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Sample records for binder feed supplementation

  1. Zeolite and bentonite as caesium binders in reindeer feed

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    Birgitta Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zeolite and bentonite on the accumulation and excretion of radiocaesium (Cs-137 in reindeer were studied in two feeding experiments. Six animals in each experiment were given lichens contaminated with radiocaesium from fallout after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. In addition, they were fed pellets containing bentonite (Experiment I or zeolite (Experiment II. Two animals, controls, in each experiment received no caesium-binder. The activity concentration of radiocaesium in blood was used to evalute the radiocaesium level in the body. Faeces and urine were collected to measue the excration of radiocaesium. The animals in Experiment I were depleted of radiocaesium before the start of the experiment. After three weeks, with an intake of 17 - 18 kBq Cs-137/day, the controls had reached activity concentrations of radiocaesium in blood corresponding to 4 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. Reindeer fed 23 or 46 g of bentonite per day stabilized at values below 0.8 kfiq/kg in muscle. In Experiment II, the reindeer started with radiocaesium activity concentrations in blood corresponding to 2 - 4.5 kBq Cs-137/kg in muscle. After four weeks of feeding, with an intake at about 8.5 kBq Cs-137/day, controls had increased their radiocaesium values by an average of 40%. Reindeer receiving 25 or 50 g zeolite per day decreased with 18 and 45%, respectively. Net absorption of radiocaesium from the gastro-intestinal tract was calculated at 50 -70% in animals receiving no caesium-binder. Reindeer fed bentonite had an absorption below 10% while those fed zeolite absorbed around 35%.

  2. The use of bentonite and zeolite as caesium-binders in feed to reindeer - experiences from Sweden

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    Birgitta Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is used in Sweden to lower radiocaesium levels in reindeer before slaughter. In feeds used for this purpose, bentonite is added as a caesium-binder to prevent absorption of radiocaesium, since the animals usually have som access to contaminated pasture in their corrals. Bentonite is efficient as a caesium-binder but increases water consumption and excretion of urine. Zeolite has been used as a caesium-binder to reindeer in a few experiments. The effect, however, has been inferior to that of bentonite. It seems that zeolite, mixed in feeds, loose some of its effect as the feed is stored. The need of a caesium-binder is demonstrated by results from practical feeding of reindeer where radiocaesium levels have not decreased as expected when feed without bentonite has been used.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, A; Stroka, J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B₁ and B₂, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B₁ determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB₁. Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB₁ determined.

  4. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.11 Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications. (a) After approval of a medicated...

  5. Optimization of Stocking Density for the Sea Cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, Under Feed-Supplement and Non-Feed-Supplement Regimes in Pond Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Chuanxin; DONG Shuanglin; TAN Fuyi; TIAN Xiangli; WANG Fang; DONG Yunwei; GAO Qinfeng

    2009-01-01

    Optimal stocking densities were investigated for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in net enclosures for 333 d. Substantial weight loss occurred during the aestivation phase (AE).Decreased growth rates were also observed during the winter phase (WT). In contrast, sea cucumbers showed rapid growth during the spring (SP) and autumn (AU) phases. Feeding regimes considerably influenced the growth performance, i.e., sea cucumbers grew faster under feed-supplement regime than under non-feed-supplement regime (P< 0.05). The average survival rates of sea cucumbers under feed-supplement regime were higher than those under non-feed-supplement regime for both the autumn phase and spring phase,but the differences were only significant for the latter phase (P<0.05). The fitted B-N curves showed that the optimal stocking densities, in terms of net production, were 22.3 ind. m-2 for feed-supplement regime and 14.1 ind. m-2 for non-feed-supplement regime.

  6. EFFECT OF FEEDS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS COWS

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    KIRAN KUMAR DIVYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous cows, on farm level, kept on feeding supplemented with powdered root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.. It was observed that feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed increased percentage milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids significantly without altering quality and natural attributes of milk. Significant residual effect of feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed was also observed in terms of percentage increase in milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids (TS up to ten days after Shatavari roots supplemented was stopped to cows.

  7. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate

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    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Cross, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  8. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

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    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  9. Stimulation of Deprivation Cycles with Spirulina platensis Feed Supplementation on Osphronemus gouramy Physiological Responses

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    Sorta Basar Ida Simanjuntak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina platensis is a phytoplankton, the cell wall composed of complex sugars so easily digested by fish. The present study was carried out to investigate stimulation cycle of feed deprivation with feed supplemented S. platensis the best to increase growth, hematological and body composition of gurami (Osphronemus gouramy. Groups of 24 fish, each in triplicate, were exposed to four different treatment for a period of 56 days. Sample measurements of growth done every 14 days, hematological and body composition measurements carried out at the end of the experiment. Growth was significantly different between stimulation cycle of feed deprivation and the control (P<0.05. Conclusions result showed that stimulation cycles of feed deprivation could not improve growth and hematological, but could improve body composition. Feed deprivation is done to reduce the cost of production, high production costs due to high feed prices. During research on feed deprivation is done by giving commercial feed, this study is to provide feed supplementation S. platensis. Thus, the results of this study can be useful for science as S. platensis information can be used as a food supplement and and for the people cultivating gurami should be fed daily supplementation of S. platensis.How to CiteSimanjuntak, S. B. I., Wibowo, E. S. & Indarmawan, I. (2016. Stimulation of Deprivation Cycles with Spirulina platensis Feed Supplementation on Osphronemus gouramy Physiological Responses. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3,  378-385. 

  10. Confinement of Reinforced-Concrete Columns with Non-Code Compliant Confining Reinforcement plus Supplemental Pen-Binder

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    Anang Kristianto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for earthquake resistant building related to confinement is the use of seismic hooks in the hoop or confining reinforcement of reinforced-concrete column elements. However, installation of a confining reinforcement with a 135-degree hook is not easy. Therefore, in practice, many construction workers apply a confining reinforcement with a 90-degreehook (non-code compliant. Based on research and records of recent earthquakes in Indonesia, the use of a non-code compliant confining reinforcement for concrete columns produces structures with poor seismic performance. This paper presents a study that introduces an additional element that is expected to improve the effectiveness of concrete columns confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement. The additional element, named a pen-binder, is used to keep the non-code compliant confining reinforcement in place. The effectiveness of this element under pure axial concentric loading was investigatedcomprehensively.The specimens tested in this study were 18 concrete columns,with a cross-section of 170 mm x 170 mm and a height of 480 mm. The main test variables were the material type of the pen-binder, the angle of the hook, and the confining reinforcement configuration.The test results indicate that adding pen-binders can effectively improve the strength and ductility of the column specimens confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement

  11. High performance liquid chromatographic method fo pyrantel tartrate in swine feeds and supplements.

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    Goras, J T

    1981-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pyrantel tartrate in swine feed an supplements has been developed because the current official AOAC method is not applicable to feeds co-medicated with tylosin. The new method involves: (a) leaching of drug from feed with methanolic NaCl solution, (b) removal of interfering substances by ion pair liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, and (c) quantitation of pyrantel tartrate by monitoring the ultraviolet absorption of the effluent stream at 313nm. The method of standard addition is used to compensate for the effect of the feed matrix on drug recovery. No interference is encountered from tylosin, carbadox, lincomycin, non-drug components of feeds and supplements, or potential degradation products of pyrantel tartrate, i.e., cis isomer of pyrantel tartrate and (E)-N-(3-methylaminopropyl)-2-thiopheneacrylamide. Results for the assay of 3 lots each of feeds and supplements containing 0.0106 and 0.106% pyrantel tartrate, respectively, were within +/-4% of label claim. Coefficients of variation ranged from 1.6 to 1.8% for feeds and from 1.9 to 3.9% for supplements.

  12. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

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    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  13. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

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    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  14. Use of vitamin D supplements during infancy in an international feeding trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between...... supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80% of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (> 60%). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g., 71% v. 44% at 6 months...... of age). Less than 2% of infants in the U.S.A. and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the infants received vitamin D...

  15. Effect of wet corn gluten feed, supplemental protein, and tallow on steer finishing performance.

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    Richards, C J; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Shain, D H

    1998-02-01

    Two trials evaluated the effects of level of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), type of supplemental protein, and supplemental tallow on steer finishing performance. In Trial 1, WCGF was fed at 0, 25 (two diets), or 50% of the dietary DM replacing dry-rolled corn (DRC), molasses, and a portion of the supplement. The DRC control diet and one 25% WCGF diet were supplemented with a combination of protein sources. The second 25% WCGF diet was supplemented with urea alone. The 50% WCGF diet contained no additional protein supplementation. No differences in DMI (P > .10) were observed. Calves fed 25% WCGF plus a combination of protein sources or 50% WCGF gained faster (P tallow. Steers fed WCGF gained faster (P tallow increased gain (P tallow to DRC finishing diets.

  16. Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop

  17. The effect of propolis feed supplementation on hygiene and performance

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    M. G. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural substance produced by worker bees from trees and leaf buds. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of two concentrations (200, 400 mg/kg diet of propolis on some performance traits and hygienic parameters of broiler chickens body weight, feed conversion, feed consumption, during an eight weeks experiment, weights of internal organs, and dressing percentage also recorded. The results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to significant increase (P<0.05 in eighth-week body weight (2306.27 g, feed consumption especially in the fourth week, maximum daily growth rate (55.52 gm was obtained from the treatment of 400 mg/kg in the seventh week period. Also propolis lead to improve feed conversion efficiency in the second, third and fourth week of age for the broilers fed diet with 400 mg/kg (1.35, 1.59, 1.95, respectively. Average of proportional weights for each of the liver, heart, thighs, and dressing percentage (74.0% were improved among birds of this treatment, too.

  18. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics i

  19. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

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    Mardalena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  20. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

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    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  1. Feed intake and growth performance of goats supplemented with soy waste

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    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplemental feeding of soy waste on the feed intake and growth rate of goats. Twenty male crossbred (Boer x local goats were assigned to two isonitrogenous diet groups: one of commercial pellet and the other of soy waste. The commercial pellet (1.0% and soy waste (0.8% were provided on the dry matter basis of body weight (BW per day, to the respective group of each diet. The soy waste group had lower daily intakes of total dry matter (0.79 vs. 0.88 kg and organic matter (665.71 vs. 790.44 g than the group fed pellet; however, the differences on daily intakes for grass (0.62 vs. 0.64 kg, crude protein (96.81 vs. 96.83 g, and neutral detergent fibre (483.70 vs. 499.86 g were not significant. No differences were observed between groups for BW gain. The feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram of BW gain were lower for the group fed soy waste than for the one fed pellet. Goats fed supplemental soy waste have a lower total dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, and feed cost per kilogram of body weight gain than those fed commercial pellets.

  2. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

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    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  3. Effect of different feed supplements on selected quality indicators of chicken meat

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    Peter Haščík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different feed additives (bee pollen extract, propolis extract, and probiotic on meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old broiler chicks of mixed sex (Ross 308 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet, free of supplements (control group; C;  basal diet  plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E1; basal diet  plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. In the experiment, the probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU.g-1 of bearing medium was used. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. Meat quality was evaluated by following technological properties: cooling, freezing and roasting loss; colour parameters based on CIELab system; and shear force. Both dietary supplementations led to decrease in cooling (p ≤0.05 and freezing (p ≥0.05 losses compared with control. On the contrary, the supplemented diet tended to increase roasting losses (p ≤0.05 and shear force values in thigh muscle (p ≤0.05. Significantly higher L* values (p ≤0.05 in breast and thigh muscles, as well as the b* values in thigh muscle, were found when broiler chickens were fed the supplements, especially bee pollen extract and probiotics. In addition, the supplements improve redness (a* of meat. The redness of breast muscle appeared to be the most affected (p ≥0.05 by propolis extract plus probiotics supplementation, while thigh muscle had the highest value (p ≤0.05 in bee pollen extract plus probiotics supplemented group. These findings suggested that the supplements have a beneficial effect on quality of chicken meat due to positive changes in most of quality indicators investigated in the

  4. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

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    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  5. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

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    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  6. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements...

  7. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis.

  8. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  9. Does the newly weaned piglet select a zinc oxide supplemented feed, when given the choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, F H; Forbes, J M; Miller, H M

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether weaned piglets would display preference for a food containing a pharmacological level of zinc oxide (ZnO). A total of 60 piglets were weaned at 7.8 kg ± 0.14 (s.e.m.) and 27.8 ± 0.11 days of age into eight mixed sex groups of seven or eight piglets per pen. Groups were balanced for litter origin, weaning weight and sex. Piglet feeding behaviour was constantly recorded by a multi-spaced feeding behaviour recording system (Leeds University Feeding Behaviour System) in each pen. Each pen of pigs was offered ad libitum access to two different foods (16.2 MJ digestible energy, 16 g lysine/kg), which differed only in the level of ZnO supplementation: unsupplemented (U) or supplemented (Z; ZnO 3100 mg/kg). Both foods contained a basal level of zinc (100 mg/kg). Feeding time was recorded for each individual at each trough. Piglets were weighed at weaning and at 7 and 13 days thereafter. The experiment ran for 13 days. Any piglet observed with post-weaning scour (Y) was recorded and treated appropriately whereas healthy piglets were categorised as N (no scour). Preference for a food was defined as being significantly different from 50% of total feed intake or time spent feeding. There was no difference between piglet numbers selecting each food as their first meal. However, within the first 24 h, piglets preferred (P piglets showed aversion (P piglets showed their preference for food U with only 16.6% (14.6 to 18.5) and 21.8% (19.6 to 24.0) of feeding time spent on food Z in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Scouring piglets did not show any difference in feeding behaviour from healthy piglets in either week. Average piglet gain (of all piglets) was low, at 0.039 ± 0.03 and 0.272 ± 0.04 kg/day in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Given a choice, weaned piglets showed a clear preference for the food U even when exhibiting post-weaning scour. It can be concluded that the newly weaned, naïve, piglet is not able to recognise a food with

  10. Comparison of protein and energy supplementation to mineral supplementation on feeding behavior of grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rita Kelly Couto; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Dias, Daniel Lucas Santos; Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida; Filho, George Abreu; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Barroso, Daniele Soares; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein-energy or mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of dairy steers on pasture in the post-weaning phase during the rainy to dry season transition. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu dairy steers with an average initial body weight of 234 ± 16 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design into two groups: protein-energy supplementation and mineral supplementation offered ad libitum. The steers receiving protein-energy supplementation showed higher (P energy supplementation had longer period in grazing and spent on average more time per period eating at the trough (P  0.05). The supply of protein-energy supplement does not change the feeding behavior, except for an increase in the time spent feeding at the trough. The intake of protein-energy supplement improved the of DM and NDF feed efficiencies in grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

  11. Modification of the feeding behavior of dairy cows through live yeast supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen

  12. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  13. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  14. Ornithine decarboxylase expression in the small intestine of broilers submitted to feed restriction and glutamine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred and forty one-day-old Cobb male broilers were used to evaluate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC expression in the mucosa of the small intestine. Birds were submitted to early feed restriction from 7 to 14 days of age. The provided feed was supplemented with glutamine. A completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used (with or without glutamine, with or without feed restriction. Restricted-fed birds were fed at 30% the amount of the ad libitum fed group from 7 to 14 days of age. Glutamine was added at the level of 1% in the diet supplied from 1 to 28 days of age. Protein concentration in the small intestine mucosa was determined, and ODC expression at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age was evaluated by dot blotting. ODC was present in the mucosa of broilers, and the presence of glutamine in the diet increased ODC activation. Glutamine prevented mucosa atrophy by stimulating protein synthesis, and was effective against the effects of feed restriction. Dot blotting can be used to quantify ODC expression in the intestinal mucosa of broilers.

  15. Studies on the Renewability of Polymeric Binders for Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of studies of polymeric binders on the example of the new BioCo2 binder, including the problem of itsrenewability, are presented. The results of structural studies (FT-IR for the BioCo2 binder before and after crosslinking, and bendingstrength tests Rg u fresh and renewed cured molding sands with BioCo2 binder are discussed. The cross-linking binder and curring ofmoulding sand was carried out by physical agents (microwave radiation, temperature. On the basis of obtained results was shown that it is possible to restore the initial properties of the adhesive of BioCo2 binder. The initial properties of moulding sand can be achieved, after the cross-linking binders and after curing in the moulding sands with bioCo2 binder , by supplementing the moulding sand composition by the appropriate amount of water.

  16. Relative Bioavailability of Niacin Supplements for Dairy Cows: Effects of Rumen Protection and of Feed Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Tienken

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effective systemic bioavailability of niacin— with particular focus on its galenic form—and feed processing. Experiment 1 was conducted with 35 dairy cows to investigate the effects of various doses of oral supplemented nicotinic acid (NA either in differing galenic forms (non-rumen protected (nRP vs. rumen protected form (RP on serum niacin concentrations. Experiment 2 was designed as a pharmacokinetic study examining the serum niacin kinetics over 24 h after giving a single oral bolus of 24 g nRP or RP NA admixed in either pelleted or ground concentrate. In both experiments, only the niacin vitamer nicotinamide (NAM was detected. Results of experiment 1 showed that both galenic forms at a dose of 24 g/cow daily elevated NAM concentrations at the beginning of the experiment. Despite a daily supplementation, NAM concentrations decreased continuously towards the end of the experiment which was more steeply in nRP NA (p = 0.03. On experimental day 21, NAM concentrations were higher when feeding RP NA (p = 0.03 and the highest dose (24 g/day and cow (p < 0.01. Results of experiment 2 indicated that nRP and RP were characterized by similar pharmacokinetic profiles resulting in similar areas under the curves as a net result of the kinetic counterbalancing alterations. Pelleting seemed not to influence the relative bioavailability.

  17. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2015-12-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed.

  18. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  19. Pengaruh Penggunaan High Quality Feed Supplement terhadap Konsumsi dan Kecernaan Nutrien Sapi Perah Awal Laktasi (The Effect of High Quality Feed Supplement Addition on the Nutrient Consumption and Digestibility of Early Lactating Dairy Cow)

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyani Astuti; Ali Agus; Subur Priyono Sasmito Budi

    2012-01-01

    The research was intended to know the effect of high quality feed supplement (HQFS) in the ration of first lactation dairy cow on nutrient consumption and digestibility. Twelve dairy cows of Friesian Holstein crossbred from the Cooperative of Warga Mulya, Sleman. They were divided into three groups of treatment, namely control (K), substitution treatment (S), and supplementation treatment (A). Each treatment consisted of four cows. Group K fed concentrate only from Warga Mulya, while group...

  20. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanka P Prasai

    Full Text Available A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97% related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99% and Clostridium aldenense (95% related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens.

  1. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  2. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  3. Optimization of Binder Jetting Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjay; Manogharan, Guha

    2017-01-01

    Among several additive manufacturing (AM) methods, binder-jetting has undergone a recent advancement in its ability to process metal powders through selective deposition of binders on a powder bed followed by curing, sintering, and infiltration. This study analyzes the impact of various process parameters in binder jetting on mechanical properties of sintered AM metal parts. The Taguchi optimization method has been employed to determine the optimum AM parameters to improve transverse rupture strength (TRS), specifically: binder saturation, layer thickness, roll speed, and feed-to-powder ratio. The effects of the selected process parameters on the TRS performance of sintered SS 316L samples are studied with the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standard test method. It was found that binder saturation and feed-to-powder ratio were the most critical parameters, which reflects the strong influence of binder powder interaction and density of powder bed on resulting mechanical properties. This article serves as an aid in understanding the optimum process parameters for binder jetting of SS 316L.

  4. Optimization of Binder Jetting Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sanjay; Manogharan, Guha

    2017-03-01

    Among several additive manufacturing (AM) methods, binder-jetting has undergone a recent advancement in its ability to process metal powders through selective deposition of binders on a powder bed followed by curing, sintering, and infiltration. This study analyzes the impact of various process parameters in binder jetting on mechanical properties of sintered AM metal parts. The Taguchi optimization method has been employed to determine the optimum AM parameters to improve transverse rupture strength (TRS), specifically: binder saturation, layer thickness, roll speed, and feed-to-powder ratio. The effects of the selected process parameters on the TRS performance of sintered SS 316L samples are studied with the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) standard test method. It was found that binder saturation and feed-to-powder ratio were the most critical parameters, which reflects the strong influence of binder powder interaction and density of powder bed on resulting mechanical properties. This article serves as an aid in understanding the optimum process parameters for binder jetting of SS 316L.

  5. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line.

  6. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Vieira Barros; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Mário Luiz Chizzotti; Luciana Navajas Rennó; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Eriton Egídio Lisboa Valente;; Sidnei Antônio Lopes; Carla Heloisa Avelino Cabral; Nelcino Francisco de Paula; Felipe Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately ...

  7. Effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementation to the feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total No. of 200 three weeks old Japanese quail from the breeding flock in the Poultry Research Farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, were used in this study. The quail chicks were randomly allotted equally to five groups (40 birds per each. For 4 weeks experimental period birds were kept in battery cages and water and feed were provided ad libitum. A basal diet of 24% protein and 3000 kcal M.E./Kg was formulated to cover all nutrients needed. The experimental design included five tested groups as follows: group (1: birds fed on the basal diet and served as control. Group (2: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Group (3: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame seeds. Group (4: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 2%sesame oil. Group (5: birds fed on the basal diet supplemented with 4% sesame oil. The effect of sesame seeds or oil supplementations in feed on some physiological parameters in Japanese quails was investigated. It was observed that the groups of quails supplemented with 4% sesame seeds or 4%oil recorded the lowest body weight. Female and male carcass weight had significant increase in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Total lipids in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% oil as compared to the control group. Cholesterol content in the eggs significantly decreased in group supplemented with 4% sesame seeds while triglycerides in the eggs recorded significant decrease in the group supplemented with 2% sesame seeds. Eggs weight did not significantly change due to the feeding on sesame seeds or oil but, the group supplemented with 4%seeds laid higher number of eggs than other groups. Serum total protein, albumin, alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, urea, creastinine, total triiodothyronine (T3 and total thyroxin(T4 concentrations were

  8. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  9. Anionic surface binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When optical whiteners are used, the application of AKD binders is recommended. In the case of paper it is possible to substitute acrylate binders by AKD binders. The best results are obtained when the paper is first partly treated in bulk and subsequently surface treated.

  10. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2α) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements

  11. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Wolfgang; Rosenvold, Katja; Young, Jette F

    2006-12-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing sugars and creatine or creatinine. Groups of ten Duroc and ten Landrace pigs received feed supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CMH) for five days prior to slaughter at dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 g per animal per day. Ten control animals of each breed received the non-supplemented feed. Meat from Duroc pigs had been shown to respond to CMH supplementation with regard to waterholding capacity, juiciness, post slaughter pH and colour parameters, meat from Landrace pigs was unaffected. Indeed, while creatine phosphate levels in meat from Duroc pigs increased in a dose-dependent manner with CMH supplementation, no effect was observed in meat from Landrace pigs. Meat slices from longissimus dorsi were fried and considerable mutagenic activity was detected in meat extracts in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. However, no effect of breed or CMH supplementation was observed in fried pork on the formation of HAA determined as mutagenic activity. It may be concluded that feed supplementation with CMH at levels up to 50 g per day for five days prior to slaughter does not increase the level of heterocyclic aromatic amines detected as mutagenic activity formed upon frying of pork.

  12. Deletion of supplemental minerals and vitamins during the late finishing period does not affect pig weight gain and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, J J

    2000-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of eliminating the supplemental vitamin and minerals during the last 30 d of finishing on pig performance. The first study was conducted in a controlled university environment and the second under field conditions. Deletion of vitamin and mineral supplements for the last 30 d of finishing had no effects on pig performance or general health of pigs in either the university or the field trial. Besides lowering feed costs, deletion of dietary supplements may reduce the environmental impact of late finishing diets.

  13. Pengaruh Penggunaan High Quality Feed Supplement terhadap Konsumsi dan Kecernaan Nutrien Sapi Perah Awal Laktasi (The Effect of High Quality Feed Supplement Addition on the Nutrient Consumption and Digestibility of Early Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyani Astuti

    2012-02-01

    (73.11%, and K (70.69% on BETN. The conclusion was that the addition of HQFS of first lactation dairy cow would increase nutrient consumption and crude protein and nitrogen-free extract digestibility. (Key words: High quality feed supplement, Dairy cow, Consumption, Digestibility

  14. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant...... for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546 g Ascophylum...... nodosum/kg), natural vitamin E (NatE: 562.5 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), synthetic vitamin E (SyntE: 1125 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), or no extra seaweed or vitamin E (control). The supplements were fed at an isoenergetic daily rate, on average 144 g DM/ewe for SW and 114 g DM...

  15. Effects of feeding beef females supplemental fat during gestation on cold tolerance in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, M A; Bellows, R A; Grings, E E; Bergman, J W; Short, R E; MacNeil, M D

    1999-04-01

    Effects of prepartum fat supplementation of the dam on cold tolerance of calves were determined in two studies. In Exp. 1, 22 F1, crossbred heifers gestating F2 calves received diets containing either 1.7 or 4.7% dietary fat starting at d 230+/-2d of gestation. Safflower seeds (Carthamus tinctorius) containing 37% oil with 79% linoleic acid were the supplemental fat source in isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets. Calves were separated from their dams at birth, fed pooled dairy-cow colostrum, muzzled to prevent sucking, and returned to their dams in a heated (22 degrees C) barn for 3.5 h. At 4 h of age, a jugular catheter was inserted. At 5 h of age, calves were placed in a 0 degrees C room for 140 min and rectal temperatures and blood samples were obtained at 10- and 20-min intervals. Blood was assayed for glucose, cortisol, and cholesterol. In Exp. 2, 18 multiparous, crossbred beef cows bred to Murray Grey sires were randomly assigned to receive diets containing either 1.7 or 3.1% dietary fat starting at 235+/-2 d gestation. Safflower seeds were used as the supplemental fat source in isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets. At d 260 of gestation, premature parturition was induced in one-half of the cows from each diet group by feeding Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles. Experimental protocols were the same as in Exp. 1, except that cold exposure was at 9 degrees C for 200 min. Rectal temperatures were affected in Exp. 1 by time and diet x time (both P stressed newborns. This increase in substrate availability suggests a potential positive effect on heat generation in newborns during sustained periods of cold stress. In Exp. 2, premature calves had compromised cold tolerance possibly due to impaired shivering or brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  16. Effect of Feed Supplementation with Propolis on Liver and Kidney Morphology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Babińska*, K. Kleczek1, W. Makowski1 and J. Szarek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin-like mixture produced by bees and composed of natural substances demonstrating a broad range of biological activity, e.g. antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidizing, immunostimulating and immunomodulating effects. Among abundant research on its properties has been carried out but a few reports concerning the use of this substance in animal production, particularly in poultry breeding are available. There is little information about its effects upon the morphology of individual organs and tissues predisposed to damage as a result of intensive fattening of poultry. A-day old 400 chicks were divided into equal four groups. Group 1 and 2 served as negative and positive control, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were kept on propolis (10 and 50 mg/kg of feed supplemented feed for 42 days, respectively. At the end, randomly selected 12 birds from each group were killed humanly. Gross lesions were noted and liver and kidney samples were processed for histopathological studies. The results demonstrated a protective effect of propolis particularly upon the liver of broiler chickens, in which it reduced the intensity of regressive lesions. This protective effect was noticeable especially in the group of birds receiving a higher dose of propolis.

  17. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO₂ Algal Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Saeid, Agnieszka

    2017-01-03

    The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO₂ extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols) which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments) were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests). The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  18. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests. The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  19. Wheat straw as ruminant feed. Effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in

  20. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were co

  1. 日粮添加不同水平的奶牛专用霉菌毒素吸附剂对粪中双歧杆菌数量和乳中黄曲霉毒素含量的影响%The Effect of Different Mycotoxin Binder Levels Supplementation on Feces Bifidobacterium Bifidum Number and Milk AFM1 Content in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤月明; 黄谢江; 刘仕军

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxin in feed can bring negative effect on dairy health and decrease production of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes of feces bifidobacterium bifidum number and milk AFM1 concentration when dietary different levels mycotoxin binder was supplemented in lactating dairy cattle. Eighty Chinese Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to control group with 20g powdered zeolite for a cow per day. The three experimental group received supplementation of 10g mycotoxin binder and 10g powdered zeolite for a cow per day, 15g mycotoxin binder and 5g powdered zeolite, or 20g mycotoxin binder. Meantime, all cows were fed the same basal diets. It was shown that dietary different levels of mycotoxin binder adding can decline bifidobacterium bifidum number of feces, but there was no significant difference. In contrast with before the experiment, aflatoxin M1 of raw milk in experimental treatment declined(P<0.05 ), and aflatoxin M1 residues was in less with mycotoxin binder enhancing. Milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in control treatment did not change compared with start of experiment. Therefore, the study indicated that different levels mycotoxin binder may improve raw milk quality.%奶牛饲料原料中霉菌毒素广泛存在,并严重地威胁着奶牛健康,影响着奶牛生产性能的发挥.本试验选择年龄、胎次、产奶量、泌乳天数相近的荷斯坦牛80头探讨日粮添加4种剂量(0、10、15、20g)的霉菌毒素吸附剂对奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌数量和原料奶中黄曲霉毒素残留量的影响.与对照组(添加霉菌毒素吸附剂0g)相比,试验组奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌的外排量明显降低,但各实验组之间差异不显著,仅有数值上的变化.同时,随着霉菌毒素吸附剂含量的增加,原料奶中体细胞数呈现下降的趋势.与试验前相比,原料奶中黄曲霉毒素含量显著降低(P<0.05),且随着添加剂量的增加其黄曲霉毒素残留量

  2. Feeding value of supplemental curcas crude oil in finishing diets for feedlot lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Bernal, J A; Estrada-Angulo, A; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Landeros-López, H; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Zinn, R A; Plascencia, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the feeding value of a mechanically extracted nontoxic variety of oil (JCO) as source of energy for feedlot lambs. Twenty Pelibuey × Katahdin lambs were individually fed a dry-rolled-corn-based finishing diet supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% JCO (diet dry matter basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Fatty acid composition of JCO was C16:0, 14.0%; C18:0, 8.2%; C18:1, 26.0%; C18:2, 50.3%, and C18:3, 0.4%. Daily intakes of JCO averaged 24.7, 51.1, and 77.3 g/day or 0.57, 1.08, and 1.62 g/kg LW for the 2%, 4%, and 6% levels of supplementation, respectively. Supplemental JCO did not affect ( = 0.33) dry matter intake (DMI), but tended to increase (linear effect, = 0.06) average daily gain, efficiency of gain (linear effect, JCO corresponds closely (0.99) to the NE value assigned by current standards (), and this NE value decreased linearly as the inclusion level of JCO increased. There were not treatment effects on plasma metabolites. Across treatments, the concentrations of hemoglobin (11.64 ± 1.08 g/dL), hematocrit (39.15 ± 3.67%), glucose (85.2 ± 17.64 mg/dL), creatinine (1.43 ± 0.28 mg/dL), and urea (20.70 ± 4.35 mg/dL) were within normal (9-15 g/dL, 27%-40%, 50-90 mg/dL, 1.0-1.8 mg/dL, and 15-50 mg/dL, for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, creatinine, and urea, respectively) ranges for healthy lambs. Based on DMI, performance and plasma metabolites observed in this study, nontoxic JCO is a suitable source of energy in finishing diets for lambs.

  3. Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755 (average weight of 0.45g were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May. The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplementalfeeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. Afeed conversion ratio (FCR of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR of 4.96%/day. Thehigh survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nurseryproduction trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensuressufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nurseryproduction. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (< 1g of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stockingdensities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternativeapproaches in the nursery production of this fish.

  4. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  5. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  6. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; De Saeger, Sarah; Eeckhout, Mia; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX.

  7. Effects of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Feed Supplement on Milk Production and its Composition in Tunisian Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamouri O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 105-day feed trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feed supplement containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk yield and its composition in Holstein Friesian cows. The trial was conducted in the region of Sidi Bouzid in the west of Tunisia. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated on eight Holstein Friesian cows randomly divided into two groups of four animals on the basis of age, body weight, average milk yield, and lactation number. The first group was supplemented with 2.5 g/cow/day of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.5 1010 CFU/day and the second group (control was without the yeast. The study showed that supplementation with 2.5 g of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae per cow per day or 2.5 1010 CFU/day tended (P < 0.06 to increase milk production by 1.1 kg/cow. By cons, there was a significant increase of fat (P < 0.01; 52.8 and 46.9 g/cow/day and protein (P < 0.05; 41.7 and 38.7 g/cow/day content both for treated and control group, respectively. It is concluded that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.5 1010 CFU/day in the diet of dairy cows may have positive influence on milk fat and protei n yield (g/cow/day.

  8. Influence of Bacillus spp culture supplementation through feed or drinking water on the performance of layer chiken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Kompiang

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Three thousands 65 weeks old layers were used and divided into 3 groups of 1000 birds, and further divided into 4 sum group (250 birds/group as treatment replicates, and distributed randomly.Layer in group 1 were fed a basal diet + antibiotic (AB, group 2 were fed a basal diet + 10^9 CFU Bacillus spp culture (PB-M and group 3 were fed a basal diet and Bacillus spp culture was supplemented in their drinking water (10^9 CFU/litre (PB-A. The trial was conducted for 14 weeks (2 weeks adaptation period, 10 weeks the feeding treatments, and 2 weeks post treatment, where the AB group continues supplemented with antibiotic, while the PB-M and PB-A group, the Bacillus spp culture supplementation was withdrawned. During the treatment period,% HD production and its FCR of the bird supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were highly significant (P<0.001 better than the one receiving antibiotic. There was no significant different between the PB-M and the PB-A groups. Prosentage HD production and its FCR during post treatment, the birds previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were remained significantly better than the one recieving antibiotic. The birds which were previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture in the feed had significantly (P<0.01 better % HD production and FCR.It is concluded that Bacillus spp culture, could be used to replace antibiotics as a growth promotor, it even gave better results.

  9. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  10. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity.

  11. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  12. Haemato-immunological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry fed with Aloe vera extract supplemented feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Haghighi; Mostafa Sharif Rohani; Hamid Pourmoghim; Tayebeh Toliat; Meysam Samadi; Meysam Tavoli; Maryam Islami; Rahmat Yusefi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera extract on the immunity responses and haematological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry to develop alternative drug to chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Methods:Six hundred rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry were randomly allocated into two treatment groups including 1) placebo-treated group (control), 2) Aloe vera extract-treated group, each of three replicates. The fishes were hand-fed once a day with diet medicated AE or placebo at the rate of 1%in feed in the first feeding for 10 weeks. At the end of the identical every two weeks 24 h after feeding, some of haematological and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results:The results showed that serum total protein, albumin and globulin, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity and serum lysozyme activity vary among the two treatment groups which were found to be higher in Aloe vera extract-treated group (P0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that supplementation of AE at a rate of 1%in feed registered higher immunological responses in compared to placebo group. Therefore, supplementation of AE in fish diets enhances non-specific immune system in fish. It may use in fish diets particularly at time of outbreaks.

  13. Oxidative and lipolytic changes during ripening of Iberian hams as affected by feeding regime: extensive feeding and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, R; Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    1999-06-01

    The effect of pig feeding in an extensive system based on acorn and pasture or in confinement with a control diet containing 5 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) of feed and a 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) enriched diet on evolution of lipid changes throughout ripening of dry-cured hams was investigated. Feeding regime significantly affected TBA-RS, peroxide value and hexanal content of Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles. Muscles from pigs fed supplemented diet with α-tocopherol or fed extensively on acorn and grass showed significant lower (p<0.05) TBA-RS and peroxide value than ham muscles from pigs fed the basal diet at 210 days of processing. Both feedings reduced significantly (p<0.05) hexanal content at day 210 and day 700. Muscle slices from pigs fed on acorn showed significant higher scores (p<0.05) in aroma and flavour intensity, cured flavour and numerically lower rancid scores than those from control diet hams. ©

  14. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  15. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG] or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]. DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY, fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01. The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%, TDN intake, digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01 in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01 than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  16. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron M. Foley,; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  17. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental protein source on ADG, feed intake, calf birth BW, and subsequent pregnancy rate in pregnant beef heifers. Crossbred, Angus-based, AI-pregnant heifers (yr 1, n = 38; yr 2, n = 40; and yr 3, n = 36) were stratified by BW (450 ± 10 kg) and placed in a Calan Broadbent individual feeding system at approximately d 142 of gestation. Following a 25-d adaptation period, an 84-d feeding trial was conducted. Heifers were offered ad libitum grass hay (8 to 11% CP, DM basis) and no supplement (CON), 0.83 kg/d distillers-based supplement (HI), or 0.83 kg/d dried corn gluten-based supplement (LO). Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous (28% CP, DM basis), and equal in lipid content but differed in RUP, with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). Dry matter intake was also calculated based on feed NE values to account for different energy levels of the supplement compared with the control diet. Control heifers tended (P = 0.09) to consume less total DM than either supplement treatment. However, forage-only DMI was greater (P feeding period. Calf birth BW was similar (P = 0.99) among treatments. At prebreeding, CON heifers weighed less (P calf birth BW and subsequent pregnancy rates were similar.

  18. HMX/TATB/binder development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, T.L.; Osborn, A.G.; Schaffer, C.L.; Crutchmer, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    The processing and sensitivity characteristics of three HMX/TATB/Binder formulations were investigated. Viton A, Kraton G 1650, and Estane 5702-F1 binders were studied. The thermal stabilities of these compositions are near those of HMX/binder formulations, whereas impact, skid and friction sensitivity levels are less than HMX compositions, but greater than those of TATB/binder systems.

  19. Role of live microbial feed supplements with reference to anaerobic fungi in ruminant productivity:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil K Puniya; Ravinder Kumar; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Sanjay Kumar; Sumit S Dagar; Gareth W Grififth; Monica Puniya; Sreenivas R Ravella; Nikhil Kumar; Tejpal Dhewa

    2015-01-01

    To keep the concept of a safe food supply to the consumers, animal feed industries world over are showing an increasing interest in the direct-fed microbials (DFM) for improved animal performance in terms of growth or productivity. This becomes al the more essential in a situation, where a number of the residues of antibiotics and/or other growth stimulants reach in milk and meat with a number of associated potential risks for the consumers. Hence, in the absence of growth stimulants, a positive manipulation of the rumen microbial ecosystem to enhance the feedstuff utilization for improved production ef-ifciency by ruminants has become of much interest to the researchers and entrepreneurs. A few genera of live microbes (i.e., bacteria, fungi and yeasts in different types of formulations from paste to powder) are infrequently used as DFM for the domestic ruminants. These DFM products are live microbial feed supplements containing natural y occurring microbes in the rumen. Among different DFM possibilities, anaerobic rumen fungi (ARF) based additives have been found to improve ruminant productivity consistently during feeding trials. Administration of ARF during the few trials conducted, led to the increased weight gain, milk production, and total tract digestibility of feed components in ruminants. Anaerobic fungi in the rumen display very strong cel-wal degrading cel ulolytic and xylanolytic activities through rhizoid development, resulting in the physical disruption of feed structure paving the way for bacterial action. Signiifcant improvements in the ifber digestibil-ity were found to coincide with increases in ARF in the rumen indicating their role. Most of the researches based on DFM have indicated a positive response in nutrient digestion and methane reducing potential during in vivo and/or in vitro sup-plementation of ARF as DFM. Therefore, DFM especial y ARF wil gain popularity but it is necessary that al the strains are thoroughly studied for their

  20. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on wool production, feeding behavior, and body condition of Merino ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Ding, S; Bush, R D; McAllister, T A

    2013-02-01

    The increasing availability of crude glycerin from the biodiesel industry has led to an interest in its use as an energy source in ruminant diets. However, its effects on ruminal fermentation patterns and methane (CH4) production are unclear, and there are no reports on the effect of its inclusion in the diet on wool production or growth of Merino sheep. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin on in vitro ruminal fermentation and CH4 production and DMI, BW, feeding behavior, and wool growth and quality in Merino ewes. Crude glycerin (99.2% pure, colorless, odorless, viscous liquid) replaced whole wheat grain in completely pelleted diets at levels of 0%, 6%, and 12% DM in both in vitro and in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, diets were dried and ground through a 1-mm screen and incubated on 2 different days for 24 h. Modified McDougal's buffer and rumen liquor were mixed 3:1, and gas production and CH4 concentration was measured after 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation with pH and IVDMD measured at 24 h. Cumulative gas (mL/g DM) and methane (mL) production was similar (P ≥ 0.35) among dietary treatments. In vitro dry matter disappearance (%) increased (P glycerin. For the in vivo study, 39 Merino ewes were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (n = 13 ewes/treatment). Pelleted diets were available continuously for a 10-wk period through the use of automatic feeders. Ewes were weighed every 7 d. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm(2) shorn at d 0 and d 70. Dye bands were used to determine wool growth and fiber length. Intake and ADG were similar among treatments (P = 0.59). Neither wool yield, length, spinning fineness, nor fiber diameter (μm) were affected after supplementation with crude glycerin (P ≥ 0.13). This study indicates the potential for crude glycerin to be included in the diets of Merino sheep at up to 12% DM without negatively affecting wool yield and quality.

  1. Reducing Colonization and Eggborne Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis in Layer Chickens by In-Feed Supplementation of Caprylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Nair, Meera S; Bhattaram, Varun K; Karumathil, Deepti; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for causing gastrointestinal infections in humans, predominantly due to the consumption of contaminated eggs. In layer hens, SE colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, thereby leading to egg yolk and shell contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of caprylic acid (CA), a medium-chain fatty acid, in reducing SE colonization and egg contamination in layers. Caprylic acid was supplemented in the feed at 0%, 0.7%, or 1% (vol/wt) from day 1 of the experiment. Birds were challenged with 10(10) log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of SE by crop gavage on day 10, and re-inoculated (10(10) log CFU/mL) on day 35. After 7 days post first inoculation, eggs were collected daily and tested for SE on the shell and in the yolk separately. The birds were sacrificed on day 66 to determine SE colonization in the ceca, liver, and oviduct. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by triangle test. The experiment was replicated twice. In-feed supplementation of CA (0.7% and 1%) to birds consistently decreased SE on eggshell and in the yolk (p0.05). The results suggest that CA could potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce eggborne transmission of SE.

  2. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  3. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI5th to 25th to supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  4. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B

    2001-11-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d. These data suggest that supplementing 6 MIU of vitamin D3 will decrease DMI and improve beef tenderness through increased blood plasma Ca concentrations and WHC.

  5. Effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol in early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Kl; Larsen, T; Svensson, C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements with 450 g GLY, 300 g PG or nothing (control, C). The supplements were given twice daily during 0-21 days in milk as a top dress on concentrates. Data on calving date, insemination dates, gynaecological examinations, as well as breed, parity and monthly milk yield were collected. From a subset of 308 cows in seven herds, milk samples for progesterone analysis were taken twice weekly and used to determine the time for onset of luteal activity. The effects of supplements on the intervals from calving to first luteal activity (FLA), first AI (FAI) and conception (CON), respectively, were analysed using semi-parametric survival models (Cox proportional hazards models) controlling for the effect of parity, breed, calving season, milk yield and the clustering effect of herd. There was no difference in time to FLA between the cows in group C and in group GLY or PG. No differences in time to FAI or in time to CON were found between cows in group PG and group C. However, cows in the GLY group tended to get their FAI later compared with cows in the control group but without at subsequent delaying of time to CON.

  6. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pstingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites.

  7. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  8. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  9. Supplementations of Hyparrhenia rufa -dominated hay with groundnut cake- wheat bran mix: effects on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsha, Simret; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-08-01

    A digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance experiment was conducted using twenty yearling male Somali goats weighing 23.4 +/- 2.02 (mean+/-SD). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of supplementation with graded levels of mixture of groundnut cake and wheat bran at a ratio of 3:1 on DM basis on feed intake, apparent digestibility and N balance in Somali goats. The experimental design was a completely randomized design consisting of five animals in each treatment. The dietary treatments included ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control), and daily supplementation with 200 (T2, low) 300 (T3, medium) and 400 g DM (T4, high) of the concentrate mix. Increased level of supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) daily hay DM intake. Digestibility of crude protein (CP) was higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented goats. Urinary nitrogen, total nitrogen excretion and retention increased (P < 0.01) with the level of supplementation. It was concluded that supplementation with groundnut -wheat bran mixture promoted feed intake and digestibility of DM, CP, and N retention in Somali goats fed hay. However, supplementation at the medium level appeared to be more effective since it promoted similar N balance with the high level of supplementation.

  10. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  11. Feeding behaviors during home-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition using corn-soy blends or lipid-based nutrient supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Ouedraogo, Albertine; Ritz, Christian; Draebel, Tania Aase; Ashorn, Per; Filteau, Suzanne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2016-12-02

    Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) based on best practice feeding behaviors. The study was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of new formulations of CSB and LNS and comprised 1,546 children from 6 to 23 months. The study included a mixed methods approach using questionnaires, focus group discussions and home visits and interviews with a subsample of 20 caretakers of trial participants. We found that LNS, compared to CSB, were more likely to be mixed into other foods (OR [95% CI] 1.7 [1.3-2.2], p = feeding style (mean difference in percentage points [95% CI] 23% [6%:40%], p = .01). CSB were more likely to be fed using a forced feeding style (mean difference in percentage points [95% CI] 18% [3%:33%], p = .02) and were often observed to be served unprepared. The main differences in feeding behaviors between the two diet groups were linked to how and when supplements were served. Educational instructions should therefore be adapted according to the supplement provided; when providing CSB, efforts should be made to promote an encouraging feeding style, and emphasis should be made to ensure preparations are made according to recommendations.

  12. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  13. The Effect of Prebiotic and Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Wax Glands of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pătruică

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of acidifying substances (lactic acid or acetic acid, Enterobiotics products(Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14 and Bifidobacterium lactis BI-04 and Enterolactis Plus (Lactobacillus casei onthe wax glands of worker bees. The research was conducted in Timis County, Romania, between March 25 and April20, 2011, on 110 colonies of bees (Apis mellifera carpatica, allocated to 11 experimental treatment groups. Coloniesin the experimental groups were given three weekly feeds of sugar syrup supplemented with acidifying substances(lactic acid or cider vinegar and/or probiotic products (Enterobiotics or Enterolactis Plus. Three weeks after theadministration of the experimental diets, 10 worker bees from each treatment group were sampled for histologicalexamination of their wax glands. Gland development was shown to be influenced by administration of prebioticand/or probiotic supplements. Wax gland cell sizes ranged from 25.1 microns for the control group to between 27.8and 31.8 microns in the group fed with acidifying substances and between 26.9 and 29.2 microns in bees fed withprobiotic products. Bees supplemented with both lactic acid and probiotic product (group LE9 and LE10 showedmean wax cell sizes of 31.8 microns.

  14. Promoting Healthy Growth or Feeding Obesity? The Need for Evidence-Based Oversight of Infant Nutritional Supplement Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Michelle; Mummert, Amanda; Schoen, Meriah

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) model recognizes growth in infancy and childhood as a fundamental determinant of lifespan health. Evidence of long-term health risks among small neonates who subsequently grow rapidly poses a challenge for interventions aiming to support healthy growth, not merely drive weight gain. Defining healthy growth beyond “getting bigger” is essential as infant and young child feeding industries expand. Liquid-based nutritional supplements, originally formulated for undernourished children, are increasingly marketed for and consumed by children generally. Clarifying the nature of the evidentiary base on which structure/function claims promoting “healthy growth” are constructed is important to curb invalid generalizations. Evidence points to changing social beliefs and cultural practices surrounding supplementary feeding, raising specific concerns about the long-term health consequences of an associated altered feeding culture, including reduced dietary variety and weight gain. Reassessing the evidence for and relevance of dietary supplements’ “promoting healthy growth” claims for otherwise healthy children is both needed in a time of global obesity and an opportunity to refine intervention approaches among small children for whom rapid subsequent growth in early life augments risk for chronic disease. Scientific and health care partnerships are needed to consider current governmental oversight shortfalls in protecting vulnerable populations from overconsumption. This is important because we may be doing more harm than good. PMID:27845744

  15. Promoting Healthy Growth or Feeding Obesity? The Need for Evidence-Based Oversight of Infant Nutritional Supplement Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lampl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD model recognizes growth in infancy and childhood as a fundamental determinant of lifespan health. Evidence of long-term health risks among small neonates who subsequently grow rapidly poses a challenge for interventions aiming to support healthy growth, not merely drive weight gain. Defining healthy growth beyond “getting bigger” is essential as infant and young child feeding industries expand. Liquid-based nutritional supplements, originally formulated for undernourished children, are increasingly marketed for and consumed by children generally. Clarifying the nature of the evidentiary base on which structure/function claims promoting “healthy growth” are constructed is important to curb invalid generalizations. Evidence points to changing social beliefs and cultural practices surrounding supplementary feeding, raising specific concerns about the long-term health consequences of an associated altered feeding culture, including reduced dietary variety and weight gain. Reassessing the evidence for and relevance of dietary supplements’ “promoting healthy growth” claims for otherwise healthy children is both needed in a time of global obesity and an opportunity to refine intervention approaches among small children for whom rapid subsequent growth in early life augments risk for chronic disease. Scientific and health care partnerships are needed to consider current governmental oversight shortfalls in protecting vulnerable populations from overconsumption. This is important because we may be doing more harm than good.

  16. Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P < 0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation.

  17. Effects of arsenic supplementation in feed on laying performance, arsenic retention of eggs and organs, biochemical indices and endocrine hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Zhou, M Y; Li, L L; Jiang, Y J; Zou, X T

    2017-02-01

    1. The primary objective of this experiment was to estimate the toxic effects of arsenic (As) supplementation in feed on laying performance, As retention by eggs and organs, serum biochemical indices and endocrine hormones in laying hens. 2. A total of 320 "Jinghong Number 1" hens, 56-week-old, were randomly allocated into four treatments of four replicates with 20 layers in each. Graded arsenical was added to the basal diet in the experimental diets at As levels of 0, 17, 34 and 51 mg/kg, respectively. The trial lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week for acclimatisation. 3. Supplementation of dietary As for eight weeks had no effect on laying performance. As retention in albumen, yolk, egg, liver and kidney increased as As levels increased The level of serum phosphorus (P) was minimised at the 17 mg As/kg group. The activity of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) increased linearly. No differences were observed for levels of serum calcium (Ca), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). Concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PG) declined at 34 and 51 mg/kg As levels compared with the control group. As supplementation exerted no influence on levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and the ratio between T3 and T4. 4. In conclusion, dietary As supplementation accelerated retention in tissues and eggs, and affected the laying rate by diminishing hormone levels of E2 and PG at 51 mg/kg.

  18. Enzyme Supplementation of Broiler Feeds with Reduced Mineral and Energy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating enzyme blends on the performance, carcass traits, and bone mineralization of broilers. In total, 928 one-day-old Cobb 500 male chicks of were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 29 birds each was adopted. The evaluated treatments were: 1- Positive Control (PC, feed containing the nutritional recommendations of the genetic company's manual; 2- Negative Control (NC, feed with reductions of 75 kcal/kg AME and 0.10 and 0.12 percent points of phosphorus and calcium, respectively; 3 - NC + enzyme blend (amylase + b-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase; 250 g/t of feed and 4 - NC + enzyme complex (phytase, amylase, xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease; 200 g/t of feed. Birds fed the diet with reduced nutrient levels (NC presented the worst performance (p0.05 carcass or parts yields. The broilers fed the reduced-nutrient and energy diet presented lower (p<0.05 tibial ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents that the other treatments. The use of enzyme combinations improved the performance of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient and energy levels.

  19. Effect of supplementation of phytogenic feed additives (powdered vs. encapsulated) on performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Schieder, C; Zentek, J

    2016-03-01

    Inclusion of phytogenic feed additives (PFA) in feed may enhance performance of broilers. Levels of essential oils in powdered form (characterized by menthol and anethole) at 150 mg/kg (P-150) and matrix-encapsulated form (characterized by carvacrol, thymol, and limonene) at 100 mg/kg (ME-100) were supplemented in diet to investigate their effect on performance (trial 1) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients (trial 2) in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broilers (Cobb 500) were used in trial 1 and 120 broilers in trial 2. Broilers were distributed in 24 pens with 8 pens per treatment (trial 1) and 6 pens with 2 pens per treatment (trial 2), with 20 birds per pen. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experimental periods in both trials. In trial 1, body weight of birds at d 42 and overall body weight gain from d 1 to d 42, was higher in treatment ME-100 than birds in control treatment (P = 0.023 and P = 0.024, respectively). Feed efficiency during finisher phase was improved in treatment ME-100 relatively to control and P-150 treatments (P = 0.035). At d 21 in trial 2, the apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher in ME-100 treatment in comparison with control and P-150 treatments (P < 0.001). Apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of phosphorus was higher in ME-100 treatment than control treatment (P = 0.028). AID of cysteine was higher in both phytogenic additive supplemented treatments in comparison with control treatment (P = 0.001). In conclusion, inclusion of a powdered phytogenic additive characterized by menthol and anethole at 150 mg/kg had no effect but only a tendency towards improved performance and AIA of phosphorus, whereas essential oils addition in encapsulated form characterized by caravacol, thymol, and limonene at 100 mg/kg improved performance as well as apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers, possibly due to improved secretion of digestive enzymes.

  20. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Michalak; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Agnieszka Saeid

    2017-01-01

    The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilit...

  1. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...

  2. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( nutritional value of wheat middlings-based diets.

  3. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  4. Effect of chamomile supplements to feeding doses on antimicrobial parameters in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to a ban of use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry it is necessary to look for alternative solutions. The use of some herbs showing antimicrobial effects can be one of such alternatives. In this experiment, effects of three different concentrations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla extract, (0.3%; 0.6% and 1.2% in feeding doses on the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chickens were studied. The main attention was paid to the population of Clostridium perfringens and to numbers of coliform microbes. Clostridia were cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 46 °C on the Tryptone Sulfite Neomycin (TSN agar for a period of 24 hours. Coliform microbes were grown on the violet red bile lactose (VRBL agar at 37 °C for a period of 24 hours. The experiment lasted 39 days and involved 80 chicks that were slaughtered in the course of their growth period at the age of 18, 25, 32 and 39 days; there were 5 chicks in each group. The obtained results indicated that increasing doses of chamomile in the feeding ration decreased numbers of coliform microbes in the digestive tract of chicks and also reduced the population of C. perfingens.

  5. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  6. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and en

  7. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N

    1999-07-01

    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P supplemented with either an unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil for 6 months at approximately 20% DE after 10 months at approximately 12% DE were identified and there were no apparent disadvantages of feeding a saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet compared with an unsaturated one.

  8. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starter

  9. Effect of in-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde and caprylic acid on chicken cecal microbiome in response to Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen causing enteric illnesses in humans, with undercooked eggs and poultry meat as the primary sources of infection. Our previous research revealed that in-feed supplementation of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status, natural compounds,...

  10. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloti

  11. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  12. Effects on blood concentrations of certain serum fat-soluble vitamins of long-term feeding of dairy cows on a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Panousis, N; Roubies, N; Christaki, E; Karatzias, H

    2005-05-01

    The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) supplementation in the ration of dairy cows on serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E concentrations. Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (group A, n = 17), was offered a concentrate feed supplemented with 1.25% clinoptilolite. The second group (group B, n = 17), was offered a concentrate feed supplemented with 2.5% clinoptilolite. The third group (group C, n = 18), which served as controls, was offered the same concentrate feed without clinoptilolite supplementation. All cows were fed the above concentrates continuously starting 30 days before the expected parturition up to the end of lactation. Blood samples from individual animals were collected just before the start of experiment, at the day of calving and, thereafter, at monthly intervals. All samples were tested for serum beta-carotene, vitamins A and E concentrations. The results showed that the 1.25 and 2.5% supplementation of clinoptilolite had no adverse effect on serum concentrations of beta-carotene, vitamins A and E.

  13. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  14. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starters...... assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Increasing dietary Ca concentration decreased (P supplemented......, but the total Ca intake in phytase-supplemented diets were similar (P > 0.05). Birds fed 1.3 g Ca/kg diet showed the lowest (P 0.05) to the diets with 4.3 g Ca/kg. No significant (P > 0.05) effect of dietary Ca concentration on the CAID of starch, fat and GE was found...

  15. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  16. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds.

  17. Performance of Layers Supplemented with Either Complete Feed or Diets in Cafeteria Feeding System Under Semi-scavenging Condition in a Tropical Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Chamali; Roy, Bimol Chandra; Ranvig, Hans; Riise, Jens Christian; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tabata, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    1. Egg production ability and its economical aspect were compared among the hens kept under semi-scavenging condition on two feeding systems with four supplementary levels. Commercial balanced feed and cafeteria feeding diet were fed the hens at 40 g, 60 g, 80 g and 120 g/day respectively. Cafeteria feeding diet was composed of 70% mixed feed (40% broken rice, 20% rice polish and 10% wheat bran), 27% soybean meal and 3% oyster shell. 2. The mean feed residue was 4-8 g/day in the hens fed 40...

  18. Antioxidant protection of proteins and lipids in processed pork loin chops through feed supplementation with avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Galindo-García, Jorge; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the impact of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins during pork processing. Loins from control (fed basic diet) and treated pigs (fed on avocado-supplemented diet) were roasted (102 °C/20 min) and subsequently packed in trays wrapped with oxygen-permeable films and chilled at 4 °C for 12 days. At each processing stage (raw, cooked and cooked & chilled), pork samples from both groups were analyzed for the concentration of TBARS, the loss of tryptophan and free thiols, and the formation of protein carbonyls, disulphide bonds and Schiff bases. Processing led to a depletion of tryptophan and sulfur-containing amino acids and an increase of lipid and protein oxidation products. Dietary avocado was not able to protect against the oxidation of tryptophan and thiols but cooked & chilled loins from treated pigs had significantly lower concentration of lipid and protein carbonyls than control counterparts. Likewise, dietary avocado alleviated the formation of Schiff bases during cooking. These results illustrate the benefits of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of processed pork loins.

  19. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  20. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  1. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers.

  2. Supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake and/or wheat bran on feed utilization and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafa, Abebe; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-04-01

    Thirty yearling male intact Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 15.5 +/- 0.21 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in 90 days feeding trial, 10 days digestibility trial followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at Bokoji, Ethiopia. The objectives were to evaluate effects of supplementation with linseed (Linum usitatissimum) cake (LSC), wheat bran (WB), and their mixtures at 2:1 and 1:2, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, daily BW gain, and carcass parameters. The five treatments included ad libitum feeding of natural pasture hay (control) and with daily supplementation of 300 g dry matter (DM) sole LSC, 2LSC:1WB mix, 1LSC:2WB mix, and sole WB. Six sheep were randomly assigned to each treatment using randomized complete-block design. Four sheep in each treatment were randomly selected and used for determination of digestibility and carcass characteristics using a completely randomized design. The intake of hay DM was higher (P mixed rations. Moreover, supplementation proved to be profitable, whereas feeding hay alone led to economic loss.

  3. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  4. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2, 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3 and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4. The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001 higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001 also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.3 kg. The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05 higher than those reared in the control (T1 (54.0 g/goat/day and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4 had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good

  5. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    processing which are intended to improve the performance of pellet binders, and have directly saved energy by increasing filtration rates of the pelletization feed by as much as 23%.

  6. Antimicrobial ability and growth promoting effects of feed supplemented with probiotic bacterium isolated from gut microlfora of Cirrhinus mrigala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita Bhatnagar; Ritu Lamba

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to isolate, select, identify and characterize gut bacteria as antimicrobial and growth promoting agent for the feed of economical y important ifsh Cirrhinus mrigala. Intestinal microlfora were isolated, counted, and identiifed, and their in vitro antibacterial properties were determined. The results have revealed that occurrence of Gram-negative rods was around 75%and of Gram-positive rods was 25%. Among the isolates Gram-positive were main-tained in nutrient agar slants at 4°C. Of these, eight strains were replica-plated on agar seeded with Aeromonas hydrophila and only one strain CM2 (C. mrigala 2) exhibited antibacterial properties in vitro showing inhibition against ifsh pathogen by wel diffusion assay. This isolated strain was identiifed as Bacil us cereus. This bacterium was mass cultured and incorpo-rated in the pel eted diet (40%protein and 18 kJ g–1 gross energy) of C. mrigala to investigate its effect on growth perfor-mance, digestibility, nutrient retention and activities of digestive enzymes. The results of feeding trial revealed signiifcantly (P<0.05) high growth performance in terms of speciifc growth rate, growth percent gain in body weight (BD) (272.4±1.5)%, high apparent protein digestibility ((79.9±0.30)%) and low food conversion ratio in the group of ifshes fed on diet containing B. cereus in comparison to the ifshes fed on diet without probiotics. The carcass composition also revealed high accumula-tion of proteins ((15.28±0.15) g 100 g–1) in ifshes fed on diet containing probiotics. Intestinal enzyme activities of protease, amylase and cel ulase were also signiifcantly (P<0.05) high in the group of ifshes fed on diet supplemented with probiotics indicating the extracel ular enzyme production by B. cereus. These results indicate that probiotics stimulate the digestion through the supply of digestive enzyme and certain essential nutrients to animals. Also signiifcantly (P<0.05) low excretion of

  7. Impact of medicated feed along with clay mineral supplementation on Escherichia coli resistance to antimicrobial agents in pigs after weaning in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Kabore, Kiswendsida Paul; Fravalo, Philippe; Letellier, Ann; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotype and virulence and AMR gene profiles in Escherichia coli from pigs receiving in-feed antimicrobial medication following weaning and the effect of feed supplementation with a clay mineral, clinoptilolite, on this dynamic. Eighty E. coli strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs receiving a diet containing chlortetracycline and penicillin, with or without 2% clinoptilolite, were examined for antimicrobial resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. Overall, an increased resistance to 10 antimicrobials was observed with time. Supplementation with clinoptilolite was associated with an early increase but later decrease in blaCMY-2, in isolates, as shown by DNA probe. Concurrently, a later increase in the frequency of blaCMY-2 and the virulence genes iucD and tsh was observed in the control pig isolates, being significantly greater than in the supplemented pigs at day 28. Our results suggest that, in the long term, supplementation with clinoptilolite could decrease the prevalence of E. coli carrying certain antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes.

  8. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use.

  9. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  10. Extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth using inexpensive contraptions, and the use of the VFAs as feed supplements in conventional biogas digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar Ganesh, P.; Ramasamy, E.V.; Gajalakshmi, S.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Univ., Pondicherry (India). Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed and a readily available organic waste which can be fermented anaerobically. However, it cannot be fed to conventional biogas digesters because the phytomass is lighter than water and therefore floats on top of the digester contents and clogs the digester. This study used a simple and low-cost apparatus to extract volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth. The VFAs were then used as a supplement feed in cow dung-fed floating dome biogas digesters which are widely used in third World countries. The objective was to provide such digesters with feed derived from phytomass, particularly for times when animal dung is in short supply. The extraction of VFA occurs by aerobic degradation of water hyacinth. Methanogenesis takes place when the VFAs are fed into the biogas digesters, resulting in methane rich biogas. This newly developed VFA extraction method enables phytomass to be used as a feed supplement for biogas digesters without the adverse effects of solid accumulation, frothing or clogging that occurs with phytomass feed. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Rumen development process in goats as affected by supplemental feeding v. grazing: age-related anatomic development, functional achievement and microbial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Li, Xiaopeng; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2015-03-28

    The aim of the present study was to describe age-related changes in anatomic, functional and microbial variables during the rumen development process, as affected by the feeding system (supplemental feeding v. grazing), in goats. Goats were slaughtered at seven time points that were selected to reflect the non-rumination (0, 7 and 14 d), transition (28 and 42 d) and rumination (56 and 70 d) phases of rumen development. Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration (P= 0·002), liquid-associated bacterial and archaeal copy numbers (Pmicrobial copy numbers (Pmicrobial copy numbers increased (Pamylase and protease activity potentials occurred at 28 d. Most anatomic and functional variables evolved progressively from 14 to 42 d, while microbial colonisation was fastest from birth to 28 d. These outcomes suggest that the supplemental feeding system is more effective in promoting rumen development than the grazing system; in addition, for both the feeding systems, microbial colonisation in the rumen is achieved at 1 month, functional achievement at 2 months, and anatomic development after 2 months.

  12. Interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, Arash; Bhasin, Amit; Liechti, Kenneth M.

    2012-05-01

    Asphalt mixtures are complex composites that comprise aggregate, asphalt binder, and air. Several research studies have shown that the mechanical behavior of the asphalt mixture is strongly influenced by the matrix, i.e. the asphalt binder. Characterization and a thorough understanding of the binder behavior is the first and crucial step towards developing an accurate constitutive model for the composite. Accurate constitutive models for the constituent materials are critical to ensure accurate performance predictions at a material and structural level using micromechanics. This paper presents the findings from a systematic investigation into the nature of the linear and nonlinear response of asphalt binders subjected to different types of loading using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). Laboratory test data show that a compressive normal force is generated in an axially constrained specimen subjected to torsional shear. This paper investigates the source of this normal force and demonstrates that the asphalt binder can dilate when subjected to shear loads. This paper also presents the findings from a study conducted to investigate the source of the nonlinearity in the asphalt binder. Test results demonstrate that the application of cyclic shear loads results in the development of a normal force and a concomitant reduction in the dynamic shear modulus. This form of nonlinear response is referred to as an "interaction nonlinearity". A combination of experimental and analytical tools is used to demonstrate and verify the presence of this interaction nonlinearity in asphalt binders. The findings from this study highlight the importance of modeling the mechanical behavior of asphalt binders based on the overall stress state of the material.

  13. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    , ECM and lactose, but decreased milk protein and urea concentrations compared to CON. No effects of HMBi on milk yield and composition were detected. Lactation persistency was improved for all fat supplemented treatments for multiparous cows, particularly with WCR. Fat supplemented rations decreased...... blood plasma and concentration differences between jugular and milk veins, which reflect nutrient uptake by the mammary gland, were not affected by the ration fed, breed, or time from calving until ration change. In conclusion, fat supplementation during weeks 9–40 of lactation increased ECM yield and N...... efficiency irrespective of source of fat, whereas additional supplementation of HMBi showed no effect. The effect of fat persisted throughout lactation....

  14. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca.

  15. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING: PART I: EFFECTS ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional bentonite binder is favorable in terms of mechanical and metallurgical pellet properties, however, because of its acid constituents bentonite is considered as impurity especially for iron ores with high acidic content. Therefore, alternative binders to bentonite have been tested. Organic binders are the most studied binders and they yield pellets with good wet strength; they fail in terms of preheated and fired pellet strengths. This study was conducted to investigate how insufficient pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a low-melting temperature and slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into iron oxide pellet was tested. Wet and thermally treated pellet physical-mechanical qualities (balling - moisture content - size - shape - drop number - compressive strengths - porosity - dustiness were determined. The results showed that good quality wet, dry, preheated and fired pellets can be produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound when compared with bentonite-bonded pellets. While organic binders provided sufficient wet and dry pellet strengths, the boron compounds provided the required preheated and fired pellet strengths at even lower firing temperature. Especially, the contribution of boron compound addition is most pronounced for hematite pellets which do not have strengthening mechanism through oxidation like magnetite pellets during firing. Therefore, addition of boron compound is beneficial to recover the low physical-mechanical qualities of pellets produced with organic binders through slag bonding mechanism. Furthermore, lowering the firing temperature thanks to low-melting boron compounds will be cost

  16. Metabolic response to feeding in weight-losing pancreatic cancer patients and its modulation by a fish-oil-enriched nutritional supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, M D; McMillan, D C; Preston, T; Ross, J A; Fearon, K C

    2000-04-01

    Weight-losing patients with advanced cancer often fail to gain weight with conventional nutritional support. This suboptimal response might be explained, in part, by an increased metabolic response to feeding. It has been suggested that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can modify beneficially the metabolic response to cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the metabolic response to feeding in cancer and the effects of an EPA-enriched oral food supplement on this response. A total of 16 weight-losing, non-diabetic patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and six healthy, weight-stable controls were studied by indirect calorimetry in the fasting and fed states. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedence analysis. Cancer patients were then given a fish-oil-enriched nutritional supplement providing 2 g of EPA and 2550 kJ daily, and underwent repeat metabolic study after 3 weeks of such supplementation. At baseline, resting energy expenditure whether expressed per kg body weight, lean body mass or body cell mass was significantly greater in the cancer patients compared with controls. Fat oxidation was significantly higher in the fasting state in cancer patients [median 1.26 g.kg(-1).min(-1) (interquartile range 0.95-1.38)] than in controls [0.76 g.kg(-1). min(-1) (0.62-0.92); Pfeeding period, changes in insulin and glucose concentrations in cancer patients suggested relative glucose intolerance. In response to oral meal feeding, the percentage change in the area under the curve of energy expenditure was significantly lower in the cancer patients [median 7.9% (interquartile range 3.4-9.0)] than in controls [12.6% (9.9-15.1); Ppatients had increased and the energy expenditure in response to feeding had risen significantly [9.6% (6. 3-12.4)], such that it was no different from baseline healthy control values. Similarly, fasting fat oxidation fell to 1.02 g. kg(-1).min(-1) (0.8-1.18), again no longer significantly different from baseline healthy

  17. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n=28 or without (Control; n=26 supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (P<0.05, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG (P<0.05, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.05 were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109 and lactation (days 1 and 3 than in early gestation (day 10. Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows’ serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P<0.05 and TBARS (P<0.01 on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows’ counts of faecal lactobacillus (P<0.001 while reducing Escherichia coli (P<0.001 and Enterococcus (P<0.001. In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow’s feed intake (P=0.07, which resulted in higher average daily gain (P<0.01 of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows’ diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  18. The Response of Local and Verenigde Deutch Lanvarken Pigs to Corypha gebanga Feeding Supplementation (RESPONS BABI LOKAL DAN BABI VERENIGDE DEUTCH LANVARKEN TERHADAP PENAMBAHAN PAKAN PUTAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnath Maria Fuah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Study to examine the growth of local breed pigs and Verenigde Deutsch Lanvarken(VDL pigssupplemented with Corypha gebanga pith and maize have been conducted for 14 weeks. A total of 32neutered pigs (16 local breed and 16 VDL pigs were used in the study. The average initial live weight was8.0 kg for the local breed and 12.1 kg for VDL pigs. Four feeding treatments were applied: T1-60% C.gebanga+15% maize; T2- 65% C.gebanga + 10% maize; T3-70% C.gebanga + 5% maize; and T4- 75% C.gebanga + nomaize, respectively. Live weights and feed consumption were analyzed using repeated measures, analysisof variance. The results showed that feed supplemented with different composition of C.gebanga andmaizehad no effect towards the growth of local breed pigs. However, this phenomenon was not seen in VDLpigs. The growth of VDL pigs supplemented with 75% was significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to thelocal breed pigs. It can be concluded that substitution of maize with C.gebanga has no influence towardsthe growth of local breed pigs. However, its effects on the growth of VDL pigs need further observation.

  19. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  20. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime;

    2013-01-01

    preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance...

  1. Effects of pre-weaning feed supplementation and total versus fenceline weaning on the physiology and performance of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-eight Angus steer calves (initial body weight = 312 ± 28 kilograms), housed on pasture with their dams, were equalized by initial body weight and assigned randomly to receive a highly palatable, high fiber supplement (YS; 4.5 kilograms/head/day) or no supplement (NS) for 7 days prior to weani...

  2. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation--effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, K L; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed. No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between the PG group and the CON group. Cows supplemented with GLY had a higher milk yield (kg of milk and kg of energy-corrected milk) during the first 90 DIM. Cows in the PG group tended to yield more milk during the same period. No differences in the occurrence of diseases were seen between the groups. In conclusion, supplementation with GLY in early lactation did increase milk yield without a subsequent decrease of metabolic status, and supplementation with PG tended to do the same.

  3. Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aregheore, E M; Perera, D

    2004-02-01

    Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as protein supplements improved the feed quality of maize stover in the diets of mature goats. It is suggested that molasses should be sprayed on fresh leaves of Gliricicia sepium and other forage legumes that are initially rejected, in order to improve acceptance and DMI when fed to ruminant animals in confinement or in a cut-and-carry system of production.

  4. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  5. In-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces layer-chicken egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Baskaran, Sangeetha A; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Schreiber, David T; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States, causing gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated eggs. Chickens are the reservoir host of S. Enteritidis. In layer hens, S. Enteritidis colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, leading to egg contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation with trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) plant compound obtained from cinnamon, in reducing S. Enteritidis cecal colonization and systemic spread in layers. Additionally, the effect of TC on S. Enteritidis virulence factors critical for macrophage survival and oviduct colonization was investigated in vitro. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by a triangle test. Supplementation of TC in feed for 66 days at 1 or 1.5% (vol/wt) for 40- or 25-week-old layer chickens decreased the amounts of S. Enteritidis on eggshell and in yolk (Pliver, and oviduct in TC-supplemented birds was decreased compared to that in controls (P0.05). In vitro cell culture assays revealed that TC reduced S. Enteritidis adhesion to and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells and reduced S. Enteritidis survival in chicken macrophages (P<0.001). Follow-up gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that TC downregulated the expression of S. Enteritidis virulence genes critical for chicken oviduct colonization (P<0.001). The results suggest that TC may potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce egg-borne transmission of S. Enteritidis.

  6. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  7. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Aberra Melesse; Degnet H/Meskel; Sandip Banerjee; Aster Abebe; Amsalu Sisay

    2015-01-01

    The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL) as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live ...

  8. Performance of broilers fed increased levels energy in the pre-starter diet and on subsequent feeding programs having with acidulated soybean soapstock supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate broiler responses to increases in feed energy (2,870, 3,000 and 3,100 kcal ME/kg and the inclusion of Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS when compared to Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO in feeds from placement to 7 days of age. From 7 to 42 days ASS or DSO were included in diets that contained similar energy and nutrient levels. Metabolizable energy values used to formulate the diets for ASS and DSO were 8,351 and 7,701 kcal ME/kg in the first week and 9,314 and 8,559 kcal ME/kg afterwards, respectively. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and were fed to 1,600 one-d-old male broiler chicks randomly placed in 40 floor pens. No differences in performance due to fat source were seen at 7 days. However, the increase in energy levels to 3,100 kcal ME/kg reduced feed intake, whereas feed conversion was improved with energy at 3,000 kcal ME/kg. Live performance, and the yields of carcass and commercial cuts were not affected by the type of fat included in the feeds from 7 to 42 days, except for increased body weight at 21 and 35 days with ASS supplementation. Litter moisture at 7, 21, 35 and 42 days was not affected by any of the factors and there were no residual effects of treatments at 21, 35 and 42 days of age. On the other hand, body weight at 35 days was affected by the interaction of diets fed in the first week with those provided afterwards. The results showed that ME values used for DSO and ASS are adequate and that ASS may be used as fat source in broiler feeds from placement to 42 days of age.

  9. Increase in composite binder activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Smoliakov, A.; Stoyushko, N.

    2016-11-01

    The binder of portland cement (51-59 wt.%), fly ash of thermal power stations (3644 wt.%), limestone crushing waste (4-9 wt.%) and dry hyper plasticizer (0.2 wt.%) has been created. It can be used in the building materials industry for production of high-strength concrete. The composite binder is obtained by co-milling of the components in vario-planetary mill to a specific surface area of 550-600 m2/kg. The technical result is the possibility of obtaining a composite binder with significant replacement of cement with industrial waste, cost-effective and superior to portland cement for construction and technical properties, increased activity. This allows producing concrete for walling with a compressive strength of 100 MPa, while using more than 50% of industrial waste.

  10. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod.

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation of Pulvis Curcuma Longa on the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and Growth performance of Broiler rabbits under summer stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj

    Full Text Available Eighteen four weeks’ old weaned Broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with Turmeric (Curcuma longa Rhizoid Powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mg and T2 ( basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Feeding cum growth trial and digestion trial were during summer months of April, May and June to study voluntary feed intake, growth rate and nutrient utilization by the experimental animals. TRP included in the diets of experimental groups consisting 6.72 % CP, 5.04% ether extract, 3.96% crude fibre, 7.85% total ash. Depression in voluntary feed intake due to summer stress did not alter due to the inclusion of turmeric powder. The weekly mean body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of nutrients did not show significant difference by the supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder in the diets of rabbit in present study. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 369-372

  12. Dietary supplementation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum preventing streptococcal disease during first-feeding of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdan Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary cumin (Cuminum cyminum powder (CP as a feed additive on growth performance and disease resistance during first-feeding of Mozamique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isocaloric (18.9 kj g-1 diets were formulated to contain 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0% CP. In a 45-day feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L were stocked with 40 fry (0.012 ± 0.001 g each. After feeding experiment, fish were infected with Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that a dietary CP level of 1.14% provided the best survival rate challenge infection with S. iniae, growth performance and feed utilization. In conclusion, CP can be used as growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in tilapia fry, and it can be also used as an antimicrobial agent during first-feeding of O. mossambicus. Therefore, CP can be suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture.

  13. Supplementation with different energy and protein sources on the feeding behavior and performance of dairy heifers grazing Marandu during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation different energy and protein sources in the dry season of the year, on body development and diurnal feeding behavior of crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy heifers 12.8 ± 4.6 months old, 215.50 ± 43.2 kg average body weight were distributed in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture with supplements being offered daily in proportion of 0.75% of the body weight. A completely randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used, with six replicates per treatment. Supplements contained whole soybean (WS or whole cottonseed (WC as the protein sources and citrus pulp (CPU or corn (C as the energy sources. Marandu grass pasture was managed according a rotational grazing system, six days grazing and 30 days of rest period. It was recorded the animals weight, height at withers, heart girt, rump length and corporal score after the grazing cycle. The considered behavioral variables were grazing time, ruminating time, idle time, trough time. No significant differences on the initial, heart girt, height at withers, rump length and corporal score final and initial to protein and energy sources. However, a significant effect was observed (P<0.05 in heifers supplemented with WC had greater final body weight and heart girt and average daily gain live weight (271.1 kg, 152.2 cm and 0.382 kg/animal, respectively in comparison to those with WS (251.1 kg, 148.7 cm and 0.255 kg/animal, respectively. The CPU base supplement resulted in smaller grazing time and greater ruminating and idle time (P>0.05. The WS base supplemented animals had kept lesser time eating supplement in comparison to the WC base supplemented ones (P<0.05, with no variation in grazing, rumination or idle times regarding protein font (P>0.05. The hour of the day influenced all the considered behaviors (P<0.01.

  14. 鱼油在鲤饲料中的适宜用量%Optimum level of fish oil supplementation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任泽林; 郭庆; 霍启光; 卢建军

    2001-01-01

    在高蛋白质半纯化饲料中分别添加0、30、50、70、90 g/kg的未加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油,投喂58 g左右2龄鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鱼种46 d,结果表明:添加新鲜鱼油量为30 g/kg时,鲤生产性能最佳;鲤肝体比(HSI)、肝胰脏脂肪含量、肌肉营养不良症和肌肉渗出性损失随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续上升,而肌肉和肾脏氧化稳定性则随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续下降,当添加鱼油量升至30、70、70、50、70、70 g/kg时,上述6项指标与对照组差异显著(P<0.05)。综合各项指标,未添加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油在高蛋白质鲤饲料中适宜用量以不超过30 g/kg为宜。%Juvenile carp of 58 g were fed a high protein semi-purified feed supplemented with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 g/kg fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant (Peroxide value,POV,0.64 mmol/kg ) for 46 days. The results showed that the carp had the best performance at 30 g/kg supplementation of fish oil. With the increment of fish oil supplementation, hepatopancreas somatic indices (HSI), fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy and muscular exudative losses were increased, while oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney were reduced. There were significant differences in fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy, and oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney between the control group (no fish oil supplementation) and the 70 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). HSI of the control group was significantly different with that at 30 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the muscular exudative losses was significantly different at 50 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups(P<0.05). In conclusion, fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant should be supplemented in carp feed with high protein at no more than 30 g/kg.

  15. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    The growth performance of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.) was assessed over a period of six months through formulated feeds consisting of three seaweeds, namely Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Padina tetrastomatica and Stoechospermum marginatum. A...

  16. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  17. Comparison of Penaeus monodon (Crustacea,Penaeidae growth between commercial feed vscommercial shrimp feed supplemented with Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceaeseaweed sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotiya Anil S.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumer of seafood relates the potential development of animals to the constant use of commercial growth promoters. Nevertheless, nowadays with the development of non antibiotic feed additives, cultured shrimps performance has improved to great level. Present experiment was carried conducted from 27th May 2009 to 11th October 2009 in shrimp grow out ponds at Diu (U.T region of Saurashtra coast. The stocking density of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 was 7.5 no/m2 in both the culture ponds. Good survival rate (89.70%, average daily growth (0.277, total biomass(2007.48 kg and less Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR (1.26:1 were obtained from Kappaphycus alvarezii(Doty Doty ex P. C. Silva, 1996 sap incorporated in pellet fed shrimps of pond 2, compare to control pond survival rate (73.70%, average daily growth (0.242, total biomass (1476.9 and high FCR(1.52:1 from control pellet fed shrimps of pond 1. There was no significant differences in temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity, whereas micro-nutrients in water parameter vary during last month of culture period. The present investigation concluded that used ofK. alvarezii sap to the shrimp feed has enhanced growth in term of survival rate from 73.70% to 89.70%, average daily growth from0.242 to 0.277 and total biomass weight from 1476.9 kg to 2007.48 kg when compare to control pond shrimps and is economically viable approach in terms of profit. K. alvarezii is rich in micro nutrient, which can boost up the tiger shrimp growth in fewer days of culture.

  18. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  19. The Influence of Wall Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  20. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  1. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep.

  2. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  3. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  4. Effects of plant extracts and essential oils as feed supplements on quality and microbial traits of rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of onion, cranberry,  strawberry and essentials oils on meat quality were analysed. Five groups of 48 Grimaud female weaned rabbits received the supplemented or the control ration; the experimental unit was a cage of 6 rabbits. Each experimental diet contained 10 ppm of added active ingredients.  Rabbits were fed with the experimental diets for 4 wk before determining slaughter and carcass traits and determining the pH at 1 and 24 h post mortem (pHu of the Longissimus dorsi (LD and the Biceps femoris (BF muscle, left and right, respectively. Cooking loss, drip loss and L*, a* and b* color parameters were obtained of the right LD and for ground meat and antioxidant status (TBARS, DNPH, Folin Ciocalteu. Only the pHu of the LD muscle for the strawberry supplemented group was significantly lower when compared to the control group (P=0.04. However, we note that for the pH of the LD, the average was less than 6 for the meat of animals who received a diet enriched in polyphenols, compared to the control group. Plant extract supplementation did not influence meat quality traits, growth performance or oxidative stability. But under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, our results indicate that diet supplementation with extracts rich in polyphenols, especially with essential oils, had a small bot sporadic positive effect in reducing bacterial microflora compared to the control group (P<0.05. In conclusion, plant extracts and essential oils can be used in a rabbit diet without adverse effects on performance and meat quality traits. This effect could be optimized by investigating higher doses.

  5. EFFECT OF FEEDING UNTREATED OR UREA TREATED GROUNDNUT HULL SUPPLEMENTED WITH DIFFERENT PROTEIN SOURCES ON BLOOD PARAMETERS OF SUDAN DESERT LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. ABDEL HAMEED

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematology and serum biochemistry from thirty Sudan desert lambs (of an average body weight and age 18.0 ± 0.5 kg and 4-5 months respectively fed diets contained untreated (UGH or urea treated groundnut hull (TGH with different protein supplementations (groundnut cake (GNC, cotton seeds cake (CSC and fish byproducts (FBP were investigated. The lambs given six dietary treatments; diets A, B and C were contained TGH supplemented with GNC, CSC and FBP respectively, while diets D, E and F were contained UGH supplemented with GNC, CSC and FBP respectively. Jugular blood samples were taken at 0, 45 and 90 days. There were significant differences between experimental diets in hemoglobin concentration (Hb, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV concentrations, while other parameters were similar. Increasing feeding periods resulted in higher increase in Hb, WBC, MCHC and MCH concentrations, while PCV and MCV concentrations decreased. The same trend was observed in total serum protein, urea and triglycerides concentrations with higher values recorded for lambs fed A, B or C diets, while, no differences were found on serum albumin and globulin concentrations. Serum P, K and Na recorded higher values for lambs fed in A and B diets than other experimental diets. as experimental period increased (from 0 to 45 and 90days serum K and Na concentrations were decreased significantly, while no significant variations in the values of serum Ca and inorganic P. Ration × period interaction had no significant effects on concentration of serum K and Na from A, B and C diets, while there were significant variations on concentration of serum Ca and P. The study revealed that inclusion of TGH supplemented with GNC, CSC or FBP in the diets of growing Sudan desert sheep had positive effects on the haematological and serum biochemical parameters.

  6. Effects of feed supplementation on mineral composition, mechanical properties and structure in femurs of Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Olguin

    Full Text Available Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young's modulus of elasticity (E, bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD and the mid-diaphysis (MD. Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI, but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected.

  7. Effects of Feed Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Mechanical Properties and Structure in Femurs of Iberian Red Deer Hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Cesar A.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected. PMID:23750262

  8. Effect of concentrate supplementation during the dry period on colostrum quality and effect of colostrum feeding regimen on passive transfer of immunity, calf health, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A; Ashfield, A; Earley, B; Welsh, M; Gordon, A; McGee, M; Morrison, S J

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n=37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day (GSC). Both treatment groups were offered identical levels of mineral and vitamin supplementation. Calves from these cows were weighed immediately after birth and fed either 5% (5BW) or 10% (10BW) of their BW in colostrum from their own dams within 2.5h of birth. Calves in the 10BW group received their second feed of colostrum from first-milking colostrum. Concentrate supplementation during the dry period had no effect on colostral IgG concentration, first-milking IgG yield, or fat, protein, and lactose contents. However, cows in GSC produced a greater mean milk yield over the first 8 milkings compared with cows in the GS group. Concentrate supplementation had no effect on calf BW or BW gain, serum IgG, or apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) at 24h after birth. However, offspring from the GSC group had fewer cases of enteritis during the first 56d of life compared with offspring from the GS group. Calves in the 10BW group had greater mean serum IgG concentration for the first 3d following birth; however, at 24h after birth, we observed no treatment effect on AEA. The rate of enteritis was greater for calves in the 5BW treatment compared with 10BW. The colostrum-feeding regimen had no effect on BW gain or on the incidence of pneumonia among calf treatment groups. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation

  9. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  10. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  11. Effects of long-term feeding dairy cows on a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite on certain serum trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Roubies, N; Panousis, N; Karatzias, H

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) supplementation in the ration of dairy cows on serum copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations. Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (group A) comprised 17 cows fed a ration supplemented with 1.25% clinoptilolite, the second group (group B) comprised also 17 cows was given a ration with 2.5% clinoptilolite, and the third group (group C, the control), comprised 18 cows fed the basal ration that did not contain any clinoptilolite. The experiment started when the cows entered the fourth week before the expected parturition and lasted until the end of lactation. All cows were fed the above concentrates during the entire experimental period. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the starting day of the experiment, at the day of calving, and at monthly intervals thereafter. All samples were tested for serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentrations. The results showed that the 1.25 and 2.5% supplementation of clinoptilolite did not have any adverse effects on serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Fe.

  12. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  13. Integrating willow-based bioenergy and organic dairy production – the role of tree fodder for feed supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jo; Leach, Katharine; Rinne, Marketta; Kuoppala, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Silvopastoral systems that combine livestock and trees offer two main advantages for the animals. First, trees modify microclimatic conditions which can have beneficial effects on pasture growth and animal welfare. Second, trees also provide alternative feed resources during periods of low forage availability. This paper reports on research carried out within the Sustainable Organic and Low Input Dairying (SOLID) project to investigate the multifunctional potential of a novel integrated willo...

  14. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  15. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  16. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration.

  17. Combining pain therapy with lifestyle: the role of personalized nutrition and nutritional supplements according to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Muscoli, Carolina; Schatman, Michael E; Stallone, Tiziana; Intelligente, Fabio; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Franceschi, Francesco; Arranz, Laura Isabel; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Salamone, Maurizio; Ilari, Sara; Belfer, Inna; Allegri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: "FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain", held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on "Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology". The take-home message of this workshop was the recognition that patients with chronic pain should undergo nutritional assessment and counseling, which should be initiated at the onset of treatment. Some foods and supplements used in personalized treatment will likely improve clinical outcomes of analgesic therapy and result in considerable improvement of patient compliance and quality of life. From our current perspective, the potential benefit of including nutrition in personalizing pain medicine is formidable and highly promising.

  18. Combining pain therapy with lifestyle: the role of personalized nutrition and nutritional supplements according to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Manuela; Muscoli, Carolina; Schatman, Michael E; Stallone, Tiziana; Intelligente, Fabio; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Franceschi, Francesco; Arranz, Laura Isabel; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Salamone, Maurizio; Ilari, Sara; Belfer, Inna; Allegri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, attention to the lifestyle of patients has been rapidly increasing in the field of pain therapy, particularly with regard to the role of nutrition in pain development and its management. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals, microbiome, obesity, soy, omega-3 fatty acids, and curcumin supplementation as key elements in modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: “FYD (Feed Your Destiny): Fighting Pain”, held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on “Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology”. The take-home message of this workshop was the recognition that patients with chronic pain should undergo nutritional assessment and counseling, which should be initiated at the onset of treatment. Some foods and supplements used in personalized treatment will likely improve clinical outcomes of analgesic therapy and result in considerable improvement of patient compliance and quality of life. From our current perspective, the potential benefit of including nutrition in personalizing pain medicine is formidable and highly promising. PMID:27994480

  19. Effects of long-term feeding of a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite to dairy cows on the incidence of ketosis, milk yield and liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Panousis, N; Roubies, N; Christaki, E; Arsenos, G; Karatzias, H

    2006-09-23

    Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (A) consisted of 17 cows that were fed a concentrate ration supplemented with 1.25 per cent clinoptilolite, the second group (B) consisted of 17 cows fed a ration supplemented with 2.5 per cent clinoptilolite, and the third group (C) consisted of 18 cows, which were fed the basal ration containing no clinoptilolite. The rations were fed from four weeks before the cows' expected parturition dates until the beginning of the next dry period. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the start of the experiment, on the day of calving and then monthly, and analysed for serum glucose, ketone bodies, liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total proteins. The milk yield of each cow was recorded monthly. The cows in group B had significantly fewer cases of clinical ketosis during the first month after calving and a higher total milk yield. Feeding the cows with clinoptilolite for a long period had no apparent adverse effects on their liver function, and did not significantly affect the concentrations of glucose, ketone bodies, BUN and total proteins in their serum.

  20. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR.

  1. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  2. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  3. Dietary supplementation with nonconventional feeds from the Middle East: assessing the effects on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of Awassi sheep milk and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilali, M; Iñiguez, L; Knaus, W; Schreiner, M; Wurzinger, M; Mayer, H K

    2011-12-01

    Increased feed costs affect the livelihoods of dairy sheep farmers in the Middle East. Farmers endure high risks with large fluctuations in the price of grain used as animal feed, which is further affected by drought and declining range productivity. Using agricultural by-products and treated straw or vetch grazing for supplementing sheep diets would provide resource-poor dairy farmers with increased options to reduce feed costs, but the effects of such feeds on the quality of yogurt (the main product) need to be better understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate these effects. The first trial evaluated alternative diets using locally available feedstuffs, including agricultural by-products, compared with traditional diets used by dairy sheep farmers, and was conducted on-station at the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA, Tel Hadya, Aleppo, Syria). Milking Awassi ewes (n=56) were used to test 6 alternative diets against a traditional control diet containing barley, wheat bran, and barley straw. The 6 alternative diets contained 4 or more of the following ingredients: barley, sugar beet pulp, molasses, cotton seed cake, wheat bran, urea-treated wheat straw, and barley straw. Ewes on one of the alternative diets grazed vetch pasture, whereas ewes on the control diet and the 5 alternative diets grazed native range pasture. The milk fat content was higher in diets containing urea-treated straw. Yogurt firmness and adhesiveness were significantly lower in energy-rich diets (e.g., the control diet) and in the diets rich in soluble sugar (molasses). The effects of diet on yogurt color and on citric and succinic acid contents were significant. A yogurt produced from the milk of the group grazing on vetch was the most yellowish in color, which is appealing to Syrian consumers. The content of citric acid tended to be higher in yogurts produced from diets containing molasses. The second trial was conducted on 3 farms in northern

  4. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  5. Effect of DL-malic acid supplementation on feed intake, methane emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Callan, J J; Boland, T M; O'Mara, F P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary concentration of dl-malic acid (MA) on DMI, CH(4) emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Two Latin square experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, six beef heifers (19 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned in a duplicated Latin square to 1 of 3 dietary concentrations of MA on a DMI basis (0%, MA-0; 3.75%, MA-3.75; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) over 3 periods. In Exp. 2, four rumen-fistulated steers (48 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary concentrations of MA (0%, MA-0; 2.5%, MA-2.5; 5.0%, MA-5.0; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) on a DMI basis, over 4 periods. Both experimental diets consisted of grass silage and pelleted concentrate (containing MA). Silage was fed ad libitum once daily (a.m.), whereas concentrate was fed twice daily (a.m. and p.m.) with the aim of achieving a total DMI of 40:60 silage:concentrate. In both Exp. 1 and 2, experimental periods consisted of 28 d, incorporating a 13-d acclimatization, a 5-d measurement period, and a 10-d washout period. In Exp. 1, enteric CH(4), feed apparent digestibility, and feed intake were measured over the 5-d measurement period. In Exp. 2, rumen fluid was collected on d 16 to 18, immediately before (a.m.) feeding and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter. Rumen pH was determined and samples were taken for protozoa count, VFA, and ammonia analysis. Enteric CH(4) emissions were estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique and feed apparent digestibility was estimated by using chromic oxide as an external marker for fecal output. In Exp. 1, increasing dietary MA led to a linear decrease in total DMI (P emissions (P emissions by 16%, which corresponded to a 9% reduction per unit of DMI. Similarly, in Exp. 2, inclusion of MA reduced DMI in a linear (P = 0.002) and quadratic (P emissions, but DMI was also decreased, which could have potentially negative effects on animal performance.

  6. In Vitro Adsorption and in Vivo Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Doxycycline and Frequently Used Mycotoxin Binders in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mil, Thomas; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Fraeyman, Sophie; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-05-06

    Mycotoxin binders are readily mixed in feeds to prevent uptake of mycotoxins by the animal. Concerns were raised for nonspecific binding with orally administered veterinary drugs by the European Food Safety Authority in 2010. This paper describes the screening for in vitro adsorption of doxycycline-a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic-to six different binders that were able to bind >75% of the doxycycline. Next, an in vivo pharmacokinetic interaction study of doxycycline with two of the binders, which demonstrated significant in vitro binding, was performed in broiler chickens using an oral bolus model. It was shown that two montmorillonite-based binders were able to lower the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of doxycycline by >60% compared to the control group. These results may indicate a possible risk for reduced efficacy of doxycycline when used concomitantly with montmorillonite-based mycotoxin binders.

  7. Assessing Program Coverage of Two Approaches to Distributing a Complementary Feeding Supplement to Infants and Young Children in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Strutt, Nicholas; Boateng, Nathaniel Amoh; Guevarra, Ernest; Siling, Katja; Norris, Alison; Ghosh, Shibani; Nyamikeh, Mercy; Attiogbe, Antoine; Burns, Richard; Foriwa, Esi; Toride, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Sarpong, Daniel; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house). Delivery Model 2 was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and used a market-based approach, with the product being sold through micro-retail routes (i.e., small shops and roadside stalls) in three districts supported by behavior change communications and demand creation activities led by a local social marketing company. Both delivery models were implemented sub-nationally as 1-year pilot programs, with the aim of informing the design of a scaled-up program. A series of cross-sectional coverage surveys was implemented in each program area. Results from these surveys show that Delivery Model 1 was successful in achieving and sustaining high (i.e., 86%) effective coverage (i.e., the child had been given the product at least once in the previous 7 days) during implementation. Effective coverage fell to 62% within 3 months of the behavior change communications and demand creation activities stopping. Delivery Model 2 was successful in raising awareness of the product (i.e., 90% message coverage), but effective coverage was low (i.e., 9.4%). Future programming efforts should use the health extension / microfinance / petty trader approach in rural settings and consider adapting this approach for use in urban and peri-urban settings. Ongoing behavior change communications and demand creation activities is likely to be essential to the continued success of such

  8. Rheological characteristics of synthetic road binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon D. Airey; Musarrat H. Mohammed; Caroline Fichter [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    This paper deals with the synthesis of polymer binders from monomers that could in future be derived from renewable resources. These binders consist of polyethyl acrylate (PEA) of different molecular weight, polymethyl acrylate (PMA) and polybutyl acrylate (PBA), which were synthesised from ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The fundamental rheological properties of these binders were determined by means of a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) using a combination of temperature and frequency sweeps. The results indicate that PEA has rheological properties similar to that of 100/150 penetration grade bitumen, PMA similar rheological properties to that of 10/20 penetration grade bitumen, while PBA, due to its highly viscous nature and low complex modulus, cannot be used on its own as an asphalt binder. The synthetic binders were also combined with conventional penetration grade bitumen to produce a range of bitumen-synthetic polymer binder blends. These blends were batched by mass in the ratio of 1:1 or 3:1 and subjected to the same DSR rheological testing as the synthetic binders. The blends consisting of a softer bitumen (70/100 pen or 100/150 pen) with a hard synthetic binder (PMA) tended to be more compatible and therefore stable and produced rheological properties that combined the properties of the two components. The synthetic binders and particularly the extended bitumen samples (blends) produced rheological properties that showed similar characteristics to elastomeric SBS PMBs. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effect of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis supplementation of ewe's feed on sheep milk production and young lamb mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Govaris, A; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate under field conditions the effect of a probiotic containing Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis on young lamb mortality and sheep milk production when administered in the late pregnancy and lactation feed of ewes. In a sheep farm, two groups of milking ewes with identical genetic material, management, nutrition, health status and similar production characteristics were formed. One group (46 ewes) served as control, while the other one (48 ewes) served as a probiotic-treated group. Both groups of ewes received a similar feeding regiment, but the ewes of the second group were additionally offered a probiotic product containing B. licheniformis and B. subtilis (BioPlus 2B, Chr. Hansen, Denmark) at the approximate dose of 2.56 x 10(9) viable spores per ewe per day. Lamb mortality during the 1.5 months suckling period, and milk yield during the 2 months of milk collection for commercial purposes have been recorded. In the non-treated control group, 13.1% mortality was observed versus 7.8% in the probiotic-treated group (P = 0.33), with mortality being mainly due to diarrhoea. Microbiological examination of diarrhoeic faeces from some of the dead lambs in both groups revealed the presence of Escherichia coli. The average daily milk yield per ewe was significantly lower in the control group (0.80 l) than that in the probiotic-treated group (0.93 l) (P milk in ewes that received probiotics was significantly (P milk yields, fat and protein content.

  10. Water-resistant gypsum binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Alexander I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors developed a multi-component gypsum binder (MGB with an improved (by 1.8 to 2.2 times water resistance value in comparison with the initial gypsum and a softening factor value within the range of 0.85 to 0.91 through the introduction of a complex additive containing carbide mud and bio-silica. The use of a complex additive provides for the formation of a denser structure due to the formation of low-base calcium hydrated silicates at early stages of the hardening process under wet or dry air conditions. The developed binding agent has a lower (by 2.5 to 3 times open porosity, a greater compressive strength (by 1.4 to 1.6 times for a dry state and by 2.6 times in a water-saturated state and does not require any special curing conditions in contrast to the other multi-component gypsum binders. The authors show the influence of mud-and-silica additive on the properties of hardened MGB and suggest a method of computation of the optimum MGB composition for given components.

  11. 'Leaves and eats shoots': direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Grey

    Full Text Available We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the feeding dynamics of a population of red swamp crayfish in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, after the crash of submerged macrophytes and associated macroinvertebrates, and during a natural draw-down of the lake water level. We expected a heavy reliance upon a diet of detrital matter to sustain the population as a consequence, and indeed, for the majority of the crayfish population caught from the lake, we saw a concomitant shift in isotopic values reflecting a dietary change. However, we also caught individual crayfish that had occupied the footprints of hippopotamus and effectively extended their range beyond the lake up to 40 m into the riparian zone. Isotopic analysis confirmed limited nocturnal observations that these individuals were consuming living terrestrial plants in the vicinity of the footprints. These are the first empirical data to demonstrate direct use of terrestrial resources by an aquatic crayfish species and further highlight the traits that make red swamp crayfish such opportunistic and successful invaders.

  12. Rheological characteristics of aged asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪慧; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 朱国军

    2008-01-01

    Different aging levels(RTFOT,PAV-10h,PAV-20h and PAV-30 h) of asphalt binders with various mass ratios of mineral powder to asphalt(0,0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6,2.0) were used to investigate the rheological properties of aged asphalt binders with respect to their short and long terms aging characteristics.Viscosity test,dynamic shear test and creep test were conducted.The test results indicate that the viscosity of aged asphalt binder increases sharply with the extension of aging period.Complex shear modulus of aged asphalt increases,which indicates that the stiffness of asphalt binders can increase.The phase angle for aged asphalt binders reduces,which indicates that the elastic portion for viscoelastic property of asphalt binders increases.|G*|·sin δ increases after aging procedure which means that the fatigue resistance becomes poor.The creep test results show that creep strain curves varies remarkably for virgin and aged asphalt binders.The total strain during loading period and the permanent strain decreases significantly for aged asphalt binders,which implies that the elastic portion increases and the viscous portion decreases.

  13. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible.

  14. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pmarketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices.

  15. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  16. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  17. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  18. Use of PCR primers and probes based on the 23S rRNA and internal transcription spacer (ITS) gene sequence for the detection and enumerization of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum in feed supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Lai, Chieh-Hsien; Yu, Bi; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2010-06-01

    Novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed from the 16S-23S internal transcription spacer (ITS) rRNA and 23S rRNA genes, respectively, were used for the specific detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Molecular weights of the PCR products were 221 and 599 bp, respectively. Strains of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum obtained from the culture center, dairy products, infant stool and other samples, could be identified with these PCR primers. DNAs from other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species including strains of Lactobacillus pentosus which was closely related to L. plantarum, and bacteria species other than LAB, would not generate the false positive results. When this PCR primer set was used for the detection of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum in feed supplement or feed starter samples, reliable results were obtained. Furthermore, when these L. acidophilus or L. plantarum specific primers were used as DNA probes for the colony hybridization of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, the viable cells of these LAB species in culture and feed supplements or starter products could be identified and enumerized. The method described here thus offers a rapid and economic way to inspect and assure the quality of the feed supplements or fermentation starters.

  19. Impact of feed supplementation with antimicrobial agents on growth performance of broiler chickens, Clostridium perfringens and enterococcus counts, and antibiotic resistance phenotypes and distribution of antimicrobial resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa S; Silversides, Fred G; Diarrassouba, Fatoumata; Pritchard, Jane; Masson, Luke; Brousseau, Roland; Bonnet, Claudie; Delaquis, Pascal; Bach, Susan; Skura, Brent J; Topp, Edward

    2007-10-01

    The effects of feed supplementation with the approved antimicrobial agents bambermycin, penicillin, salinomycin, and bacitracin or a combination of salinomycin plus bacitracin were evaluated for the incidence and distribution of antibiotic resistance in 197 commensal Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens over 35 days. All isolates showed some degree of multiple antibiotic resistance. Resistance to tetracycline (68.5%), amoxicillin (61.4%), ceftiofur (51.3%), spectinomycin (47.2%), and sulfonamides (42%) was most frequent. The levels of resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin were 33.5, 35.5, and 25.3%, respectively. The overall resistance levels decreased from day 7 to day 35 (P chickens receiving feed supplemented with salinomycin than from the other feeds (P chickens fed different growth promoters. Results showed a decrease in the incidence of isolates harboring tet(B), bla(TEM), sulI, and aadA and class 1 integron from days 7 to 35 (P chickens than in the control or other treatment groups (P chickens regardless of the antimicrobial growth promoters used. However, the phenotype and the distribution of resistance determinants in E. coli can be modulated by feed supplementation with some of the antimicrobial agents used in broiler chicken production.

  20. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements.

  1. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos para bezerros Nelore em creep-feeding: desempenho produtivo, consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Energy sources in multiple supplements for Nellore calves in creep-feeding: productive performance, nutrient intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo, o consumo e a digestibilidade em bezerros Nelore em fase de amamentação em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementada com diferentes fontes de energia. A área foi dividida em cinco piquetes de 6,8 ha, com disponibilidade média de matéria seca e matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 4,10 e 2,38 t/ha, respectivamente. Foram utilizados 45 bezerros Nelore, com peso e idade iniciais de 96,0 ± 11,0 kg e 101 ± 12 dias, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5 × 2 (cinco suplementos e dois sexos. Os suplementos foram: MM - mistura mineral (controle; GM - farelo de soja (FS + grão de milho triturado (GM e mistura mineral; FTGM - farelo de soja + farelo de trigo + grão de milho triturado e mistura mineral; FA - farelo de soja + farelo de arroz e mistura mineral; GMS - farelo de soja + grão de milho triturado + grão de sorgo triturados e mistura mineral, fornecidos diariamente na quantidade de 60 g/animal para o grupo controle e 500 g/animal para os demais suplementos. Os animais que receberam suplemento múltiplo com milho e sorgo como fonte de energia proporcionaram ganho diário médio adicional de 100 g/animal (16,39% em comparação à mistura mineral. O uso do suplemento múltiplo à base de grão de milho como fonte de energia reduziu o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica de pasto e fibra em detergente neutro em relação às fontes energéticas farelo de arroz e à combinação de milho com sorgo. A suplementação com as fontes de energia, sobretudo as combinações de farelo de trigo e milho ou de milho e sorgo, podem proporcionar ganhos adicionais em animais em creep-feeding. A suplementação múltipla aumenta o consumo de pasto quando se utilizam grão de milho e sorgo combinados como fonte de energia.The performance, intake and digestibility were evaluated in Nellore beef calves supplemented with different energy sources in Brachiaria decumbens pasture

  2. The effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus as feed supplement on skin mucosal immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and growth performance of black swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Roosta, Zahra; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Vakili, Farzaneh

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus acidophilus as feed supplement on intestinal microbiota, skin mucus immune parameters and salinity stress resistance as well as growth performance of black swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). One-thousand and eight hundred healthy black swordtail larvae (0.03 ± 0.001 g) were randomly distributed in 12 tanks (100 L) at a density of 150 fish per aquaria and fed different levels of dietary L. acidophilus (0, 1.5 × 10(8), 3 × 10(8) and 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1)) for 10 weeks. At the end of trial, there were significant differences among antibacterial activity of skin mucus in probiotic fed fish and control group (P acidophilus fed fish (P acidophilus significantly elevated black swordtail resistance against salinity stress (i.e survival %) (P acidophilus improved weight gain, SGR, FCR compared to fish fed unsupplemented diet (P acidophilus on mucosal immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, stress resistance and growth parameters of black swordtail and the appropriate inclusion is 6 × 10(8) CFU g(-1).

  3. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  4. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Elhofy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 105 cells−1 days−1 when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 105 cells−1 days−1; p < 0.05. This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells.

  5. Feed supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 modulates gut microbiota and milk fatty acid composition in dairy goats--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Rosu, Craita; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Dalaka, Eleni; Hadjipetrou, Andreas; Theofanous, Giorgos; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Carlini, Nancy; Zervas, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2010-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a promising Lactobacillus plantarum isolate (PCA 236) from cheese as a probiotic feed supplement in lactating goats. The ability of L. plantarum to survive transit through the goat gastrointestinal tract and to modulate selected constituents of the gut microbiota composition, monitored at faecal level was assessed. In addition, L. plantarum effects on plasma immunoglobulins and antioxidant capacity of the animals as well as on the milk fatty acid composition were determined. For the purpose of the experiment a field study was designed, involving 24 dairy goats of the Damascus breed, kept in a sheep and goat dairy farm. The goats were divided in terms of body weight in two treatments of 12 goats each, namely: control (CON) without addition of L. plantarum and probiotic (PRO) treatment with in feed administration of L. plantarum so that the goats would intake 12 log CFU/day. The experiment lasted 5 weeks and at weekly time intervals individual faecal, blood and milk samples were collected and analysed. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of L. plantarum PCA 236. In addition, the culturable population levels of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus, Enterococcus, mesophilic anaerobes, Clostridium and Bacteroides in faeces were also determined by enumeration on specific culture media. In parallel, plasma IgA, IgM and IgG and antioxidant capacity of plasma and milk were determined. No adverse effects were observed in the animals receiving the lactobacillus during the experiment. Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 was recovered in the faeces of all animals in the PRO treatment. In addition, PRO treatment resulted in a significant (Pplasma did not differ between the treatments. In contrast, milk fat composition in the PRO treatment had a significantly higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic, a-linolenic and rumenic acids compared to CON, while there were no

  6. Hexacyanoferrates and bentonite as binders of radiocaesium for reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Hove

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying doses of caesium binders (Bentonite and several forms of iron-hexacyanoferrates on radiocaesium accumulation in red blood cells and on radiocaesium transfer to urine and faeces were studied in feeding experiments with reindeer calves. The caesium binders were added to a ration of lichen (containing 9.5 kBq of 134Cs+137Cs originating from the Chernobyl accident and fed together with a pelleted reindeer feed (RF-71 for 42 days. A 50% reduction in red blood cell radiocaesium concentration was obtained with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg body weigth of ammoniumironhexacyanoferrate (AFCF and with 500 mg/kg of bentonite. Three mg/kg of AFCF or 2 g/kg of bentonite reduced both urinary excretion and RBC concentrations with more than 80%. It is concluded that iron-hexacyanoferrates, as a result of their high caesium binding capacity, are particularly useful as caesium binders for free ranging ruminants like the reindeer.Hexacynoferrater og bentonitt som bindere av radiocesium i reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Effekten av bentonitt og ulike typer jernhexacyanoferrater (Berlinerblått på akkumulering av radioaktivt cesium i røde blodlegemer og på utskilling av radioaktivt cesium i urin ble undersøkt i foringsforsøk med reinkalver. Cesiumbinderne ble gitt daglig sammen med lav som inneholdt 9.5 kBq 134Cs+137Cs fra Tsjernobyl ulykken, og 1 kg reinfor (RF-71 i en periode på 42 dager. En daglig dose på 1 mg/kg kroppsvekt av ammoniumjernhexacyano-ferrat (AFCF reduserte radiocesiuminnholdet i blodlegemer med 50%, mens en dose pa 500 mg/kg bentonitt var nødvendig for å oppnå samme effekt. Tre mg/kg AFCF eller 2 g/kg/bentonitt var nødvendig for å oppnå mer enn 80% reduksjon i radiocesium konsentrasjonen i blodlegemer og i radiocesium utskilling med urinen. På grunn av de små daglige mengder som kreves er jern-hexacyanoferratene spesielt velegnete som cesiumbindere for beitedyr.

  7. Feeding behaviors during home-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition using corn-soy blends or lipid-based nutrient supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iuel-Brockdorff, Ann-Sophie Julie D; Ouedraogo, Albertine; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutr......Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid...

  8. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to examine the suitability of using maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots as foraging materials for egg-laying hens. Production performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal characteristics, including the composition of the intestinal microflora as well as feather pecking behaviour were the outcome variables. 2. The protein content of the foraging material (g/kg DM) was on average 69 g in carrots, 94 g in maize silage and 125 g in barley-pea silage. The starch content was highest in the maize silage (312 g/kg DM), and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied from 196 to 390 g/kg, being lowest in carrots. Sugars were just traceable in the silages, whereas carrots contained on average 496 g/kg DM. 3. Egg production was highest in hens fed either carrots or maize silage, whereas hens fed barley-pea silage produced less (219 vs. 208). Although the consumption of foraging material was high (33, 35 and 48% of the total feed intake on 'as fed' basis for maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots, respectively) only a minor effect on nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(n)) and apparent digestibility was seen. At 53 weeks of age, hens fed maize silage had AME(n) and apparent digestibility values close to the control group (12.61 and 12.82, respectively), whereas access to barley-pea silage and carrots resulted in slightly lower values (12.36 and 12.42, respectively). Mortality was reduced dramatically in the three groups given supplements (0.5 to 2.5%) compared to the control group (15.2%). 4. Hens receiving silage had greater relative gizzard weights than the control or carrot-fed groups. At 53 weeks of age, the gizzard-content pH of hens receiving silage was about 0.7 to 0.9 units lower than that of the control or carrot-fed hens. Hens fed both types of silage had higher concentrations of lactic acid (15.6 vs. 3.2 micromoles/g) and acetic acid (3.6 vs. 6.1 micromoles/g) in the gizzard contents

  9. Combining pain therapy with lifestyle: the role of personalized nutrition and nutritional supplements according to the SIMPAR Feed Your Destiny approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Gregori M

    2016-12-01

    modulating the efficacy of analgesic treatments, including opioids. These main topics were addressed during the first edition of the Study In Multidisciplinary Pain Research workshop: “FYD (Feed Your Destiny: Fighting Pain”, held on April 7, 2016, in Rome, Italy, which was sponsored by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Instruction on “Nutraceuticals and Innovative Pharmacology”. The take-home message of this workshop was the recognition that patients with chronic pain should undergo nutritional assessment and counseling, which should be initiated at the onset of treatment. Some foods and supplements used in personalized treatment will likely improve clinical outcomes of analgesic therapy and result in considerable improvement of patient compliance and quality of life. From our current perspective, the potential benefit of including nutrition in personalizing pain medicine is formidable and highly promising. Keywords: pain, personalized nutrition, nutritional supplements

  10. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  11. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is otherwise adulterated or misbranded. Dietary supplement advertising, including ads broadcast on radio and television, falls ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  12. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  13. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major - Gabryś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved ability to reclamation as well as in accelerated biodegradation of binding material leftovers of mechanical reclamation.

  14. Pengimbuhan Ragi Roti dalam Pakan Meningkatkan Respons Imun Nonspesifik dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Nila (SUPPLEMENTATION OF BAKER’S YEAST IN FEED ENHANCE NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE AND GROWTH OF NILE TILAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae to enhancenonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were obtainedfrom Freshwater Hatchery Tateli (BP3I, Marine and Fisheries Office, North Sulawesi. After acclimatizationfor two weeks in 1000 L fiberglass tank, fish with an average weight of 9 g were put in five 45 L-aquaria ata density of 15 fish/aquarium. During the experiment, fish were fed with feed pellet supplemented withfive different doses of baker’s yeast (10, 20, 30, 40 g yeast/kg pellet for four consecutive weeks at 5% bw/day, twice a day. Fish in different aquarium received different dose of baker’s yeast. Immune parametersincluding total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity and growth of fish were measured at two weeksinterval. After four weeks of feeding, total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity of phagocyte cells offish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet increased significantly as compared to that ofcontrol fish (p<0.01. Growth of fish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet also increasesignificantly as compared to control group (p=0.01. Average weight gain of fish fed pellet supplementedwith 10 g yeast/kg pellet was 15.00±1.00 g while control fish was 8.33 g. As conclusion, supplementationof baker’s yeast in feed could enhance nonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish.

  15. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (pDCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (pDCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish.

  16. 双低菜籽饼在育肥羔羊精料中的适宜添加量%Optimal Supplement Dosage of Double-Low Rapeseed Meal in Concentrated Feed of Fattening Lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志有; 侯生珍; 王兴福

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To determine the optimal supplement dosage of double-low rapeseed meal in concentrated feed of fattening lambs. [ Method ] A total of 120 Tibetan lambs at the age of 50 d were selected and divided randomly into four groups. The lambs in these four groups were fed with diets respsetively supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 50,100,150 and 200 g/kg. Their diets had the same nutritional levels of energy and protein. The experimental period was 120 d. [ Result] Daily gain,feed conservation ratio and economic benefits were largely increased in the lambs fed with diets supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 150 g/kg (Daily gain,P <0.01 ). However,the daily gain and feed conservation ratio were largely decreased in the lambs fed with diets supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 200 g/kg. Moreover,serum transaminase and thyroxine levels were not significant between the four groups. [ Conclusion] The optimal supplement dosage of the double-low rapeseed meal is 150 g/kg in fattening lambs.%[目的]确定双低菜籽饼在育肥羔羊精料中的适宜添加量.[方法]选择120只50日龄藏羔羊,随机分为4组,分别饲喂双低菜籽饼添加量为50、100、150和200 g/kg且能量和蛋白水平一致的混合精饲料.试验期为120 d.[结果]精料中添加150 g/kg双低菜籽饼能显著提高羔羊的日增重(P<0.01)、饲料转化率和经济效益.精料中添加200 g/kg双低菜籽饼则明显降低羔羊的采食量和饲料转化率.各组间血清转氨酶活性和血清甲状腺素水平均差异不显著.[结论]育肥羔羊精料中双低菜籽饼的适宜添加量为150 g/kg.

  17. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Liang; Kefu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and the mechanism of binder migration were studied in this paper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, the degree of binder migration was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wet sample just after coating application, the real information of binder distribution was kept by quenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed by freeze-drying. The results showed: under the condition of this research, binder migration occurred both in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred during coating application was much little than that occurred during drying. The mechanism of binder migration during the process of coating application was studied by force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposed that was binder migration was caused by Magnus force and Saffman force.

  18. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YunLiang; KefuChen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and themechanism of binder migration were studied in thispaper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, thedegree of binder migration was measured byenergy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wetsample just after coating application, the realinformation of binder distribution was kept byquenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed byfreeze-drying. The results showed: under thecondition of this research, binder migration occurredboth in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred duringcoating application was much little than that occurredduring drying. The mechanism of binder migrationduring the process of coating application was studiedby force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposedthat was binder migration was caused by Magnusforce and Saffman force.

  19. Modification Bituminous Binders Petroleum Resin (Based on C9 Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Chigorina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to measure the basic parameters of a bituminous binder obtained by modification of the BND 60/90 binder with petroleum resin, for both dynamic and static modification modes.

  20. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  1. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlory, Chris; Wardle, Sophie L; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; Witard, Oliver C; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hamilton, D Lee; Tipton, Kevin D

    2016-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed a bout of unilateral RE followed by ingestion of 30 g of whey protein. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after supplementation for assessment of muscle lipid composition and relevant protein kinase activities. Infusion of L-[ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine was used to measure basal myofibrillar MP Sat rest (REST), in a nonexercised leg following protein ingestion (FED) and following RE and protein ingestion (FEDEX).MPS was significantly elevated above REST during FEDEX in both the FO and CO groups, but there was no effect of supplementation. There was a significant increase in MPS in both groups above REST during FED but no effect of supplementation. Supplementation significantly decreased pan PKB activity at RESTin the FO group but not the CO group. There was a significant increase from REST at post-RE for PKB and AMPKα2 activity in the CO group but not in the FO group. In FEDEX, there was a significant increase in p70S6K1 activity from REST at 3 h in the CO group only. These data highlight that 8 weeks of FO supplementation alters kinase signaling activity in response to RE plus protein ingestion without influencing MPS.

  2. Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica fruits as dry season feed supplements for goats in a semi-arid environment: Summary of a DFID funded project in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: timsmith2@btopenworld.com; Mlambo, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, P.O. Luvengo (Swaziland); Sikosana, J.L.N.; Maphosa, V. [Department of Agricultural Research and Extension, Matopos Research Station, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe); Mueller-Harvey, I.; Owen, E. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Indehiscent fruits of six tree species, common in Matabeleland were examined in in vitro and in vivo trials. The results for two of them, Acacia nilotica and Dichrostachys cinerea are presented here. Acacia nilotica contained more total phenolics than D. cinerea, but less nitrogen (N) and fibre (ADF and NDF). After 48 h incubation, in vitro OMD of both species was increased by PEG and NaOH or wood ash treatment, except when NaOH or wood ash were used in combination with PEG with D. cinerea fruits. DM intake, DMD were lowest and N-retention negative in goats fed A. nilotica as supplement. However when fed a supplement of D. cinerea, untreated or treated with PEG or NaOH, digestibility and N-retention were highest, and similar to a commercial goat meal, with the untreated fruit. In a trial in which milking does were supplemented with D. cinerea fruits, for 65 before and 65 days after kidding, kid birthweight and weaning weight were increased by supplementation. Deaths of twin-born kids were lowest in the supplemented but unmilked group. Supplementation with D. cinerea fruit resulted in improved goat performance. The only treatment applied of practical significance, wood ash, is currently being tested in an in vivo study. More research is required on detoxification of tannins, especially with A. nilotica. (author)

  3. BINDER DRAINAGE TEST FOR POROUS MIXTURES MADE BY VARYING THE MAXIMUM AGGREGATE SIZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman Hardiman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Binder drainage occurs with mixes of small aggregate surface area particularly porous asphalt. The binder drainage test, developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, UK, is commonly used to set an upper limit on the acceptable binder content for a porous mix. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of different binder types on the binder drainage characteristics of porous mix made of various maximum aggregate sizes 20, 14 and 10 mm. Two types of binder were used, conventional 60/70 pen bitumen, and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS modified bitumen. The amount of binder lost through drainage after three hours at the maximum mixing temperature were measured in duplicate for mixes of different maximum sizes and binder contents. The maximum mixing temperature adopted depends on the types of binder used. The retained binder is plotted against the initial mixed binder content, together with the line of equality where the retained binder equals the mixed binder content. The results indicate the significant contribution of using SBS modified bitumen to increase the target bitumen binder content. Their significance is discussed in terms of target binder content, the critical binder content, the maximum mixed binder content and the maximum retained binder content values obtained from the binder drainage test. It was concluded that increasing maximum aggregate sizes decrease the maximum retained binder content, critical binder content, target binder content, maximum mixed binder content, and mixed content for both binders, but however for all mixtures, SBS is the highest.

  4. A randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of dietary energy sources, feed supplements, and the presence of super-shedders on the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle using different diagnostic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Zerby, Henry N; Fluharty, Francis L; Loerch, Steve C; Kauffman, Michael D; Bard, Jaime L; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Alteration of the gastro-intestinal tract through manipulation of cattle diets has been proposed as a preharvest control measure to reduce fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the energy source's moisture content (high moisture corn and dry whole-shelled corn), two natural feed supplements (Saccaromyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell and Aspergillus oryzae-Amaferm), and two levels of vitamin A (2200 IU/kg and no supplementation) on the fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in naturally infected cattle. One hundred sixty-eight Angus-cross beef steers were randomly allocated to 24 pens, and each pen was assigned 1 of 12 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) and fecal grab samples using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and standard microbiological techniques. On the basis of multivariable multilevel logistic regression models, we found a statistically significant (p 10(4) colony forming units of E. coli O157:H7 per gram of feces) was present in the pen at the time of testing relative to animals fed high moisture corn and nonexposed to super-shedders. However, in similar models based on RAMS-IMS testing, the effect of corn type on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 varied with the type of feed additive used. Being exposed to a super-shedding pen-mate also increased the odds of being positive to E. coli O157:H7 in the RAMS-IMS models. These models demonstrate that the impact of different supplements may vary with the diagnostic test used, and that further research into the biological significance of differences between RAMS- and fecal-IMS test results is warranted.

  5. Phenomena during thermal removal of binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Kenneth Edward

    The research presented herein has focused on debinding of an ethylene copolymer from a SiC based molded ceramic green body. Examination of the binder burnout process was carried out by breaking down the process into two distinct regions: those events which occur before any weight loss begins, and those events occurring during binder removal. Below the temperature of observed binder loss (175sp°C), both reversible and irreversible displacement was observed to occur. The displacement was accounted for by relaxation of molding stresses, thermal expansion of the system, and melting of the semicrystalline copolymer occurring during heating. Upon further heating the binder undergoes a two stage thermal degradation process. In the first stage, acetic acid is the only degradation product formed, as determined by GC/MS analysis. In this stage, component shrinkage persisted and it was found that one unit volume of shrinkage corresponded with one unit volume of binder removed, indicating that no porosity developed. The escaping acetic acid effluents must diffuse through liquid polymer filled porous regions to escape. The gas pressure of the acetic acid species produced in the first stage of the thermal degradation may exceed the ambient pressure promoting bubble formation. Controlling the heating rate of the specimen maintains the gas pressure below the bubbling threshold and minimizes the degradation time. Experiments have determined the kinetics of the reaction in the presence of the high surface area (10-15msp2/g) ceramic powder and then verified that acetic acid was diffusing through the polymer phase to the specimen surface where evaporation is taking place. The sorption method measured the diffusivity and activity of acetic acid within the filled ceramic system within a TGA. These data were incorporated into a Fickian type model which included the rate of generation of the diffusing species. The modeling process involved prediction of the bloating temperature as a

  6. Feeding Your Baby in the NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use the combination of breast milk and formula, bottle-feeding and nursing that works best for you and ... the breast even if you supplement with a bottle-feeding afterwards, do so. Permit yourself room to experiment ...

  7. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  8. Effect of feed supplementation with phytohaemagglutinin in combination with a-ketoglutarate on growth and nitrogen elimination pathways in rats with acute renal failure induced by nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Rafat; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction:Phytomaemagglutinin (PHA) and alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) in growing rats stimulate a change in the proportion of N excretion via urine and faeces, in favour of faecal excretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect oforal supplementation of PHA and AKG on pathways of...

  9. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, an

  10. Viscoelastic models for explosive binder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardenhagen, S.G.; Harstad, E.N.; Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Foster, J.C. Jr. [Wright Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can he idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. This paper is a continuation of previous work in modeling polyurethane at moderately high strain rates and for large deformations. Simulation of a large deformation (strains in excess of 100%) Taylor Anvil experiment revealed numerical difficulties which have been addressed. Additional experimental data have been obtained including improved resolution Taylor Anvil data, and stress relaxation data at various strain rates. A thorough evaluation of the candidate viscoelastic constitutive model is made and possible improvements discussed.

  11. Curing Reaction Model of Epoxy Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Leilei; WANG Yaqi; SHEN Jialin

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the strength developing law of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a curing reaction model of the epoxy asphalt binder was proposed based upon the thermokinetic analysis.Given some assumptions,the model was developed by applying the Kissinger law as well as Arrhenius equation,and the differential scanning calorimetry was performed for estimating the model parameters.To monitor the strength development of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a strength test program was employed and then results were compared to those produced from the proposed model.The comparative evaluation shows that a good consistency exists between the outputs from test program and the proposed model,indicating that the proposed model can be used effectively for simulating the curing reaction process for the epoxy asphalt binder and predicting the strength development for the epoxy asphalt mixture.

  12. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-02-01

    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m2, it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa).

  13. Modular mobility investigation of polymer binder bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayupov, D.; Makarov, D.; Murafa, A.; Khozin, V.; Khakimullin, Y.; Sundukov, V.; Khakimov, A.; Gizatullin, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is aimed to obtain polymer binder bitumen for the road applications with improved properties. Objectives included studying the degradation of crumb rubber during devulcanization in melted petroleum bitumen for its modification and resulted structural properties of bitumen. Using equilibrium swelling technique reduced density of the polymer chains was observed and analysis of sol-gel fractions showed a significant decrease in gel fraction. Under selected method of devulcanization 64% of the backbone rubber remained. With The H1 NMR relaxation method the reduction of bitumen molecular mobility was observed due to thickening of its light fractions. The effectiveness of devulcanization was optimized using a new agent in a powder form and vacuum application. The developed binder has an improved spectrum of physical and technical properties such as softening point temperature, hardness, elasticity, frost resistance, low temperature characteristics.

  14. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss.

  15. Copper resistance in Enterococcus faecium, mediated by the tcrB gene, is selected by supplementation of pig feed with copper sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Kempf, I.; Chidaine, B.;

    2006-01-01

    The tcr gene cluster mediates in vitro copper resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Here we describe the selection of tcr-mediated copper resistance in E. faecium in an animal feeding experiment with young pigs fed 175 mg copper/kg feed (ppm), which is the concentration commonly used for piglets...... in European pig production. tcr-mediated copper resistance was not selected for in a control group fed low levels of copper (6 ppm). We also show coselection of macrolide- and glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium in the animal group fed the high level of copper. Finally, we identify the tcr genes...

  16. The effect of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on cardiometabolic health: Rationale, design, and methods of a controlled feeding efficacy trial in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie M; Davy, Brenda M; Halliday, Tanya M; Hulver, Mathew W; Neilson, Andrew P; Ponder, Monica A; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Prediabetes is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). An elevated lipopolysaccharide concentration, associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in the development of both T2D and CVD. Selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics reduces intestinal permeability and endotoxin concentrations, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in rodents. The effect of prebiotic supplementation on cardio-metabolic function in humans at risk for T2D is not known. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility in adults at risk for T2D. We hypothesize that prebiotic supplementation with inulin will improve insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. We will randomize 48 adults (40-75 yrs) with prediabetes or a score ≥ 5 on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk screener to 6 weeks of prebiotic supplementation with inulin (10 g/day) or placebo. Subjects will be provided with all food for the duration of the study, to avoid potential confounding through differences in dietary intake between individuals. Intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and fecal bacterial composition will be measured at baseline and following treatment. The identification of prebiotic supplementation with inulin as an efficacious strategy for reducing cardio-metabolic risk in individuals at risk of T2D could impact clinical practice by informing dietary recommendations and increasing acceptance of prebiotics by the scientific and medical community.

  17. High Performance Binder for EMCDB Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel block polymer has been synthesised from caprolactone using hydroxy terminated polybutadiene as ring opening initiator. Usefulness of this polymer as propellant binder has been studied by generating data on physico-chemical properties of the polymer. The polymer exhibited high miscibility with nitrate ester and high solid loading capability. Preliminary data generated on typical propellant formulation indicated higher performance as compared to composite propellant.

  18. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  19. Effect of supplementing sows' feed with alpha-tocopherol acetate and vitamin C on transfer of alpha-tocopherol to piglet tissues, colostrum, and milk: aspects of immune status of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli-Saavedra, A; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Hernández, J; Valenzuela, R; Scaife, J R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sows with alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA) and vitamin C on deposition of alpha-tocopherol (AT) in piglet lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, and spleen at birth and at weaning, as well as on indicators of immune response in piglets. Sows were given the following treatment diets: control, vitamin C 10 g/day, ATA 500 mg/kg feed, and combined vitamins (ATA 500+Vit-C 10). Supplementation with vitamins started at the beginning of pregnancy and lasted until weaning at 21+/-3 days of age. AT was determined in colostrum, milk, piglet plasma (cord blood) and tissues at birth and on day 21. Immunoglobulins were measured in piglet plasma, milk, and colostrum. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHA and ConA was determined in sow and piglet blood. ATA supplementation resulted in a significant increase (Ppiglet plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow, and spleen at weaning. The AT content of colostrum and milk significantly (Ppiglet plasma and tissues at weaning (day 21). Total Ig and IgG concentrations in piglet plasma were significantly increased in piglets given the combined vitamin treatment. No effect of AT supplementation was observed on IgG and IgA in colostrum and milk. In sows, vitamin C given alone significantly increased lymphocyte response to ConA and PHA; whereas, in piglets, there was no significant effect of treatments on lymphocyte response to PHA and ConA.

  20. Feed intake, growth, digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in young pigs as affected by dietary cation-anion difference and supplementation of xylanase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na K -Cl, mEq/kg diet) and xylanase addition on feed consumption, digestibility of nutrients, plasma electrolyte balance and growth performance in young pigs. A 2 3 factorial arrangement with three dietary CAD le

  1. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  2. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  3. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  4. Analysis of epidermal lipids in normal and atopic dogs, before and after administration of an oral omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid feed supplement. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Iuliana; Pin, Didier; Remoué, Noëlle; Remoué, Nathalie; Osta, Bilal; Callejon, Sylvie; Videmont, Emilie; Gatto, Hugues; Portoukalian, Jacques; Haftek, Marek

    2011-12-01

    Alterations of the lipid expression in the skin of human and canine atopic subjects may be one of the key factors in the disease development. We have analyzed the ultrastructure of the clinically uninvolved skin of atopic dogs and compared it with the lipid composition of their tape-stripped stratum corneum (SC). The effect of a 2 month treatment of atopic dogs by food supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids was evaluated on skin samples taken before and after the treatment period. Electron microscopy revealed that the non-lesional skin of atopic dogs exhibited an abnormal and largely incomplete structure of the lamellar lipids with little cohesion between the corneocyte strata. The SC of atopic dogs was characterized by a significant decrease in the lipid content when compared to the healthy controls. Following oral supplementation with the mixture of essential fatty acids, the overall lipid content of the SC markedly increased. This feature was observed both with the free and, most importantly, with the protein-bound lipids (cholesterol, fatty acids and ceramides), the latter constituting the corneocyte-bound scaffold for ordinate organisation of the extracellular lipid bi-layers. Indeed, the semi-quantitative electron microscopy study revealed that the treatment resulted in a significantly improved organization of the lamellar lipids in the lower SC, comparable to that of the healthy dogs. Our results indicate the potential interest of long-term alimentary supplementation with omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in canine atopic dermatitis.

  5. Binder content influences on chloride ingress in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; Jones, M.R.; McCarthy, M.J. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The reported study looked at the effect of reducing free water contents, and thereby binder contents, and thereby binder contents, on the ingress of chloride in concrete. Concretes with equal water/binder ratio (and design strength), but with water contents reduced by up to 30 liters/m{sup 3}, were tested for chloride diffusion (D) and penetration. The quality of the microstructure was inferred from initial surface absorption tests (ISAT). The results show no practical difference in chloride durability between the corresponding concretes, and that reducing the binder content, (providing that the water/binder ratio is maintained) is not likely to be detrimental. However, the results reported underline the importance of binder type, in this case PFA. Implications of the results are discussed and, in light of the findings, whether specifications which demand minimum cement contents are justified.

  6. Thermal debinding dynamics of novel binder system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继承; 黄伯云; 张传福; 刘业翔

    2001-01-01

    The thermal debinding dynamics of newly developed binders for cemented carbides extrusion molding was studied. It is shown that the thermal debinding processes can be divided into two stages: low temperature region, in which the low molecular mass components (LMMCs) are removed; and high temperature region, in which the polymer components are removed. The rate of thermal debinding is controlled by diffusion mechanism. The thermal debinding activation energies were solved out by differential method and integral method. The results show that the addition of other components acted as a catalyzer can effectively decrease the activation energy of thermal debinding processes.

  7. Sustainable binders for concrete: A structured approach from waste screening to binder composition development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinai, R.; Panagiotopoulou, C.; Soutsos, M.; Taxiarchou, M.; Zervaki, M.; Valcke, S.L.A.; Ligero, V.C.; Couto, S.; Gupta, A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Alvarez, I.L.; Coelho, D.; Branquinho, J.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the building sector requires the production of 4 billion tonnes of cement annually, consuming more than 40% of global energy. Alkali activated “cementless” binders have recently emerged as a novel eco-friendly construction material with a promising potential to replace ordinary Portland c

  8. The effect of birth weight and feeding of supplemental milk replacer to piglets during lactation on preweaning and postweaning growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, B F; Ellis, M; Corrigan, B P; DeDecker, J M

    2002-02-01

    The effects of piglet birth weight and liquid milk replacer supplementation of piglets during lactation on growth performance to slaughter weight was evaluated in a study carried out with 32 sows (PIC C-22) and their piglets (n = 384; progeny of PIC Line 337 sires). A randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. Treatments were birth weight (Heavy vs Light) and liquid milk replacer (Supplemented vs Unsupplemented). The study was divided into two periods. At the start of period 1 (birth to weaning), pigs were assigned to either Heavy or Light (1.8 [SD = 0.09] vs 1.3 kg [SD = 0.07] BW, respectively, P sex subclasses and placed in pens of four pigs. Pigs were given ad libitum access to diets that met or exceeded nutrient requirements. Pigs in heavy litters were heavier at weaning (6.6 vs 5.7 kg BW; SE = 0.14; P 0.05), and required seven fewer days (P 0.05) on growth performance from weaning to slaughter. However, pigs fed milk replacer required three fewer days (P 0.05) by either birth weight or milk replacer treatment. In conclusion, birth weight has a substantially greater impact on pig growth performance after weaning than increasing nutrient intake during lactation.

  9. Environmental assessment of Ronozyme (R) p5000 CT phytase as an alternative to inorganic phosphate supplementation to pig feed used in intensive pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. Ronozyme (R) P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can...... use for enzyme production is small and unimportant unless use of agricultural land is given very large relative weight. Recommendations and Perspectives. Hundreds of enzyme products are commercially available on the market today, each with a range of different applications. There are several...

  10. Environmental Assessment of Ronozyme® P5000 CT Phytase as an Alternative to Inorganic Phosphate Supplementation to Pig Feed Used in Intensive Pig Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Ronozyme® P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can be used as an alternative...... of agricultural land is given very large relative weight. Hundreds of enzyme products are commercially available on the market today, each with a range of different applications. There are several indications that enzymes like Ronozyme Phytase can play an important role in a transition to a more sustainable...

  11. Evolution of geopolymer binders: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, M. F.; Malkawi, A. B.; Fauzi, A.; Mohammed, B. S.; Almattarneh, H. M.

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to present the current state of research about the terminology, chemical reactions, mechanisms, and microstructure modelling of geopolymer binders. Modelling the structure of the geopolymerization products is essential for controlling the product properties. The currently available models have shown some limitations in determining the rate of geopolymerization and setting time of the gel. There is a need for deeper knowledge regarding the physicochemical analysis of geopolymer binders. Most of the available models have used pure material like metakaolin; however, the less pure materials are expected to have different mechanisms. The FTIR and MAS-NMR analysis are considered as effective tools in providing information on the molecular deviations during geopolymerization. However, XRD analysis is not effective because most of the changes take place in amorphous phases. Also, the role of the iron oxides and some of the other impurities still not clear where none of the previous method of investigation can be used to detect the molecular changes of the iron compounds. This issue is very relevant hence the iron oxides are existed in substantial amounts in most of the waste materials that are suitable to be used as geopolymer source materials.

  12. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  13. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  14. Environmentally Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Production of Portland cement (PC), the ubiquitous binding material for construction works, is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nearly half of these emissions arise from the decomposition of calcareous raw materials, and the other half from kiln fuel combustion and cement clinker grinding operations. As such, PC production contributes significantly to global warming and climate change. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower associated green house gas emissions. An important class of such binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders have very low CO2 emissions from grinding of the starting material, and some from the production of the activating chemical. The total CO2 emission from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/5th - 1/10th of those of Portland cement concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time makes their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Perlite is a volcanic aluminosilicate glass abundant in Turkey, China, Japan, the US and several EU countries. It has been used in its expanded form, for horticulture, for insulation, and for producing lightweight concrete. Turkish perlites contain more than 70 % SiO2, and have a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ~5.5. This study shows that ground perlite can be mixed with alkaline activators like sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate to yield mortars with strengths comparable to those of portland cement mortars. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in 24 h or less. Since perlite is natural, perlite geopolymers can have environmental, energetic, and

  15. Viscoelastic Behaviour of Solid Propellants based on Various Polymeric Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prabhakaran

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic mechanical properties of different binders and corresponding propellants are studied in terms of storage modulus and loss tangent. The binders investigated are HTPB, CTPB, PBAN, HEF-20 and ISRO polyol. The viscoelastic behaviour is investigated using Rheovibron viscoelastometer at 35 Hz covering a wide temperature range (-100 degree centigrade to 100 degree centigrade. The properties of the binder and corresponding propellant are compared in terms of parameters, tan delta/sub max/, T/sub g/ and the trend of their master relaxation modulus curves. It is found that polybutadiene binders exhibit lowest T/sub g/ (around -60 degree centigrade and ISRO polyol the highest (near -20 degree centigrade. The propellants have higher moduli than the binders at any temperature. The master relaxation modulus curve is influenced by the type of propellant.

  16. An Open Challenge Problem Repository for Systems Supporting Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Felty

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of logical frameworks support the use of higher-order abstract syntax in representing formal systems; however, each system has its own set of benchmarks. Even worse, general proof assistants that provide special libraries for dealing with binders offer a very limited evaluation of such libraries, and the examples given often do not exercise and stress-test key aspects that arise in the presence of binders. In this paper we design an open repository ORBI (Open challenge problem Repository for systems supporting reasoning with BInders. We believe the field of reasoning about languages with binders has matured, and a common set of benchmarks provides an important basis for evaluation and qualitative comparison of different systems and libraries that support binders, and it will help to advance the field.

  17. Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on insulin sensitivity indices in response to glucose feeding in lean and overweight/obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stuart D R; Craig, Thomas P; Cleland, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Infusion of carnitine has been observed to increase non-oxidative glucose disposal in several studies, but the effect of oral carnitine on glucose disposal in non-diabetic lean versus overweight/obese humans has not been examined. This study examined the effects of 14 days of L-carnitine L-tartrate oral supplementation (LC) on blood glucose, insulin, NEFA and GLP-1 responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Sixteen male participants were recruited [lean (n = 8) and overweight/obese (n = 8)]. After completing a submaximal predictive exercise test, participants were asked to attend three experimental sessions. These three visits were conducted in the morning to obtain fasting blood samples and to conduct 2 h OGTTs. The first visit was a familiarisation trial and the final two visits were conducted 2 weeks apart following 14 days of ingestion of placebo (PL, 3 g glucose/day) and then LC (3 g LC/day) ingested as two capsules 3×/day with meals. On each visit, blood was drawn at rest, at intervals during the OGTT for analysis of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Data obtained were used for determination of usual insulin sensitivity indices (HOMA-IR, AUC glucose, AUC insulin, 1st phase and 2nd phase β-cell function, estimated insulin sensitivity index and estimated metabolic clearance rate). Data were analysed using RMANOVA and post hoc comparisons where appropriate. There was a significant difference between groups for body mass, % fat and BMI with no significant difference in age and height. Mean (SEM) plasma glucose concentration at 30 min was significantly lower (p supplementation induces changes in blood glucose handling/disposal during an OGTT, which is not influenced by GLP-1. The glucose handling/disposal response to oral LC is different between lean and overweight/obese suggesting that further investigation is required. LC effects on gastric emptying and/or direct 'insulin-like' actions on

  18. Dilatometric examination of moulds with plaster binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concerning thermal expansion of moulding materials with plaster binder have been performed for two mixture compositionsof Authors’ own design, as well as for the material used in jewellery industry under the Prima-Cast trade name, and for ThermoMold 1200moulding material. The results of dilatometric examinations of these materials, carried out within the temperature range from about 20°Cto 650°C by means of the DA-3 automatic dilatometer, have been compared. An analysis of this comparison has revealed that it is thematrix composition which is decisive for the magnitude of dimensional changes of moulds, and that applying components which do notexhibit polymorphic transformations reduces dimensional changes of a mould during its thermal treatment.

  19. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  20. Diet adjustments of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joaquim A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.

  1. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  3. Produção de suínos inteiros com ou sem a suplementação de aminoácidos: desempenho e custo de alimento Production of entire male pigs with or without the supplementation of amino acids: performance and feed cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Valentim Porolnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho e o custo do alimento de suínos machos castrados e inteiros suplementados ou não com aminoácidos. Foram utilizados 48 animais com peso vivo inicial de 38,8±0,2kg, distribuídos num delineamento de blocos ao acaso em três tratamentos, sendo machos castrados (MC, machos inteiros (MI e MI suplementados com 5% de aminoácidos (MI+5%AA. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o peso vivo e o ganho de peso dos suínos. O consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e o custo do alimento diferiram (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and feed cost of barrows and boars fed or not with amino acid supplemented diets. Forty-eight animals were used with initial weight of 38.8±0.2kg distributed in a randomized block design with three treatments, being barrows males (CM, boars males (IM and IM supplemented with 5% of amino acids (IM+5% AA. The treatment had no effect on body weight and weight gain. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost were different (P<0.05 among treatments. Average feed intake was of 2.43kg, and the intake observed on CM (P<0.05 was higher at 5.5 and 5.2% in relation to IM and IM+5%AA, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was of 2.28, and the CM showed the worse conversion (P<0.05 at 6.2 and 11.6% in relation to IM and IM+5%AA, respectively. Average feed cost was of R$ 1,82kg-1, being higher (P<0.05 for the CM in relation to IM and IM+5%AA. The sex category (barrows or boars and amino acid supplementation did not affect body weight and weight gain, but alter feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost.

  4. New BioCo binders containing biopolymers for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of cross-linking of new polymer binders from the BioCo group, their hardening in moulding sands at the application of cross-linking agents both physical and chemical are presented. Their thermal stability was determined. It was proved, that moulding sands bound by the BioCo binders are characterised by the compression strength (Ruc of an order of 2 MPa, and the bending strength (Rug of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of a sample curing. The worked out BioCo binders are biodegradable and renewable in the part which was not completely burned. The investigated moulding sands with the BioCo binders are easily knocked out and have a good susceptibility for mechanical reclamation processes.

  5. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Seshadri; M Selvaraj; R Kesava Moorthy; K Varatharajan; M P Srinivasan; K B Lal

    2003-02-01

    The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature. The binder plays an important role in that it not only helps in adjustment of sol viscosity but also helps in binding the sol particle with porous support. Here a comparative study on the role of different binders, viz. polyvinyl alcohol, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylamide, effect of their viscosity and surface tension effect on the morphology of the titania membrane is presented. The results show that among the three binders studied polyvinyl alcohol gave rise to membranes of desired characteristics when the sol viscosity was 0.08 pa.s.

  6. THE USE OF METAL PHOSPHATE BINDER AND SAND IN FOUNDRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Illarionov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some features of the use of mixtures of metal phosphate binder and management principles of their properties for production of castings of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys were shown.

  7. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...... behavior of copper and iron based binder for diamond cutting wheels is investigated experimentally and numerically. Computational micromechanical studies were carried out to clarify the mechanisms of the MWCNT material strengthening. It is demonstrated that the adding of MWCNTs leads to the decrease...... of grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  8. Development of bio-sourced binder to metal injection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Alexandre; Barrière, Thierry; Gelin, Jean-Claude

    2016-10-01

    In the MIM process the binder play the most important role. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture for injection molding and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part, must be easy to be removed from the molded part, and must be the recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical ones. The goal of this study is to develop a binder environmentally friendly. For this, a study of formulation based on polyethylene glycol, because of is water debinding properties, was made. Polylactic acid and Polyhydroxyalkanoates were investigated as bio sourced polymers. The chemical, miscibility and rheological behavior of the binder formulation were investigated.

  9. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...... with or without the abdominal compression binder. The results show that the compression binder significantly increases the venous volume in the lower extremities as showed by a reduction in the venous capacitance in the lower extremities and a reduction in the stroke volume and cardiac output, while it does...... not influence the pulmonary volumes. It is concluded that the applied abdominal binder significantly affects peripheral and central haemodynamics. It should therefore be used with caution when in the supine position for longer periods, as the pooling of blood it induces in the lower extremities may have...

  10. Impact of Binder Composition on Inkjet Printing Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the impact of different binder mixtures on the performances of paper surface and printability. The coating properties were studied with the chosen silica pigment, and the binder consisted of vinyl acetate copolymer and polyvinyl alcohol with different ratios, followed by the measurement of smoothness, whiteness, and surface strength. The inkjet image quality was assessed using water-based inks. The print density, dot gain, and line quality were analyzed. The results showed that the surface performance and printability were affected by the composition of the binder. With the decrease of vinyl acetate copolymer and the increase of polyvinyl alcohol, the surface smoothness and strength decreased, and the penetration and diffusion of the ink changed as well. When the binder mixture was used with proper ratio, a larger solid density, smaller dot gain, and higher definition can be achieved, which were better than using either one of them alone.

  11. Rheological Evaluation of Polymer Modiifed Asphalt Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; CHANG Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and dynamic rheological characteristics of asphalt containing different polymer modifiers (crumb rubber, styrene-butadiene-styrene and crumb rubber mix with styrene-butadiene-styrene) at mid and high service temperature levels were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) and repeat creep test. The main objective of the investigation was to rank the modifiers based on their effect on performance characteristics of asphalt under service conditions. To evaluate the effect of different modiifers on the viscoelastic response of asphalt, the temperature and frequency dependences of the dynamic viscoelastic properties were compared. The mid-temperature fatigue resistance and high-temperature rutting resistance of three polymer modiifed asphalts were evaluated to predict their ifeld performance in roads. Based on the current results, an improved rutting factor was proposed to determine the rutting resistance of asphalt pavements. In addition, the viscous stiffness (Gv), deifned as the reciprocal of viscous compliance, was used to evaluate the high-temperature deformation resistance of asphalt mixtures. The experimental results indicate that the asphalt containing crumb rubber only shows superior performance at mid and high service temperatures in all three modiifed asphalt binders due to the action of the crumb rubber.

  12. THE STUDY OF CORE SAND MIXTURES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Natalia V. Zakharova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using foamed polystyrene waste as the binder in manufacturing core sand mixtures. The article provides experimental data obtained by studying the core sand mixtures properties depending on the methods of addition, foamed polystyrene solution amount, its viscosity and the method of drying. The author investigates the ways of using foamed polystyrene as the binder and as the polymeric additive.

  13. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Realizing of Optimization of Binder Backfill Material Under Certain Strength with Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明义; 胡华

    2001-01-01

    The main factors deciding the compressive strength of binder backfill body are tailing density and binder dosage in binder backfill materials. Based on the antecedent of certain pulp density, the method of increasing the tailing density and reducing the binder dosage, or the manner of cutting down the tailing density and gaining the binder dosage are taken to guarantee the strength of backfill body. The problem that should be solved is how to determine the tailing density and the binder dosage rationally. This paper tries to realize the correct selection of the tailing density and the binder dosage in computer with the method of fuzzy mathematics.

  15. A Granule Model for Evaluating Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Orafai

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Granule capability is defined in terms of the strength of individual granule and friability of granulation batch to withstand breaking, abrasion and compactibility. Binder(s are added to perform the above properties .The common methods to asses their capability are to test crushing strength of the granules directly and to make statistical analysis and /or testing the friability of bulk granulation. In this work four substrate models including polymethylmetacrylate beads(PMMA,glass powder, acetaminophen, and para-aminobebzoic acid were chosen. The binder models were corn starch, gelatin, methylcellulose (MC and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC. After massing the substrates with the binder solutions, discs were produced by the mean of the mold technique. The discs were dried and conditioned and then tested for tensile strength while the failed areas were scanned by SEM. Various granulations were made and the results of friability and crush strength were compared with the discs strength .The bond areas in the SEM showed the trend with the binder concentration .A comparison of the standard deviation shows that discs have much lower level of the strength than granules. The resulting discs showed a higher performance which is related to the stems for the discs shape .In conclusion, this method is a simple and is applicable to differentiate efficacy of binder under studies.

  16. A novel screening system for claudin binder using baculoviral display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kakutani

    Full Text Available Recent progress in cell biology has provided new insight into the claudin (CL family of integral membrane proteins, which contains more than 20 members, as a target for pharmaceutical therapy. Few ligands for CL have been identified because it is difficult to prepare CL in an intact form. In the present study, we developed a method to screen for CL binders by using the budded baculovirus (BV display system. CL4-displaying BV interacted with a CL4 binder, the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE, but it did not interact with C-CPE that was mutated in its CL4-binding region. C-CPE did not interact with BV and CL1-displaying BV. We used CL4-displaying BV to select CL4-binding phage in a mixture of a scFv-phage and C-CPE-phage. The percentage of C-CPE-phage in the phage mixture increased from 16.7% before selection to 92% after selection, indicating that CL-displaying BV may be useful for the selection of CL binders. We prepared a C-CPE phage library by mutating the functional amino acids. We screened the library for CL4 binders by affinity to CL4-displaying BV, and we found that the novel CL4 binders modulated the tight-junction barrier. These findings indicate that the CL-displaying BV system may be a promising method to produce a novel CL binder and modulator.

  17. Aqueous Tape Casting Process with Styrene-acrylic Latex Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xue-min; OUYANG Shi-xi; HUANG Yong; YU Zhi-yong; ZHAO Shi-ke; WANG Chang-an

    2004-01-01

    A commercial styrene-acrylic latex binder has been investigated as a good binder for aqueous Al2O3 suspensions tape-casting process. This paper focuses on the forming film mechanism of latex binder, the rheological behaviors of the suspensions, physical properties of green tapes and drying process of aqueous slurries with latex binder system. The drying process of the alumina suspensions is shown to follow a two-stage mechanism (the first stage: evaporation controlled process; and the second stage: diffusion controlled process). During the drying stage of the suspensions, the compressive force presses the latex particles and makes them be distorted, which results in cross-linking structure in contacted latex particles of the solidified tapes.A smooth-surface and high-strength green tape was fabricated by aqueous tape casting with latex binder system. The results from the SEM images of the crossing section microstructure of green tapes show that the latex is a very suitable binder for aqueous tape casting.

  18. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  19. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  20. Development of an innovative bio-binder using Asphalt-rubber technology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This research work evaluates several parameters that can affect Asphalt Rubber (AR) binder performance and applies the AR technology to the development of an innovative renewable bio-binder that can fully and cost-effectively replace asphaltic bitumen derived from petroleum in flexible pavement construction. The “Binder Accelerated Separator” method was used to divide the constituents of the Asphalt Rubber and bio-binder (residual binder and swelled rubber). The physical and chemi...

  1. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrmann Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM, because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as

  2. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on feeding tolerance In infants undergoing surgery%静脉补充谷氨酰胺对外科手术新生儿喂养耐受的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 陶晔璇; 蔡威; 汤庆娅; 冯一; 吴江

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价含丙氨酰谷氨酰胺(Ala-Gin)肠外营养(PN)对接受外科手术新生儿喂养耐受的影响.方法 对两家儿童医疗中心2006年1月至2007年1月收治的40例接受外科手术的新生儿进行研究,采用平行、随机、双盲、对照实验,随机分为常规PN组(对照组)和常规PN+Ala-Gln组(研究组),二组各20例,对照组氨基酸的剂量为2~3g·kg-1·d-1;研究组添加0.3g·kg-1·d-1 Ala-Gln双肽,其中Ala-Gln双肽取代了处方中相应氨基酸的量.首要终点指标为术后开始喂养时间,术后达到全肠内喂养天数(标准配方摄入量≥120 ml·kg-1·d-1)、完全脱离肠外营养时间和病死率.结果 研究组和对照组比较,患儿术后开始喂养时间[研究组(8±4)d,对照组(8±5)d]、术后达到全肠内喂养天数[研究组(14±8)次,对照组(15±7)次]以及完全脱离肠外营养时间[研究组(15±8)d,对照组(16±7)d]差异均无统计学意义.对照组有3例死亡,研究组患儿无死亡,病死率通过非意向性分析,二组比较差异有统计学意义,OR值为0.789,95%CI为0.626~0.996.但是通过意向性分析,OR值为0.706,95%CI为0.136~3.658,病死率比较差异没有统计学意义.结论 本研究显示,静脉补充谷氨酰胺未能使接受外科手术的新生儿减少术后开始喂养时间和术后达到全肠内喂养天数,缩短全肠外营养应用时间;但关于是否能够降低患儿病死率,通过意向性分析和非意向性分析的结果有差异,尚需进一步研究.%Objective To assess the effects of parenteral nutrition (PN) with glutamine supplementation on feeding tolerance in infants undergoing surgery. Methods We preformed a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, clinical trial to assess the effects of PN supplemented with glutamine in infants undergoing surgery. Forty infants at two children centers were randomly assigned to either a control group (sPN; the dosage of amino acid according to Chinese guidelines for the

  3. Supplementation of a maternal low-protein diet in rat pregnancy with folic acid ameliorates programming effects upon feeding behaviour in the absence of disturbances to the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeham, Sarah F; Haase, Andrea; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with altered feeding behaviour in later life. When allowed to self-select their diet, rats subject to prenatal undernutrition show an increased preference for fatty foods. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of folic acid in the maternal diet to programming of appetite, since disturbances of the folate and methionine-homocysteine cycles have been suggested to impact upon epigenetic regulation of gene expression and hence programme long-term physiology and metabolism. Pregnant rats were fed diets containing either 9 or 18 % casein by weight, with folate provided at either 1 or 5 mg/kg diet. Adult male animals exposed to low protein (LP) in fetal life exhibited increased preference for high-fat food. Providing the higher level of folate in the maternal diet prevented this effect of LP, but offspring of rats fed 18 % casein diet with additional folate behaved in a similar manner to LP-exposed animals. Among day 20 gestation fetuses, it was apparent that both protein restriction and maternal folate supplementation could have adverse effects upon placental growth. Examination of methionine-homocysteine and folate cycle intermediates, tissue glutathione concentrations and expression of mRNA for methionine synthase, DNA methyltransferase 1 and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase revealed no gross disturbances of folate and one-carbon metabolism in either maternal or fetal tissue. The present findings indicated that any role for DNA methylation in programming of physiology is not related to major perturbations of folate metabolism, and is likely to be gene-specific rather than genome-wide.

  4. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... additives in amounts above those needed for adequate nutrition and health maintenance for the species at its... additives, and feed supplements in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act....

  5. Interfacial reaction in squeeze cast SiCw/AZ91 composites with different binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The whisker/matrix interfaces in squeeze cast SiCw/AZ91 composites with different binders (silica binder, acid aluminum phosphate binder and without binder), were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The SiCw/AZ91 interface is very clean in the composites with no binders. For the composites with acid aluminum phosphate binders or silica binders, there exists fine discrete interfacial reaction products MgO at the interface, and a definite orientation relationship between MgO and SiCw. The interfacial reaction products MgO is unevenly distributed at different parts of the composite ingot with silica binder, and mainly distributed to the interface at the side part of the composite cylinder. While in the SiCw/AZ91 composite with acid aluminum phosphate binder, MgO particles are distributed evenly at the interface in almost all the parts of the composite ingot.

  6. The addition effects of macro and nano clay on the performance of asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shafie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the addition effect of macro and organically modified nanoclay on the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt binders. Both macroclay and modified nanoclay were blended in an asphalt binder in various percentages (starting from 2% to 8%. The blended asphalt binders were characterized using kinematic viscosity (C.st, softening point (°C, and penetration and compared with anunmodified binder. The tensile strength of the asphalt binders was also tested as a function of clay types and content%. The results of the study indicated an increase in softening point; kinematics viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. The tensile strength of modified clay binders was enhanced at all percentages by a comparison with both macroclay and unmodified binders. The best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 6% nanoclay.

  7. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  8. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  9. Permeability analysis for thermal binder removal from green ceramic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeong Woo

    2007-12-01

    The permeability of unlaminated and laminated green tapes was determined as a function of binder content for binder removed by air oxidation. The tapes are comprised of barium titanate as the dielectric, and polyvinyl butyral and dioctyl phthalate as the main compoents of the binder mixture. The flow in porous media through the tapes was analyzed in terms of models for describing Knudsen, slip, and Poiseuille flow mechanisms. The characteristic pore size was determined to be 0.5-2 mum and thus Poiseuille flow was the dominant transport mechanism contributing to the flux. The permeability was then determined from Darcy's law for flow in porous media. The permeability was also determined from micro-structural attributes in terms of the specific surface, the pore fraction, and terms to account for tortuosity and constrictions. The permeability and adhesion strength of laminated green ceramic tapes were determined as a function of lamination conditions of time, temperature, and pressure.

  10. Nanocrystalline WC with non-toxic Fe-Mn binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemiaszko, Dariusz [Military University of Technology, Department of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, ul. Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Rosinski, Marcin; Michalski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    Cemented carbides, based on the tungsten carbide (WC), are very popular and useful in an industry. The most important metal us as a binder in this kind of materials is cobalt. It has many advantages as a binder: very good wettability, favourable solubility with WC and thermal conductivity similar to WC. However, cost of cobalt is very high because of its low natural resources. Cobalt is not also neutral for health. It is known as an allergen and same research shown that it could cause a cancer. This paper presents results of sintering the tungsten carbides with Fe-Mn alloys as the binders. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  12. Investigating the Use of Polymeric Binders in Twin Screw Melt Granulation Process for Improving Compactibility of Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Amol; Desai, Dipen; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the melt granulation for pharmaceutical products was performed at low temperature (twin screw extruder where the processing temperature could be increased to as high as 180°C and polymers with high Tg could be used as binders. In this study, different polymeric binders were screened for their suitability in improving compactibility of 2 drugs, metformin hydrochloride and acetaminophen, by twin screw melt granulation. Processing temperatures for the 2 drugs were set at 180°C and 130°C, respectively. Screw configuration, screw speed, and feed rate were optimized such that all polymeric binders used produced granules. Several hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and methacrylate-based polymers, including Klucel(®) EXF, Eudragit(®) EPO, and Soluplus(®), demonstrated good tablet tensile strength (>2 MPa) when granules were produced using only 10% wt/wt polymer concentration. Certain polymers provided acceptable compactibility even at 5% wt/wt. Thus, twin screw melt granulation process may be used with different polymers at a wide range of temperature. Due to low excipient concentration, this granulation method is especially suitable for high-dose tablets.

  13. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  14. Influence of conductive additive on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少鹏; 李波; 陈筝; 黄旭

    2008-01-01

    The effects of graphite on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders were investigated by penetration test,Ring & Ball softening point test and viscosity test.And penetration index(IP),viscosity-temperature susceptibility(SVT),and penetration-viscosity numbers(NPV) were introduced to evaluate the effects.The results show that the penetration,softening point and viscosity of asphalt binder increase with the increase of content of graphite.This means that the addition of graphite makes asphalts stiffer.The results from IP,NPV and SVT show that temperature susceptibility is reduced by the addition of graphite.

  15. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel.

  16. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  17. Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of recent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floege, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is treated by dietary measures, dialysis techniques and/or phosphate binders. For the present review PubMed was searched for new publications on phosphate binders appearing between January 2010 and October 2015. This review summarizes the latest information on non-pharmacological measures and their problems in lowering phosphate in CKD patients, effects of phosphate binders on morbidity and mortality, adherence to phosphate binder therapy as well as new information on specific aspects of the various phosphate binders on the market: calcium acetate, calcium carbonate, magnesium-containing phosphate binders, polymeric phosphate binders (sevelamer, bixalomer, colestilan), lanthanum carbonate, ferric citrate, sucroferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum-containing phosphate binders, and new compounds in development. The review also briefly covers the emerging field of drugs targeting intestinal phosphate transporters.

  18. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  19. Effects of binders on the performance of electric double-layer capacitors of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chensha; WANG Dazhi; ZHANG Baoyou; WANG Xiaofeng; CAO Maosheng; LIANG Ji

    2005-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitor (EDLCs) were made from carhon nanotubes. Effects of different binders, which are phenolic resin (PF) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), on the properties of polarizable electrodes are studied. Results indicate that the microstructure, pore size distribution and specific capacitance of the electrodes with PTFE binder are superior to those electrodes with PF binder after carbonization. The suitable binder (PTFE) for carbon nanotubes electrodes is proposed.

  20. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Mette Helene; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics w...

  1. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  2. Multimodality and Immigrant Children (Response to Marni Binder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campano, Gerald; Low, David

    2011-01-01

    This response to Marni Binder reflects upon two examples of (im)migrant children's artwork and challenges the dominant notion that (im)migration experiences--and their subsequent portrayals--can be fit into neat slots. The authors position multimodal composing opportunities as affording children a vital instrument for deploying their full semiotic…

  3. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... chapter. (b) Insurance risks. Insurance risks covered by the terms of the standard form of war risk hull... insurance additional to the war risk hull insurance provided under this subpart, and payment of claim......

  4. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  5. Effects of density and feed supplement on layer production and yolk cholesterol under grazing conditions%放养条件下密度和补饲量对蛋鸡生产性能及蛋黄胆固醇含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉; 孙宝盛; 孙熠; 卢营杰; 李建慧; 张俊珍

    2014-01-01

    Although the birth of ecological chicken industry was greeted with great enthusiasm, unreasonable feeding density has largely killed plant cover, exposed hill slopes bare and damaged the ecology. How to use the land resource and shade environment under trees has become a major problem requiring an urgent solution. A total of 441 healthy 45-week-old layer hens were randomly divided into 7 groups to study the effects of density and feed supplement rate on layer production and yolk cholesterol content under grazing conditions. Hens of groups 1ԟ6 were reared under jujube/alfalfa wood. Treatments were set at feed supplement rates of 50%and 70%of free ingestion and at densities of 100, 250 and 400 hens per 667 m2. The 7th group of hens was reared in cages with free ingestion. Each plot area was 62 m2, 3 replicas set up for each group and 3 plots of each group used for rotation grazing. Preliminary trial period was 7 days while normal trial period was 70 days. The results showed that while density and feed supplement interaction had significant effects on egg laying rate (P0.05). However, in cage-reared hens with free ingestion, egg laying rate was significantly higher than in other treatments (P>0.05), egg weight significantly higher than in 50%feed supplement with density of 100 hens per 667 m2 (P>0.05), and feed/egg ratio significantly lower than in 50%feed supplement with density of 100 hens per 667 m2 (P 0.05). However, hen density had significant effect on egg cholesterol content (P0.05)。笼养+自由采食组(CK)与补饲量70%、100只·667m−2组蛋重、平均产蛋率及料蛋比差异不显著(P>0.05),但产蛋率显著高于其他各组(P0.05);放养密度对全蛋胆固醇含量影响极显著(P<0.01)。笼养+自由采食组蛋黄重极显著高于补饲量50%、100只·667m−2组(P<0.01),蛋黄胆固醇含量和全蛋胆固醇含量显著高于100只·667m−2组(P<0.05)。补饲量70%下,100只·667m−2放养密度对牧草的破坏性

  6. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not getting the whole story about how supplements work, if they are really effective, and the risks you take by using them. Androstenedione and DHEA ... like testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart ... height. Natural steroid supplements can also cause breast development ...

  7. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  8. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  9. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X......-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to identify the chemical changes occurring in the PUF binder coated mineral fibres and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres during that ageing. The samples were aged in a climate...... of amide, methylene ether and methylene linkages between urea groups present in the PUF binder. In the case of the alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres, both XPS and ToF-SIMS techniques consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of the alkanol...

  10. Sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais Feeding systems and oyster shell meal supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Emygdio de Faria

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar diferentes sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos, determinados constituintes sangüíneos, e sobre a disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo dietéticos, em 120 galinhas Lohmann LSL, com 70 semanas de idade, distribuídas em 20 unidades experimentais com seis aves cada. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: sistemas de alimentação (ad libitum e jejum das 7 às 18 h e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras (0 e 6,5 g/ave/dia, totalizando quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada. Os resultados mostraram menor consumo de ração para as galinhas submetidas à restrição alimentar. Produção, peso e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar, porcentagem de casca, espessura de casca, densidade aparente dos ovos e os coeficientes de disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o fornecimento de ração após às 18 h e a suplementação de casca de ostras não se mostraram vantajosos para o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different feeding schedule and oyster shell supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality, determined blood constituents, and on the calcium and phosphorus apparent availability using 120 laying hens Lohmann LSL, aged 70 weeks, distributed in 20 experimental units with six hens each. A completely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2: feeding systems (ad libitum and fasting from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. and oyster shell meal supplementation (0 and 6.5 g/hen/day, totalizing four treatments with five replicates each. The results showed smaller feed intake with fasting. The characteristics egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed:gain ratio, shell percent, shell thickness, egg

  11. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  12. A Double-Blind, Randomised, Controlled Trial to Study the Effects of an Enteral Feed Supplemented with Glutamine, Arginine, and Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Predicted Acute Severe Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum B Pearce

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Context :Current best evidence is in favour of early institution of enteral feeding in acute severe pancreatitis with promising results from trials in immunonutrition on other patient groups. Objective: To identify which groups of patients and products are associated with benefit, we investigated immunonutrition in patients with predicted acute severe pancreatitis. Design :A randomised trial of a study feed containing glutamine, arginine, tributyrin and antioxidants versus an isocaloric isonitrogenous control feed was undertaken. Patients: Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis predicted to develop severe disease: 15 study feeds and 16 control feeds. Interventions: Enteral feeding via nasojejunal tube for 3 days. If patients required further feeding the study was continued up to 15 days. Main outcome measures :Reduction in Creactive protein (CRP by 40 mg/L after 3 days of enteral feeding was the primary endpoint. Carboxypeptidase B activation peptide (CAPAP levels were taken at regular intervals. Results :After 3 days of feeding, in the study group 2/15 (13% of patients had reduced their CRP by 40 mg/L or more. In the control group 6/16 (38% of patients had reduced their CRP by this amount. This difference was found to be near the statistical significant limit (P=0.220. Conclusions :The cause of the unexpectedly higher CRP values in the study group is unclear. The rise in CRP was without a commensurate rise in CAPAP or outcome measures so there was no evidence that this represented pancreatic necrosis. The contrast between the CRP and CAPAP results is of interest and we believe that specific pancreatic indices such as CAPAP should be considered in larger future studies.

  13. Effects of co-cultured fish species combination and formulated feed supplement on phytoplankton community in the enclosures with inte-grated culture of freshwater pearl mussel and fishes%不同鱼类混养组合与饲喂方式对鱼蚌综合养殖水体浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金玉; 王岩; 戴杨鑫; 李由明

    2014-01-01

    利用三角帆蚌(Hyriopsis cumingii)、草鱼(Ctenoparyngodon idellus)、银鲫(Carassius gibelio)、鲢(Hypopthalmic-hthys molitrix)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)构建鱼蚌综合养殖系统,通过155 d围隔(面积32 m2)实验检验两种鱼类组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙或鲢+鳙)和两种饲喂方式(投喂或不投喂配合饲料)对浮游植物群落结构的影响。采用2×2设计,设4个处理: GISB-F(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)、GISB-NF(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)、SB-F(鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)和SB-NF(鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)。每个围隔内三角帆蚌、草鱼、鲫、鲢和鳙的放养量分别为20、15、5、5和5 ind。结果表明,各处理围隔内浮游植物生物量平均值为3.7×108~6.0×108 cell·L–1。改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式对浮游植物种类组成、优势种优势度、群落多样性、生物量以及浮游植物生物量中蓝藻的比例无显著影响,但投喂配合饲料导致叶绿素 a 增加。浮游植物实验前期主要优势种为十字藻属(Crucigenia)和栅藻属(Scenedesmus)种类,后期为平裂藻属(Merismopedia)和微囊藻属(Microcyslis)种类,表明浮游植物群落演变具有明显的季节性特点以及优势种逐渐演化为蓝藻的规律。水温、氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数对浮游植物群落结构具有显著影响。各处理围隔内氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数均随时间延长而增加,说明改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式不会影响围隔内蓝藻水华发生的趋势。%A 155-day enclosure experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of co-cultured fish species combina-tion (either the combination of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, gibel carp Carassius gibelio, silver carp Hypoph-thalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis or the combination of silver carp and bighead carp) and formulated feed supplement regime (with or without feed supplement) on phytoplankton community in

  14. Análise dos teores de ácidos cianídrico e fítico em suplemento alimentar: multimistura Analysis of hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents in feeding supplements: multimixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Helbig

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou quantificar o teor de ácido cianídrico em folhas de mandioca, que receberam tratamento prévio antes da secagem, e a concentração de ácido fítico na multimistura submetida à cocção úmida. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a multimistura produzida pela Pastoral da Criança da cidade de Pelotas (RS, constituída por: farelos de trigo (30% e arroz (30%: farinhas de milho (15% e trigo (10%; pós de casca de ovo (5%, de folha de mandioca (5% e de sementes (5%, abóbora ou girassol. Foi realizada orientação ao fornecedor da folha de mandioca sobre a forma recomendada de preparo antes da secagem. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de ácidos cianídrico e fitatos no suplemento alimentar foram respectivamente de 85mg.kg-1 e 35.90mg.100-1. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que a mudança na forma de secagem das folhas de mandioca foi eficiente para a redução de glicosídeos cianogênicos, e que o processo de torrefação dos ingredientes foi suficiente para produzir a redução de ácido fítico da multimistura aos níveis preconizados pela legislação, não sendo observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes quando comparadas as amostras que também foram tratadas com calor úmido.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves that were treated before drying and the concentration of phytic acid in a multimixture submitted to wet cooking. METHODS: The multimixture produced by the Pastoral da Criança of the city of Pelotas (RS consisting of wheat flour (30%, rice flour (30%, corn flour (15%, wheat (10%, egg shell powder (5%, cassava leaves (5% and pumpkin or sunflower seeds (5% was used. The supplier was advised on how to process the cassava leaves before drying them. RESULTS: The hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents of the feeding supplement are 85mg.kg-1 and 35.90mg.100-1 respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing the way the cassava leaves were dried was efficient to reduce

  15. Effects of Fibre Additive on the High Temperature Property of Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Polyester fibre and floc xylogen fibre were used to prepare fibre-asphalt binder.An SHRP's dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was employed to investigate the rheology charac teristics of fibre-asphalt binder, andthe flow resistance of binder was revealed by combining the rutting parameter, G * / sinδ.The results indicate that both kinds of fibres remarkably improved the high temperature pe~orrnance of asphalt binder.At the same time, the reinforcement mechanism of the fibres in the asphalt binder was also analyzed.

  16. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Chaimoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historical background, reaction mechanisms and reaction products. The similarities and differences of both binders are discussed. The application to environmental engineering on hazardous waste management using stabilization/solidification is also described.

  17. Effect of modified humic acid binder on pelletisation of specularite concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周友连; 张元波; 刘兵兵; 李光辉; 姜涛

    2015-01-01

    A modified humic acid (MHA) binder was tested as a substitute for bentonite to prepare qualified specularite pellets. The results show that there is stronger chemisorption between organic functional groups in MHA binder molecular and specularite particles, improving the green pellet strength. MHA binder has obvious effect on the strength and microstructure of preheated pellets due to the thermal decomposition of organic matters in MHA binder. Appropriately increasing preheating temperature or time can eliminate the adverse impact of organic matters on the preheated pellet strength. Compared with the bentonite pellets, the roasted pellets with MHA binder have a more compact microstructure, and the recrystallization of the Fe2O3 crystal grains is better. Consequently, under optimal conditions, 0.75%(mass fraction) MHA binder pellets have equal or better pellet strengths and contain 1.06%more total iron than 2%bentonite pellets. The testing results indicate that MHA binder is a promising and effective alternative to bentonite for the specularite pellets.

  18. Hygroscopicity -resistant mechanism of an α -starch based composite binder for dry sand molds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia ZHOU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity-resistance of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds (cores has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Focus is placed on the relationship between the hardening structure and humidity-resistance of the composite binder. The results show that the α-starch composite binder has good humidity-resistance due to its special complex structure. SEM observations illustrate that the composite binder consists of reticular matrix and a ball- or lump-shaped reinforcement phase, and the specific property of the binding membrane with heterogeneous structure is affected by humidity to a small extent. Based on the analyses on the interplays of different ingredients in the binder at hardening, the structure model and hygroscopicity-resistant mechanisms of the hardening composite binder were further proposed. Moreover, the reasons for good humidity-resistance of the composite binder bonded sand are well explained by the humidity-resistant mechanisms.

  19. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not help. Always tell your provider and pharmacist if you are taking extra calcium. Calcium supplements ... 2012:chap 251. The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF). Clinician's Guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis . National ...

  20. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  1. Studies on organic binders with high infrared transparency*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Cheng-Wu; Zhou Hao-Shen; Chen Ming-Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that two kinds of polymers with high infrared transparency and good mechanical and physical properties have been prepared. An internal standard method is used to evaluate the infrared transparency of the binders.The physical and mechanical properties of the binders are measured according to corresponding standards. The results show the absorbance of polymer A in 8-14 μm range is 26% that of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and polymer B is 9% that of the EVA correspondingly. The film of polymer A shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 2. The film of polymer B shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 1.

  2. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  3. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  4. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Mohsen, Q.; El-maghraby, A.

    2014-06-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  5. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser Y.Mostafa; Q.Mohsen; A.El-maghraby

    2014-01-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  6. Optimization of propellant binders - part I: statistical methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehaus, Michael; Greeb, Olaf [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie, D-76327 Pfinztal (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    The development of new propellant binder systems requires the thermodynamic calculation of physico-chemical data as well as the adaption of the mechanical properties in order to achieve a reliable innerballistic profile of the resulting propellant. However, in most cases the mechanical data may not be easily predicted due to the complex interactions between the components of the binder like the resin, the curing agent or possibly plasticizers and curing catalysts. Therefore, this study focusses on the capability of the multivariate analysis on the prediction of the E-modulus of a system comprising nitrocellulose as well as GAP, Desmodur N100 and an energetic plasticiser. Using this method, an equation has been derived which, within the regression intervall, may be used for the prediction of the E-modulus as a function of the components mentioned above. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. A binder phase of TiO based cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-kui; GUAN Shao-kang; ZHONH Hui; LI Jiang; ZHONG Hai-yun

    2005-01-01

    A binder phase of TiO based cermets, a kind of imitated gold materials, was developed by adding active element Si to Fe-Cr alloy, and the related mechanisms were studied. The wettability, matching in thermodynamics and interfacial strength were investigated by the high temperature sessile drop method and element area scanning. The linear expansion coefficients of the materials were measured using TAH100 thermal analyzer. The results show that the wettability of Fe-Cr alloy on TiO are small, with a wetting angle about 90°. After adding some Si in Fe-Cr alloy, its wetting angle can be decreased to about 25°, the interfacial reactions can be prevented effectively and high interface binding can be formed. Fe-25%Cr-1.5%Si matches the thermal expansion coefficient of TiO, so it is a kind of relatively perfect binder for TiO based cermets imitated gold.

  8. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  9. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  10. Complementary Feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    or sugar-sweetened beverages should be avoided. Vegan diets should only be used under appropriate medical or dietetic supervision and parents should understand the serious consequences of failing to follow advice regarding supplementation of the diet. METHOD: Parents should be encouraged to respond...

  11. Preparation of carbon brushes with thermosetting resin binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon brushes with a resin binder were prepared according to an industrial process and the effects of the molding pressure, grains size and cure temperature on the properties of brush samples were discussed. The results show that the bulk density,bending strength and Rockwell hardness increase, while resistivity decreases with increasing molding pressure. Cure temperature has much more influence on the properties of brushes than molding pressure and grains size. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) was used to estimate the degree of cure of resin binder and a novel method of using the true density to measure the degree of cure of resin binder was presented and discussed briefly. Based on optimal process parameters carbon brushes were manufactured, durability tests for brushes were carried out on an alternate current motor and scanning electron microscope(SEM)was adopted to observe the morphology of worn surface of brushes. The results show that a luster oxide film can be formed on the surface of brushes and their service life reaches 380 h.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Stabilised Polybutadiene Binder under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Cannaval Sbegue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polybutadiene elastomers are versatile materials, being employed at several applications from rocket propellant binder to adhesives and sealants. The elastomers derived from hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene are usually stabilised with antioxidants to prevent degradation. In this study, a comparative assessment among 2,2’-methylene-bis (4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol (AO2246, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, p-phenylenediamine (pPDA, and triphenylphosphine (TPP regarding stabilisation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder under accelerated ageing (six months at 65 °C was carried out. Evaluation of antioxidants effectiveness was examined through Oxidation Induction time, sol/gel extraction, swelling and mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, and mass variation measurement. AO2246 yielded the best performance, meanwhile BHT was poorly protective. TPP acted as prooxidant, causing a severe degradation of the binder, and pPDA was not manageable to be assessed due to the lower curing degree of the resulted polyurethane.

  13. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... makes the product for more information. Report false advertising to the Federal Trade Comission (FTC). www.ftc. ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  14. Respuesta productiva de becerros en pastoreo de praderas de pangola, suplementados con alimento comercial y harina de Cacahuananche (Gliricidia sepium - Productive response the calf in grazing of pangola grass sward supplemented with commercial feed and Cacahuananche flour (Gliricidia sepium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, Herminio Aniano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa investigación se realizó en Santiago Llano Grande, Oaxaca, México,con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta productiva, el consumo desuplemento, cambios de peso vivo (PV de becerros y relaciónbeneficio:costo (RBC por efecto de la suplementación en condiciones de pastoreo.SummaryThe trial was carried out in Santiago Llano Grande, Oaxaca, México, with the objective of determine the productive response, the supplement intake, live weight changes, benefict:cost ratio, for effect of the supplementation.

  15. Calcium salts of keto-amino acids, a phosphate binder alternative for patients on CAPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, M; Coronel, F; Navarro, J F; Gallego, E; Herrero, J A; Méndez, M L; Chahin, J; García, J

    1997-09-01

    Control of hyperphosphoremia is crucial to the prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcium salts of keto-amino acids (KAA) were employed as phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients. We wanted to assess the efficacy of these substances as quelating agents in patients under continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Also, as an amino acid supplement, we determined their possible effect on some parameters related to nutritional status. We studied 13 patients (7 M; 6 F) with a mean age of 45.2 +/- 17 years and a mean time on CAPD of 18.4 +/- 11.4 months. None had severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and/or clinically relevant aluminium intoxication. They were not receiving calcitriol and none were using low-calcium peritoneal dialysis fluids. All were under aluminum hydroxide (AlOH3) treatment and 8 patients also received calcium carbonate. These quelating agents were withdrawn and after 21 days (wash-out period) KAA were initiated. We analyzed serum levels of bone metabolism parameters (calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin [OC], intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH], alkaline phosphatase [AP]) and nutritional parameters (total protein, albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin) in four periods: (A) during AlOH3; (B) immediately after the washout period; (C) after 1.5 months; and (D) after 3 months of KAA therapy. In 5 patients serum aluminum level was also measured in periods (A) and (D). The serum phosphate level at period (B) was significantly higher than in other periods. After 3 months of treatment phosphate levels decreased significantly (A = 1.77 +/- 0.3 mmol/l vs D = 1.48 +/- 0.2; p < 0.05). Serum calcium levels increased, while iPTH and OC decreased (p = ns). AP remained stable during the study. All nutritional parameters increased at the end of the study (p = ns). Calcium salts of keto-amino acids showed to be an effective alternative to aluminum-containing phosphate binders. They were well tolerated, without relevant side-effects. These compounds could also

  16. Application of a bio-binder as a rejuvenator for wet processed asphalt shingles in pavement construction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the merits of application of bio-binder to enhance rheological properties of asphalt binder in the presence of wet processed recycled asphalt shingles (RAS). It will further examine the performance and workability of asphalt designed with and without a specified percentage of a bio-binder produced from swine manure and RAS. Bio-binder was introduced to liquid asphalt binder modified with four different percentages of RAS; the high and low temperature properties of each...

  17. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n ...

  18. Why is the electroanalytical performance of carbon paste electrodes involving an ionic liquid binder higher than paraffinic binders? A simulation investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatee, M H; Namvar, S; Zolghadr, A R; Moosavi, F

    2015-10-14

    Recently, carbon paste electrodes (CPE) fabricated using an ionic liquid (IL) binder have shown enhanced electroanalytical performance over conventional paraffinic binders. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of graphite mixed with ionic liquid and with paraffin binder can unravel the potential atomistic factors responsible for such enhancement. Based on an experimentally optimized binder/graphite mass ratio, which has been reported to be crucial for such a performance, comprehensive simulations (at 323 K) are performed with the ensembles involving an ionic liquid binder (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim]PF6) and a paraffin binder (n-C20H42) mixed with graphite comprising large-size hexagonal-shaped double graphene plates. Structural analysis indicates both binders form only a monolayer on the graphite surface, covering the surface locally by IL but all-encompassing by paraffin. With charged and uncharged graphite, the IL monolayer tends to cover mainly the graphite center without approaching the edge planes. On the contrary, a monolayer of the paraffin binder covers uniformly the center, near the center, and the edge planes. Cations and anions of the IL form well-defined two dimensional pentagonal matrixes with characteristic high adsorption energy, almost 2.4 times higher than paraffin adsorption. The cation and anion coordination ability of the IL is responsible for such a local distribution. The simulation of these phenomena under experimental conditions unravels strong two-dimensional coordination properties inherent to the ionic liquid when distributed over the graphite surface. This direct MD simulation comparison of the IL properties with an organic liquid counterpart, made for the first time, can be used to explain the high electroanalytical performance (electron transfer) of CPEs involving an IL binder over paraffin binders.

  19. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  20. Binder fraction reduction in non-ferrous metals concentrates briquetting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jodkowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results on a method of reducing the amount of binder applied during formation of metal concentrates are presented. Research was done on a model copper concentrate, which was mixed in assumed mass fraction with binder, as well as binder with addition of waste polyols. Such mixtures were formed and tested using static compressive strength, both immediately after forming and after the assumed seasoning times: 24, 96, 192 and 336 hours. The results confirm the possibility of binder dose lowering using high-efficiency system of binder dispersing with small addition of waste polyols and by homogeneous mixing of the binder with the material. In all examined cases increase in seasoning time influenced mechanical strength of the formed shapes advantageously.

  1. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  2. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  3. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmetally DurableThermal Control Material Systems. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase I proposal will develop new binder systems through the systematic investigations to tailor required unique performance properties and...

  4. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  5. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Biotechnologically engineered protein binders for applications in amyloid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Christian; Fändrich, Marcus

    2014-10-01

    The aberrant self-assembly of polypeptide chains into amyloid structures is a common phenomenon in several neurodegenerative diseases, systemic amyloidosis, and 'normal' aging. Improvements in laboratory-scale detection of these structures, their clinical diagnosis, and the treatment of disease likely depend on the advent of new molecules that recognize particular states or induce their clearance in vivo. This review will describe what biotechnology can do to generate proteinaceous amyloid-binders, explain their molecular recognition mechanisms, and summarize possibilities to functionalize further these ligands for specific applications.

  7. Chitosan chemical hydrogel electrode binder for direct borohydride fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, Nurul A.; Sahai, Yogeshwar; Buchheit, Rudolph G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-01-15

    A novel and cost-effective electrode binder consisting of chitosan chemical hydrogel (CCH) is reported for direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs). The DBFCs have been assembled with Misch-metal-based AB{sub 5} alloy as anode, carbon-supported palladium (Pd/C) as cathode and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel membrane electrolyte (PHME) as well as Nafion {sup registered} -117 membrane electrolyte (NME) as separators. Operating in passive mode without using peristaltic pump and under ambient conditions of temperature as well as pressure, the DBFC exhibited a maximum peak power density of about 81 mW cm{sup -2}. (author)

  8. Protective Influence of Gamma Rays and Electron-Beam Irradiation with a Commercial Toxin Binder on Toxic Effects of Aflatoxin B1 in Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hasanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effect of γ-rays and electron-beam irradiation with a commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX on the performance, feed components, and meat quality of Japanese quails challenged with aflatoxin B1. Methods: Overall, 168 One-d-old chicks (Japanese quails were allocated to eight treatments with three replicates based on a completely randomized design in a 2×4 factorial arrangement. Two levels of aflatoxin (Zero and 2 ppm were considered as the essential factor. The secondary factor was involved in four levels (Control, 27 k Gy doses of γ-rays, electron-beam irradiation, and 0.3% commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX. Results: In vitro condition showed that experiment diets do not have any effect on meat quality and feed components such as malondialdehyde, protein, fat, ash, and the dry matter. However, the highest and the lowest levels of feed intake and body weight gain were observed in the 7th treatment (2-ppm aflatoxin B1 + electron-beam irradiation and the 2nd treatment (2-ppm aflatoxin B1 alone, respectively in 1-15 and 29-42 days (P≤0.05. In addition, the highest liver weight (1.73, spleen (0.57 and bursa (0.18 were seen in the second treatment (2 ppm aflatoxin B1 alone (P≤0.05 at the age of 42 days. Conclusion: γ-rays and electron-beam irradiation plus commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX can be used for aflatoxin B1 absorption in poultry diets.

  9. Effect of different binders and encapsulation techniques in the structure and functional properties of microdiets for fish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grenha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of micro diets, for fish larvae, has been a major challenge in past years; however some problems remain without a resolution. Besides its tremendous growth rates, at early developmental stages, fish larvae present an immature digestive system and a progressive metamorphic process that suggest special nutritional requirements. It is therefore essential to provide fish larvae with easy and/or quickly metabolized protein sources, like protein hydrolisates, high bioavailable forms of vitamins and trace minerals. The low molecular weight of such compounds, in association to the high surface area of the micro-particles, makes them highly soluble and prone to water leaching losses. These nutrient losses, not only makes these nutrients unavailable to the larvae, but originate an important increase of organic matter in the rearing tanks, leading to detrimental water quality criteria. The development of high-performing micro-particulate diets for fish larvae requires a delicate balance between an adequate quantitative and qualitative nutritional supply and good water stability of the feeds, without compromising the palatability and the digestive breakdown. A series of binders, protein-based (e.g. fish gelatin, wheat gluten, spray-dried plasma and carbohydrate-based (gums, alginates, pectins, starches, dextrin, polyols were incorporated at graded levels (1, 2.5 and 5% in a standard formulation for seabream larvae. Diets were manufactured by a proprietary low-shear extrusion process and afterwards processed to obtain a 200-400 micron fraction. All diets were analyzed for the following criteria: water leaching of nitrogenous compounds, turbidimetry and particle water stability. An additionally approach relied on the use of various encapsulation techniques (spray-drying, fluid-bed drying and vacuum coating to incorporate trace minerals (Zn and Mn and amino acids (taurine, lysine and methionine. Technological results show that the beneficial

  10. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  11. 肠内补充谷氨酰胺对喂养不耐受早产儿胃肠激素的影响%Influence of Glutamine Supplemented in Enteral on Gastrointestinal Hormones of Feeding Intolerance Premature Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顺何; 杨秀芬; 白文; 叶英伟

    2016-01-01

    目的::探讨口服谷氨酰胺对喂养不耐受早产儿胃肠激素的影响。方法:对60例有喂养不耐受的极低出生体重儿,随机分为对照组及观察组各30例。对照组每次喂奶前30min口服或鼻饲依托红霉素,观察组在对照组基础上加予口服谷氨酰胺,在治疗前后检测两组病例的血清GAS、血浆MOT水平。结果:两组患儿治疗后的血浆MOT、血清GAS平均水平比治疗前显著升高(P<0.05),观察组血浆MOT、血清GAS平均水平比对照组升高显著(P<0.05)。结论:口服谷氨酰胺可提高喂养不耐受极低出生体重儿血清GAS、血浆MOT水平,促进早产儿胃肠功能的成熟。%Objective:To investigate the effect of oral glutamine on feeding intolerance in preterm infants 'gastrointestinal hormone.Methods:60 cases of feeding intolerance infants with very low birth weight were randomly divided into control group and observation group with 30 cases in each group.The control group re-ceived oral or nasal feeding erythromycin estolate n30min.before feeding.The observation group were treated with oral glutamine based on the treatment of the control group.Then check the serum GAS and plasma MOT levels of two groups before and after treatment.Results:Plasma MOT and level of serum GAS of the two groups after treatment in children were significantly higher than that before treatment (P<0.05).Plas-ma MOT and serum GAS levels of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Oral glutamine can improve plasma MOT serum GAS for the feeding intoler-ance infants with very low birth and can promote gastrointestinal function in premature children.

  12. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Binders for Solid Composite Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A new family of polymeric binders for solid composite propellants is proposed, based on two component interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs. These networks comprise two different polyurethanes based on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene and ISRO polyol interpenetrated with two different vinyl polymers, viz poly methyl methacrylate and polystyrene. the networks synthesized by the simultaneous interpenetrating technique have been characterized for their properties, such as stress-strain, density, viscosity, thermal degradation, and heat of combustion. Phase morphologies have been determined using electron microscopy. Suitable explanations have been adduced to rationalize the properties of IPNs in terms of their structures and chain interactions. A study of the mechanical properties and burning rates of the ammonium perchlorate (AP-based solid propellant using the newly synthesised IPNs as binders, has been carried out. The results show that both mechanical strength and burning rate of solid propellants could be suitably modified by simply changing the nature and/or the ratio of the two interpenetrating polymer components.

  13. Rheological evaluation of polymer-modified asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Romero Santos Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most used polymer for asphalt binder modification is the thermoplastic elastomer styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and aromatic oil is commonly added to the mixtures to improve their compatibly. This paper proposes the use of oil shale from sedimentary rock as a compatibilizer agent for polymer-modified asphalt binder (PMB. PMBs were produced by mixing a bitumen with a linear SBS copolymer (3.5% (w.w-1 using two oil shale contents (2 and 4% and petroleum aromatic oil to evaluate comparatively the effect of the compatibilizer agent on the SBS PMB properties. The rheological characteristics of the SBS PMBs were analyzed in a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and the morphology accessed by fluorescence optical microscopy. The viscoelastic behavior of the samples corroborated the results for the classical properties and varied according to the sample morphology and composition. The results indicate that the aromatic and shale oils have similar effects on the microstructure, storage stability and viscoelastic behavior of the PMBs. Thus, shale oil could be successfully used as a compatibilizer agent without loss of properties or could even replace the aromatic oil. Following the Superpave methodology it was observed that the linear- and radial-SBS PMBs and linear-SBS PMB with 2% of shale oil can be used up to 70 °C, and the linear-SBS PMBs with 4% of shale oil or 2% of aromatic oil can be used only up to 64 °C.

  14. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  15. Emissions of tar-containing binders: field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugener, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mattrel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the measurement of emissions during field construction of asphalt pavements using tar-containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), which is known to release harmful substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). At three different test sites, the main emission sources were identified and the total emission rates of fumes and PAHs of the paving process were determined. For this purpose, the paver was temporarily enclosed. While the screed area was the main emission source, the hopper area and freshly compacted pavement were also significant. In comparison with previous laboratory tests, the binder composition and the resulting emissions were comparable, except for Naphthalene. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a representative for carcinogenic PAHs was identified as a good leading compound, correlating well with the toxicity weighted sum of PAHs. In contrast, the unweighted, mass related sum of all EPA PAHs does not seem to be a good parameter to assess workplace concentrations because emissions by mass are dominated by the less hazardous 2-, 3- and 4-ring PAHs. Workplace concentrations for bitumen fumes and PAHs were below limit values in all three field studies. However, the margin was not large and the field tests were done under favourable meteorological conditions. Therefore, we suggest maintaining the current Swiss limit of 5000 mg EPA-PAH per kg binder in the RAP-containing hot mix.

  16. Comparison of three patterns of feed supplementation with live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on postweaning diarrhea, health status, and blood metabolic profile of susceptible weaning pigs orally challenged with Escherichia coli F4ac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Colombo, M; Priori, D; Fontanesi, L; Galimberti, G; Calò, G; Motta, V; Latorre, R; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Pagotto, U; Gherpelli, Y; D'Inca, R; Bosi, P

    2015-05-01

    The development of effective feeding strategies to reduce the detrimental effect of enterotoxigenic F4ac (ETEC) plays a crucial role in reducing the occurrence of therapeutic intervention with antibiotics in livestock. The ability of CNCM I-4407 (SCC), supplied in different patterns to counteract ETEC infection in weaned pigs, was evaluated. Fifty pigs weaned at 24 d were then divided into 5 groups: control (CO), CO + colistin (AB), CO + 5 × 10(10) cfu of SCC/ kg feed, from d 0 to 21 (PR), CO + 5 × 10(10) cfu of SCC/ kg feed from d 7 to 11 (CM), and CO + 1 shot of 2 × 10(11) cfu of SCC when the first diarrhea appeared (CU). On d 7 postweaning, all the pigs were orally challenged with 10(8) cfu of ETEC. Blood samples were taken from the pigs (d 7, 8, 12, and 21) while the fecal excretion of ETEC was assessed on d 7 and 10. Fecal consistency was scored from 12 h before infection to 144 h postinfection (p.i.). On d 21, the pigs were sacrificed. The in vitro adhesion test on the intestinal villi confirmed individual susceptibility to ETEC, excluding the presence of resistant pigs. Growth performance did not differ between the treatments. Mortality was reduced in the AB group (PYeast administration reduced the fecal score when compared to the CO group 12 and 48 h p.i. (P = 0.04). Total IgA never differed among the treatments, but the ETEC-specific IgA concentration was lower in the AB group than in CO (P = 0.04) at d 12. Four days p.i., the pigs fed live yeast had reduced ETEC excretion compared with the CO pigs (P = 0.05). Blood concentrations of dodecenoyl-L-carnitine (P yeast, even in concomitance with ETEC infections, reduces pig illness and mortality. The strain of SCC tested did not show a therapeutic effect.

  17. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Effects of binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; NuLi, Yanna; Su, Shuojian; Yang, Jun; Wang, Jiulin

    2017-02-01

    A comparative study on the effects of different binders on the electrochemical performance of rechargeable magnesium batteries with Mo6S8 cathode is conducted for the first time. The selected binders are commercial organic-soluble polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), gelatin, sodium alginate (SA) and Beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The binders significantly affect the physical properties, thus the electrochemical performance of Mo6S8 cathode. Compared with those using traditional PVDF binder, Mo6S8 electrodes with PAA and PVA exhibit enhanced cycling stabilities and rate capabilities, which are attributed to the improved cohesion among the electrode constituents and adhesion between the electrode laminate and the current collector. In addition, the anodic stability of these binders is not only related to the chemical structure of binders, but also to the uniformity of electrode surface. SA binder shows low anodic stability duo to containing easily oxidized groups. Non-uniform electrode surface decreases the anodic stability of PVDF based Mo6S8 electrode. Gelatin can be used as a binder in the formulation of high voltage cathodes for rechargeable magnesium batteries.

  19. Setup of Columellar Height with Costal Cartilage Graft Modification in a Patient with Binder Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak Uygur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Binder syndrome is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the nose and maxilla and altered morphology of the associated soft tissue. We present a surgical technique for setting up the columellar height in a patient with Binder syndrome.

  20. The influence of metakaolin substitution by slag in alkali-activated inorganic binders for civil engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.; Rieger, D.; Kovářík, T.; Novotný, P.; Franče, P.; Pola, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study the effect of metakaolin replacement by milled blast furnace slag in alkali-activated geopolymeric binder was investigated in accordance to their rheological and mechanical properties. It was demonstrated that slag addition into the metakaolin binder can improve mechanical properties of final products. Our investigation was focused on broad interval of metakaolin substitution in the range from 100 to 40 volume per cents of metakaolin so that the volume content of solids in final binder was maintained constant. Prepared binders were activated by alkaline solution of potassium silicate with silicate module of 1.61. The particle size analyses were performed for determination of particle size distribution. The rheological properties were determined in accordance to flow properties by measurements on Ford viscosity cup and by oscillatory measurements of hardening process. For the investigation of hardening process, the strain controlled small amplitude oscillatory rheometry was used in plane-plate geometry. For determination of applied mechanical properties were binders filled by ceramic grog in the granularity range 0-1 mm. The filling was maintained constant at 275 volume per cents in accordance to ratio of solids in dry binder. The mechanical properties were investigated after 1, 7 and 28 days and microstructure was documented by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that slag addition have beneficial effect not only on mechanical properties of hardened binder but also on flow properties of fresh geopolymer paste and subsequent hardening kinetics of alkali-activated binders.

  1. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.15 Non-premium insurance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-premium insurance-payment of...-premium insurance must be accompanied by the proper binder, payable to the FAA. A binder is not...

  2. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  3. Investigation of binder distribution in graphite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcus; Pfaffmann, Lukas; Jaiser, Stefan; Baunach, Michael; Trouillet, Vanessa; Scheiba, Frieder; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm; Bauer, Werner

    2017-02-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is evaluated regarding its applicability for revealing the binder distribution in lithium-ion battery electrode films. Graphite anodes comprising carbon black and PVDF binder are subject to varying drying conditions during solvent removal in order to adjust different binder distributions; fluorine is used as a marker for the presence of PVDF. For electrodes of about 70 μm thickness the fluorine concentration is detected at the surface of the electrode film as well as at the interface between electrode film and current collector foil. It is clearly visible by EDS that increasing drying temperatures (and drying rates) result in an accumulation of binder at the surface and a corresponding depletion at the interface. It is demonstrated on the basis of ion-milled cross-sections of thick electrodes (ca. 400 μm) that a quantitative mapping of the binder distribution delivers additional information about concentration gradients in dependence of the drying parameters.

  4. Development of partitioning method: adsorption behavior of Sr on titanic acid pelletized with binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Morita, Yasuji; Yamagishi, Isao; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kubota, Masumitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-05-01

    The adsorption behavior of Sr was examined with the titanic acid with the binder and with binderless titanic acid. Then the effect of the difference of the neutralizer was also examined. When the initial concentration of Sr was constant, distribution coefficient (Kd) increased with pH after adsorption. At pH 4, Kd decreased in order of the titanic acid neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution without the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution and pelletized with the binder > the titanic acid neutralized with KOH solution and pelletized with the binder. At pH 6, Kd decreased with increasing the concentration of Sr in the solution, but the decreasing tendency of Kd for each titanic acid was the same. Adsorption kinetics was examined with titanic acids neutralized with NH{sub 4}OH solution, keeping the initial concentration of Sr and the initial pH constant. It took about one hour to reach Kd of 100mL/g for the titanic acid without the binder but over 10 hours for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder. It was confirmed that by pelletizing titanic acid with the binder, Kd of Sr became small and it took very long time to reach the adsorption equilibrium. However, by sufficient conditioning with water of the titanic acid pelletized with the binder, 1) it took about half time of titanic acid without conditioning to reach Kd of 100mL/g, 2) after 24 hours mixing, Kd for the titanic acid pelletized with the binder was almost equal to that for the titanic acid without the binder, 3) apparent ion exchange capacity obtained through a column test became over about 1meq/g. (J.P.N.)

  5. Thermal Degradation Studies of A Polyurethane Propellant Binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assink, R.A.; Celina, M.; Gillen, K.T.; Graham, A.C.; Minier, L.M.

    1999-06-12

    The thermal oxidative aging of a crosslinked hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) based polyurethane rubber, used as a polymeric binder in solid propellant grain, was investigated at temperatures from 25 C to 125 C. The changes in tensile elongation, polymer network properties and chain dynamics, mechanical hardening and density were determined with a range of techniques including modulus profiling, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation and O{sub 2} permeability measurements. We critically evaluated the Arrhenius methodology that is commonly used with a linear extrapolation of high temperature aging data using extensive data superposition and highly sensitive oxygen consumption experiments. The effects of other constituents in the propellant formulation on aging were also investigated. We conclude that crosslinking is the dominant process at higher temperatures and that the degradation involves only limited hardening in the bulk of the material. Significant curvature in the Arrhenius diagram of the oxidation rates was observed. This is similar to results for other rubber materials.

  6. Pharmaceutical equivalence of metformin tablets with various binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Block

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Metformin hydrochloride is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. As it is highly crystalline and has poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop adequate metformin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product, Glucophage® (marketed as Glifage® in Brazil. Metformin 500mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with various binders (A = starch, B = starch 1500®, C = PVP K30®, D = PVP K90®. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and dissolution profile (basket apparatus at 50 rpm, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The 4 formulations, F1 (5% A and 5% C, F2 (5% B and 5% C, F3 (10% C and F4 (5% D, demonstrated adequate uniformity of content, hardness, friability, disintegration and total drug dissolution after 30 minutes (F1, F2 and F4, and after 60 minutes (F3. The drug release time profiles fitted a Higuchi model (F1, F2 and F3, similarly to the pharmaceutical reference, or a zero order model (F4. The dissolution efficiency for all the formulations was 75%, except for F3 (45%. F1 and F2 were thus equivalent to Glifage®. Keywords: dissolution; metformin; tablet; binder; pharmaceutical equivalence

  7. RELATIVE DOSING OF PHOSPHATE BINDERS FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PHOSPHATE AND PROTEIN INTAKE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brian Copley

    2012-06-01

    The availability of binding capacity data for P binders, presents physicians with the possibility of tailoring doses of binder to a patient’s diet, facilitating sufficient intake of dietary protein while maintaining a neutral P balance. Use of high-capacity binders, such as lanthanum carbonate, would minimize the tablet burden faced by patients and this may also encourage adherence.

  8. 75 FR 34361 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Florfenicol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... drug application (NADA) filed by Intervet, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides for the manufacture of... INFORMATION: Intervet, Inc., 56 Livingston Ave., Roseland, NJ 07068, filed a supplement to NADA 141-264 for... that provides for the manufacture of Type B medicated swine feeds. The supplemental NADA is approved...

  9. Effect of concentrate supplementation on feed consumption, nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in captive spotted deer (Axis axis) fed oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, C; Das, A; Katole, Shrikant; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, D

    2013-03-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of a maize-soybean meal-wheat bran concentrate supplement fed to captive spotted deer fed an oat and berseem fodder-based diet. Twelve adult spotted deer [64-76 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into three groups of four each and were housed individually. A diet consisting of 5 kg of oat fodder and 5.5 kg of berseem fodder was offered to each one of the experimental animals. The animal in group I received no supplementary concentrate, whereas, those in groups II and III received 0.5 and 1 kg of supplementary concentrate, respectively. A 60 days digestibility trial was conducted with a 5 days collection period on Days 55-59 of the trial. Blood samples were collected from all animals on Day 60 of the experiment. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) was 1,224, 1,613, and 1,574 g/day in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was lowest (P < 0.01) in group I. Intake of P, Cu, and Zn was highest (P < 0.01) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was highest (P < 0.05) in group II. Digestibility of OM and CP was lowest (P < 0.05) in group I. Digestibility of gross energy was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (74.9%), followed by groups II (69.3%) and I (66.2%). Digestible energy (DE) intake (kcal/kg BW(0.75) ) was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (195.4), followed by groups II (180.9) and I (129.8). Initial BW was 72.7, 72.5, and 71.0 kg, whereas, final BW was 71.0, 72.7, and 73.5 kg, in groups I, II and III, respectively. Average daily change in body mass was significantly (P < 0.01) different among the groups. The body mass was lost (-29.2 g/day), maintained (4.1 g/day) and gained (41.6 g/day) in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Blood glucose and cholesterol concentration was highest (P < 0.05) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Serum concentration of Cu and

  10. 补饲饲粮添加叶酸对放牧断奶藏猪仔猪生长性能的影响%Effects of Add Folic Acid in Supplemental Feed on Production Performance in Grazed Weaned Piglets of Tibetan Boar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金英; 陈晓英; 谭占坤; 宋天增; 任子利

    2016-01-01

    为研究补饲饲粮中适宜的叶酸添加水平对放牧断奶藏猪仔猪生产性能的影响,选择体重(6.07±0.09) kg、健康无病的2月龄放牧断奶藏猪仔猪150头,随机分为6组,每组5个重复,每个重复5头猪。对照组补饲饲粮中不添加叶酸,5个试验组补饲饲粮中分别添加叶酸1 mg/kg、3 mg/kg、5 mg/kg、7 mg/kg和9 mg/kg。试验猪按照农牧民放牧习惯每天白天自由放牧,晚上收牧后自由采食精料颗粒料。试验期35 d。试验当日为第0天。试验猪于试验第7天、第14天、第28天和第35天9:00—9:30进行称重,并记录试验期猪的腹泻和死亡情况。结果表明,1 mg/kg叶酸组、3 mg/kg叶酸组、5 mg/kg叶酸组,同一阶段随着添加量的增加,放牧断奶藏猪仔猪增重效果明显;但是,随着添加量进一步的增加(7 mg/kg叶酸组、9 mg/kg叶酸组),放牧断奶藏猪仔猪增重效果变差。5 mg/kg添加组腹泻率最低且无仔猪死亡。综合考虑,放牧断奶藏猪仔猪补饲饲粮中适宜的叶酸添加量为5 mg/kg。%This study was conducted to investigate the effects of add folic acid in supplemental feed on produc-tion performance in grazed weaned piglets of Tibetan boar. Body appearance is close, healthy without disease 150 grazed weaned piglets of Tibetan Boar aged 2 months and weighing (6.07±0.09) kg were selected. They were divided into 6 groups randomly, each replicate with 5, 5 pigs in one replicate. Without adding folic acid in the control group, added folic acid levels are differen(0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 7 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg) in experimental treatment group. According to farmers and herdsmen grazing habits during the day free grazing to the test groups, grazing after the evening to give a certain supplement feeding, feeding of fine feed for the free feed, the test period of 35 d. Test day for 0th days, in the morning 9:00—9:30, each test group of grazing wean-ing pigs

  11. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    , metal, gritty, consistence and ability to drink 150 ml (one glass), and the patients arranged the drinks in order of preference. Results: The sensory qualities differed significantly concerning sweet (p...Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss....... Objective: We wanted to investigate taste preferences and sensoric characteristics among three usually used ONS in patients with malignant haematological disease during cytotoxic treatment. Design: Tested drinks were: Protin® (protein-enriched-milk, ARLA), Nutridrink® (NUTRICIA) and hospital-produced drink...

  12. Application of Microbial Biopolymers as an Alternative Construction Binder for Earth Buildings in Underdeveloped Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth buildings are still a common type of residence for one-third of the world’s population. However, these buildings are not durable or resistant against earthquakes and floods, and this amplifies their potential harm to humans. Earthen construction without soil binders (e.g., cement is known to result in poor strength and durability performance of earth buildings. Failure to use construction binders is related to the imbalance in binder prices in different countries. In particular, the price of cement in Africa, Middle East, and Southwest Asia countries is extremely high relative to the global trend of consumer goods and accounts for the limited usage of cement in those regions. Moreover, environmental concerns regarding cement usage have recently risen due to high CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, biopolymers have been introduced as an alternative binder for soil strengthening. Previous studies and feasibility attempts in this area show that the mechanical properties (i.e., compressive strength of biopolymer mixed soil blocks (i.e, both 1% xanthan gum and 1% gellan gum satisfied the international criteria for binders used in earthen structures. Economic and market analyses have demonstrated that the biopolymer binder has high potential as a self-sufficient local construction binder for earth buildings where the usage of ordinary cement is restricted.

  13. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ertuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and strength. The results indicate that a higher viscosity of binder leads to a higher viscosity and suspensibility of slurry with the same powder/binder ratio. The retention rate and thickness of primary layer increase with an increase in the viscosity of the slurry, and a higher retention rate is associated with a thicker primary layer. The gel velocity of the slurry is correlated with the gel velocity of the binder. The green strength and the baked strength of the primary layer are determined by the properties of the binder after gel and by the production of the binder after fired, respectively.

  14. Time-dependent deformation behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride binder: Implications on the mechanics of composite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santimetaneedol, Arnuparp; Tripuraneni, Rajasekhar; Chester, Shawn A.; Nadimpalli, Siva P. V.

    2016-11-01

    The majority of existing battery models that simulate composite electrode behavior assume the binder as a linear elastic material due to lack of a thorough understanding of time-dependent mechanical behavior of binders. Here, thin films of polyvinylidene fluoride binder, prepared according to commercial battery manufacturing method, are subjected to standard monotonic, load-unload, and relaxation tests to characterize the time-dependent mechanical behavior. The strain in the binder samples is measured with the digital image correlation technique to eliminate experimental errors. The experimental data showed that for (charging/discharging) time scales of practical importance, polyvinylidene fluoride behaves more like an elastic-viscoplastic material as opposed to a visco-elastic material; based on this observation, a simple elastic-viscoplastic model, calibrated against the data is adopted to represent the deformation behavior of binder in a Si-based composite electrode; the lithiation/delithiation process of this composite was simulated at different C rates and the stress/strain behavior was monitored. It is observed that the linear elastic assumption of the binder leads to inaccurate results and the time-dependent constitutive behavior of the binder not only leads to accurate prediction of the mechanics but is an essential step towards developing advanced multi-physics models for simulating the degradation behavior of batteries.

  15. Effects of co-cultured fish and feed supplement on water chemistry characteristics of freshwater pearl mussel farming%不同混养鱼类和投喂方式对鱼蚌综合养殖水体化学特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴杨鑫; 王岩; 唐金玉; 李由明

    2013-01-01

      选用草鱼(Ctenoparyngodon idellus)、银鲫(Carassius gibelio)、鲢(Hypopthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)作为本研究的混养鱼类,通过围隔实验检验了不同混养鱼类组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙或鲢+鳙)和配合饲料投喂方式(投喂或不投喂)对三角帆蚌(Hyriopsis cumingii)养殖水体化学特征的影响,实验为期155 d.结果表明,实验设计的混养鱼类组合可显著影响鱼蚌综合养殖水体的 Ca2+、总碱度(Alk)、总硬度(HT)和总磷(TP)水平;投喂配合饲料可显著影响 Ca2+、Alk、HT、氨氮(TAN)、TP 和化学耗氧量(CODMn).采用混养组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙)且投喂配合饲料的围隔内溶氧(DO)水平和透明度(SD)较低, Ca2+、HT、TN、TP、TAN 和 CODMn 水平较高;采用混养组合(鲢+鳙)且不投喂的围隔内 DO 和 SD 水平较高,而 Ca2+、HT、TN、TP、TAN 和 CODMn 水平较低.随养殖时间延长,各组围隔内 Ca2+水平下降, TN、TP、TAN 和 CODMn 水平升高.实验期间, DO 与 SD 水平呈正相关; DO 和 SD 与 TAN、TN、TP、Ca2+和 CODMn 水平呈负相关.因此,鱼蚌综合养殖中,控制 CODMn 和 TAN 浓度,维持 Ca2+稳定及较高的 DO 水平是水质管理的基本目标.%Integrated culture is widely used in freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii) farming; however, water chemistry characteristics relating to H. cumingii farming are poorly understood. To assess the effects of co-cultured fish (grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp or silver carp and bighead carp) and formu-lated fish feed supplement (with or without feed supplement) on water chemistry characteristics, a 155-day field experiment was carried out in land-based enclosures. Four treatments including GGSB-F (co-cultured fish grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp were fed formulated feed), GGSB-NF (co-cultured fish grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp were not fed formulated feed), SB

  16. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  17. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  18. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  19. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  20. Shear resistance properties of TPS modified bitumen binders and asphalt mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庭维; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 张涛

    2008-01-01

    Shear resistance properties of the virgin bitumen and modified bitumen binders with Tafpack Super(TPS) modifier and SBS modified bitumen were discussed.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) was used to measure the laboratory creep data for these binders over a wide range of constant shear stresses at 20 ℃ to characterize the shear creep behaviors of all kinds of asphalt binders,and the rutting test system was used to investigate the permanent deformation of porous asphalt mixtures using the above bitumen binders for a fixed compressive stress.The shear strain rate and shear creep modulus were used to characterize the shear creep behavior of the TPS modified bitumen,and the rutting test results were used to show the consistency of porous asphalt mixtures with the bitumen binders.Results indicate that a distinction of shear creep strain can be made among different contents of TPS modified bitumen at the same stress level,where the shear creep strain-time response curve of the SBS modified bitumen binder is between the curves of the 8% TPS and 12% TPS modified bitumen binders.The shear strain rate and the shear creep modulus of the TPS modified bitumen binders are obtained to compare with those of the SBS modified bitumen binder which results in the same trend as the shear creep strain-time response curve.Permanent deformation results of all the porous asphalt mixtures from the rutting test show reasonable agreement with the findings of the shear strain rates and shear creep modulus over the range of shear stress levels.

  1. Experimental evaluation on high temperature rheological properties of various fiber modified asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筝; 吴少鹏; 朱祖煌; 刘杰胜

    2008-01-01

    High temperature rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders and impact of the type and content on such properties were studied.Three types of fiber,including polyester(PET),polyacrylonitrile(PAN) and cellulose(CEL),a control content(0%) and four levels of fiber content(2%,4%,6% and 8% by total asphalt binder mass) were used with asphalt binders.The high temperature rheological properties,consisting of complex modulus(G*) and phase angle δ,were measured using SHRP’s dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) between 46-82 ℃.Experimental results indicate that the changes of G* and tan δ of fiber modified asphalt binders with the increase of test temperature tend to slow down,and the temperature susceptibility is improved obviously compared to that of original asphalt binder.Fiber modification results in the increase of rutting parameter(G*/sin δ) at high temperatures,the decrease of temperature susceptibility,and further improved high temperature performance of asphalt binder.An excellent correlation exhibits between fiber content and high temperature performance of asphalt binder.Moreover,fiber type also has different influences on the improvement of G*/sin δ,G*/sin δ of PET and PAN fiber asphalt binders are both higher than that of CEL fiber,but G*/sin δ of CEL fiber is still higher than that of original asphalt.However,there is a critical fiber content when fibers start to interact with each other.Therefore,based on the critical fiber content and economic consideration,the optimum fiber contents for various fiber-modified asphalt binders are obtained.

  2. Cirugía ortognática y rinoplastia en el síndrome de Binder Orthognathic surgery and rhinoplasty in Binder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Binder es una patología caracterizada por hipoplasia nariz-maxilar, ángulo naso-frontal plano, senos frontales hipoplasicos, ausencia de la espina nasal anterior, columela corta y ángulo nasolabial agudo. El tratamiento del los pacientes con síndrome de Binder puede ser ortodóntico o quirúrgico según la gravedad de la malformación. En este trabajo hemos realizado una revision bibliográfica sobre la etiología, el diagnóstico diferential y el tratamiento de la sindrome de Binder y presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente binderiano sometido a intervención de cirugía ortognática y rinoplastia con injerto de cartílago costal para recostruir el dorso y la punta nasal.Binder syndrome is a disorder characterized by nasomaxillary hypoplasia that results in a short nose, a frontonasal angle of almost 180 degrees, hypoplasia of the frontal sinuses, an absent anterior nasal spine, a short columella and an acute nasolabial angle. The patient can be treated orthodontically or surgically depending on the seriousness of the malformation. We review the literature on the etiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of Binder syndrome. We present the case of a boy with this syndrome surgically treated with orthognatic surgery and rhinoplasty with an L-shaped rib cartilage graft.

  3. Influence of microcrystalline wax on properties of MIM multi-component wax matrix binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 黄伯云; 李益民; 李松林

    2002-01-01

    The properties of PW-EVA-HDPE binder with the addition of MW were studied. It shows that the addition of MW from 1% to 20%(mass fraction) causes an increase in the tensile strength and a decrease in shrinkage of the binder. After blending PW with MW, the crystallation behavior of wax base changes, which results in fine grain for the binder and more isotropic microstructure for the feedstock. The powder loading capacity increases and homogeneity of feedstock becomes better. The reason of the modification is also discussed.

  4. Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time on the asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Silvrano Adonias Dantas; De Farias, Márcio Muniz; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Sousa, Jorge B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a study about the mechanical behavior of dense graded asphalt-rubber hot mixes prepared with two different types of asphalt-rubber binders. These asphalt-rubber binders were obtained with penetration grade asphalt (AC 50/70) mixed with 21% and 25% of crumb rubber in weight. The rubber was recycled from unserviceable tires using the ambient grinding process. Hot mixes made with the conventional binder AC 50/70 were also studied for comparison. The...

  5. A Binder Viscosity Effect on the Wet-Wounded Composite Porosity in the Impregnating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to define experimentally an impregnation rate of VM-1 glass fibers and CBM aramid bundles with the epoxy binder EDB-10 using wet method of winding. During the impregnation process of the fibrous fillers by the liquid binder, air is displaced from the interfiber space of fiber and bundle. With the composite product winding a fiber impregnation process is short. That is why gas inclusions or pores are formed in the polymer-fiber compositeThe impregnation rate or porosity of wound material will depend directly on the binder viscosity. To reduce an epoxy binder viscosity temporarily is possible by two ways. The first is to heat a liquid epoxy composition EDB-10 to the maximum possible temperature during the winding process of the product. The second method is to dilute the binder by a solvent, such as acetone or alcohol. However, the solvent reduces its strength.The paper presents experimental data to show the volumetric content of pores in the wound composite affected only by the viscosity of the epoxy binder. Heating a binder allowed us to regulate a changing conditional viscosity of the binder in the impregnating bath for the normal conditions of impregnation. Other impacts on the impregnation and filament-winding processes, such as filler kinks, squeeze, vacuuming binder, highly tensioned winding, and others were not used.Experimentally obtained dependences of the porosity value of wound composite on the conditional viscosity of binder are nonlinear and can be used to design heaters for impregnating devices of winders. The research technique and results can be used in development of technological processes to manufacture composite structures by winding from the other reinforcing fibrous fillers and thermo-active binders.The results show that the volumetric content of pores can significantly vary within 8 - 14 % of material volume. Therefore, to reduce the number of pores in the wound composite to 1-2 %, auxiliary

  6. Study on catalysis effect of TEPB on the curing reaction of HTPB binder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S. J.; Tang, J.; Liu, X.; Yan, W.

    2016-07-01

    The catalysis effect of tri (exhoxyphenyl) bismuthine (TEPB) on the curing reaction of HTPB binder system was studied by using DSC method. The curing peak temperatures of the catalyst systems were measured to calculate kinetic parameters by using Kissinger and Crane methods, respectively. Two curing reaction kinetic equations were established. The results show that TEPB has high catalytic activity and can decrease the curing temperature of HTPB binder system, down to 35 °C, in which the optimum volume of TEPB is 0.5% of HTPB binder system.

  7. Burn Rate Studies on AN-Based Propellants: Effect of N-N Bonded Binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oommen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available New epoxy resins having N-N bonds in their structures have been employed as binders for ammonium nitrate (AN-based propellants. The resins have been characterized by various analytical techniques. The effect of the new binders on the burn rates of AN-based compositions including the metallized systems has been examined. The overall enhancement in the burn rate, as compared to that observed with conventional binders, has been explained in terms of the combustion reactivity of the N-N bondwiththe oxidizing speciesproduced duringcombustion. Furtherincreasein burn rate canbe achieved by inclusion of magnesium metal or ammonium perchlorate into these compositions.

  8. FTIR spectroscopy of water glass - the binder moulding modified by ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bobrowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the determination of the infl uence of the colloidal nanoparticles of zinc oxide on the structure of sodium water glass. Nanoparticles of zinc oxide in ethanol solvent were introduced into the water glass. The modification and structural changes were determined by means of the FT-IR absorption spectra. In order to determine the kind of infl uence: binder-modifier the spectroscopic FTIR analysis of samples of a fresh binder and of a binder hardened for 24 h in the air was performed by means of the spectrometer Digilab Excalibur with a standard DTGS detector.

  9. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Desempenho de frangos de corte sob suplementação com ácidos lático, fórmico, acético e fosfórico no alimento ou na água Performance of broilers supplemented with blends of lactic, formic, acetic, and phosphoric acids in the feed or water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Spillari Viola

    2008-02-01

    leo e intestino delgado aos 21 dias de idade. Em comparação à dieta controle, sem suplementação de antibióticos promotores de crescimento, as dietas suplementadas com acidificantes foram eficientes em melhorar o ganho de peso de frangos de corte.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of organic acids in the diets and ortho-phosphoric acid in the drinking water on broiler performance. A total of 2,112 broiler chicks was allotted to six treatments, each one with eight replications. The diets, all vegetable, were composed by corn-soybean meal without antibiotic growth promoters or anticoccidials. A control diet did not have organic acids, whereas the other treatments had supplementation of organic acid blends as follow for the feeding phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, and 22 to 35 days of age: blend A: lactic acid (52%, formic (1% and acetic (2%; blend B: lactic acid (76%, formic (2% and acetic (4%; blend C: lactic acid (50%, formic (8% and acetic (7%; blend D: formic acid (85%. Blend E contained 40% of lactic acid, 5% of acetic acid and 5% of ortho-phosphoric and was added to drink water. The added doses in diets, for phase, were: 8.0, 4.5, and 2.5 kg/t for blends A, B and C and 2.5, 2.5, and 2.0 kg/t for blend D. Blend E was used in drink water in doses of 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0 kg/1,000 L. A completely randomized design was used. There was a general benefit of the supplementation of the organic acid blend on weight gain of birds. However, no difference was observed for feed conversion at the end of the study. Feed intake was lower for birds fed blend B, whereas water intake was reduced by the blend E added to the drinking water. Relative weight of small intestines sections at 7 days of age was smaller in the birds on the control diet, while at the 21 days of age, was smaller in the birds supplemented with blends A and C. The blend E used in the water determined a reduction in the jejunum length at 7 days of age, while blend B had negative

  5. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  6. Efeito do ambiente térmico e níveis de suplementação nos parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó Effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiologic parameters of Moxotó goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. V. Gomes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, determinar o efeito do ambiente térmico e de diferentes níveis de suplementação sobre os parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó, criados em confinamento no semi-árido nordestino. Utilizaram-se 16 animais machos, que receberam duas dietas compostas de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziowii e dois níveis de suplementação (0,5 e 1,5% do peso vivo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em regime de subparcelas, com 2 tratamentos e 8 repetições. No interior do aprisco os índices de conforto ambiental ficaram elevados a partir das 11 h e, no período da tarde, esses índices ficaram acima do ideal para os animais, ou seja, fora da zona de conforto térmico, porém, os caprinos da raça Moxotó conseguiram manter a temperatura retal dentro dos limites normais; entretanto, com aumento dos batimentos cardíacos. Ocorreu aumento da freqüência respiratória como uma forma de dissipação de calor para manter a homeotermia. Uma percentagem maior de suplementação provocou aumento da temperatura retal.This research was carried out to determine the effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiological parameters of Moxotó goats in confinement in the northeastern semi-arid. Sixteen males were used, which were fed with two diets composed of forage cactus, 'maniçoba' (Manihot glaziowii hay and two supplementation levels (0.5 and 1.5% of live weight with 18% of crude protein. A completely randomized design was used in sub-plots with two treatments and eight replicates. Inside the housing the ambient comfort parameters were high starting from 11 am, but during the afternoon period they were characterized as thermally uncomfortable. However, Moxotó goats had their rectal temperature maintained inside the normal limits with an increase of heart beat. An increase of respiratory frequency occurred as a form of heat

  7. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    as a meta-documentary, or an always-already deconstructed communication mainly dealing with the act of communicating about philosophy, rather than communicating philosophical insight as such. Philosophy is thus shown to be communication, transmission, situated and framed speech acts - supplements...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style......, or inversely how does his style always/already produce these supplements and deferrals?...

  8. Palatability and pharmacokinetics of flunixin when administered to sheep through feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Danila; Pippia, Joe; Colditz, Ian G; Hinch, Geoff N; Petherick, Carol J; Lee, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Applying analgesics to feed is a potentially easy method of providing pain-relief to sheep and lambs that undergo painful husbandry procedures. To be effective, the medicated feed needs to be readily accepted by sheep and its consumption needs to result in therapeutic concentrations of the drug. In the present experiment, pelleted feed was supplemented with flunixin (4.0 mg/kg live weight) and offered to eight sheep. To test the palatability of flunixin, the individually penned sheep were offered normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin in separate troughs for two consecutive days. A trend for a day by feed-type (control versus flunixin supplemented) interaction suggested that sheep may have had an initial mild aversion to pellets supplemented with flunixin on the first day of exposure, however, by on the second day there was no difference in consumption of normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin. To test pharmacokinetics, sheep were offered 800 g of flunixin supplemented feed for a 12 h period. Blood samples were taken over 48 h and plasma drug concentrations were determined using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography, negative electrospray ionisation and tandem mass spectrometry. The mean ± S.D. time required to reach maximum concentration was 6.00 ± 4.14 h and ranged from 1 to 12 h. Average maximum plasma concentration was 1.78 ± 0.48 µg/mL and ranged from 1.61 to 2.80 µg/mL. The average half-life of flunixin was 7.95 ± 0.77 h and there was a mean residence time of 13.62 ± 1.17 h. Free access to flunixin supplemented feed enabled all sheep to obtain inferred therapeutic concentrations of flunixin in plasma within 6 h of starting to consume the feed. Provision of an analgesic in feed may be an alternative practical method for providing pain relief to sheep.

  9. Palatability and pharmacokinetics of flunixin when administered to sheep through feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Marini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Applying analgesics to feed is a potentially easy method of providing pain-relief to sheep and lambs that undergo painful husbandry procedures. To be effective, the medicated feed needs to be readily accepted by sheep and its consumption needs to result in therapeutic concentrations of the drug. In the present experiment, pelleted feed was supplemented with flunixin (4.0 mg/kg live weight and offered to eight sheep. To test the palatability of flunixin, the individually penned sheep were offered normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin in separate troughs for two consecutive days. A trend for a day by feed-type (control versus flunixin supplemented interaction suggested that sheep may have had an initial mild aversion to pellets supplemented with flunixin on the first day of exposure, however, by on the second day there was no difference in consumption of normal feed and feed supplemented with flunixin. To test pharmacokinetics, sheep were offered 800 g of flunixin supplemented feed for a 12 h period. Blood samples were taken over 48 h and plasma drug concentrations were determined using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography, negative electrospray ionisation and tandem mass spectrometry. The mean ± S.D. time required to reach maximum concentration was 6.00 ± 4.14 h and ranged from 1 to 12 h. Average maximum plasma concentration was 1.78 ± 0.48 µg/mL and ranged from 1.61 to 2.80 µg/mL. The average half-life of flunixin was 7.95 ± 0.77 h and there was a mean residence time of 13.62 ± 1.17 h. Free access to flunixin supplemented feed enabled all sheep to obtain inferred therapeutic concentrations of flunixin in plasma within 6 h of starting to consume the feed. Provision of an analgesic in feed may be an alternative practical method for providing pain relief to sheep.

  10. Testing a Novel Geopolymer Binder as a Refractory Material for Rocket Plume Environments at SSC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project involved the development and testing of a new alumina-silicate based multi-purpose, cost-effective, ‘green’ cementitious binder (geopolymer)...

  11. Chemical Characterization of Lime-Based Binders in Historic Buildings of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilovica, I.; Gulbe, L.; Vitina, I.; Igaune-Blumberga, S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the chemical composition of stone materials of several local historic buildings with a purpose of elaboration of restoration strategy, including the choice of restoration materials. Most of the examined mortars are lime- based hydraulic mortars, characteristic of the architecture of 19th/20th century. Pure aerial lime binders show reduced compatibility with historic materials, that is why lime binders with pozzolan additive (cement) are an appropriate choice for restoration. In order to examine the changes of hydraulicity (i.e. the property of binders to harden when exposed to water) of perspective restoration binders, a series of blended lime-cement mixtures were synthesized with growing content of cement (up to 10% by weight). A significant relationship between cement content and hydraulic properties has been shown.

  12. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  13. Tungsten carbide coatings with different binders prepared by low power plasma spray system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; M.F.Morks; FU Ying-qing

    2004-01-01

    Thermal spraying of cermet coatings is widely used for protection of machining parts against wear and corrosion. These coatings consist of WC particles in metal binders such as Co, Cr and Ni. Three kinds of WC powders with different metal binders (Co, NiCr and CoCr) were sprayed by low power plasma spray system on Al-Si-Cu alloy substrate. Fundamental aspects of sprayed cermet coatings, including (i) the effects of binder type on the coating structure, (ii) the hardness and (iii) the microstructure, were investigated. All cermet coatings have the same phase structure such as WC and W2 C. However, the intensities of these phases are different in each coating, mainly due to the difference in solidification rate in each case. Moreover, the hardness measurements are found to be different in each coating. The results show that, binder type has a significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the sprayed coatings.

  14. Study on the hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydration and hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder(CAB) was studied.The early hydration process,hydration products and paste microstructure of CAB made by Portland cement and anionic asphalt emulsion were investigated by calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,and environmental scanning electron microscopy.The early hydration process of CAB can be characterized as 5 stages similar to those of Portland cement.There is no chemical reaction detected between cement and asphalt,hence no new hydration products other than those of Portland cement are produced.The hardening of CAB begins with the hydration of cement.When the hydration of cement comes into the acceleration period and its exothermic rate comes to the maximum,the coalescence of asphalt particles in asphalt emulsion is triggered.In the hardened system of CAB,it was found that the hydration products of cement form the skeleton and are covered by the continuous asphalt film.They formed an interpenetrating network system.The emulsifiers in the asphalt emulsion may retard the hydration process of cement.

  15. Organically modified clays as binders of fumonisins in feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Andrea; Reyneri, Amedeo; Gennari, Mara; Nègre, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    This study reports an investigation on the ability of organically modified clays to bind mycotoxins, fumonisins B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2). Organically modified clays are commercia materials prepared from natural clays, generally montmorillonite, by exchanging the inorganic cation with an ammonium organic cation. A screening experiment conducted on 13 organically modified clays and 3 nonmodified clays, used as controls, has confirmed that the presence of an organic cation in the clay interlayer promoted the adsorption of both fumonisins. On the basis of the results of the screening test, four modified clays and a Na-montmorillonite were selected for the determination of the adsorption kinetics and isotherms. On all the tested materials adsorption took place within one hour of contact with fumonisins solutions. Adsorption isotherms have pointed out that the modified clays exhibited a higher adsorptive capacity than the unmodified clay. It was also demonstrated that, notwithstanding the reduced structural difference between FB1 and FB2, they were differently adsorbed on the modified clays. Addition of 2% modified clays to contaminated maize allowed a reduction of more than 70% and 60% of the amount of FB1and FB2 released in solution. Although in vivo experiments are required to confirm the effectiveness of the organically modified clays, these preliminary results suggest that these materials are promising as fumonisins binders.

  16. Recent developments in binder design for advanced media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. J.; Farkas, J.; Hasman, D.; Miller, T.; Zellia, J.; Jacobs, P.

    1999-03-01

    This study is aimed to examine the technical issue, the rheological requirements, in accomplishing successful processing of the dispersion made with wetting binders to produce tapes with excellent mechanical properties. The results indicate that the dispersions made with DTPU or NTPU (new dispersing TPU for metal pigments), can be characterized using RFS 8400 and Bolin CSM. For this type of dispersion, a higher strain is required to start flow or to break the primary structure, a wider range of shear rate is needed for the structural breakdown. It also shows that the recovery time is shorter with longer time to reach a steady state that is a lower recovery compliance level. G'/ G″ cross-over point was defining the needed strain level and the strain rate for the structural breakdown. It is expected that the results of the study could be applied to define the mechanical properties of the final tape affected by various operations such as mixing/agitation, high coating speed, drying/calendering, and curing and high speed duplicating process.

  17. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids' being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  18. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-05-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids` being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  19. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH LIDAH BUAYA SEBAGAI FEED SUPPLEMET PAKAN SAPI BALI DALAM UPAYA MENGURANGI EMISI METAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Mahardika

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste of Aloevera is one of the agriculture wastes which have highly potential for Bali cattle feed supplement, so that research in order to learn the effect of supplementation of Aloevera as High Quality Feed Supplement (HQFS is needed. Twenty male Bali cattle were used in this experiment, which weight range between 191 – 232 kg. Feed for cattle consisted of rice straw, concentrate and feed supplement in form of Hight Quality Feed Supplement (HQFS which mixed from sea grass and waste of aleovera. Randomized Block Design was applied in this experiment with 4 repetitions. Treatment A was ad lib of rice straw + 2 kg of concentrate, Treatment B was ad lib of rice straw + 2 kg of concentrate + 150 g HQFS, Treatment C was ad lib of rice straw + 2.5 kg of concentrate + 150 g HQFS, Treatment D was ad lib of rice straw + 3 kg of concentrate + 150 g HQFS and Treatment E was ad lib of rice straw + 3 kg of concentrate. Results of this experiment showed that supplementation of HQFS tended to decrease feed consumption and methan production, meanwhile supplementation of HQFS could increase diets efficiency and therefore increased the growth of cattle. HQFS supplementation gave more effective response at lower quality diets meanwhile in good quality diets gave no positive effect.

  20. A Review on Decomposition Deflagration of Oxidizer and Binders in Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Binder and oxidizer decomposition play very significant role during the combustion of composite solid propellants. Ammonium perchlorate (AP is the practical oxidizer in composite propellant formulations. Available information on binder decomposition in general and AP decomposition in particular have been collected and reviewed from the viewpoint of their application in propellants. This review may be useful in understanding the mechanism of propellant combustion.

  1. Water-soluble binders for MCMB carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtel, Fabrice M.; Niketic, Svetlana; Duguay, Dominique; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; Davidson, Isobel J. [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    We have investigated the suitability of four different binders for the conventional mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) anode material in Li-ion batteries. Unlike the conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), the binders were water soluble and were either cellulose based, such as the lithium and sodium salts of carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and LiCMC) and Xanthan Gum (XG), or the conjugated polymer: poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) (PEDOT, a.k.a. Baytron). All binders were commercially available except LiCMC, which was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR. Thermal studies of the binders by TGA and DSC showed that, in air, the binders have a broad melting event at 100-150 C, with an onset temperature for decomposition above 220 C. Li/MCMB half-cell batteries were assembled using the studied binders. Slow scan voltammograms of all cells showed characteristic lithium insertion and de-insertion peaks including that of the SEI formation which was found to be embedded into the insertion peaks during the first cycle. Cycling of the cells showed that the one containing XG binder gave the highest capacities reaching 350 mAh g{sup -1} after 100 cycles at C/12, while the others gave comparable capacities to those of the conventional binder PVDF. The rate capabilities of cells were examined and found to perform well up to the studied C/2 rate with more than 50% capacity retained. Further studies of the XG-based MCMB electrodes were performed and concluded that an optimal thickness of 300-365 {mu}m gave the highest capacities and sustained high C-rates. (author)

  2. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  3. Characterization of zirconia-based slurries with different binders for titanium investment casting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Ertuan; Kong Fantao; Chen Yanfei

    2012-01-01

    The materials and physical properties of primary slurry are crucial to the surface quality of the finished castings, especially for high reactivity titanium alloys. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of different binders on the physical properties of primary slurry for titanium alloy investment casting. The zirconia-based slurries with different binders were evaluated by comparing the parameters: viscosity, bulk density, plate weight, suspensibility, gel velocity and streng...

  4. Characterization of hydrocarbon emissions from green sand foundry core binders by analytical pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yujue Wang; Fred S. Cannon; Magda Salama; Jeff Goudzwaard; James C. Furness [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to compare the hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions of three foundry sand binders: (a) conventional phenolic urethane resin, (b) biodiesel phenolic urethane resin, and (c) collagen-based binder. These binders are used in the metal casting industry to create internal cavities within castings. Green sand contains silica sand, clay, carbonaceous additives (eg bituminous coal) and water. The core samples were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920{sup o}C with a heating rate of about 3000{sup o}C/sec. This simulated some key features of the fast heating conditions that the core binders would experience at the metal-core interface when molten metal is poured into green sand molds. The core samples were also pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000{sup o}C with a heating rate of 30{sup o}C/min, and this simulated key features of the slow heating conditions that the core binders would experience at distances that are further away from the metal-core interface during casting cooling. Hydrocarbon emissions from flash pyrolysis were analyzed with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, while hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions from TGA pyrolysis were monitored with mass spectrometry. The prominent hazardous air pollutant emissions during pyrolysis of the three binders were phenol, cresols, benzene, and toluene for the conventional phenolic urethane resin and biodiesel resin, and benzene and toluene for the collagen-based binder. Bench-scale analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a useful screening tool for the foundries to compare the relative emissions of alternative core binders and to choose proper materials in order to comply with air-emission regulations. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Research of gypsum binder of phosphogypsum and dry mortar on its basis

    OpenAIRE

    Казимагомедов, Ибрагим Эмирчубанович; Дехтярюк, Ольга Игоревна

    2015-01-01

    Gypsum binder was received by the method of intensive dehydration and the influence of admixture in phosphogypsum on the hydration process of gypsum binder was researched. Phase composition of phosphogypsum before and after calcination, using XFA, IR-spectroscopy and crystal optic analysis was defined. Dry mortar for plaster of interior walls of buildings on the basis of CaSO4·0,5H2O obtained from phosphogypsum is investigated. Its advantages and physical and chemical characteristics are shown

  6. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    normal (3.000; 3.100 and 3.200 kcal/kg ME and reduced (2.910; 3.007 and 3.040 kcal/kg ME and the protein levels were normal (21.18, 19.95 and 19.43% CP and reduced (20.54, 19.35 and 18.46% CP, respectively, for initial, growing and final phases, check diet had normal level of ME and CP, without enzyme. The body weight gain, ration intake, feed conversion and european factor production were evaluated. The results showed maintenance of the performance due to application of enzymes, that being verified by non significance (P> 0.05 of that factores at the 42 days and by improved feed conversion, reduction of the ration intake and higher european factor production at the 21 days of age. The study of the protein and enzyme levels interaction showed that 0.5 g/kg of enzyme the addition to the diet with reduced levels of the protein, there was higher weight gain of the birds. It was concluded that is viable the used addition exogen enzymes in ration of broiler chickens.

  7. Essential work of fracture approach to fatigue grading of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriescu, Adrian

    The main objective of this thesis was to apply failure mechanics principles to the characterization of fatigue cracking of asphalt pavements and to identify the correlations between the pavement performance and the composition of binders. The essential work of fracture (EWF) method developed herein is an energy-based testing approach used for the fracture characterization of ductile materials. Developed for both binders and asphalt mixtures, the method provides fundamental parameters, such as specific essential work of fracture and critical tip opening displacement, as potential candidates for a better fatigue specification. It was shown that binders from different sources and with the same performance grade can have very different levels of fatigue susceptibility depending on their manufacturing method and hence failure properties. Also, the currently used binder loss modulus as developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program does not correlate with the newly proposed fracture mechanics based parameters. An extensive theological and ductile failure investigation on a large interval of testing conditions was performed for a group of binders that are used in the recently built test sections of Highway 655 in northern Ontario. It was found that the shift factors used in the construction of the master curves of the ductile fracture parameters differ from the shift factors of the rheological master curves. The difference was attributed to the response of the internal structure of the binder at the high strain levels that precede the failure phenomenon.

  8. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  9. Investigation of film solidification and binder migration during drying of Li-Ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiser, Stefan; Müller, Marcus; Baunach, Michael; Bauer, Werner; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    The property determining micro-structure of battery electrodes essentially evolves during drying, appointing it a paramount, yet insufficiently understood processing step in cell manufacturing. The distribution of functional additives such as binder or carbon black throughout the film strongly depends on the drying process. A representative state-of-the-art model system comprising graphite, polymeric binder, carbon black and solvent is investigated to gain an insight into the underlying processes. A new experimental approach is introduced that allows for revelation of the evolution of binder concentration gradients throughout the film during drying. Binder is detected by means of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) at the top and bottom surface. Drying kinetics is investigated and the impact of the drying process on electrochemical performance is disclosed. The enrichment of binder at the surface, which is observed while applying high drying rates, is shown to depend on two fundamental processes, namely capillary action and diffusion. The findings reveal characteristic drying stages that provide fundamental insights into film solidification. Based on that, a top-down consolidation mechanism capable of explaining the experimental findings is disclosed. Adhesion of the active layer to the substrate is shown to strongly depend on the local binder concentration in the vicinity of the substrate.

  10. Advancing the Use of Secondary Inputs in Geopolymer Binders for Sustainable Cementitious Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Obonyo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of concerns over the construction industry‘s heavy use of cement and the general dissatisfaction with the performance of building envelopes with respect to durability, there is a growing demand for a novel class of ―green‖ binders. Geopolymer binders have re-emerged as binders that can be used as a replacement for Portland cement given their numerous advantages over the latter including lower carbon dioxide emissions, greater chemical and thermal resistance, combined with enhanced mechanical properties at both normal and extreme exposure conditions. The paper focuses on the use of geopolymer binders in building applications. It discusses the various options for starting materials and describes key engineering properties associated with geopolymer compositions that are ideal for structural applications. Specific properties, such as compressive strength, density, pore size distribution, cumulative water absorption, and acid resistance, are comparable to the specifications for structures incorporating conventional binders. This paper presents geopolymer binders, with their three dimensional microstructure, as material for structural elements that can be used to advance the realization of sustainable building systems.

  11. An improved sodium silicate binder modified by ultra-fine powder materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-na; FAN Zi-tian; WANG Hua-fang; DONG Xuan-pu; HUANG Nai-yu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of modifying sodium silicate binder with ultra-fine powders. The sodium silicate binder modified by ultra-fine powder A and the organic B can reduce the addition amount of the binder. The results indicate that the 24 h strength has increased by 39.9% at room temperature and the residual strength has decreased by 30.7% at 800℃, compared to the conventional sodium silicate. An available material to improve the moisture resistance was also found by adding about 2% more inorganic C, and it can increase the moist strength by 20%. In the end, the microanalyses are given to explain the modifying machanism, i. e., the ultra-fine powder A can refine the sodium silicate binder to avoid holes in the binder bond, which can increase the 24 h strength at room temperture, and can lead to more cracks in the bond after the molding sand is heated to 800℃. This is because of the stress caused by the new eutectic complex of modified sodium silicate binder.

  12. Effects of Supplemental Feeding Letrozole on Athletic Performance, Plasma Antioxidant Indices and Hormone Levels, and Body Weight of Trotters%补喂来曲唑对速步马运动性能、血浆抗氧化指标与激素水平及体重的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军; 李晓斌; 邓海峰; 赵芳; 杨开伦

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to study the effects of supplemental feeding letrozole on athletic perform⁃ance, plasma antioxidant indices and hormone levels, and body weight of trotters. Ten health Yili male horse with 2.5 years old and the average body weight of (398.16±25.34) kg, and similar performance based on strict training were randomly divided into 2 groups ( control group and trial group ) , and each group had 5 horse. Each horse was fed with 10 kg mixed pasture and 3 kg pelleted concentrate every day, based on this, each horse of trail group was fed with 5 mg/d letrozole, and 30 d supplemental feeding experiment and training experiment were conducted. At days 0, 10, 20 and 30 of the experiment, blood samples were collected in the morning from jugular vein to determine the levels of hormones. Body weight was recorded at days 0 and 30 be⁃fore ingestion in the morning. The 1 000 m trot training race was carried at days 0 and 30, and blood samples were collected from jugular vein at 1 h before the race, the end of the race, 20 min after the race and 2 h after the race to determine the plasma antioxidant indices and blood acid⁃base degree related indices. The results showed as follows:supplemental feeding letrozole could increase the performance of 1 000 m trot training race of trotters. The enzyme activities of catalase ( CAT) , glutathion peroxidase ( GSH⁃Px) , superoxide dismutase ( SOD) , the total antioxidant capacity ( T⁃AOC) and the content of uric acid ( UA) in plasma in trial group were higher than those in control group at 2 h after the race, and the activity of GSH⁃Px and T⁃AOC reached extremely significant (P0.05) , while the BEecf and pH in blood in trial group were higher than those in control group ( P>0.05) at the end of the race, 20 min after the race and 2 h after the race. The levels of testosterone ( T) and androstenediol ( AD) in plasma at days 10, 20 and 30 of the experiment in trial group were higher than those in control group

  13. Effect of DNA groove binder distamycin A upon chromatin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parijat Majumder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distamycin A is a prototype minor groove binder, which binds to B-form DNA, preferentially at A/T rich sites. Extensive work in the past few decades has characterized the binding at the level of double stranded DNA. However, effect of the same on physiological DNA, i.e. DNA complexed in chromatin, has not been well studied. Here we elucidate from a structural perspective, the interaction of distamycin with soluble chromatin, isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chromatin is a hierarchical assemblage of DNA and protein. Therefore, in order to characterize the interaction of the same with distamycin, we have classified the system into various levels, according to the requirements of the method adopted, and the information to be obtained. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been employed to characterize the binding at the levels of chromatin, chromatosome and chromosomal DNA. Thermodynamic parameters obtained thereof, identify enthalpy as the driving force for the association, with comparable binding affinity and free energy for chromatin and chromosomal DNA. Reaction enthalpies at different temperatures were utilized to evaluate the change in specific heat capacity (ΔCp, which, in turn, indicated a possible binding associated structural change. Ligand induced structural alterations have been monitored by two complementary methods--dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. They indicate compaction of chromatin. Using transmission electron microscopy, we have visualized the effect of distamycin upon chromatin architecture at di- and trinucleosome levels. Our results elucidate the simultaneous involvement of linker bending and internucleosomal angle contraction in compaction process induced by distamycin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We summarize here, for the first time, the thermodynamic parameters for the interaction of distamycin with soluble chromatin, and elucidate its effect on

  14. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  15. Novel, inorganic composites using porous, alkali-activated, aluminosilicate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Sean

    Geopolymers are an inorganic polymeric material composed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxides. Geopolymers are chemical and fire resistant, can be used as refractory adhesives, and are processed at or near ambient temperature. These properties make geopolymer an attractive choice as a matrix material for elevated temperature composites. This body of research investigated numerous different reinforcement possibilities and variants of geopolymer matrix material and characterized their mechanical performance in tension, flexure and flexural creep. Reinforcements can then be chosen based on the resulting properties to tailor the geopolymer matrix composites to a specific application condition. Geopolymer matrix composites combine the ease of processing of polymer matrix composites with the high temperature capability of ceramic matrix composites. This study incorporated particulate, unidirectional fiber and woven fiber reinforcements. Sodium, potassium, and cesium based geopolymer matrices were evaluated with cesium based geopolymer showing great promise as a high temperature matrix material. It showed the best strength retention at elevated temperature, as well as a very low coefficient of thermal expansion when crystallized into pollucite. These qualities made cesium geopolymer the best choice for creep resistant applications. Cesium geopolymer binders were combined with unidirectional continuous polycrystalline mullite fibers (Nextel(TM) 720) and single crystal mullite fibers, then the matrix was crystallized to form cubic pollucite. Single crystal mullite fibers were obtained by the internal crystallization method and show excellent creep resistance up to 1400°C. High temperature flexural strength and flexural creep resistance of pollucite and polycrystalline/single-crystal fibers was evaluated at 1000-1400°C.

  16. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damment, Stephen J P; Pennick, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Lanthanum carbonate is considered to be the most potent of a new generation of noncalcium phosphate binders used to treat hyperphosphataemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition associated with progressive bone and cardiovascular pathology and a markedly elevated risk of death. Its phosphate-binding action involves ionic binding and precipitation of insoluble complexes within the lumen of the intestine, thereby preventing absorption of dietary phosphate. While pharmacokinetics have little relevance to the efficacy of lanthanum carbonate, they are of fundamental importance when it comes to evaluating safety. When administered as lanthanum carbonate, the oral bioavailability of lanthanum is low (approximately 0.001%). The small absorbed fraction is excreted predominantly in bile, with less than 2% being eliminated by the kidneys. Predictably, therefore, plasma exposure and pharmacokinetics have been shown to be similar in healthy human volunteers and CKD stage 5 patients. With almost complete plasma protein binding, free lanthanum concentrations in patients at steady state are carbonate has a low propensity to cause systemic drug interactions due to its poor absorption. However, the higher concentrations present in the gastrointestinal tract can form chelates with some drugs, such as fluoroquinolones, and reduce their absorption. The improved understanding of the pharmacokinetics of lanthanum that has emerged in recent years has helped to explain why the myriad of calcium-like effects described in vitro for lanthanum have little if any relevance in vivo. The pharmacokinetic investigations of lanthanum carbonate formed an important part of the stringent premarketing safety assessment process and have been influential in reassuring both regulators and physicians that the agent can be used safely and effectively in this vulnerable dialysis population.

  17. Saving by metering. Gas volume and gas quality decide feeding intervals and stirring times; Sparen durch Messen. Gasmenge und -qualitaet bestimmen Fuetterungszeitpunkt und Ruehrzeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Dorothee

    2012-11-01

    Nothing is more satisfying to a student than to put into practice what he just learned. Andreas Scheck was able to do this in his father's biogas plant at Hessenhoefe near Ulm: He developed a computer program which uses the data provided by newly installed Binder analyzers for regulating feeding intervals and stirring times.

  18. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  19. The effect of crumb rubber particle size to the optimum binder content for open graded friction course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.

  20. Evolution of microstructure and dimension of as-molded parts during thermal removal process of wax-based MIM binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and the dimension of as-molded parts were studied on the basis of the thermogravimetric analysis of wax-based MIM binder. The results show that the binder removal speeds are different in different temperature ranges during binder removal process. The evolution of the microstructure of as-molded parts during binder removal process clearly showed the initiation and formation of connected pore structure, which is the removal channel of the binder. The as-molded parts almost continuously shrank through binder removal process, except an expansion stage during 320~440  ℃, which is the dissolution expansion effect due to the dissolution of VPW in the polymer melt.

  1. Comparison of the activities of binder-added and binder-free Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts in methane dehydroaromatization at 1073 K in periodic CH4-H2 switch operation mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Xu; Hongtao Ma; Yo Yamamoto; Yoshizo Suzuki; Zhanguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Three industry-supplied,well-shaped Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts,two binder-added and one binder-free,were tested for the first time in methane dehydroaromatization to benzene at 1073 K and 10000 mL/(g.h) in periodic CH4-H2 switch operation mode,and their catalytic performances were compared with those of three self-prepared,binder-free powder Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts.XRD,27Al NMR,SEM,BET and NH3-TPD characterizations of all the catalysts show that the zeolites in the two binder-added catalysts are comparable to those in the three binder-free powder catalysts in crystallinity,crystal size,micropore volume and Br(¢)nsted acidity.The test results,on the other hand,show that the catalytic performances of the two binder-added catalysts are worse than those of the four binder-free catalysts on both catalyst mass and zeolite mass bases.Then,TPO and BET measurements of all spent samples were conducted to get a deep insight into the negative effects of binder addition,and the results suggest that the binder additives functioned mainly to enhance the polyaromatization of formed aromatics to coke on their external surfaces and consequently lower the benzene formation activity and selectivity of the catalyst.

  2. Efficacy of crushed lanthanum carbonate for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yukie; Takahashi, Taeko; Sato, Yuzuru; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LaC) is a non-calcium-based phosphate binder used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Oral administration of LaC is difficult in patients undergoing tube feeding or those who are of advanced age because it is essential to chew the LaC tablet sufficiently before swallowing it. We report two cases in whom crushed LaC was used in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding. In both cases, previously crushed LaC was mixed into enteral nutrients. We found that LaC administered this way was effective for decreasing serum phosphorus levels.

  3. Influence of fluoropolymer binders on the electrochemical performance of C-LiFePO4 based cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goren; Costa, C M; Silva, Maria Manuela; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-01-01

    The polymer binder plays a relevant role in the performance of battery electrodes. This work proposes poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene), PVDF-TrFE, as a polymer binder for C-LiFePO4 based cathodes and investigates its effect in the electrochemical properties of the cathodes. Morphological, electrical, swelling and electrochemical properties were investigated for this polymer binder and the results were compared with the ones from two other fluoropolymers, poly(v...

  4. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  5. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  6. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  7. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tube Feeding Troubleshoot ing Guide This guide is a tool to assist you, and should not replace your doctor’s ... everyone. table of contents Going Home with Tube Feedings....................................................2 Nausea and ... ...

  8. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parks EP, Shaikhkhalil A, Groleau V, Wendel D, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ... 2016:chap. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ...

  9. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  10. Adhesive Bonding and Self-Curing Characteristics of α-Starch Based Composite Binder for Green Sand Mould/Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia ZHOU; Jinzong YANG; Guohui QU

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between different components in α-starch based composite binder for green sand mould/core were investigated by using XRD, IR spectra, 1H NMR spectra and SEM. Several adhesive hardening structures and theories of the binder at room temperature were proposed according to the interactions between various compositions. Thus,the reasons for the binder to have excellent combination properties and unique adhesive bonding and self-curing characteristics were explained by these theories successfully. And the theories are of great directive importance to design and development of composite binder for green sand mould/core.

  11. Evaluation of strength-enhancing factors of a ductile binder in direct compression of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, S; Nyström, C

    2000-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a ductile binder in direct compression of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate powders. Properties associated with both the binder and the compound were studied. The addition of binder materials, such as polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of differing molecular weights or microcrystalline cellulose, generally resulted in an increase in the axial tensile strength of the corresponding compacts. The increase in tablet strength was generally greater with the PEGs than with microcrystalline cellulose. The results indicate that the improvement in tablet strength caused by the binder is dependent on properties of both the binder and the compound. By utilising different methods it was established that the fracture during tablet strength testing mainly occurred around the compound particles. As a consequence of this, it appears that the ability of the binder to fill the voids between the compound particles is a determinative factor for increasing tablet strength. The binder appeared to have less effect when added to compounds that fragmented during compaction. Characteristics of the binder resulting in the greatest decrease in porosity, and thus the greatest increase in the tensile strength of the compound, included a high degree of plastic deformation with a limited elastic component and a small particle size. Obviously, the amount of binder added to the mixture also affected the results.

  12. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Niels; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders, at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as a general test method to analyse off gases from binders. Moulds, containing a standard size casting, were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds, resulting from thermal degradation of binders, was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gases in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off-gases vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gases is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

  13. Control of binder viscosity and hygroscopicity on particle aggregation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sebastian B.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ayris, Paul M.; Jacob, Michael; Delmelle, Pierre; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    In the course of explosive volcanic eruptions, large amounts of ash are released into the atmosphere and may subsequently pose a threat to infrastructure, such as aviation industry. Ash plume forecasting is therefore a crucial tool for volcanic hazard mitigation but may be significantly affected by aggregation, altering the aerodynamic properties of particles. Models struggle with the implementation of aggregation since external conditions promoting aggregation have not been completely understood; in a previous study we have shown the rapid generation of ash aggregates through liquid bonding via the use of fluidization bed technology and further defined humidity and temperature ranges necessary to trigger aggregation. Salt (NaCl) was required for the recovery of stable aggregates, acting as a cementation agent and granting aggregate cohesion. A numerical model was used to explain the physics behind particle aggregation mechanisms and further predicted a dependency of aggregation efficiency on liquid binder viscosity. In this study we proof the effect of viscosity on particle aggregation. HCl and H2SO4 solutions were diluted to various concentrations resulting in viscosities between 1 and 2 mPas. Phonolitic and rhyolitic ash samples as well as soda-lime glass beads (serving as analogue material) were fluidized in the ProCell Lab® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH and treated with the acids via a bottom-spray technique. Chemically driven interaction between acid liquids and surfaces of the three used materials led to crystal precipitation. Salt crystals (e.g. NaCl) have been confirmed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and leachate analysis. Both volcanic ash samples as well as the glass beads showed a clear dependency of aggregation efficiency on viscosity of the sprayed HCl solution. Spraying H2SO4 provoked a collapse of the fluidized bed and no aggregation has been observed. This is accounted by the high hygroscopicity of H2SO4. Dissolving CaCl2 (known to be

  14. Strength Loss in MA-MOX Green Pellets from Radiation Damage to Binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Lessing; W.R. Cannon; Gerald W. Egeland; Larry D. Zuck; James K. Jewell; Douglas W. Akers; Gary S. Groenewold

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt. % PuO2, 3 wt. % AmO2 and 2 wt. % NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing in the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and Styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt. % Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt. %, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 day period. It was suggested that the styrene portion of the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  15. Strength loss in MA-MOX green pellets from radiation damage to binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessing, Paul A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Cannon, W. Roger, E-mail: wrogercannon@gmail.com [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Egeland, Gerald W.; Zuck, Larry D.; Jewell, James K.; Akers, Douglas W.; Groenewold, Gary S. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO{sub 2}, 20 wt.% PuO{sub 2}, 3 wt.% AmO{sub 2} and 2 wt.% NpO{sub 2} was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing with the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and styrene–acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA-MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed that strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt.% Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt.%, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 days period. It was suggested that the styrene portion present in the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  16. Influence of Cellulosic Binders on Sensitivity and Combustion Behaviour of B-KNO3 Ignition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Bhingarkar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Boron-potassium nitrate (B-KNO3-based compositions have been used as an effective ignitersystem for solid rocket propellants. A systematic study was undertaken to generate exhaustivedata on B-KNO3 (25:65-based ignition systems with cellulosic binders, viz., nitrocellulose, ethylcellulose and plasticised ethyl cellulose. In addition, detailed investigations were carried outwith PEC as binder by varying its concentration from 2-10 per cent in the same system. Theexperimental compositions (B-KNO3: binder were evaluated by closed-vessel firing, thermalanalysis, sensitivity, mechanical properties and cal-val determination. The binders significantlyinfluenced the sensitivity and combustion behaviour of B-KNO3 compositions. The compositionwith nitrocellulose as binder produced high flame temperature and cal-val as compared to ethylcellulose and plasticised ethyl cellulose-based compositions. The data indicated that thecalculated flame temperature for all compositions was in the range 2716 K to 2957 K. As theplasticised ethyl cellulose content increased from 2 per cent to 10 per cent, the maximum pressureincreased with decrease in heat of combustion.

  17. Strength loss in MA-MOX green pellets from radiation damage to binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Paul A.; Cannon, W. Roger; Egeland, Gerald W.; Zuck, Larry D.; Jewell, James K.; Akers, Douglas W.; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt.% PuO2, 3 wt.% AmO2 and 2 wt.% NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing with the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA-MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed that strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt.% Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt.%, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 days period. It was suggested that the styrene portion present in the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  18. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of asphaltic binder modified with zeolite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, E.M. da; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Sandra A.; Soares, Jorge B. [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Several new processes have been developed to reduce mixing and compaction temperatures of hot mix asphalt without sacrificing the quality of the resulting pavement. One of these processes utilizes the zeolite, a crystalline hydrated aluminum silicate. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the applicability of zeolite to improve the rheological and chemical behavior of an asphaltic binder. The synthetic asphaltic binder was produced with different zeolite contents (0,1; 0.3; and 0.5% w/w) by wet process. The rheological and chemical behavior was verified by Dynamic Shear Rheometer and Infrared Spectroscopy, respectively. The zeolite's chemical composition and morphology was studied by Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Additionally, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to establish the zeolite elemental composition. The results showed that investigated zeolite was classified as a sodium aluminum silicate and it was able to modify the rheological properties of the neat asphalt binder. The G*/sin{delta} parameter was affected by the zeolite presence, indicating better performance for the binders with zeolite. The results show that synthetic binders can partly replicate the rheological properties of conventional AB. Comparable complex modulus values was obtained. No significant difference was found in viscoelastic response, given by the phase angles as a function of both temperature and frequency. (author)

  19. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  20. Physical and Combustion Characteristics of Briquettes Made from Water Hyacinth and Phytoplankton Scum as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the potential of water hyacinths and phytoplankton scum, an aquatic weed, as binder for production of fuel briquettes. It also evaluated some physical and combustion characteristics. The water hyacinths were manually harvested, cleaned, sun-dried, and milled to particle sizes distribution ranging from <0.25 to 4.75 mm using hammer mill. The water hyacinth grinds and binder (phytoplankton scum at 10% (B1, 20% (B2, 30% (B3, 40% (B4, and 50% (B5 by weight of each feedstock were fed into a steel cylindrical die of dimension 14.3 cm height and 4.7 cm diameter and compressed by hydraulic press at pressure 20 MPa with dwell time of 45 seconds. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics. Initial bulk density of uncompressed mixture of water hyacinth and phytoplankton scum at different binder levels varied between 113.86 ± 3.75 (B1 and 156.93 ± 4.82 kg/m3 (B5. Compressed and relaxed densities of water hyacinth briquettes at different binder proportions showed significant difference . Durability of the briquettes improved with increased binder proportion. Phytoplankton scum improved the mechanical handling characteristics of the briquettes. It could be concluded that production of water hyacinth briquettes is feasible, cheaper, and environmentally friendly and that they compete favourably with other agricultural products.

  1. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikanova, L., E-mail: alasmit@mail.ru; Volkova, O., E-mail: v.olga.nikitina@gmail.com; Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anion NO{sup −} are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > FeSO{sub 4} > MgSO{sub 4}. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder’s mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  2. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  3. Fatores de risco para anemia em lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde: a importância das práticas alimentares e da suplementação com ferro Risk factors for anemia in infants assisted by public health services: the importance of feeding practices and iron supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G. Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores de risco para anemia em lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde. MÉTODOS: Em estudo transversal, foram avaliadas 205 crianças de 6 a 12 meses no município de Viçosa (MG. A coleta de dados envolveu variáveis socioeconômicas, ambientais e biológicas, bem como aquelas relacionadas ao estado nutricional, à mãe, ao nascimento, ao cuidado com a saúde infantil, às práticas alimentares e à suplementação com ferro. O diagnóstico da anemia baseou-se nos valores de hemoglobina inferiores a 11 g/dL, utilizando o fotômetro portátil Hemocue. Na análise da associação das variáveis com a anemia, foi utilizada a regressão logística múltipla hierarquizada. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia foi de 57,6%. Apresentaram maior chance de anemia os lactentes que pertenciam às famílias com renda per capita inferior a 0,5 salário mínimo, não consumiam frutas diariamente e não ingeriam suplementos medicamentosos com ferro. CONCLUSÃO: A adequada assistência à saúde e nutrição das famílias de baixa renda, o incentivo às práticas alimentares saudáveis e a prescrição de suplementos medicamentosos com ferro são medidas de grande importância para a prevenção e o controle da anemia entre os lactentes atendidos nos serviços públicos de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors for anemia in infants assisted by public health services. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out in Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 205 children from 6 to 12 months were evaluated. Socioeconomic, environmental and biological data were collected, as well as information on child's birth, nutritional status, maternal data, child health care practices, feeding practices, and iron supplementation. Diagnosis of anemia was based on hemoglobin levels under 11 g/dL, using a portable Hemocue photometer. To analyze variables associated with anemia, a hierarchical logistic regression model was used

  4. Process Parameter Optimization of Extrusion-Based 3D Metal Printing Utilizing PW–LDPE–SA Binder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luquan Ren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer. The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid (PW–LDPE–SA. The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated. Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. The influence factors in regard to the ultimate tensile strength of the green samples can be described as follows: infill degree > raster angle > layer thickness. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate. The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material. Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity.

  5. The effect of glutamine supplementation on the barrier function of ruminal epithelium during high grain diet feeding in dairy goats%谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料的奶山羊瘤胃上皮的保护效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉洁; 刘军花; 许婷婷; 朱伟云; 毛胜勇

    2014-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨过瘤胃谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料的奶山羊瘤胃上皮屏障的保护效应。实验采用随机区组设计,将12头健康奶山羊随机分为高精料组(n=6)和高精料添加谷氨酰胺组(n=6),谷氨酰胺添加量为50 g/(d·头)。谷氨酰胺处理4周后,每组各选取4头山羊进行屠宰。HE染色、扫描和透射电镜法观察瘤胃上皮的组织形态学变化,实时荧光定量 PCR 法检测瘤胃上皮炎症因子及紧密连接蛋白 mRNA 的相对表达水平。结果表明,与对照组相比,添加谷氨酰胺显著降低了瘤胃液中丙酸浓度(P<0.01),有降低瘤胃乳酸、提高丁酸浓度的趋势,但对瘤胃液pH、乙酸、异丁酸、总挥发性脂肪酸浓度无显著影响(P>0.05);对组织形态的观察结果表明,添加过瘤胃谷氨酰胺可维持瘤胃复层扁平上皮各细胞层的完整性,保护角质层,减少细胞凋亡;并显著降低瘤胃上皮组织中TNF-α的mRNA相对表达量(P<0.05),显著提高occludin的 mRNA 相对表达量(P<0.05);但对 IFN-γ、IL-1β、IL-6、IL-10、claudin-1、claudin-4和ZO-1 mRNA表达量无显著影响(P>0.05)。结果说明,高精料日粮下添加过瘤胃谷氨酰胺可降低瘤胃上皮的炎症反应,改善上皮紧密连接,从而维护瘤胃上皮屏障的正常功能。%The effect of protected glutamine supplementation on the barrier function of ruminal epithelium in dairy goats fed high grain diet was investigated using twelve dairy goats that were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments:high-grain (HG)diet group (n= 6)or glutamine (Gln)supplementation group (n= 6,50 g/d Gln supplementation).After four weeks feeding,four goats in each group were slaughtered to characterize the changes in ruminal epithelial structure,tight junction (TJ)proteins mRNA expression,and inflammatory cy-tokines mRNA expression using H-E dyeing,scanning and

  6. 饲喂粉碎和颗粒日粮条件下添喂气溶胶 OT对绵羊采食和消化代谢的影响%Effects of the Feeding Pellet Diet and Supplementing Aerosol OT on the Intake,Digestion and Metabolism of Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维东; 雒秋江; 王选; 潘榕; 李凤鸣

    2014-01-01

    Four of 2 year’s-old male Small-tail Han non-pregnant ewe,with body weight of (50.19±2.3)kg, were supplemented with aerosol OT (0 or 0.8 g/kg of diet)under the circumstance of feeding ground diet and pellet diet,by the Latin square experiment of 4×4,to study the effect of supplement of aerosol OT on the voluntary intake,digestion and metabolism of sheep under two diets above.The results showed that when ground diet and the supplement of aerosol OT feeding sheep,the voluntary intake increased by 8.1%(P <0.05),the apparent digestibility of the dry matter,organic matter,crude protein,cellulose,hemicellu-lose,calcium,phosphorous were increased by 4.8% (P < 0.01 ),4.7% (P < 0.01 ),4.8% (P < 0.01), 4.7% (P <0.01),4.8% (P <0.01 ),-15.1% (P <0.01 ),4.8% (P <0.01 )respectively,the digested a-mounts were increased by 13.3% (P <0.01),14.1% (P <0.01),13.3% (P <0.01 ),13.3% (P <0.01), 13.3% (P <0.01),13.6% (P <0.01),13.5% (P <0.01),12.9% (P <0.01)respectively,nitrogen reten-tion was increased by 8.4% (P <0.01 ).When pellet diet was fed,the voluntary intake of sheep was in-creased by 65.1% (P < 0.01 ),and the digestibility of dry matter was decreased by 13.8% (P < 0.01 ). However,when the pellet diet was fed,the supplement of aerosol OT had no significant effect on the vol-untary intake,digestibility of diet,and nitrogen retention of sheep.%选取4只2岁龄、体重(50.19±2.3)kg 的小尾寒羊空怀母羊,采用4×4拉丁方试验设计,在饲喂粉碎日粮和颗粒日粮的条件下添喂气溶胶 OT(0或0.8 g/kg 日粮),以研究在两种日粮条件下添喂气溶胶 OT 对绵羊自由采食和消化代谢的影响.结果表明,在粉碎日粮条件下添喂气溶胶 OT 绵羊的自由采食量提高8.1%(P <0.05),干物质、有机物、粗蛋白、纤维素、半纤维素、钙、磷的(表观)消化率分别提高4.8%(P <0.01),4.7%(P <0.01),4.8%(P <0.01),4.7%(P <0.01),4.8%(P <0.01),-15.1%(P <0.01),4.8

  7. Prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment: Oxford Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P B; Lambert, B; Rose, M; Ford-Adams, M; Johnson, A; Griffiths, P

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment within a defined geographical area. In a cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to 377 parents of children (aged 4 to 13 years) on the Oxford Register of Early Childhood Impairments with oromotor dysfunction. The return rate was 72%. Of these, 93% had cerebral palsy; 47% were unable to walk; 78% had speech difficulty; and 28% continuous drooling of saliva. Gastrointestinal problems were commonly encountered: 59% were constipated; 22% had significant problems with vomiting, and 31% had suffered at least one chest infection in the previous 6 months. Feeding problems were prevalent: 89% needed help with feeding and 56% choked with food; 20% of parents described feeding as stressful and unenjoyable. Prolonged feeding times (3h/day) were reported by 28%. Only 8% of participants received caloric supplements and 8% were fed via gastrostomy tube. Even though 38% of respondents considered their child to be underweight, 64% of children had never had their feeding and nutrition assessed. The results highlight that feeding problems in children with neurological impairment are common and severe, causing parental concern. Many of these children would benefit from nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care.

  8. Development of a Polyuretbane Binder System Giving a 'Knottable' Composite Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Devadoss

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane propellants, which constitute one of the 'work-horse' binder systems in modern solid rocketry are easily amenable for tailoring the mechanical properties in terms of variations in the molecular structure of the backbone polyols, the isocyanates and stoichiometry of the reactants. The paper deals with studies in developing an advanced binder system based on poly (oxy propylene glycol and toluene-di-isocyanate, which is capable of accommodating high solids loading and conceding elongatlon at maximum stress, of more than 125 per cent. The gum-stock properties of the binder are related with those of a low molecular weight version and the results are explained based on the network theory of condensation polymers.

  9. Chloride accelerated test: influence of silica fume, water/binder ratio and concrete cover thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pereira

    Full Text Available In developed countries like the UK, France, Italy and Germany, it is estimated that spending on maintenance and repair is practically the same as investment in new constructions. Therefore, this paper aims to study different ways of interfering in the corrosion kinetic using an accelerated corrosion test - CAIM, that simulates the chloride attack. The three variables are: concrete cover thickness, use of silica fume and the water/binder ratio. It was found, by analysis of variance of the weight loss of the steel bars and chloride content in the concrete cover thickness, there is significant influence of the three variables. Also, the results indicate that the addition of silica fume is the path to improve the corrosion protection of low water/binder ratio concretes (like 0.4 and elevation of the concrete cover thickness is the most effective solution to increase protection of high water/binder ratio concrete (above 0.5.

  10. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL BASED ON GYPSUM BINDER AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUMAK Anastasia Gennadievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a number of studies in the area of nanomodi­fication of gypsum binder matrix and to investigate the influence of multilayer carbon nanotubes on the structure, physical and mechanical properties of obtained compos­ites. The study of the gypsum binders structure formation mechanisms with the use of nanoadditives makes it possible to control the production processes of gypsum materi­als and articles with the given set of properties. The main tasks of the binder nanomodification are: even distribution of carbon nanostructures over the whole volume of material and provision of stability for the nanodimensional modifier during production process of the construction composite.

  11. Effect of Hydration Aging and Water Binder Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sprayed Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Ditao; WANG Jiabin; WANG Yan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the durability of sprayed concrete (shotcrete), effects of different hydration aging and water-binder ratio (w/b) on the microstructure of cement paste and basic mechanical properties of test specimens were investigated. The phase composition, mass percentage of ettringite and portland in hydration production and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The experimental results showed that changes in phase composition was more signiifcant than those of water-binder ratio. With hydration aging and water-binder ratio increased, the mass percentage of ettringite and portland was decreased from 4.42%, 1.49% to 3.31%, 1.35%, respectively and the microstructure of paste was signiifcantly compacted. Likewise, the mechanical properties including cubic compressive strength and splitting tensile strength were rised obviously.

  12. Studying asphalt binder fatigue pattern by using a dynamic shear rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Reyes Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was aimed at determining fatigue test results regarding different types of binder when using a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR. The tests were carried out in stress conditions at 20ºC. The stress input signal was a constant amplitude, 1.59 Hz frequency sine wave. Asphalt binders B-13/22, B-40/50, B-60/70, B-80/00, B-150/200 and BM-3c (modified asphalt were studied. The test measured strain, complex modulus (G*, dissipated energy and dissipated energy ratio (DER with the number of cycles. Strain criteria were used for determining binder fatigue failure (DER. Failure was defined as the point at which (DER dropped 10% after peaking. Laws of asphalt fatigue were obtained from the strain and failure cycle results.

  13. The role of the binder phase in the WC-Co sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva A.G.P. da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of hardmetal in the solid state is studied. The influence of the WC particle size on the sintering kinetics, the role of the binder phase in the densification process and how sintering depends on the heating conditions are investigated. It is observed that alloys with different WC particle size show quite different structural evolution during sintering, although the densification mechanisms are the same. This is explained by the formation of agglomerates of WC and Co. Hardmetal alloys can sinter very rapidly when high heating rates are used, since rapid heating accelerates the binder spreading and the formation of WC-Co agglomerates. The binder phase (Co spreads on the WC particles initially as a thin layer. Subsequently, more Co spreads on this layer and WC-Co agglomerates are formed.

  14. Potential of the application of the modified polysaccharides water solutions as binders of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary tests of selected properties of the moulding sands with the binder in the form of a 5 % water solution of the sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (with a degree of substitution (DS of 0,2 and 0,87 arepresented in this study. The moulding sand properties such as permeability, abrasion resistance, tensile and bendingstrength - after curing - are shown in series of tests. The cure process was conducted in a field of electromagnetic radiation within the microwave range. The effect of the microwave treatment on the moulding sand was evaporating of water (solvent in a binder and cross-linking of the polymeric binder. As a result the cured moulding sands with particular properties, essential in the context of its application in the mould technology in the foundry industry, were obtained.

  15. Springback Control With Variable Binder Force — Experiments And FEA Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changqing; Wu, Jin; Militisky, Marcio; Principe, James; Garnett, Mark; Zhang, Li

    2004-06-01

    Side-wall-curl is a springback phenomena in typical automotive structural components, such as channel like rails and cross members. Minimizing or eliminating the side-wall-curl is one of the major challenges in stamping production. This challenge is exasperated when the component is formed from advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In this study a standard three-piece draw die is used, in a series of experimental tests, to form a stamping with a hat-shaped section from dual phase 590 (DP590). During the forming stroke, the binder force is varied to evaluate its influence on side-wall-curl. FEA springback simulations for two types of experiments with varied binder forces are also performed. The binder force profiles for several sheet materials are discussed and the correlation between the simulation results and the actual part measurements are illustrated.

  16. Effect of Tar-resin Binder on Properties of MgO-C Monolithic Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hady EFENDY; Wan Mohd.Farid BIN WAN MOHAMAD

    2010-01-01

    Based on the newly developed bonding system,a new generation of carbon-bonded MgO-C monolithic refractories product with low toxic potential has been developed.Results of an on-going investigation on properties of MgO-C monolithic refractories with tar-resin as binder are presented.Furthermore,the binder is an extremely strong carbon bonding.Further significant advantages of this system are high oxidation resistance of the highly-ordered carbon structure and the excellent stress-absorbing structure.To improve the strength and erosion resistance,and to decrease evaporation during heating,a preliminary treated tar-resin with higher melting temperature and lower content of volatile component was investigated.The binder specimens were treated at 800 ℃ and the mechanical properties of MgO-C refractories specimens treated at 200,400,and 1 200 ℃ were determined.

  17. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  18. On the measurement of surface tension in binders used for moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hutera

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface tension of foundry binders is a very important parameter affecting the properties of a sand-binder system. Combined with other parameters, its value determines an outcome of the process of moulding sand preparation and the mechanical properties of the ready moulding composition. The problem of how to measure the surface tension of binders used in preparation of moulding sands is discussed only occasionally. Indirectly, the surface tension is characterised by the value of a contact angle, but it never means that these two parameters can be considered identical. Numerous methods are available and used at present to measure the surface tension, among others, the capillary rise method, the spinning drop method, the sessile drop method, the pendant drop method, the method of pulled out ring (or plate, or frame. There is also a rich variety of devices offered with different measuring methods. The devices are modern and represent a high level of the technical skill and art. Unfortunately, also their price is high. It is, however, possible to obtain the reliable results of the surface tension measurement using relatively simple methods, viz. the stalagmometric method and the capillary rise method. What is necessary are proper conditions of the measurement, directly related with the specific properties of binders. The present paper gives examples of the results obtained during measurement of the surface tension of some selected binders. Attention was drawn to the methods of taking measurements, and the obtained results were discussed and analysed. The possibilities of detemining the surface tension of the examined binders from the results of the contact angle measurements using the “sessile drop” and “pendant drop” methods were outlined.

  19. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  20. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  1. ISRO Polyol - The Versatile Binder for Composite Solid Propellants for Launch Vehicles and Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krishnamurthy

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of propellants based on a low cost hydroxy terminated binder has been developed and proved in large size motors. It can meet the requirements of Apogee motors as well as large boosters. The system offers advantages comparable with HTPB propellants in terms of high ballistic performance, stringent mechanical properties, ease and reliability of cure even at ambient conditions and high storage stability. The near-Newtonian flow behaviour, simplicity and processing characteristics of this saturated binder propellant are particularly note-worthy.

  2. Study on Heat Hardening Mechanism of Starch Composite Binder for Sand Mold (Core) by IR Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia ZHOU; Jinzong YANG; Qin GAO; Guohui QU

    2001-01-01

    The heat hardening mechanism of starch composite binder for sand mold (core) was studied by way of IR spectra. It is thought that the bonding strength of molding sand is mainly depended on the strength of the adhesive membrane itself. During heating the binder at certain temperature between 160~200℃ for one hour, a special composite structure is formed because of the interactions between different components, thus, it has higher low-temperature drying strength,better humidity resistance and higher high-temperature strength.

  3. Selective catalytic reduction system and process using a pre-sulfated zirconia binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.

    2010-06-29

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system, the catalyst system comprising (ZrO.sub.2)SO.sub.4, palladium, and a pre-sulfated zirconia binder. The inclusion of a pre-sulfated zirconia binder substantially increases the durability of a Pd-based SCR catalyst system. A system for implementing the disclosed process is further provided.

  4. EVALUATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA GUM AS A BINDER IN TABLET FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Basawaraj S; Soodam Srinivas R.; Kulkarni Upendra; Korwar Prakassh G.

    2010-01-01

    Various plant gums have been used as binders in tablet formulations. But still finding novel binder for the manufacture of tablets, in pharmaceutical industry. The Moringa oleifera gum was found its binding property. In the present study Moringa oleifera gum was employed as a binding agent in Chloroquine phosphate tablets at concentrations of 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 % w/w, in comparison with potato starch. The properties of Moringa oleifera gum were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tappe...

  5. Evaluation of cattle feeding preferences using short-term trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Girolami

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of feeding preferences of ruminants may help to define diet supplementation, achieve an efficient exploitation of natural resources and preserve normal body condition of the animal. Thereafter, such knowledge may enable to improve reproductive and productive performance as well as product quality. Ruminants generally develop preferences for feed that are richer in energy, providing them a high satiety level rapidly (Provenza, 1995. Nevertheless, physical characteristics, accessibility and palatability properties of feed per se can stimulate or depress hedonic behaviour and........

  6. VISCOSITY AND BINDER COMPOSITION EFFECTS ON TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE FOR DETECTION OF PHENOL AND CATECHOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The systematic study of the effect of binder viscosity on the sensitivity of a tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrode (CPE) biosensor for phenol and catechol is reported. Silicon oil binders with similar (polydimethylsiloxane) chemical composition were used to represent a wid...

  7. Effects of Nanosilica on Compressive Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete with Different Water to Binder Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forood Torabian Isfahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of different nanosilica dosages (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% with respect to cement on compressive strength and durability properties of concrete with water/binder ratios 0.65, 0.55, and 0.5 were investigated. Water sorptivity, apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity, and carbonation coefficient of concrete were measured. The results showed that compressive strength significantly improved in case of water/binder = 0.65, while for water/binder = 0.5 no change was found. Increasing nanosilica content, the water sorptivity decreased only for water/binder = 0.55. The addition of 0.5% nanosilica decreased the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient for water/binder = 0.65 and 0.55; however, higher nanosilica dosages did not decrease it with respect to reference value. The resistivity was elevated by 0.5% nanosilica for all water/binder ratios and by 1.5% nanosilica only for water/binder = 0.5. The carbonation coefficient was not notably affected by increasing nanosilica dosages and even adverse effect was observed for water/binder = 0.65. Further information of microstructure was also provided through characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of a certain nanosilica dosage addition into lower strength mixes was more noticeable, while, for the higher strength mix, the effectiveness was less.

  8. First Observation of the Blending Zone Morphology at the Interface of Reclaimed Asphalt Binder and Virgin Bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Mohajeri, M.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, T.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges in designing recycled asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP is to estimate the blending degree between RAP binder and the added virgin bitumen. The extent of blending is crucial in this case as asphalt concrete response is influenced by the final binder properties. This pa

  9. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal drug application (NADA) filed by ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc. The supplemental NADA provides for use...

  10. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The supplemental NADA provides for approval of free-choice feeds for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot (stocker... Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, filed a supplement to NADA 95-735 that provides for use...

  11. 76 FR 79064 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... drug application (NADA) filed by Elanco Animal Health, A Division of Eli Lilly & Co. The supplemental NADA revises a manufacturing specification for monensin free-choice Type C medicated feed for growing... 46285, filed a supplement to NADA 95-735 that provides for use of RUMENSIN 90 (monensin, USP) Type...

  12. A facile approach to derive binder protective film on high voltage spinel cathode materials against high temperature degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Yu; Jin, Yi-Chun; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liao, Shih-Chieh

    2015-11-01

    The electrochemical performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode combined with different binders at elevated temperature is firstly investigated. The water soluble binder, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate (SA), is compared with the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF) binder used in non-aqueous process. The aqueous process can meet the need of Li-ion battery industry due to environmental-friendly and cost effectiveness by replacing toxic organic solvent, such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this study, a significantly improved high temperature cycling performance is successfully obtained as compared to the traditional PVdF binder. The aqueous binder can serve as a protective film which inhibits the serious Ni and Mn dissolution especially at elevated temperature. Our result demonstrates a facile approach to solve the problem of capacity fading for high voltage spinel cathodes.

  13. Design of a novel system allowing the selection of an adequate binder for solidification/stabilization of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera, J.; Thevenin, G.; Chabannet, M. [INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-10-01

    Literature review shows that there is a lack of complete and consistent data on waste-binder interactions. Few links exist between research on the Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) mechanisms and the formulation of binders for immobilization. Therefore, a twofold program was developed allowing both to be done in parallel. This protocol had two targets: understanding the mechanisms involved in the S/S of heavy metals for each type of binder and rating the binder capacity for fixing heavy metals. The experimental procedure relies on two substrates: (1) the study of suspensions by means of conductimetry, XRD, FTIR, DTA, SEM-EDXA, ICP, ion chromatography, and colorimetry; and (2) the study of pure pastes for leaching tests and microstructural characterization (XRD, FTIR, DTA, SEM-EDXA). Results confirm whether the pollutant modifies the hydration or not, give access to the extent of binder stabilization without taking into account the solidification part, and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  14. Low toxicity binder systems for tape cast Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Menon, Mohan; Ramousse, Severine

    2010-01-01

    Conventional binder systems for tape casting contain toxic phthalate plasticizers and butanone (MEK) as part of the solvent. The effects of exchanging the phthalate with a non-toxic alternative, and butanone with ethanol, were studied on laminates of high-green density CGO (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) tapes....... Samples were prepared with a binder system containing DBP (dibutyl phthalate) plasticizer and MEK solvent, and with a binder system based on a non-toxic non-phthalate plasticizer and ethanol. In both systems, the weight ratio of plasticizer to the PVB (polyvinyl butyral) binder was varied between 0.......4 and 0.7. Substitution to the less toxic binder system had no adverse impacts on the microstructure. In fact, denser packing and improved homogeneity were observed with the non-phthalate-based system at ratio 0.5 indicating improved dispersion in this system. The denser packing also coincided...

  15. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  16. Enhanced electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 (LFP) cathode using the carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) as novel binder in lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Wang, Daxiong; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun; Wang, Jianquan

    2014-10-13

    Novel water-based binder CMC-Li is synthesized using cotton as raw material. The mechanism of the CMC-Li as a binder is reported. Electrochemical properties of batteries cathodes based on commercially available lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) and CMC-Li as a water-soluble binder are investigated. CMC-Li is a novel lithium-ion binder. Compare with conventional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, and the battery with CMC-Li as the binder retained 97.8% of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 176 mAh g(-1), which is beyond the theoretical specific capacity of LFP. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrate that the LFP electrode using CMC-Li as the binder has the highest rate capability, follow closely by that using PVDF binder. The batteries have good electrochemical property, outstanding pollution-free and excellent stability.

  17. The role of infant appetite in extended formula feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch

  18. Malnutrition, dehydration, and ancillary feeding options in dysphagia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Michael A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2013-12-01

    Patients with dysphagia are at high risk for malnutrition. Several strategies may be used to address the nutritional needs of these patients. Dietary modification, the addition of oral supplements, or the use of nutritional support in the form of enteral tube feeds or parenteral nutrition infusions can greatly impact the overall health of the patient.

  19. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  20. The bio refinery; producing feed and fuel from grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, D V; Burton, E J; Williams, P E V

    2016-04-15

    It is both possible and practicable to produce feed and fuel from grain. Using the value of grain to produce renewable energy for transport, while using the remaining protein content of the grain as a valuable protein source for livestock and for fish, can be seen as a complimentary and optimal use of all the grain constituents. Consideration must be given to maximise the value of the yeast components, as substantial yeast is generated during the fermentation of the grain starch to produce ethanol. Yeast is a nutritionally rich feed ingredient, with potential for use both as feed protein and as a feed supplement with possible immunity and gut health enhancing properties. Bioprocessing, with the consequent economies of scale, is a process whereby the value of grain can be optimised in a way that is traditional, natural and sustainable for primarily producing protein and oil for feed with a co-product ethanol as a renewable fuel.