Alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to OPC binders, which seems to have superior durability and environmental impact. This paper reviews current knowledge about alkali-activated binders. The subjects of Part 1 in this paper are historical background, terminology a...

  6. Effects of binders on the performance of electric double-layer capacitors of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chensha; WANG Dazhi; ZHANG Baoyou; WANG Xiaofeng; CAO Maosheng; LIANG Ji

    2005-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitor (EDLCs) were made from carhon nanotubes. Effects of different binders, which are phenolic resin (PF) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), on the properties of polarizable electrodes are studied. Results indicate that the microstructure, pore size distribution and specific capacitance of the electrodes with PTFE binder are superior to those electrodes with PF binder after carbonization. The suitable binder (PTFE) for carbon nanotubes electrodes is proposed.

  7. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nida Chaimoon; Krit Chaimoon

    2014-01-01

    For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB) and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historica...

  8. Cellular Composites with Ambient and Autoclaved Type of Hardening with Application of Nanostructured Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelyubova, V.; Pavlenko, N.; Netsvet, D.

    2015-11-01

    The research presents the dimensional and structural characteristics of nonhydrational hardening binders - nanostructured binders. Rational areas of their use in composites for construction purposes are given. The paper presents the results of the development of natural hardening foam concrete and aerated autoclaved concrete for thermal insulating and construction and thermal insulating purposes. Thus nanostructured binder (NB) in the composites was used as a primary binder and a high reactive modifier.

  9. Continuous control of parameters of production of phosphogypsum binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choice of basic technological parameters for production of phosphogypsum binder of β-modification is substantiated. The necessity of their continuous control is shown. Control methods and hardware of the main parameters permitting to use them for following control automation of β-gypsum production are suggested

  10. Polymethyl Methacrylate as a Binder for Pyrotechnic Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Sontakke; S. D. Kakade; R. M. Wagh; A. G. Dugam; P. P. Sane

    1995-01-01

    Studies on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a binder for igniter and delay compositions are reported. Igniter compositions based on magnesium and boron as fuels and potassium nitrate as oxidiser, delay compositions comprising ferrosilicon and red lead, have been investigated. These compositions were subjected to various tests, such as linear burning rate, sensitivity, calorimetric value, compatibility, pelleting properties, spark sensitivity, ignition temperatures and performance char...

  11. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... vessel had been requisitioned for title under section 902(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1242(a)) at the time of the attachment of the insurance under said policy:...

  12. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...

  13. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  14. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  15. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age. PMID:23795976

  16. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Chaimoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historical background, reaction mechanisms and reaction products. The similarities and differences of both binders are discussed. The application to environmental engineering on hazardous waste management using stabilization/solidification is also described.

  17. Glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  18. Systematic Investigation of Binders for Silicon Anodes: Interactions of Binder with Silicon Particles and Electrolytes and Effects of Binders on Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Yoon, Taeho; Seo, Daniel M; Guduru, Pradeep; Lucht, Brett L

    2016-05-18

    The effects of different binders, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and cross-linked PAA-CMC (c-PAA-CMC), on the cycling performance and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on silicon nanoparticle electrodes have been investigated. Electrodes composed of Si-PAA, Si-CMC, and Si-PAA-CMC exhibit a specific capacity ≥3000 mAh/g after 20 cycles while Si-PVdF electrodes have a rapid capacity fade to 1000 mAh/g after just 10 cycles. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal that PAA and CMC react with the surface of the Si nanoparticles during electrode fabrication. The fresh Si-CMC electrode has a thicker surface coating of SiOx than Si-PAA and Si-PAA-CMC electrodes, due to the formation of thicker SiOx during electrode preparation, which leads to lower cyclability. The carboxylic acid functional groups of the PAA binder are reactive toward the electrolyte, causing the decomposition of LiPF6 and dissolution of SiOx during the electrode wetting process. The PAA and CMC binder surface films are then electrochemically reduced during the first cycle to form a protective layer on Si. This layer effectively suppresses the decomposition of carbonate solvents during cycling resulting in a thin SEI. On the contrary, the Si-PVDF electrode has poor cycling performance and continuous reduction of carbonate solvents is observed resulting in the generation of a thicker SEI. Interestingly, the Lewis basic -CO2Na of CMC was found to scavenge HF in electrolyte. PMID:27135935

  19. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  20. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil, L.; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P. K.; Gopala Krishna, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with disti...

  1. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser Y.Mostafa; Q.Mohsen; A.El-maghraby

    2014-01-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  2. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  3. OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES AS THE INDICATORS OF SULFUR BINDERS NANOMODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Both computed dependence and theoretical estimation of the variation range for generalized material’s quality criterion are presented. It is shown that first of all realization of nanotechnology should be held in respect to the properties which determine the area of material’s application. As the particular criteria of the material’s quality, it is most appropriate to use the attributes which are closely connected to the intrinsic features of the process or property being analyzed. The technology of sulfur-based binders was the area of application of nanoscale improvement of disperse phases. It was found that sulfur-based binders are chemically resistant materials (according to RU GOST 25246–82**. Fillers nanomodification increases resistance of materials within the predicted range of values.

  4. Compressive strength and rheology of environmentally-friendly binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Lizarazo Marriaga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary Portland cement production accounts for 9% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. This paper summarises the results of research aimed at developing environmentally-friendly binders which can be used as an alternative in civil construction, aimed at generating alternatives and sustainable materials. Mixes of the combination of granulated ground blast furnace slag, basic oxygen slag, cement kiln dust and plasterboard gypsum were used for optimising the binders, according to their compressive strength, to obtain 5 concrete mixtures made partially or completely with industrial waste. The results showed that the compressive strength of mixtures of Portland cement and industrial waste were suitable for different civil construction applications and, although mixtures formed entirely from industrial waste had a significant decrease in their compressive strength, the results sho- wed great potential for specific industrial applications. In addition to compressive strength, the rheological properties of these mixtures were determined for defining flow and workability characteristics.

  5. A binder phase of TiO based cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-kui; GUAN Shao-kang; ZHONH Hui; LI Jiang; ZHONG Hai-yun

    2005-01-01

    A binder phase of TiO based cermets, a kind of imitated gold materials, was developed by adding active element Si to Fe-Cr alloy, and the related mechanisms were studied. The wettability, matching in thermodynamics and interfacial strength were investigated by the high temperature sessile drop method and element area scanning. The linear expansion coefficients of the materials were measured using TAH100 thermal analyzer. The results show that the wettability of Fe-Cr alloy on TiO are small, with a wetting angle about 90°. After adding some Si in Fe-Cr alloy, its wetting angle can be decreased to about 25°, the interfacial reactions can be prevented effectively and high interface binding can be formed. Fe-25%Cr-1.5%Si matches the thermal expansion coefficient of TiO, so it is a kind of relatively perfect binder for TiO based cermets imitated gold.

  6. Studies on organic binders with high infrared transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that two kinds of polymers with high infrared transparency and good mechanical and physical properties have been prepared. An internal standard method is used to evaluate the infrared transparency of the binders. The physical and mechanical properties of the binders are measured according to corresponding standards. The results show the absorbance of polymer A in 8–14 μm range is 26% that of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and polymer B is 9% that of the EVA correspondingly. The film of polymer A shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 2. The film of polymer B shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 1. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Stability of polymer binders in Li-O2 batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-06-24

    A number of polymers with various chemical structures were studied as binders for air electrodes in Li-O2 batteries. The nature of the polymer significantly affects the binding properties in the carbon electrodes thus altering the discharge performance of Li-O2 batteries. Stability of polymers to the aggressive reduced oxygen species generated during discharge was tested by ball milling them with KO2 and Li2O2, respectively. Most of the polymers decomposed under these conditions and mechanisms of the decompositions are proposed for some of the polymers. Polyethylene was found to have excellent stability and is suggested as robust binder for air electrodes in Li-O2 batteries.

  8. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  9. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  10. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  11. Examining the thermal degradation of polymer binders using FTIR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the general theoretical basis for examining polymers using FTIR infrared spectroscopy. It presents results of research on using the FTIR to analyse the course of structural changes during the thermal degradation of polymer binders exemplified by a sodium salt of the maleic acid – acrylic acid copolymer. This polymer was selected for the research due to its structure (an aliphatic structure polymer) and its physical chemistry properties (polarity, presence of reactive CO...

  12. Influence of environment on the historical material with mineral binder

    OpenAIRE

    Štukovnik, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of historical materials with mineral binders in buildings of architectural heritage can be influenced by several different factors, which are often the result of changes in the environment where the buildings are located. In order to analyse the damages of these materials and the causes for their occurrence, three buildings of architectural heritage located in three different climatic zones were subjected to visual analysis and non-destructive testing using 3D microscopic system...

  13. Method of producing fugitive binder-containing nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel material green body of density from about 30 to 70% of theoretical density having tensile strength and plasticity adequate to maintain the integrity of the body during processing leading to ultimate sintered condition is produced by adding an amine carbonate or carbamate or mixture thereof to a particulate mass of the nuclear fuel material under conditions resulting in reaction with the amine compound to form a water-soluble compound effective as a binder for the particulate material

  14. New experimental methods to monitor and characterize asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pais, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    The need for continuous quality improvement of the road pavements, leads to the development of new binders, such as asphalt rubber (AR). AR is produced by the digestion of crumb rubber from used tires on bitumen. The resulting AR is a heterogeneous material with high viscosity. The study of this product during its production is essential due to the sudden and sharp increase in the volume of AR in this phase. Knowledge of the extent of this phenomenon has obvious implications in...

  15. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  16. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung Jae; Bang, Jin Wook; Kim, Jeong Su; Jang, Young Il

    2015-01-01

    The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB), were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB) filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2%) and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that alth...

  17. Energy analysis of Binder-jetting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; METEYER, Simon; PERRY, Nicolas; ZHAO, Yaoyao Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Considering the potential for new product design possibilities and the reduction of environmental impacts, Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are considered to possess significant advantages for automotive, aerospace and medical equipment industries. One of the commercial AM techniques is Binder-Jetting (BJ). This technique can be used to process a variety of materials including stainless steel, ceramic, polymer and glass. However, there is very limited research about this AM technology on...

  18. Energy consumption model of Binder-jetting additive manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; METEYER, Simon; PERRY, Nicolas; ZHAO, Yaoyao Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Considering the potential for new product design possibilities and the reduction of environmental impacts, Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are considered to possess significant advantages for automotive, aerospace and medical equipment industries. One of the commercial AM techniques is Binder-Jetting (BJ). This technique can be used to process a variety of materials including stainless steel, ceramic, polymer and glass. However, there is very limited research about this AM technology on...

  19. BinderCracker: Assessing the Robustness of Android System Services

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Huan; Shin, Kang G.

    2016-01-01

    In Android, communications between apps and system services are supported by a transaction-based Inter-Process Communication (IPC) mechanism. Binder, as the cornerstone of this IPC mechanism, separates two communicating parties as client and server. As with any client-server model, the server should not make any assumption on the validity (sanity) of client-side transaction. To our surprise, we find this principle has frequently been overlooked in the implementation of Android system services...

  20. High-Temperature ceramic coatings with geopolymeric binders

    OpenAIRE

    Medri, Valentina; Fabbri, Samanta; Sobalik, Z.; Vaccari, Angelo; Bellosi, Alida

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature (HT) resistant coatings represent an updating subject of high industrial interest on account of their relevant applications (turbines, engines, aeronautic, ecc.). While many HT resistant products are known, not simple appears to satisfy the requirement of their high and stable adhesion on the support. The aim of this work was to develop novel HT resistant ceramic coatings based on silicon carbide and/or zirconium oxide, using geopolymeric resins as binders. Geopolymers show m...

  1. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  2. Polyaromatic polymers as binders in PEMFC catalyst layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peron, J.M.; Edwards, D.; Le Marquand, P.; Shi, Z.; Holdcroft, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2009-07-01

    The catalyst layers in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are typically composed of platinum as the catalyst and carbon as the electron conductor. The binder that ensures the ionic pathway between catalyst particles and the electrolyte membrane is a perfluorinated polymer that brings the electrolyte, gaseous reactants, electrocatalyst and current collector into close contact within a confined spatial region known as the triple-phase-boundary. New non-fluorinated polymers have been developed in an effort to lower the cost and improve the stability of fuel cells. Although polyaromatic polymers have been extensively presented in the literature for membrane preparation, these new materials have been mainly characterized in presence of Nafion as a binder in the catalyst layer. This paper discussed the incorporation of polyaromatic polymers, such as sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK), and its properties as a binder. sPEEK-based catalyst ink solutions, using different sPEEK/Pt ratios and preparation methods, have been deposited on membranes to form catalyst-coated-membranes (CCM). Initial catalyst ink were characterized using dynamic light scattering to determine agglomerate size. Catalyst layers were examined using SEM and TEM and their porosity was determined by Hg porosimetry. Various electrochemical techniques were used for in-situ characterization of prepared sPEEK CCMs.

  3. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X...

  4. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  5. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

  6. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  7. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  8. Estudo das condições de saúde das crianças do Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, 1984-1985: VIII - Cobertura e impacto da suplementação alimentar A study of children's health in S. Paulo City (Brazil, 1984-1985: VIII - Coverage and impact of feeding supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1988-04-01

    ", foram feitas recomendações para o aperfeiçoamento dos programas infantis de suplementação, destacando-se entre elas a ampliação da cobertura no segundo ano de vida e a necessidade de correção do exíguo aporte de ferro proporcionado pela suplementação.A random sample of under-fives living in the City of S. Paulo was studied with the aim of establishing the coverage and impact of supplementary feeding programs. The coverage for the whole sample was 11.4%. In all the cases supplementation was provided by health centers as part of a broad group of preventive and curative health activities. The supplement was always whole powder milk and for 94% of the sample the amount distributed was 2 kg per month per child. Supplementation was restricted almost entirely to children under two years of age and the highest coverage was reached in the 6-to 12-months age bracket. The highest coverage was observed among poor families and among children with weight deficits. The impact of the supplementation was evaluated through the comparison of the last 24 hours' milk intake of supplemented and non-suplemented children, controlled for age and socioeconomic strata. Milk intake was around 25w higher among supplemented children, both in the first and in the second year of life. For all the socioeconomic strata, milk intake was superior among supplemented children and for the lowest strata the difference in consumption reached 33%. An important finding revealed by the study was the very good correspondence between milk intake of supplemented children and the amount of milk usually delivered by the program. This fact eliminates the possibility that a large proportion of the supplement given to the child night be being shared with other members of the family. Considering the findings of this study and other data provided by the project "A study of children's health in S. Paulo City (Brazil" some recommendations for the improvement of the supplementary feedings programs in S. Paulo City

  9. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  10. Distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in carcinomas of the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, H; Ohshio, G; Ogawa, K; Kim, Y C; Wakatsuki, Y; Nakashima, Y; Yamabe, H; Inada, M

    1988-03-01

    To evaluate whether the increase in serum transcobalamin I, seen in patients with carcinoma, is caused by synthesis of R-binder to tumour cells, the distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in 125 malignant growths of the digestive tract was studied. Positive staining for R-binder with immunoperoxidase was observed in 85 (70%) carcinomas. Positive staining for R-binder was observed in all four cholangiocarcinomas studied, but was absent in nine hepatocellular carcinomas. These findings suggest that determination of R-binder in liver tumours may be of some value in differentiating hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinoma, and that synthesis of R-binder by tumour cells causes an increase in serum transcobalamin I. PMID:2834423

  11. Binder fraction reduction in non-ferrous metals concentrates briquetting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jodkowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results on a method of reducing the amount of binder applied during formation of metal concentrates are presented. Research was done on a model copper concentrate, which was mixed in assumed mass fraction with binder, as well as binder with addition of waste polyols. Such mixtures were formed and tested using static compressive strength, both immediately after forming and after the assumed seasoning times: 24, 96, 192 and 336 hours. The results confirm the possibility of binder dose lowering using high-efficiency system of binder dispersing with small addition of waste polyols and by homogeneous mixing of the binder with the material. In all examined cases increase in seasoning time influenced mechanical strength of the formed shapes advantageously.

  12. Effect of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics andperformance of group-housed weanling pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.; Schrama, J.W.; Hartog, den, J.M.P.; Everts, H.; A. C. Beynen

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effects of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 16 litters (149 piglets) were fed a commercial creep feed (3,040 kcal NE/kg, 15.2 g lysine/kg) supplemented with 1% chromic oxide. Another five litters (48 piglets) were not given access to creep feed (no-feed). Piglets were weaned at 28 d after birth. On d 18, 22, and 27 of age, fecal samples from all the piglets were taken using fecal loops. A green color of...

  13. Alteration of mammalian cell metabolism by dynamic nutrient feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weichang; Rehm, Jutta; Europa, Anna; Hu, Wei-Shou

    1997-01-01

    The metabolism of hybridoma cells was controlled to reduce metabolic formation in fed-batch cultures by dynamically feeding a salt-free nutrient concentrate. For this purpose, on-line oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement was used to estimate the metabolic demand of hybridoma cells and to determine the feeding rate of a concentrated solution of salt-free DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with other medium components. The ratios among glucose, glutamine and other medium components in the feeding nut...

  14. Immunohistochemical localisation of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, H; Inada, M; Ohshio, G; Wakatsuki, Y; Ogawa, K; Hamashima, Y.; Miyake, T

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract was studied using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Positive staining for R-binder was found in the mucous cells and ductal epithelial cells of the salivary glands and the oesophageal glands. In normal gastric mucosa, no positive staining for R-binder was found, but in the area with intestinal metaplasia, the columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells showed positive staining. Epithelial cells of the gallbladder, intr...

  15. New bicomponent binders for foundry moulding sands composed of phenol-furfuryl resin and polycaprolactone

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major – Gabryś; A. Grabarczyk; St. M. Dobosz; J. Jakubski

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to test the properties of foundry moulding sands with a new bicomponent organic binder. The new binder is the composition of phenol-furfuryl resin, commonly used in foundry practice and biodegradable material – polycaprolactone. The paper presents the research of strength properties, thermal destruction and thermal deformation of moulding sands with a new bicomponent binder. It was proved that inserting polycaprolactone to phenol-furfuryl resin did not lower the ...

  16. The influence of recycled asphalt pavement on 20mm binder course mix performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakovic, Amir; Gibney, Amanda; Gilchrist, M. D.; McNally, Ciaran

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ongoing research on the mechanical performance of a 20mm binder course asphalt pavement mix incorporating recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). A series of binder course mixes were designed containing varying percentages of RAP. A mix made only from virgin material was selected as the control mix for the investigation. The effect of introducing RAP into the binder course mix was evaluated through a series of laboratory tests including the Marshall Test, Indire...

  17. Investigation of application possibility of polyurethanes as binders in the fabrication of composite plastic explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three polyurethane, different viscosity, binders, on the base of polyethers, polyols, and di-isocyanates were synthetized. They could be used as binders in the process of fabrication of composite plastic explosives. Composite plastic explosives, differing in the type and the percentage of binder, were produced. RDH, HMX, and PETN were used as explosives. Basic explosive characteristics (sesitivity to the initation, detonation speed, sensitivity on friction) of given types of composite plastic explosives were defined

  18. Microarray Detection of Duplex and Triplex DNA Binders with DNA-Modified Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Han, Min Su; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a chip-based assay, using microarray technology, for determining the relative binding affinities of duplex and triplex DNA binders. This assay combines the high discrimination capabilities afforded by DNA-modified Au nanoparticles with the high-throughput capabilities of DNA microarrays. The detection and screening of duplex DNA binders are important because these molecules, in many cases, are potential anticancer agents as well as toxins. Triplex DNA binders are also promisi...

  19. INJECTION-BASED STABILIZATION OF PERVIOUS SOILS, CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES USING PARTICULARLY FINELY DISPERSED BINDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko Igor Yakovlevich; Bazhenov Marat Ildarovich

    2012-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of maintenance of buildings and structures of architectural merit. Expedient resolution of this problem consists in the application of a mineral hydraulic binder that has a particularly fine, gradually and smoothly changing granulometric composition and explicit and steady chemical and mineral composition. The above binder is recovered as a result of the air separation of Portland cement. The above binder comprises Portland clinker, furnace slag, ...

  20. The Influence of Aggregate Size and Binder Material on the Properties of Pervious Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tun Chi Fu; Weichung Yeih; Jiang Jhy Chang; Ran Huang

    2014-01-01

    Specimens were prepared by altering parameters such as aggregate sizes, binder materials, and the amounts of binder used and were subsequently tested by using permeability, porosity, mechanical strength, and soundness tests. The results indicated that the water permeability coefficient and connected porosity decreased as the amount of binder used increased and increased with increasing aggregate size. In the mechanical strength test, the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths ...

  1. Polyolefin Backbone Substitution in Binders for Low Temperature Powder Injection Moulding Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Berenika Hausnerova; Ivo Kuritka; Davit Bleyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al2O3 feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions co...

  2. A Review of Conventional and Unconventional Feeds in Fish Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    Full Text Available A review of conventional and unconventional feeds in fish nutrition was carried out to provide information on supplemental feed and its formulation for effective culture fisheries management. Foods for fry and fingerlings frequently exceed 50% crude protein. As growth rate decreases and fish age, protein levels in diets are decreased accordingly. Technology associated with rearing of live foods is improving rapidly. This is having a positive impact on larval rearing, a frequent bottleneck for commercialization of “new” species. This article reviews live feed for fish larvae, fish foods, fish feed ingredients, some common conventional feed stuff, animal and plant sources of unconventional feeds for culture fish, fish feed formulation and feeding methods to provide more information for the effective management of fish farming.

  3. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  4. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  5. A new binder for powder injection molding titanium and other reactive metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2006-06-26

    We have developed a new aromatic-based binder for powder injection molding (PIM) reactive metals, such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum. Because of careful selection of the binder constituents, thermal removal is readily accomplished at low temperatures and short-times via vacuum sublimation. In this way the binder can be cleanly extracted from the green part prior to sintering to minimize the amount of residual carbon left in the final component. Rheological measurements indicate that powder loadings in the PIM feedstock as high as 67 vol% could be achieved using the new binder system, while still maintaining low mixing torques and injection molding pressures.

  6. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmetally DurableThermal Control Material Systems. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase I proposal will develop new binder systems through the systematic investigations to tailor required unique performance properties and...

  7. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Mette Helene; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...... were measured in supine position with venous occlusion plethysmography. In an upright-seated position arterial oxygen saturation was measured by a pulseoxymeter for 1 h before spirometry was performed with a turbine flow measurement device. All the tests were performed in a randomized order with or...

  9. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Olobayo O. Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  10. Alanine dosimeter for practical use using polyethylene as binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Tsuneo (Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Kobayashi, Toshikazu; Iso, Katsuaki; Sone, Yasuhiro; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1992-02-01

    Alanine dosimeters were manufactured using polyethylene as a binder and their characteristics were studied with the intention of developing cheap dosimeter for practical routine use having high precision in a dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. The effects of temperature and humidity during storage after irradiation on fading of the ESR response, which is proportional to radiation-induced free radicals in alanine, and the influence of ESR measurement conditions on the ESR response were investigated in detail. As the results, it was confirmed that practical dosimetry of satisfactorily high precision is possible with the manufactured dosimeters by following appropriate measurement procedures. (author).

  11. Alanine dosimeter for practical use using polyethylene as binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine dosimeters were manufactured using polyethylene as a binder and their characteristics were studied with the intention of developing cheap dosimeter for practical routine use having high precision in a dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. The effects of temperature and humidity during storage after irradiation on fading of the ESR response, which is proportional to radiation-induced free radicals in alanine, and the influence of ESR measurement conditions on the ESR response were investigated in detail. As the results, it was confirmed that practical dosimetry of satisfactorily high precision is possible with the manufactured dosimeters by following appropriate measurement procedures. (author)

  12. Effect of different binders and encapsulation techniques in the structure and functional properties of microdiets for fish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grenha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of micro diets, for fish larvae, has been a major challenge in past years; however some problems remain without a resolution. Besides its tremendous growth rates, at early developmental stages, fish larvae present an immature digestive system and a progressive metamorphic process that suggest special nutritional requirements. It is therefore essential to provide fish larvae with easy and/or quickly metabolized protein sources, like protein hydrolisates, high bioavailable forms of vitamins and trace minerals. The low molecular weight of such compounds, in association to the high surface area of the micro-particles, makes them highly soluble and prone to water leaching losses. These nutrient losses, not only makes these nutrients unavailable to the larvae, but originate an important increase of organic matter in the rearing tanks, leading to detrimental water quality criteria. The development of high-performing micro-particulate diets for fish larvae requires a delicate balance between an adequate quantitative and qualitative nutritional supply and good water stability of the feeds, without compromising the palatability and the digestive breakdown. A series of binders, protein-based (e.g. fish gelatin, wheat gluten, spray-dried plasma and carbohydrate-based (gums, alginates, pectins, starches, dextrin, polyols were incorporated at graded levels (1, 2.5 and 5% in a standard formulation for seabream larvae. Diets were manufactured by a proprietary low-shear extrusion process and afterwards processed to obtain a 200-400 micron fraction. All diets were analyzed for the following criteria: water leaching of nitrogenous compounds, turbidimetry and particle water stability. An additionally approach relied on the use of various encapsulation techniques (spray-drying, fluid-bed drying and vacuum coating to incorporate trace minerals (Zn and Mn and amino acids (taurine, lysine and methionine. Technological results show that the beneficial

  13. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  14. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  15. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Binders for Solid Composite Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A new family of polymeric binders for solid composite propellants is proposed, based on two component interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs. These networks comprise two different polyurethanes based on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene and ISRO polyol interpenetrated with two different vinyl polymers, viz poly methyl methacrylate and polystyrene. the networks synthesized by the simultaneous interpenetrating technique have been characterized for their properties, such as stress-strain, density, viscosity, thermal degradation, and heat of combustion. Phase morphologies have been determined using electron microscopy. Suitable explanations have been adduced to rationalize the properties of IPNs in terms of their structures and chain interactions. A study of the mechanical properties and burning rates of the ammonium perchlorate (AP-based solid propellant using the newly synthesised IPNs as binders, has been carried out. The results show that both mechanical strength and burning rate of solid propellants could be suitably modified by simply changing the nature and/or the ratio of the two interpenetrating polymer components.

  16. Rheological evaluation of polymer-modified asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Romero Santos Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most used polymer for asphalt binder modification is the thermoplastic elastomer styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and aromatic oil is commonly added to the mixtures to improve their compatibly. This paper proposes the use of oil shale from sedimentary rock as a compatibilizer agent for polymer-modified asphalt binder (PMB. PMBs were produced by mixing a bitumen with a linear SBS copolymer (3.5% (w.w-1 using two oil shale contents (2 and 4% and petroleum aromatic oil to evaluate comparatively the effect of the compatibilizer agent on the SBS PMB properties. The rheological characteristics of the SBS PMBs were analyzed in a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and the morphology accessed by fluorescence optical microscopy. The viscoelastic behavior of the samples corroborated the results for the classical properties and varied according to the sample morphology and composition. The results indicate that the aromatic and shale oils have similar effects on the microstructure, storage stability and viscoelastic behavior of the PMBs. Thus, shale oil could be successfully used as a compatibilizer agent without loss of properties or could even replace the aromatic oil. Following the Superpave methodology it was observed that the linear- and radial-SBS PMBs and linear-SBS PMB with 2% of shale oil can be used up to 70 °C, and the linear-SBS PMBs with 4% of shale oil or 2% of aromatic oil can be used only up to 64 °C.

  17. The curious case of zeolite-clay/binder interactions and their consequences for catalyst preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Gareth T; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Oord, Ramon; Paalanen, Pasi; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-07-01

    Zeolite-based catalyst bodies are commonly employed in a range of important industrial processes. Depending on the binder and shaping method chosen, vast differences in the reactivity, selectivity and stability are obtained. Here, three highly complementary micro-spectroscopic techniques were employed to study zeolite ZSM-5-binder interactions in SiO2-, Al2O3-, SiO2 : Al2O3- (2 : 1 mix) and kaolinite-bound catalyst pellets. We establish how their preparation influences the zeolite-clay/binder interactions. Using thiophene as an acid-catalyzed staining reaction, light absorbing oligomers produced in each sample were followed. To our surprise, kaolinite decreased the overall reactivity of the sample due to the phase change of the binder, creating a hard impenetrable outer layer. Aluminum migration to the zeolite was observed when Al2O3 was selected as a binder, creating additional Brønsted acid sites, which favored the formation of ring-opened thiophene oligomers compared to the larger oligomer species produced when SiO2 was used as a binder. In the latter case, the interaction of the Si-OH groups in the binder with thiophene was revealed to have a large impact in creating such large oligomer species. Furthermore, the combination of a SiO2 : Al2O3 mix as a binder enhanced the reactivity, possibly due to the creation of additional Brønsted acid sites between the two binder components during pellet preparation. It is evident that, independent of the shaping method, the intimate contact between the zeolite and binder heavily impacts the reactivity and product selectivity, with the type of binder playing a vital role. PMID:27101314

  18. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Enhancement of mechanical strength in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor through liquid binder addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of the binder addition on the green compacts. We studied the superconducting properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. The mechanical properties of the green compacts with binder addition were characterized with the compression tests. We could produce bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with binder additions. We have studied the effects of the liquid binder (polyvinyl alcohol) addition (0-10 wt%) on the mechanical properties of the green compacts and also on the superconducting properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors of 20 mm diameter produced with the top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process. The mechanical properties of the green compacts with binder addition were characterized with the compression tests, which revealed that mechanical strength increased dramatically with increasing the amount of the binder addition. The binder-added green compacts were then subjected to the TSMG process and oxygen annealing. The trapped field measurements showed that we could produce single-grain bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O samples with binder additions up to 8 wt% without any deterioration in the superconducting properties.

  15. Prenatally Diagnosed Cases of Binder Phenotype Complicated by Respiratory Distress in the Immediate Postnatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Yair J; Davis, Alexis S; Hintz, Susan R; Milan, Kristina; Messner, Anna H; Barth, Richard A; Hudgins, Louanne; Chueh, Jane; Homeyer, Margaret; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Enns, Gregory; Atwal, Paldeep; Manning, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Binder phenotype, or maxillonasal dysostosis, is a distinctive pattern of facial development characterized by a short nose with a flat nasal bridge, an acute nasolabial angle, a short columella, a convex upper lip, and class III malocclusion. We report 3 cases of prenatally diagnosed Binder phenotype associated with perinatal respiratory impairment. PMID:27162279

  16. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.15 Non-premium insurance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-premium insurance-payment of...-premium insurance must be accompanied by the proper binder, payable to the FAA. A binder is not...

  17. Efeito do ambiente térmico e níveis de suplementação nos parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó Effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiologic parameters of Moxotó goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. V. Gomes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, determinar o efeito do ambiente térmico e de diferentes níveis de suplementação sobre os parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó, criados em confinamento no semi-árido nordestino. Utilizaram-se 16 animais machos, que receberam duas dietas compostas de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziowii e dois níveis de suplementação (0,5 e 1,5% do peso vivo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em regime de subparcelas, com 2 tratamentos e 8 repetições. No interior do aprisco os índices de conforto ambiental ficaram elevados a partir das 11 h e, no período da tarde, esses índices ficaram acima do ideal para os animais, ou seja, fora da zona de conforto térmico, porém, os caprinos da raça Moxotó conseguiram manter a temperatura retal dentro dos limites normais; entretanto, com aumento dos batimentos cardíacos. Ocorreu aumento da freqüência respiratória como uma forma de dissipação de calor para manter a homeotermia. Uma percentagem maior de suplementação provocou aumento da temperatura retal.This research was carried out to determine the effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiological parameters of Moxotó goats in confinement in the northeastern semi-arid. Sixteen males were used, which were fed with two diets composed of forage cactus, 'maniçoba' (Manihot glaziowii hay and two supplementation levels (0.5 and 1.5% of live weight with 18% of crude protein. A completely randomized design was used in sub-plots with two treatments and eight replicates. Inside the housing the ambient comfort parameters were high starting from 11 am, but during the afternoon period they were characterized as thermally uncomfortable. However, Moxotó goats had their rectal temperature maintained inside the normal limits with an increase of heart beat. An increase of respiratory frequency occurred as a form of heat

  18. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  19. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani, Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  20. Functional binders as graphite exfoliation suppressants in aggressive electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Graphite electrodes are cycled in propylene carbonate rich electrolytes. • Binder swelling adversely affects electrode degradation. • Presence of carboxyl groups and sodium ions improve SEI properties. • Protection correlates with surface coverage and functionality of binder. • CMC-Na is less surface selective and provides protection at low binder content. - Abstract: A comparative study of various electrode binders for graphite electrodes was conducted in a carbonate-based electrolyte with a high content of propylene carbonate (PC) as a means to evaluate anode degradation in presence of different binders. Because of its direct contact with the active material, a binder can be interpreted as an interfacial layer and as a local part of the electrolyte, the properties of which greatly depend on the interaction with the liquid electrolyte. In this work we demonstrate how a carefully chosen binder can create a specific surface environment that can protect graphite from exfoliation when the binder exhibits poor solubility in the electrolyte solvent and good surface adhesion to the active material. The exceptional stability of graphite electrodes containing poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAA-Na) and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na), respectively, in a PC-rich electrolyte is explained through the understanding of binder swelling and functionality. Interfacial resistances and electrochemical stability were investigated with impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling. Electrode morphologies and distributions of material were analysed with SEM and EDX. Evidence is presented that the surface selectivity increases with concentration of functional groups and polymer flexibility. Therefore only the less selective, stiff polymer with less functional groups, CMC-Na, provides sufficient protection at low binder contents

  1. Influence of properties of bituminous binders on the strength of formed coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Das, Bani P.; Tripathi, Prem S.M. [Central Fuel Research Institute, P.O. FRI-828108, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-03-20

    The role of different chemical characteristics (coking value, quinoline insolubles, elemental composition, {beta}-resin, toluene solubles) of various coal tar- and petroleum-based bituminous binders, such as heavy fraction of HTC tar, processed LTC tar, pitch and asphalt as also the mixed binder in controlling the strength of formed coke made from char prepared from non-coking Chirimiri coal and coke breeze (prepared after carbonising Jharia coal), respectively, has been studied in some detail. The objective was to investigate as to whether and how the properties of these bituminous binders govern the strength of formed coke. It is found that these properties of the binders do play significantly important role in controlling the strength of formed coke both during curing and carbonisation. These parameters of the binders are found to be closely related with their atomic C/H ratios. Notwithstanding the varying composition of the binders of different origin, be they coal tar or petroleum based, the atomic C/H ratio seems to be the most important characteristics of the bituminous binders, upon which the strength of formed coke depends predominantly. This also holds true when mixed binders were used. The results show that at a C/H ratio of about 1, the strength of the briquettes either on curing or on carbonising remains almost similar and that strong cured briquettes can be produced by using a bituminous binder with a C/H ratio less than 1, whilst for obtaining strong carbonised briquettes, binders with C/H ratio greater than 1 are preferable.

  2. Innovation in Feed Technology for Self Sufficiency in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is self sufficient in poultry production to meet the local demand for broiler and egg, mainly derived from modern poultry rather than the local village chicken. Feed may contribute up to 70% of total cost of poultry production. Poultry feed is formulated using least cost feed formulation technique to meet the bird requirement and composed by several ingredients both locally available and imported materials. Feed ingredients are classified based on energy sources, protein sources, agro-industrial by products, mineral sources and supplements. In many cases the poultry feed was supplemented with additives (antibiotics, enzymes, preservatives, etc. to improve animal performance. In 2005, Indonesian feed production reached almost 7 million tonnes and comprised around 85% as poultry feed, while the rest for aquaculture, swine and others. Poultry feed is based on corn-soy diet and average corn usage may reach more than 55% while soybean meal more than 23%. Ingredients requirement has been calculated based on the feed production and in order to fulfill the requirement. In 2006, Indonesia will import more than 1.6 million tonnes of corn from Argentina, USA and China, and more than 1.5 million tonnes of protein meal due to insufficiency of the local production. Major problems related in feed production are raw materials supply, quality and price fluctuation along with limited information. Several research have been conducted to use unconventional ingredients as protein sources such as local beans, leguminous seeds, leaf protein, animal by products but they were limited in availability. Research to improve protein level from carbohydrate source or by products had been attempted but it was not feasible for commercial feed industry. In future, technology innovation should be developed based on the existing problems related with feed industry including the areas to improve production efficiency, managing feed quality, processing technology and feed

  3. Polymethyl Methacrylate as a Binder for Pyrotechnic Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Sontakke

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA as a binder for igniter and delay compositions are reported. Igniter compositions based on magnesium and boron as fuels and potassium nitrate as oxidiser, delay compositions comprising ferrosilicon and red lead, have been investigated. These compositions were subjected to various tests, such as linear burning rate, sensitivity, calorimetric value, compatibility, pelleting properties, spark sensitivity, ignition temperatures and performance characteristics. The results indicate that the igniter compositions Mg:KNO/sub 3/:PMMA (42:50:8 and B:KNO/sub 3/:PMMA (30:70:10 as well as the delay composition comprising FeSi:Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4:PMMA (25:75:1 have improved properties and therefore could find practical applications.

  4. Lithium Dendrite Suppression with UV-Curable Polysilsesquioxane Separator Binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wonjun; Lee, Albert S; Lee, Jin Hong; Hwang, Seung Sang; Kim, Eunkyoung; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2016-05-25

    For the first time, an inorganic-organic hybrid polymer binder was used for the coating of hybrid composites on separators to enhance thermal stability and to prevent formation of lithium dendrite in lithium metal batteries. The fabricated hybrid-composite-coated separators exhibited minimal thermal shrinkage compared with the previous composite separators (separators revealed excellent C-rate and cyclability performance due to the prevention of lithium dendrite growth on the lithium anode even after 200 cycles under 0.2-5C (charge-discharge) conditions. The mechanism for lithium dendrite prevention was attributed to exceptional nanoscale surface mechanical properties of the hybrid composite coating layer compared with the lithium metal anode, as the elastic modulus of the hybrid-composite-coated separator far exceeded those of both the lithium metal anode and the required threshold for lithium metal dendrite prevention. PMID:27148625

  5. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for c...

  6. EFFECT OF FIBER SUPPLEMENT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL OF NIDDM SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Seema V Medhe* and Mangal V Medhe

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to assess effect of fiber rich supplement on blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Fiber rich supplement was tested on eleven type 2 diabetic subjects for blood glucose lowering effect by undertaking an intervention of two months feeding trials. Results with respect to two months supplementation indicated that the fiber rich supplement was helpful in significantly reducing the fasting and postprandial blood glucose level of subjects. The reduction in...

  7. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the effect of feed supplementation, from weaning, with 3 sensory feed additives (FA1, FA2, and FA3) on feed preferences, feed intake, and growth of piglets. The FA1 contained extract of Stevia rebaudiana (10 to 20%), extract of high-saponin plants (5 to 10%), and excipients (70 to 85%), the FA2 was mainly composed of a natural extract of Citrus sinensis (60 to 80%), and the FA3 was made of a blend of extracts of hot-flavored spices (5 to 15%) and excipients (85 to 95%). At weaning (d 1), a total of 32 female piglets housed in individual pens were allocated to 4 treatments (FA1, FA2, FA3, and control [CON]) of equivalent mean weight. The pigs were fed a standard pelleted prestarter diet from weaning (d 1) to d 15 and a starter diet from d 16 to 28. The diets were supplemented with the feed additives (FA) corresponding to their treatment, while the CON treatment was the standard diets with no additive. Feed refusals were weighed daily and piglets were weighed weekly on d 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the day of feed transition (d 16) as well as 7 (d 23) and 10 d (d 26) later, the animals were consecutively subjected to 1- and 22-h double-choice feeding tests to investigate their preferences during a short period and a longer period of time for the CON starter diet and the starter diet added with the FA corresponding to their treatment. No overall effect of the feed additives was observed on ADFI, ADG, G:F, and final BW. No overall preference was highlighted for the FA1 treatment, except for a preference for the FA1 starter diet during the 1-h test on d 23 (78% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA2 treatment, the pigs consumed the FA2 starter diet more than the CON starter diet during the 22-h tests on d 16 (67% of total feed intake; P < 0.05) and 26 (62% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA3 treatment, on d 26, the FA3 starter diet was and tended to be consumed more than the CON starter diet during 1- (69% of total intake; P

  8. TECHNOLOGY OF PLANT FEED ADDITIVES FOR POULTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Koshchaeva O. V.; Kalyuzhniy S. A.; Khathakumov S. S.; Likhoman A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The work on the development of technology for production of feed additives from soybean seeds and fruits of pumpkin has shown that the use of sodium bisulfate and lactic acid bacteria provide a high content of carotene in pumpkin paste (948 mg / kg and 819 mg / kg, respectively), and grinding soy before drying protein and vitamin supplements raises safety of carotene without destroying the urease

  9. Estimation of low-temperature cracking threshold for asphalt binders using an acoustic emmission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apeagyei, Alex K.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2009-03-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) approach to evaluate low temperature cracking susceptibility of asphalt binders is presented. Thin films of asphalt binders were bonded to granite substrates and exposed to temperatures ranging from 15°C to - 50°C. Differential thermal contraction between granite substrates and asphalt binders induces progressively higher thermal stress in the binders resulting in thermal crack formation, which is accompanied by a release of elastic energy in the form of transient waves. Using piezoelectric sensors (Digital Wave, Model B-1025), a four-channel acoustic emission system was used to record the acoustic emission activity during the binder/granite cooling process. Assuming the cracking temperature (Tcr) to be the temperature at which the AE signal energy exceeds a pre-selected threshold energy level, this AE testing approach was found to be sensitive and repeatable for predicting cracking temperatures (Tcr) in four SUPERPAVE core asphalt binders. These AE-based Tcr predictions showed strong correlation (R2 = 0.9) with predictions based on either AASHTO TP1 or MP1A protocols. Unlike TP1 and MP1A protocols, the presented AE approach does not require the use of sophisticated software for predicting thermal stresses, and no assumption is required regarding the testing cooling rate and the binder coefficient of thermal contraction.

  10. Preparation of Fiber Based Binder Materials to Enhance the Gas Adsorption Efficiency of Carbon Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Jeong Rak; Lim, Dae Young; Lee, So Hee; Yeo, Sang Young

    2015-10-01

    Fiber binder adapted carbon air filter is prepared to increase gas adsorption efficiency and environmental stability. The filter prevents harmful gases, as well as particle dusts in the air from entering the body when a human inhales. The basic structure of carbon air filter is composed of spunbond/meltblown/activated carbon/bottom substrate. Activated carbons and meltblown layer are adapted to increase gas adsorption and dust filtration efficiency, respectively. Liquid type adhesive is used in the conventional carbon air filter as a binder material between activated carbons and other layers. However, it is thought that the liquid binder is not an ideal material with respect to its bonding strength and liquid flow behavior that reduce gas adsorption efficiency. To overcome these disadvantages, fiber type binder is introduced in our study. It is confirmed that fiber type binder adapted air filter media show higher strip strength, and their gas adsorption efficiencies are measured over 42% during 60 sec. These values are higher than those of conventional filter. Although the differential pressure of fiber binder adapted air filter is relatively high compared to the conventional one, short fibers have a good potential as a binder materials of activated carbon based air filter. PMID:26726459

  11. Experimental evaluation on high temperature rheological properties of various fiber modified asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筝; 吴少鹏; 朱祖煌; 刘杰胜

    2008-01-01

    High temperature rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders and impact of the type and content on such properties were studied.Three types of fiber,including polyester(PET),polyacrylonitrile(PAN) and cellulose(CEL),a control content(0%) and four levels of fiber content(2%,4%,6% and 8% by total asphalt binder mass) were used with asphalt binders.The high temperature rheological properties,consisting of complex modulus(G*) and phase angle δ,were measured using SHRP’s dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) between 46-82 ℃.Experimental results indicate that the changes of G* and tan δ of fiber modified asphalt binders with the increase of test temperature tend to slow down,and the temperature susceptibility is improved obviously compared to that of original asphalt binder.Fiber modification results in the increase of rutting parameter(G*/sin δ) at high temperatures,the decrease of temperature susceptibility,and further improved high temperature performance of asphalt binder.An excellent correlation exhibits between fiber content and high temperature performance of asphalt binder.Moreover,fiber type also has different influences on the improvement of G*/sin δ,G*/sin δ of PET and PAN fiber asphalt binders are both higher than that of CEL fiber,but G*/sin δ of CEL fiber is still higher than that of original asphalt.However,there is a critical fiber content when fibers start to interact with each other.Therefore,based on the critical fiber content and economic consideration,the optimum fiber contents for various fiber-modified asphalt binders are obtained.

  12. Study on aluminum phosphate binder and related Al2O3-SiC ceramic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refractory and wear-resistant Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings have been fabricated on A3 steel using alumina (Al2O3), silicon carbide (SiC), aluminum phosphate binder (inorganic binder), and other additives as starting materials. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are applied to investigate the chemical compositions of the in-house synthesized aluminum phosphate binder and the morphologies of the fabricated ceramic coatings after abrasion test. The XRD results indicate that monoaluminum phosphate (Al(H2PO4)3) is the most effective binding phase in the synthesized aluminum phosphate binder. The TG/DTA analysis shows that two phase transformations occur at 100.7 and 217.7 deg. C when the synthesized aluminum phosphate binder is heated in a range 60-1000 deg. C and the binder after heat treatment is a mixture of several phases. The wear test results show that the wear durability of the A3 steel covered with Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings is about two times that of the uncoated A3 steel. The results also indicate that the wear properties of Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings are dependent on fabrication conditions such as the weight ratio of ceramics (Al2O3 and SiC) to the binder (RCB), the distribution of particle size of ceramics, the density of the aluminum phosphate binder, and the Al/P atomic ratio in the aluminum phosphate binder. Upon the above results, optimal fabrication conditions for achieving good wear resistance of Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings are suggested in this paper

  13. Polyolefin Backbone Substitution in Binders for Low Temperature Powder Injection Moulding Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenika Hausnerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al2O3 feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions containing polyethylene glycol as the initial opening agent and governing the proper mechanism of the degradation process. Moreover, the replacement of synthetic polymer by the natural wax contributes to an increase of environmental sustainability of modern industrial technologies.

  14. Dry compaction of alumina granules, influence of the binder system glass transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard-Granger, G.; Mercier, E. [Saint-Gobain Ceramiques Industrielles, Evreux (France). Centre de Recherches de Norton Desmarquest Fine Ceramics

    1997-12-31

    Spray dried alumina granules have been prepared using three different binder systems. Compaction tests have been performed on a MTS machine and compaction curves have been compared regarding the different binders incorporated. For the green parts obtained from compaction, the influence of the binder system glass transition temperature (Tg) on the mechanical strength has been investigated. Finally, a simulation of the compaction behavior has been completed using the Cooper`s theory and the influence of Tg on the Cooper`s parameters has been analyzed. (orig.) 6 refs.

  15. Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time on the asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Silvrano Adonias Dantas; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Sousa, Jorge B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a study about the mechanical behavior of dense graded asphalt-rubber hot mixes prepared with two different types of asphalt-rubber binders. These asphalt-rubber binders were obtained with penetration grade asphalt (AC 50/70) mixed with 21% and 25% of crumb rubber in weight. The rubber was recycled from unserviceable tires using the ambient grinding process. Hot mixes made with the conventional binder AC 50/70 were also studied for comparison. The...

  16. Influence of microcrystalline wax on properties of MIM multi-component wax matrix binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 黄伯云; 李益民; 李松林

    2002-01-01

    The properties of PW-EVA-HDPE binder with the addition of MW were studied. It shows that the addition of MW from 1% to 20%(mass fraction) causes an increase in the tensile strength and a decrease in shrinkage of the binder. After blending PW with MW, the crystallation behavior of wax base changes, which results in fine grain for the binder and more isotropic microstructure for the feedstock. The powder loading capacity increases and homogeneity of feedstock becomes better. The reason of the modification is also discussed.

  17. Determination of binder distributions in green-state ceramics by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of reliable high performance structural ceramics requires a good understanding of the different steps involved in the process. The presence of nonuniformities in the distribution of the polymeric binder could give rise to local fluctuations of density that could produce failure of the ceramic piece. Specimens prepared from Al2O3 with 15 and 2.5% ww binder were imaged using NMR in order to measure binder distribution maps. Results show that NMR imaging could be a useful technique to nondestructively evaluate the quality of green-state specimens. 5 refs., 5 figs

  18. New bicomponent binders for foundry moulding sands composed of phenol-furfuryl resin and polycaprolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major – Gabryś

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to test the properties of foundry moulding sands with a new bicomponent organic binder. The new binder is the composition of phenol-furfuryl resin, commonly used in foundry practice and biodegradable material – polycaprolactone. The paper presents the research of strength properties, thermal destruction and thermal deformation of moulding sands with a new bicomponent binder. It was proved that inserting polycaprolactone to phenol-furfuryl resin did not lower the strength properties of tested moulding sands. The new additive did not affect the moulding sands thermal degradation but it changed their thermal deformation course.

  19. Effects of ageing on different binders for retouching and on some binder-pigment combinations used for restoration of wall paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In restoration of colour layers, the selection of the most appropriate retouching binder is a very important step that may have a crucial impact on materials durability. As different weather conditions can have versatile influence on stability of colour layers, we determined the effect of ageing on carefully selected samples of binders (Tylose, Klucel, ammonium caseinate, gum arabicum, fish and skin glues and some other synthetic binders) as well as on several binder-pigment combinations (the pigments in combinations being cinnabar, green earth and smalt). The samples were subjected to accelerated ageing tests in climatic chambers. In these tests the temperature and the relative humidity were daily oscillating between - 20 deg. C and 50 deg. C and 50% to 90%, respectively, for a period of one month. Then the samples were exposed to UV and visible light generated by a metal halide lamp for a month. The differences in microstructure before and after ageing were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the ageing of the organic structures in binders was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy

  20. Hygroscopicity-resistant mechanism of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds and cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hygroscopicity-resistance of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds (cores) has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Focus is placed on the relationship between the hardening structure and humidity-resistance of the composite binder. The results show that the α-starch composite binder has good humidity-resistance due to its special complex structure. SEM observations illustrate that the composite binder consists of reticular matrix and a ball- or lump-shaped reinforcement phase, and the specific property of the binding membrane with heterogeneous structure is affected by humidity to a small extent. Based on the analyses on the interplays of different ingredients in the binder at hardening, the structure model and hygroscopicity-resistant mechanisms of the hardening composite binder were further proposed. Moreover, the reasons for good humidity-resistance of the composite binder bonded sand are well explained by the humidity-resistant mechanisms.

  1. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P < 0.01) feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  2. Mechanism of antimicrobial growth promoters used in animal feed.

    OpenAIRE

    Corpet, Denis E

    2000-01-01

    Most feeds for broilers, pigs and veal calves, but 1/3 of feeds for beef cattle, are supplemented with an antimicrobial growth promoter. A European regulation list allows antimicrobial growth promoter, concentrations, animal species, and withdrawal periods (often null). Presently, avilamycin, flavomycin, lasalocid, monensin, and salinomycin are allowed. Avoparcin, bacitracin, carbadox, olaquindox, spiramycin, tylosin, and virginiamycin use was suspended by EU in 1997 and 98. Permitted doses a...

  3. Efeito de diferentes manejos de fornecimento prolongado de colostro sobre os níveis de proteína e albúmina séricas e desempenho de bezerras recém-nascidas Effect of different feeding programs employing supplemental colostrum on serum total protein and albumin, and performance of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Daniele

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis séricos de proteína total e albúmina e o desempenho de bezerras holandesas foram estudados utilizando-se 24 animais recém-nascidos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com três tratamentos à base de leite e colostro suplementar, a saber: tratamento 1 - colostro materno no 1° dia de vida (idem para tratamentos 2 e 3 e 2 litros de leite pela manhã e 2 litros de leite à tarde, do 2° dia de vida até o 30° dia de vida; tratamento 2 - fornecimento de 0,8 litros de leite + 1,2 litros de colostro pela manhã e 2 litros de leite à tarde, até 30 dias de idade; tratamento 3 - fornecimento de 1,4 litros de leite + 0,6 litros de colostro pela manhã e igual dieta à tarde, até 30 dias de idade. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas aos 3, 5, 10, 15,17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias de vida e analisadas quanto à concentração de proteína total e albúmina séricas.Os animais foram pesados ao nascer e aos 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias de idade. Os animais do tratamento 3 (colostro duas vezes/dia tiveram concentração de proteína total sérica superior (p The serum total protein and albumin concentrations and the performance under different milk feeding programs were evaluated in twenty-four female Holstein newborn calves, randomly allocated in three treatments. The animals were daily fed milk or supplemental colostrum, in different feeding programs during the first thirty days of Ufe. Blood samples were collected at 3; 5;10; 15; 17; 20; 22; 25; 30; 40; 50 and 60 days of age and analysed for serum total protein and serum albumin. Animals were weighed at 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 40; 50 and 60 days after birth. In the first sixty days, the serum total protein concentration in treatment 3 (colostrum fed twice a day was higher (p < 0.05 than in treatment 1 (milk. The concentration of serum was also different at different ages (p < 0.0001. During the experimental period the total

  4. Testing a Novel Geopolymer Binder as a Refractory Material for Rocket Plume Environments at SSC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project involved the development and testing of a new alumina-silicate based multi-purpose, cost-effective, ‘green’ cementitious binder (geopolymer)...

  5. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  6. Anisotropic injection molding of strontium ferrite powder using a PP/PEG binder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Jeung, W.Y. E-mail: wyjeung@kistmail.kist.re.kr

    2001-05-01

    In this study, new binder system for anisotropic injection molding of Sr-ferrite was developed and a process for injection molding of Sr-ferrite was optimized. The developed binder system is composed of 30 vol% PP, 60 vol% PEG-20 000 and 10 vol% PEG-4000. The extraction by water was applied to remove the major binder components PEGs and the minor binder component, PP, was subsequently burned out in air. Behaviors of extraction and thermal debinding with time and debinding atmosphere and variations of the magnetic properties with sintering temperature were studied. The sintered magnets made by PIM process showed residual carbon content of 230 ppm and a maximum energy product of 4.2 MGOe.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of thiol-functionalized polymer as binder in conductive ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    The technology of electrical printing has received industrial and scientific attention due to wide variety of application such as sensors, radio frequency identification cards (RFIDs), flexible display, and flexible solar cell. Especially a roll to roll gravure printing technique has been useful for mass production of electrical products. For the more high quality of conductive ink, the compatibility of organic binder and inorganic filler is very important. In this study, Thiol-functionalized polymer and core-shell conductive nanoparticles were used as the binder and filler. The thiol moieties in binder contribute to functionality of the synthesized polymer. Also, the conductivity and viscosity of synthesized ink and compatibility of filler with binder were characterized in various conditions.

  8. Study on the hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydration and hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder(CAB) was studied.The early hydration process,hydration products and paste microstructure of CAB made by Portland cement and anionic asphalt emulsion were investigated by calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,and environmental scanning electron microscopy.The early hydration process of CAB can be characterized as 5 stages similar to those of Portland cement.There is no chemical reaction detected between cement and asphalt,hence no new hydration products other than those of Portland cement are produced.The hardening of CAB begins with the hydration of cement.When the hydration of cement comes into the acceleration period and its exothermic rate comes to the maximum,the coalescence of asphalt particles in asphalt emulsion is triggered.In the hardened system of CAB,it was found that the hydration products of cement form the skeleton and are covered by the continuous asphalt film.They formed an interpenetrating network system.The emulsifiers in the asphalt emulsion may retard the hydration process of cement.

  9. Evolution and function of mammalian binder of sperm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Geneviève; Prud'homme, Bruno; Fan, Jinjiang; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Binder of sperm (BSP) proteins are ubiquitous among mammals and have been extensively investigated over the last three decades. They were first characterized in bull seminal plasma and have now been identified in more than 15 different mammalian species where they represent a superfamily. In addition to sharing a common structure, BSP proteins share many characteristics. They are expressed by seminal vesicles and epididymides, interact with similar ligands and bind to the outer leaflet of sperm membranes via an interaction with choline phospholipids. In addition to playing a major role in sperm capacitation, they are implicated as molecular chaperones in sperm motility and viability, in the formation of the oviductal sperm reservoir, in the regulation of cell volume and possibly in the interaction between sperm and oocytes, making them crucial multifunctional proteins. Furthermore, BSP proteins can bind to egg yolk low-density lipoproteins and milk components, an interaction important for the protection of sperm during semen preservation in liquid or frozen state. Our current knowledge of BSP proteins strongly emphasizes their fundamental importance in male fertility and in the optimization of semen preservation techniques. Much work is still ahead in order to fully understand all the mysteries of BSP proteins. PMID:26386584

  10. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB, were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2% and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that although an increase dosage of filler and SBR decreased the flow value of the semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, an increase dosage of asphalt emulsion improved the flow value. The indirect tensile strength and liquid immersion residual stability for the condition with greatest Marshall stability were most outstanding with 0.95 MPa and 83.6%, respectively. Evaluation of the recycled cold asphalt abrasion durability revealed that for the case of mixing more than 4% NCB the mass loss rate was lower than 20%. The abrasion durability was found to improve when using modified emulsified asphalt and SBR substitution. From the test results, it was found that the optimal mixing proportion of semiplastic recycled cold asphalt satisfied mechanical properties and durability is NCB with 4%, emulsified asphalt with 3%, and SBR substitution with 20%.

  11. Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  12. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  13. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content Article Body If you ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

  14. A view on organic binder effects on technical properties of ceramic Raschig rings

    OpenAIRE

    Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y.; Salem, A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic binders such as polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose and Arabic gum are widely used to control the technological parameters required for green and sintered ceramic bodies. An industrial ceramic Raschig ring composed of kaolinite, illite, pyrophillite and quartz minerals was separately mixed with different content of above binders and formed by extrusion process in the shape of Raschig ring. The dried specimens were sintered at 1270°C and the physicalmechanical charac...

  15. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-04-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  16. Compounding and processing of a water soluble binder for powder injection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Hélio Rui Caldeira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento Ciência e Engenharia de Polímeros The present work was focused on the development of new polymeric binder compounds for eco-sustainable powder injection moulding (PIM) process. Consequently, water debinding was a requirement once it is a lower environmental impact technology, economically attractive and less hazardous than the conventional catalytic, thermal or solvent debinding. Furthermore, the understanding of the influence of the binder composition o...

  17. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; L Filipe C Castro

    2014-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of t...

  18. A Review on Decomposition Deflagration of Oxidizer and Binders in Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Binder and oxidizer decomposition play very significant role during the combustion of composite solid propellants. Ammonium perchlorate (AP is the practical oxidizer in composite propellant formulations. Available information on binder decomposition in general and AP decomposition in particular have been collected and reviewed from the viewpoint of their application in propellants. This review may be useful in understanding the mechanism of propellant combustion.

  19. Influence of the bitumen properties on the functional and rheological behaviour of asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Machado, A.V.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about ten kilograms of tires are discarded per inhabitant annually. The negative impact of this residue can be reduced since rubber can be reused as a constituent of asphalt rubber (AR) builder in road pavements. However, the materials which constitute the AR binders and their interaction are not sufficiently characterized, In this work several base bitumens interacted with crumb rubber in order to produce AR binders, which were subsequently separated, by using a modified...

  20. Mechanisms of Binder Removal Involved in Supercritical Debinding of Injection Moulded Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Thierry; Delhomme, Eric; Baumard, Jean-François

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of organic additives from extrusion-moulded ceramic parts by supercritical carbon dioxide has proved to be an efficient method for debinding [1, 2]. A model of binder extraction based on diffusion equations was developed. This model was found to be in fair agreement with experimental results. Experimental kinetics of extraction of low melt point paraffins, by supercritical fluids, from injection-moulded samples are now established. A redistribution of the binder in the liquid state...

  1. Enhancing mechanical properties of ceramic papers loaded with zeolites using borate compounds as binders

    OpenAIRE

    Juan P. Cecchini; Ramiro M. Serra; María A. Ulla; Miguel A. Zanuttini; Viviana G. Milt

    2013-01-01

    NaY zeolite-containing ceramic papers were prepared by a papermaking technique with a dual polyelectrolyte retention system that implied the use of cationic and anionic polymers. To improve their mechanical properties, we found that some borate compounds could be successfully used as ceramic binders. Three types of sodium and/or calcium borates were tested as binders: colemanite, nobleite, and anhydrous ulexite. The improvement in the mechanical properties depends both on the borate used and ...

  2. Environmental impact assessment of bio-based binders: from production to industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbinet, Saïcha; Belboom, Sandra; Briard, Vincent; Hampson, Carl; Léonard, Angélique

    2015-01-01

    A binder is used to hold together the fibers forming the mineral wool products (see figure 1). These fibers can be produced from sand and recycled glass for glass wool products (see figure 2) or from rock (volcanic rock, typically basalt or dolomite) for stone wool products. Traditionally, the binders used in mineral wool products are based on phenol-formaldehyde. Due to sanitary and environmental considerations and increased focus on indoor air quality, the producers developed new alternativ...

  3. Assessment of Coagulant Synergy for the Depollution of Binder Emulsion Plant Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Abdul Rehman Memon; Abdul Kareem Shah

    2012-01-01

    Binder emulsion plant effluent is a source of intense pollution when discharged into the environment without proper degree of treatment due to its strong color as well as higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) contents. An empirical study was conducted to optimize the effect of the coagulants used for the removal of Color, Turbidity, TSS, and COD from binder emulsion effluent. The coagulants, used with and without the induction of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) ...

  4. Water-soluble binders for MCMB carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtel, Fabrice M.; Niketic, Svetlana; Duguay, Dominique; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; Davidson, Isobel J. [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    We have investigated the suitability of four different binders for the conventional mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) anode material in Li-ion batteries. Unlike the conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), the binders were water soluble and were either cellulose based, such as the lithium and sodium salts of carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and LiCMC) and Xanthan Gum (XG), or the conjugated polymer: poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) (PEDOT, a.k.a. Baytron). All binders were commercially available except LiCMC, which was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR. Thermal studies of the binders by TGA and DSC showed that, in air, the binders have a broad melting event at 100-150 C, with an onset temperature for decomposition above 220 C. Li/MCMB half-cell batteries were assembled using the studied binders. Slow scan voltammograms of all cells showed characteristic lithium insertion and de-insertion peaks including that of the SEI formation which was found to be embedded into the insertion peaks during the first cycle. Cycling of the cells showed that the one containing XG binder gave the highest capacities reaching 350 mAh g{sup -1} after 100 cycles at C/12, while the others gave comparable capacities to those of the conventional binder PVDF. The rate capabilities of cells were examined and found to perform well up to the studied C/2 rate with more than 50% capacity retained. Further studies of the XG-based MCMB electrodes were performed and concluded that an optimal thickness of 300-365 {mu}m gave the highest capacities and sustained high C-rates. (author)

  5. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  6. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  7. Fatores de risco para anemia em lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde: a importância das práticas alimentares e da suplementação com ferro Risk factors for anemia in infants assisted by public health services: the importance of feeding practices and iron supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G. Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores de risco para anemia em lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foram avaliadas 205 crianças de 6 a 12 meses no município de Viçosa (MG. A coleta de dados envolveu variáveis socioeconômicas, ambientais e biológicas, bem como aquelas relacionadas ao estado nutricional, à mãe, ao nascimento, ao cuidado com a saúde infantil, às práticas alimentares e à suplementação com ferro. O diagnóstico da anemia baseou-se nos valores de hemoglobina inferiores a 11 g/dL, utilizando o fotômetro portátil Hemocue. Na análise da associação das variáveis com a anemia, foi utilizada a regressão logística múltipla hierarquizada. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 57,6%. Apresentaram maior chance de anemia os lactentes que pertenciam às famílias com renda per capita inferior a 0,5 salário mínimo, não consumiam frutas diariamente e não ingeriam suplementos medicamentosos com ferro. CONCLUSÃO: A adequada assistência à saúde e nutrição das famílias de baixa renda, o incentivo às práticas alimentares saudáveis e a prescrição de suplementos medicamentosos com ferro são medidas de grande importância para a prevenção e o controle da anemia entre os lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors for anemia in infants assisted by public health services. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out in Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 205 children from 6 to 12 months were evaluated. Socioeconomic, environmental and biological data were collected, as well as information on child's birth, nutritional status, maternal data, child health care practices, feeding practices, and iron supplementation. Diagnosis of anemia was based on hemoglobin levels under 11 g/dL, using a portable Hemocue photometer. To analyze variables associated with anemia, a hierarchical logistic regression model was used

  8. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including gl...

  9. Comparisons of operating envelopes for contaminated soil stabilised/solidified with different cementitious binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Stegemann, Julia A

    2014-03-01

    This work initiated the development of operating envelopes for stabilised/solidified contaminated soils. The operating envelopes define the range of operating variables for acceptable performance of the treated soils. The study employed a soil spiked with 3,000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel. The binders used for treatment involved Portland cement (CEMI), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and hydrated lime (hlime). The specific binder formulations were CEMI, CEMI/PFA = 1:4, CEMI/GGBS = 1:9 and hlime/GGBS = 1:4. The water contents employed ranged from 13 % to 21 % (dry weight), while binder dosages ranged from 5 % to 20 % (w/w). We monitored the stabilised/solidified soils for up to 84 days using different performance tests. The tests include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) and pH-dependent leachability of contaminants. The water content range resulted in adequate workability of the mixes but had no significant effect on leachability of contaminants. We produced design charts, representing operating envelopes, from the results generated. The charts establish relationships between water content, binder dosage and UCS; and binder dosage, leachant pH and leachability of contaminants. The work also highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the different binder formulations. PMID:24243092

  10. Investigation of film solidification and binder migration during drying of Li-Ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiser, Stefan; Müller, Marcus; Baunach, Michael; Bauer, Werner; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    The property determining micro-structure of battery electrodes essentially evolves during drying, appointing it a paramount, yet insufficiently understood processing step in cell manufacturing. The distribution of functional additives such as binder or carbon black throughout the film strongly depends on the drying process. A representative state-of-the-art model system comprising graphite, polymeric binder, carbon black and solvent is investigated to gain an insight into the underlying processes. A new experimental approach is introduced that allows for revelation of the evolution of binder concentration gradients throughout the film during drying. Binder is detected by means of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) at the top and bottom surface. Drying kinetics is investigated and the impact of the drying process on electrochemical performance is disclosed. The enrichment of binder at the surface, which is observed while applying high drying rates, is shown to depend on two fundamental processes, namely capillary action and diffusion. The findings reveal characteristic drying stages that provide fundamental insights into film solidification. Based on that, a top-down consolidation mechanism capable of explaining the experimental findings is disclosed. Adhesion of the active layer to the substrate is shown to strongly depend on the local binder concentration in the vicinity of the substrate.

  11. Selection of appropriate polyoxymethylene based binder for feedstock material used in powder injection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J.; Stringari, G. B.; Megen, Z. M.; Oblak, P.; von Bernstorff, B. S.; Emri, I.

    2015-04-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) has found applications as a binder material in Powder Injection Moulding (PIM) due to its ability to depolymerize rapidly under acidic conditions. Such ability represents an advantage during the binder removal step of PIM. However, currently available POM has high viscosity that can complicate the injection moulding process of parts with complex geometry. For this reason it is necessary to investigate methods of lowering the viscosity of POM-based binders, but without affecting their solid mechanical properties (i.e. creep compliance). In this investigation, the addition of a low molecular weight polymer, and the reduction of the average molecular weight of POM were investigated as possible ways of decreasing the viscosity of PIM binders. The addition of the low molecular weight additive (WAX) caused a small decrease in the viscosity of the POM-based binder and a small increase in its solid creep compliance. On the other hand, lowering the average molecular weight of POM caused a large decrease in viscosity, but also an acceptable increase in creep compliance. Therefore, by selecting an appropriate molecular weight of POM, it is possible to improve the performance of POM-based binders for PIM.

  12. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  13. Chelating effect in short polymers for the design of bidentate binders of increased affinity and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Sara; Fogolari, Federico; Scoles, Giacinto

    2015-10-01

    The design of new strong and selective binders is a key step towards the development of new sensing devices and effective drugs. Both affinity and selectivity can be increased through chelation and here we theoretically explore the possibility of coupling two binders through a flexible linker. We prove the enhanced ability of double binders of keeping their target with a simple model where a polymer composed by hard spheres interacts with a spherical macromolecule, such as a protein, through two sticky spots. By Monte Carlo simulations and thermodynamic integration we show the chelating effect to hold for coupling polymers whose radius of gyration is comparable to size of the chelated particle. We show the binding free energy of flexible double binders to be higher than that of two single binders and to be maximized when the binding sites are at distances comparable to the mean free polymer end-to-end distance. The affinity of two coupled binders is therefore predicted to increase non linearly and in turn, by targeting two non-equivalent binding sites, this will lead to higher selectivity.

  14. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  15. Chitosan oligosaccharides: A novel and efficient water soluble binder for lithium zinc titanate anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical properties of chitosan oligosaccharides binder are researched. • Electrodes with COS and PVDF binder systems are fabricated to compare physical and electrochemical properties. • Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode with COS binder system shows improved electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) as a new, environmentally and water-based organic compound, is firstly applied as the electrode binder for Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared with conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder, the COS binder is used for Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode significantly improves the electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, cycling behavior, rate capability and long life cycle. At 0.1 A g−1, the initial discharge capacity of 215.6 mAh g−1 can be obtained for Li2ZnTi3O8 with COS binder system and the Columbic efficiency is as high as 93.6%, which are apparently better than PVDF binder system. Moreover, 66.1 mAh g−1 can be remained after 1000 cycles and the retention is 33.6% for COS binder system, while the PVDF binder system has only 37.9 mAh g−1 (22.8%). In addition, the cycling stability of Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode has been improved after using COS as binder. The elevated electrochemical performances of Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode with COS binder system can be ascribed to the characters of COS binder, which not only provide numerous hydroxyl groups formed strong hydrogen binds with both active materials and copper current collector, but also suppress swelling of electrode with electrolyte solution

  16. Microalgal biomass as feed supplement for ornamental fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zaťková, I.; Sergejevová, M.; Urban, J.; Vachta, R.; Štys, D.; Masojídek, Jiří

    Galway : NUIG, 2008. s. 176-176. [International Conference of Applied Phycology /11./. 21.06.2008-27.06.2008, Galway] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70900502 Keywords : cyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Early-age hydration and volume change of calcium sulfoaluminate cement-based binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunsali, Piyush

    Shrinkage cracking is a predominant deterioration mechanism in structures with high surface-to-volume ratio. One way to allay shrinkage-induced stresses is to use calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement whose early-age expansion in restrained condition induces compressive stress that can be utilized to counter the tensile stresses due to shrinkage. In addition to enhancing the resistance against shrinkage cracking, CSA cement also has lower carbon footprint than that of Portland cement. This dissertation aims at improving the understanding of early-age volume change of CSA cement-based binders. For the first time, interaction between mineral admixtures (Class F fly ash, Class C fly ash, and silica fume) and OPC-CSA binder was studied. Various physico-chemical factors such as the hydration of ye'elimite (main component in CSA cement), amount of ettringite (the main phase responsible for expansion in CSA cement), supersaturation with respect to ettringite in cement pore solution, total pore volume, and material stiffness were monitored to examine early-age expansion characteristics. This research validated the crystallization stress theory by showing the presence of higher supersaturation level of ettringite, and therefore, higher crystallization stress in CSA cement-based binders. Supersaturation with respect to ettringite was found to increase with CSA dosage and external supply of gypsum. Mineral admixtures (MA) altered the expansion characteristics in OPC-CSA-MA binders with fixed CSA cement. This study reports that fly ash (FA) behaves differently depending on its phase composition. The Class C FA-based binder (OPC-CSA-CFA) ceased expanding beyond two days unlike other OPC-CSA-MA binders. Three factors were found to govern expansion of CSA cement-based binders: 1) volume fraction of ettringite in given pore volume, 2) saturation level of ettringite, and 3) dynamic modulus. Various models were utilized to estimate the macroscopic tensile stress in CSA cement

  18. Enhancing Asphalt Binder's Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Nano-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Renaldo C.

    The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB) has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact that nano-particles and bio modification have on the aging susceptibility of asphalt binder. As such, the following hypothesis was investigated: Introduction of nano particles to asphalt binder will reduce asphalt oxidation aging by increasing the inter layer spacing of the nano particles. Two nano scale materials were used for this study, nano-clay and bio-char as well as one micro scale material, silica fume. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B) is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. Silica Fume is an ultra-fine powder collected as a by-product of silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consists of spherical particles. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using RV testing (Rotational Viscometer), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Nano-clay is blended at 2% and 4% by weight of dry mass, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass). Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 5% and 10% by weight of dry mass. Silica Fume is added to virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 4% and 8% by weight of dry mass. The optimum percent of nano scale material that is added to virgin asphalt binder is expected to reduce aging susceptibility of asphalt binder, extending its service life.

  19. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  20. 75 FR 60308 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Melengestrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... monensin Type C medicated feeds under NADA 95-735 (72 FR 653, January 8, 2007). The supplements were approved in October 2009 and the regulations were amended in Sec. 558.342 (21 CFR 558.342) (74 FR 59911, November 19, 2009; 74 FR 61029, November 23, 2009). Labeling submitted with these supplements also...