WorldWideScience

Sample records for binder feed supplementation

  1. Effects of prebiotic and mycotoxin binder feed supplementation on the quality of the eggs produced by the hens in the end of their laying period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    conducted at the Animal Husbandry Faculty's Experimental Farm in Iasi, Romania, during a period of 4 weeks. A total of 90 hens, 57-week-old ISA Brown layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments, with 30 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted in feeding hens a corn soybean meal basal diet with supplementation of 0.1% Bio-Mos (treatment A1) and of 0.2% Mycosorb (treatment A2). The parameters studied included: living weight and feed intake dynamics, feed conversion ratio, laying intensity, egg mass production, egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, shell index, Haugh Index. Both groups received fodder additives given superior results, concerning the production performances, the internal and external egg quality, as shown. Major influence on the laying hens' health and production is given by the relationship existing between intestinal bacterial population, gut morphology, immune system and nutrients absorption, as previously stated in the reference literature. Some production indexes were improved due to the supplementation of the laying hens feed with Bio-Mos (+ 0,1%) and Mycosorb (+ 0,2% ): - egg mass production increased with 1.67%, respectively with 3.00%; - feed conversion ratio decreased with 1.85%, respectively with 6.61%. - Some egg quality indexes were also improved: - shell thickness increased with 3.86% at the eggs respectively with 2.84%, these effects being mostly observed since the 4th week of usage;- - the amount of eggs with unconformities decreased. Thus, the amount of integer shell eggs was 5.60% higher in A1 treatment, respectively 3.98% higher in A2 treatment, as compared to the control group

  2. The use of bentonite and zeolite as caesium-binders in feed to reindeer - experiences from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is used in Sweden to lower radiocaesium levels in reindeer before slaughter. In feeds used for this purpose, bentonite is added as a caesium-binder to prevent absorption of radiocaesium, since the animals usually have som access to contaminated pasture in their corrals. Bentonite is efficient as a caesium-binder but increases water consumption and excretion of urine. Zeolite has been used as a caesium-binder to reindeer in a few experiments. The effect, however, has been inferior to that of bentonite. It seems that zeolite, mixed in feeds, loose some of its effect as the feed is stored. The need of a caesium-binder is demonstrated by results from practical feeding of reindeer where radiocaesium levels have not decreased as expected when feed without bentonite has been used.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, A; Stroka, J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B₁ and B₂, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B₁ determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB₁. Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB₁ determined.

  4. Glucose polymer supplementation of feeds for very low birthweight infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Raffles, A; Schiller, G; Erhardt, P; Silverman, M

    1983-01-01

    The feeds of 14 very low birthweight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) were supplemented with a glucose polymer (Caloreen) at the rate of 6 g/kg body weight daily. Seven day periods of supplementation were alternated with seven day periods of normal feeding. Adding the glucose polymer significantly increased the rate of weight gain in these infants from 105 g/week to 140 g/week; growth rates in terms of length and head circumference were not affected. No adverse effects were noted. Gluc...

  5. Effect of phosphate binders on supplemental iron absorption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchnicki, Maria C; Coyle, James D; Hoshaw-Woodard, Stacy; Bay, William H

    2002-10-01

    A single-dose, prospective, randomized, four-treatment, four-period crossover study was conducted to determine the acute effect of therapeutically equivalent doses of three commonly used phosphate binders on oral iron absorption. Twenty-three healthy subjects received 65 mg of elemental iron alone and with each phosphate binder (calcium carbonate 3000 mg, calcium acetate 2668 mg, or sevelamer HCl 2821 mg). Area under the change in plasma iron concentration-time curve over 6 hours postdosing was measured. ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance of differences in iron absorption among the treatments. The relative bioavailability of iron administered with each phosphate binder compared to iron administered alone was estimated. The relative iron bioavailabilities (95% confidence intervals) for the calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, and sevelamer HCI treatments were 0.81 (0.70, 0.94), 0.73 (0.63, 0.85), and 0.90 (0.78, 1.05), respectively. Thus, single doses of both calcium-based phosphate binders significantly reduced single-dose iron absorption, while sevelamer HCl did not. PMID:12362933

  6. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  7. Gamma-irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage represents a vast resource of nutrients that could be useful in supplemental feeding of livestock, especially ruminants, which can subsist on cellulosic and hemicellulosic herbage when supplemented with nitrogen and minerals. A large scale, long term research project at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has evaluated dried solids from primary (''undigested'') sewage sludge as a supplemental feed for cattle and sheep. Dried sewage solids were subjected to γ-irradiation, 10 Gy (1 Mrad), using 137Cs, as a means of pathogen reduction. Digestibility of energy was about 60%, digestibility of N about 70%, and biological value of N (retention of absorbed N) about 65%. Intake and digestibility of poor quality roughages were improved about equally by experimental supplements with sewage solids or cottonseed meal. Reproduction of beef cows on arid range was improved, and calf weaning weights increased about equally by cottonseed meal and by experimental supplements with 50% or more sewage solids. Mature ewes fed irradiated sewage solids as 7% of total diet for over two years reproduced as well as ewes fed conventionally, but ewe lambs fed 7% irradiated sewage solids from weaning through early mating (at 8 months old) reproduced poorly. Tissue uptakes of heavy metals and halogenated hydrocarbons were low, and no induction of mixed function oxidase was observed. Prospective benefits from use of sewage products seem substantial and risks of toxicants seem manageable. Constraints on feeding of sewage products could be removed by means of appropriate selection and processing of sludges and application of technology to ensure safety and efficacy of products. (author)

  8. Optimization of stocking density for the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in pond culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanxin; Dong, Shuanglin; Tan, Fuyi; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Dong, Yunwei; Gao, Qinfeng

    2009-09-01

    Optimal stocking densities were investigated for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in net enclosures for 333 d. Substantial weight loss occurred during the aestivation phase (AE). Decreased growth rates were also observed during the winter phase (WT). In contrast, sea cucumbers showed rapid growth during the spring (SP) and autumn (AU) phases. Feeding regimes considerably influenced the growth performance, i.e., sea cucumbers grew faster under feed-supplement regime than under non-feed-supplement regime ( P < 0.05). The average survival rates of sea cucumbers under feed-supplement regime were higher than those under non-feed-supplement regime for both the autumn phase and spring phase, but the differences were only significant for the latter phase ( P < 0.05). The fitted B-N curves showed that the optimal stocking densities, in terms of net production, were 22.3 ind. m-2 for feed-supplement regime and 14.1 ind. m-2 for non-feed-supplement regime.

  9. Optimization of Stocking Density for the Sea Cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, Under Feed-Supplement and Non-Feed-Supplement Regimes in Pond Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Chuanxin; DONG Shuanglin; TAN Fuyi; TIAN Xiangli; WANG Fang; DONG Yunwei; GAO Qinfeng

    2009-01-01

    Optimal stocking densities were investigated for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in net enclosures for 333 d. Substantial weight loss occurred during the aestivation phase (AE).Decreased growth rates were also observed during the winter phase (WT). In contrast, sea cucumbers showed rapid growth during the spring (SP) and autumn (AU) phases. Feeding regimes considerably influenced the growth performance, i.e., sea cucumbers grew faster under feed-supplement regime than under non-feed-supplement regime (P< 0.05). The average survival rates of sea cucumbers under feed-supplement regime were higher than those under non-feed-supplement regime for both the autumn phase and spring phase,but the differences were only significant for the latter phase (P<0.05). The fitted B-N curves showed that the optimal stocking densities, in terms of net production, were 22.3 ind. m-2 for feed-supplement regime and 14.1 ind. m-2 for non-feed-supplement regime.

  10. EFFECT OF FEEDS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS COWS

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    KIRAN KUMAR DIVYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous cows, on farm level, kept on feeding supplemented with powdered root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.. It was observed that feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed increased percentage milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids significantly without altering quality and natural attributes of milk. Significant residual effect of feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed was also observed in terms of percentage increase in milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids (TS up to ten days after Shatavari roots supplemented was stopped to cows.

  11. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Cross, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  12. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, R. K.; Praveen Kumar; A. Adil and G.K. Arya

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group). [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000): 193-194

  13. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  14. Use of natural feed supplements that help to improve health status of calves

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    Luboš ZÁBRANSKÝ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis for each cattle farming are healthy and strong individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which of the given feed supplements have the greatest effect on liveweight gain of calves in the early period after weaning from mother to infant milk substitutes. The research was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014. After the birth calves were weaned into individual boxes in the barn, where during the first 21 days of life their feeding ration was enriched with feed supplements. On the basis of the added supplement calves were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. First weighing of calves was done after birth and the second after 30 days. From the results of observations it can be concluded that feed supplements are accepted positively by calves in the first days of life and have a positive beneficial effect on weight gain and general health of calves.

  15. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mardalena; L. Warly; E. Nurdin; W.S.N. Rusmana; Farizal

    2011-01-01

    Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS) as source of antioxidants (AOX). FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM) each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dai...

  16. Use of vitamin D supplements during infancy in an international feeding trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between t...

  17. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid, A.; Chojnacka, K.; Korczyński, M.; Korniewicz, D.; Dobrzański, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima....

  18. Effect of feed supplements on dry season milk yield and profitability of crossbred cows in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.

  19. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  20. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  1. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  2. Impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Anja; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-03-01

    Baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. An often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on large herbivores in North America. While the objectives of supplemental feeding and baiting typically differ, the effects on disease transmission of these practices are largely the same. Both feeding and baiting provide wildlife with natural or non-natural food at specific locations in the environment, which can result in large congregations of individuals and species in a small area and increased local densities. Feeding can lead to increased potential for disease transmission either directly (via direct animal contact) or indirectly (via feed functioning as a fomite, spreading disease into the adjacent environment and to other animals). We identified numerous diseases that currently pose a significant concern to the health of individuals and species of large wild mammals across North America, the spread of which are either clearly facilitated or most likely facilitated by the application of supplemental feeding or baiting. Wildlife diseases also have important threats to human and livestock health. Although the risk of intra- and inter-species disease transmission likely increases when animals concentrate at feeding stations, only in a few cases was disease prevalence and transmission measured and compared between populations. Mostly these were experimental situations under controlled conditions, limiting direct scientific evidence that feeding practices exacerbates disease occurrence, exposure, transmission, and spread in the environment. Vaccination programs utilizing

  3. CANOLA CROP TAKES UP SELENIUM PROVIDES BIOFUEL AND FEED SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the Brassica plant taxi that are candidates for phytoremediation of selenium also produce products that be used for refining into biodiesel, as well as selenium enriched animal feeds. These include canola (Brassica napus) that is planted in the Westside soils of central California (Oxalis si...

  4. Harvesting and Processing Zooplankton for Use as Supplemental Fry Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present the methods that we used to capture and dry large zooplankton from ponds to feed to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fry. Using a submersible pump and canister filter, we were able to capture about 1.0 kg (wet weight; 200 g in terms of dry weight) of zooplankton from well-fertilized po...

  5. The effect of propolis feed supplementation on hygiene and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural substance produced by worker bees from trees and leaf buds. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of two concentrations (200, 400 mg/kg diet of propolis on some performance traits and hygienic parameters of broiler chickens body weight, feed conversion, feed consumption, during an eight weeks experiment, weights of internal organs, and dressing percentage also recorded. The results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to significant increase (P<0.05 in eighth-week body weight (2306.27 g, feed consumption especially in the fourth week, maximum daily growth rate (55.52 gm was obtained from the treatment of 400 mg/kg in the seventh week period. Also propolis lead to improve feed conversion efficiency in the second, third and fourth week of age for the broilers fed diet with 400 mg/kg (1.35, 1.59, 1.95, respectively. Average of proportional weights for each of the liver, heart, thighs, and dressing percentage (74.0% were improved among birds of this treatment, too.

  6. Lectin binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lectins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, many of them being well characterized in their chemical structure and the effects they have on alien biological systems such as erythrocytes or lymphocytes. The biological function of plant lectins remains speculative. We therefore inspected plant extracts from components which might bind specifically to the lectin from the respective plant. Single proteins (lectin binders) could be isolated from each plant extract. The interaction of these proteins with lectins was demonstrated and qualified by several methods. Similar to the lectins, the lectin binders are localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to them, however, they persist during germination and plant growth. Their precise role in the plant is not known, but they are likely to be associated with lectins not only in vitro but also in vivo. They also interact with alien cells, and are able to stimulate mitosis in murine lymphocytes. Some lectin binders act specifically on B lymphocytes, leaving T cells uninfluenced

  7. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardalena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  8. Bioassay based screening of steroid derivatives in animal feed and supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Ashwin, H.M.; Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Groot, M.J.; Heskamp, H.H.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor binding transcription activation bioassays are valuable tools for the screening of steroid hormones in animal feed and supplements. However, steroid derivatives often lack affinity for their cognate receptor and do not show any direct hormonal activity by themselves. These compounds are thu

  9. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics i

  10. Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P gluten feed, producers can reduce the frequency of supplementation to every other day without reducing digestibility or N retention. PMID:22064733

  11. Comparison of protein and energy supplementation to mineral supplementation on feeding behavior of grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rita Kelly Couto; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Dias, Daniel Lucas Santos; Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida; Filho, George Abreu; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Barroso, Daniele Soares; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein-energy or mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of dairy steers on pasture in the post-weaning phase during the rainy to dry season transition. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu dairy steers with an average initial body weight of 234 ± 16 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design into two groups: protein-energy supplementation and mineral supplementation offered ad libitum. The steers receiving protein-energy supplementation showed higher (P rumination and time per period in idle (P > 0.05). The supply of protein-energy supplement does not change the feeding behavior, except for an increase in the time spent feeding at the trough. The intake of protein-energy supplement improved the of DM and NDF feed efficiencies in grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition. PMID:27386377

  12. Effects of supplemental feeding interval on adult cows in western Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, J E; Lippke, H; Forbes, T D; Holloway, J W; Machen, R V

    1999-11-01

    Two experiments involving Brangus and Hereford x Brangus cows (3 to 10 yr) were conducted at four locations in western Texas to determine the effects of supplemental feeding interval on serum urea nitrogen (SUN) patterns, intake of supplement and forage, and winter changes in live body weight and condition score. Treatments were control (Control; no supplemental feed) and the equivalent of .91 kg/d of cottonseed meal (CSM) fed daily (Daily), three times per week (3T/WK), or one time per week (WK). At each location, one pasture group was given all four treatments (four cows/treatment) using Calan gates. In Exp. 1, conducted in 1994-95, blood samples were obtained for determining SUN during the last week of the study. Experiment 2, conducted in 1995-96, included both an individually fed herd and four additional herds at each location that were group-fed the four treatments. Experiment 2 included estimates of intakes of both CSM and forage in both individually fed and group-fed herds. A bolus containing chromium (Cr-bolus) was used to estimate fecal output in the individually fed cows. A double marker technique was used to determine total (Cr-bolus) and CSM (Yb) intakes in the group-fed cows. Data included initial and final cow weights and condition scores (Exp. 1 and 2), SUN patterns (Exp. 1), and supplement, forage, and total intakes (Exp. 2). Feeding CSM to range cows increased SUN concentrations (Exp. 1), reduced losses in live body weight and body condition score (Exp. 1 and 2), and tended to decrease forage intake by the approximate amount of the supplement (Exp. 2). Generally, providing supplement as infrequently as once per week reduced losses in live body weight and body condition score compared with control and was as effective as once daily supplementation. For the group-fed cows, supplement intake, forage intake, and live body weight change were more variable within groups with once daily feeding than when supplement was fed less frequently. These data

  13. The effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in village chicken in Bamenda area of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in Ndop and Santa zones of the Bamenda area in the Republic of Cameroon on the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in backyard poultry. The results of the study showed that there was an increase in egg production and weight gain in the vaccinated birds which received feed supplement as compared to the non-vaccinated and without feed supplements. The mortality pattern did not reflect the effect of feed supplementation suggesting that other factors may be responsible for mortality. An economic analysis of the impact of the two interventions on backyard poultry production was carried out using the partial farm budget analysis. It was evident from the results that feed supplementation was beneficial to rural poultry performance and that the inclusion of a vaccination programme against Newcastle disease made the intervention even more beneficial. (author)

  14. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  15. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V;

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant and ...

  16. Use of a molasses–based liquid feed supplement to deliver Ivermectin to cattle to control ectoparasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two different dosages of ivermectin were used to medicate a liquid molasses feed supplement for free-choice consumption by cattle. Calves that fed on supplement medicated at 25 ppm with ivermectin had a 14 day mean consumption of 0.62 ± 0.07 kg supplement/animal/day producing an average dose of 15....

  17. Feed intake and growth performance of goats supplemented with soy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplemental feeding of soy waste on the feed intake and growth rate of goats. Twenty male crossbred (Boer x local goats were assigned to two isonitrogenous diet groups: one of commercial pellet and the other of soy waste. The commercial pellet (1.0% and soy waste (0.8% were provided on the dry matter basis of body weight (BW per day, to the respective group of each diet. The soy waste group had lower daily intakes of total dry matter (0.79 vs. 0.88 kg and organic matter (665.71 vs. 790.44 g than the group fed pellet; however, the differences on daily intakes for grass (0.62 vs. 0.64 kg, crude protein (96.81 vs. 96.83 g, and neutral detergent fibre (483.70 vs. 499.86 g were not significant. No differences were observed between groups for BW gain. The feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram of BW gain were lower for the group fed soy waste than for the one fed pellet. Goats fed supplemental soy waste have a lower total dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, and feed cost per kilogram of body weight gain than those fed commercial pellets.

  18. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  19. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so thatuncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortableconditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixturepineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. Thisexperiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milkquality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experimentthat conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments wereR0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX,R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result ofphytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen,mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference(p<0.05 among treatments on blood and milk cholesterol and milk lactose, but there were no difference(P>0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was thefeed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  20. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  1. The Optimizing of Growth and Quality of Chlorella vulgaris as ASUH feed supplement for Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvia Salvia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella is spherical single celled freshwater micro-algae.   Chlorella  has potentials as element of ration or natural ASUH (safe, healthy, whole and halal feed supplement for it contains nutrition and active component, decreases cholesterol level and resulting darker yolk.  Chlorella vulgaris  is type of green algae   which, its economical potential need to be revealed. Variety of components of growing media is one of factors determining quality of microalgae. In terms of mass production, it is important to find correct, cheap and easy to feed nutrition for breeders. The objective of the research is to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of Chlorella vulgaris   as ASUH feed supplement for broiler. Test using sedgwick rafter method conducted to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of  Chlorella vulgaris  while AOAC method applied to test quality of its nutrition. The result shows that.  Chlorella vulgaris  grew well at technical medium 10 % of Phyto-s, crude protein 57.63%, fat  5.84%, b Carotene 6.44 mg/gram, Vitamin C 4.12 mg/gram and vitamin E 1.32 mg/gram. We can say that Chlorella vulgaris  potential to be natural and ASUH feed supplement and Phyto-s can be used as nutrition for mass production.

  2. Effect of different feed supplements on selected quality indicators of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different feed additives (bee pollen extract, propolis extract, and probiotic on meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old broiler chicks of mixed sex (Ross 308 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet, free of supplements (control group; C;  basal diet  plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E1; basal diet  plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. In the experiment, the probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU.g-1 of bearing medium was used. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. Meat quality was evaluated by following technological properties: cooling, freezing and roasting loss; colour parameters based on CIELab system; and shear force. Both dietary supplementations led to decrease in cooling (p ≤0.05 and freezing (p ≥0.05 losses compared with control. On the contrary, the supplemented diet tended to increase roasting losses (p ≤0.05 and shear force values in thigh muscle (p ≤0.05. Significantly higher L* values (p ≤0.05 in breast and thigh muscles, as well as the b* values in thigh muscle, were found when broiler chickens were fed the supplements, especially bee pollen extract and probiotics. In addition, the supplements improve redness (a* of meat. The redness of breast muscle appeared to be the most affected (p ≥0.05 by propolis extract plus probiotics supplementation, while thigh muscle had the highest value (p ≤0.05 in bee pollen extract plus probiotics supplemented group. These findings suggested that the supplements have a beneficial effect on quality of chicken meat due to positive changes in most of quality indicators investigated in the

  3. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R

    2015-03-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585

  4. Age and feeding system (supplemental feeding versus grazing) modulates colonic bacterial succession and host mucosal immune maturation in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, J; Lu, Q; Forster, R J; Zhou, C; Wang, M; Kang, J; Tan, Z

    2016-06-01

    The gut microbiome plays important roles in the regulation of gastrointestinal tract functional development and host mucosal immune maturation. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age and feeding system (supplemental feeding [Sup] vs. grazing [G]) could alter colonic bacterial diversity and host mucosal immune maturation. Thirty Liuyang black goat kids ( = 4) were slaughtered on d 0, d 7 (nonrumination), d 28, d 42 (transition), and d 70 (rumination). The colonic microbiota was profiled by Miseq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Host colonic mucosal immune maturation was examined using mRNA level expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR), proinflammatory cytokines, and the Toll-IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptor. A correlation analysis was conducted to elucidate the relationship between bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters and host immune maturation variables. The results showed that α diversity indexes ( diversity indexes increased ( diversity and host mucosal immune maturation are age related, and concentrate supplement could alter bacterial diversity and alleviate overinflammation responses. PMID:27285927

  5. Optimized Batch Fermentation of Cheese Whey-Supplemented Feedlot Waste Filtrate to Produce a Nitrogen-Rich Feed Supplement for Ruminants †

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, M D; Reddy, C. Adinarayana

    1986-01-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been ...

  6. Effects of thymol and isoeugenol feed supplementation on quail adult performance, egg characteristics and hatching success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, A; Dambolena, J S; Zygadlo, J A; Marin, R H; Labaque, M C

    2012-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to evaluate whether feed supplementation with thymol or isoeugenol can alter Japanese quail growth rate and final body weight, the female onset of puberty, hen-day egg production and the physical and chemical characteristics of the egg, as well as its potential to alter hatchability. 2. From 4 to 16 weeks of age, birds from each cage (1 male: 3 females) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed in the supplement added to the feed: control, thymol or isoeugenol (400 mg/kg). The average ages (d) at first egg lay (FIRST), at 25% egg production (A25% EP), at 50% egg production (A50% EP) and weekly and cumulative hen-day egg production (HDEP) were calculated. In addition, physical and chemical characteristics of the eggs, their fertility and hatchability were also evaluated for each group. 3. Feed supplementation did not significantly affect growth rate, final body weight, egg production parameters, fertility and physical characteristics of egg or most of the fatty acid components of the yolk. 4. The group treated with isoeugenol showed an increase in the percentage of palmitoleic fatty acid compared to the control, with thymol group showing intermediates values. 5. Both thymol and isoeugenol supplemented groups showed increased hatchabilities, by 18.8% and 11.8%, respectively, compared to their control counterparts. 6. The improvement in the hatching success of the eggs from the thymol and isoeugenol supplemented groups without a negative impact on their performance may have important economic implications for future breeding programmes, particularly if these effects generalise from quail to other more commercially important poultry species, such as chickens or turkeys. PMID:23281757

  7. NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Witkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properties of a new product. The effect of duckweed enriched with microelements on the productivity parameters of laying hens was studied in zootechnical research. Birds feed was supplemented with duckweed enriched by biosorption process with microelements (Cu(II, Zn(II, Co(II, Cr(III. In the feeding experiment, laying hens were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. The feeding experiment was conducted for 41 days. Samples of egg yolk, albumen, eggshells, blood, feathers and droppings were collected and the content of metal ions was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulizer. The amount of a given microelement transferred into the egg yolk and egg white was calculated. The eggshells thicknesses were measured with micrometer screw. The research showed that enriched Lemna minor improved the egg quality parameters. In all experimental groups, the increase of eggshell thickness was observed. In three of four experimental groups of hens, fed with diet containing biological form of microelements (Co(II, Zn(II, Cr(III, the quantity of given microelement in the egg content increased. Therefore, the biosorption process can be applied not only for the supplementation of microelements in hens feed, but also to produce eggs biofortified with microelements-new functional food for human.

  8. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  9. The effect of feed supplementation on the onset of puberty in Brazilian dairy heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most Brazilian dairy production is conducted by small holders whose general management skills and feeding programmes are often deficient. One common problem directly attributed to underfeeding is that heifers rarely reach sexual maturity before 15 months of age. Two experiments were carried out using growing heifers to determine the effect of protein supplementation (0.3 kg/heifer/day of a mixture of commercial concentrate with 18.59% crude protein (CP) and cottonseed meal with 28.43% CP) on sexual maturity (Experiment 1); and protein supplementation plus anthelmintic treatment (benzimidazole, 10 mg/kg body weight) on sexual maturity (Experiment 2). All but one of the 23 females in the supplemented group (96%), and only 12 of the 23 heifers in the control group (52%) reached sexual maturity before 18 months of age (P<0.01) in Experiment 1. The first ovulation occurred at 513 ± 44 and 573 ± 36 days (x-bar ± SE, P<0.01) in supplemented and control groups, respectively. Daily body weight gains from beginning of the trial to the first ovulation were 378 ± 0.02 and 331 ± 0.04 g for supplemented and control groups. Height at withers and body condition score did not differ between the two groups. In Experiment 2, only 52.2% of the heifers in the not-supplemented groups (11 of 23), but 95.7% in supplemented groups (22 of 23), reached sexual maturity before the age of 18 months (P<0.01). Groups that had received supplementation presented higher concentrations of haemoglobin and elevated hematocrit throughout the year than the controls (P<0.01). Animals with anthelmintic treatment had better growth performance than the controls (P<0.01). (author) 19 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Supplement feeding in late gestation to improve the performance of ewes in a dry area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritionally, late gestation is an extremely critical production phase in the ewe flock. This is the period of the majority of foetal growth and the period when the majority of the ewe's mammary system develops. Restriction, during foetal life, will exhibit suboptimal development of the small and large intestine, deposit less bone, less muscle and fatter to weaning, and may resulted lower birth weights and weaning weights of lambs. It is essential that a specialized feeding program be used pre-lambing to support the nutrient requirements in the ewe flock. Supplement feeding pregnant ewes with molasses and cottonseed meal resulted in a higher weight of lambs at birth day, 3 months old and 6 month old In this study, the effect of supplementary feeding on the performance of pregnant ewes, grazing in a dry area of Borazjan, located at northern of Bushehr province in south Iran, was considered. In a completely randomize design, thirty pregnant ewes with average body weight of 43.2 ± 3.4 Kg, were tested for supplementary feeding with 2 treatment groups against a control group. The supplementary feeding started from 120 d of gestation and prolonged till parturition. All animals were grazed in dry land pasture and cereal crops residues all the day times but the treatment groups received concentrate supplement mixed up of: I) wheat bran +sugar cane molasses +cotton seed meal +vitamins and II) wheat bran +sugar cane molasses +urea +vitamins to provide extra macro and micro nutrients with different portion of rumen degradable and undegradable protein between treatments as described. The lambing rate was recorded and the live weight of lambs was measured at birthday, 3 and 6-month age. Results showed that the lambing rate, based on the number of lambs per groups, were similar in both treatment groups and the control as well. As it is shown in Table II, lams born from the ewes received supplement feed, had significantly (P < 0.05) higher birth weight comparing to the control

  11. Measurement of natural radioactivity in animal feed supplements samples by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work is to determine the radiation levels found in animal feed supplements due to natural radioactivity. Knowledge of the radiation levels in samples of animal and poultry feed supplements is important, because they directly or indirectly form part of the human diet. In order to obtain this data, gamma-ray spectrometry technique was used, employing a p-type HPGe detector of 30% of relative efficiency, with an energy resolution of 1.9 KeV for the 60Co 1332.46 KeV line. The radioactivity due to radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and its respective decay series was measured. The accommodation recipient of the samples was a 250 cc cylindrical plastic container. The 238U series radioactivity was calculated through 214Pb and 214Bi activities, and the 232Th series' activity was calculated through the 228Ac, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl values. The animal feed supplements samples measured in this work were samples received in this laboratory for radioactivity test certification. Among the samples, the radioactivity concentration of Uranium-238, Thorium-232, Radium-226 and Potassium-40 in animal supplement was found to be in the range of 1.4 ± 0.2 to 32.7 ± 5.7 Bq/kg, 1.8 ± 0.2 to 44.5 ± 6.6 Bq/kg, 4.0 ± 1. 2 to 105.2 ± 10.2 Bq/kg and 13.1 ± 3.6 to 397.2 ± 19.9 Bq/kg respectively. (author)

  12. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements...

  13. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as this hormone has been shown to increase protein synthesis.

  14. Does the newly weaned piglet select a zinc oxide supplemented feed, when given the choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, F H; Forbes, J M; Miller, H M

    2010-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether weaned piglets would display preference for a food containing a pharmacological level of zinc oxide (ZnO). A total of 60 piglets were weaned at 7.8 kg ± 0.14 (s.e.m.) and 27.8 ± 0.11 days of age into eight mixed sex groups of seven or eight piglets per pen. Groups were balanced for litter origin, weaning weight and sex. Piglet feeding behaviour was constantly recorded by a multi-spaced feeding behaviour recording system (Leeds University Feeding Behaviour System) in each pen. Each pen of pigs was offered ad libitum access to two different foods (16.2 MJ digestible energy, 16 g lysine/kg), which differed only in the level of ZnO supplementation: unsupplemented (U) or supplemented (Z; ZnO 3100 mg/kg). Both foods contained a basal level of zinc (100 mg/kg). Feeding time was recorded for each individual at each trough. Piglets were weighed at weaning and at 7 and 13 days thereafter. The experiment ran for 13 days. Any piglet observed with post-weaning scour (Y) was recorded and treated appropriately whereas healthy piglets were categorised as N (no scour). Preference for a food was defined as being significantly different from 50% of total feed intake or time spent feeding. There was no difference between piglet numbers selecting each food as their first meal. However, within the first 24 h, piglets preferred (P piglets showed aversion (P piglets showed their preference for food U with only 16.6% (14.6 to 18.5) and 21.8% (19.6 to 24.0) of feeding time spent on food Z in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Scouring piglets did not show any difference in feeding behaviour from healthy piglets in either week. Average piglet gain (of all piglets) was low, at 0.039 ± 0.03 and 0.272 ± 0.04 kg/day in weeks 1 and 2, respectively. Given a choice, weaned piglets showed a clear preference for the food U even when exhibiting post-weaning scour. It can be concluded that the newly weaned, naïve, piglet is not able to recognise a food with

  15. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  16. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  17. Ornithine decarboxylase expression in the small intestine of broilers submitted to feed restriction and glutamine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Fischer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred and forty one-day-old Cobb male broilers were used to evaluate ornithine decarboxylase (ODC expression in the mucosa of the small intestine. Birds were submitted to early feed restriction from 7 to 14 days of age. The provided feed was supplemented with glutamine. A completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used (with or without glutamine, with or without feed restriction. Restricted-fed birds were fed at 30% the amount of the ad libitum fed group from 7 to 14 days of age. Glutamine was added at the level of 1% in the diet supplied from 1 to 28 days of age. Protein concentration in the small intestine mucosa was determined, and ODC expression at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age was evaluated by dot blotting. ODC was present in the mucosa of broilers, and the presence of glutamine in the diet increased ODC activation. Glutamine prevented mucosa atrophy by stimulating protein synthesis, and was effective against the effects of feed restriction. Dot blotting can be used to quantify ODC expression in the intestinal mucosa of broilers.

  18. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2015-12-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed.

  19. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the

  20. Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Tanka P.; Walsh, Kerry B.; Bhattarai, Surya P.; Midmore, David J.; Van, Thi T. H.; Moore, Robert J.; Stanley, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97%) related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99%) and Clostridium aldenense (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens. PMID:27116607

  1. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  2. Nutrient Utilization, Lactational Performance, and Profitability of Dairy Cows by Feeding Protein Supplements in High-Forage Lactation Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow release urea (SRU; Optigen) and ruminal escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in high-forage [(54% of total dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilizati...

  3. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Wolfgang; Rosenvold, Katja; Young, Jette F

    2006-12-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing sugars and creatine or creatinine. Groups of ten Duroc and ten Landrace pigs received feed supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CMH) for five days prior to slaughter at dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 g per animal per day. Ten control animals of each breed received the non-supplemented feed. Meat from Duroc pigs had been shown to respond to CMH supplementation with regard to waterholding capacity, juiciness, post slaughter pH and colour parameters, meat from Landrace pigs was unaffected. Indeed, while creatine phosphate levels in meat from Duroc pigs increased in a dose-dependent manner with CMH supplementation, no effect was observed in meat from Landrace pigs. Meat slices from longissimus dorsi were fried and considerable mutagenic activity was detected in meat extracts in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. However, no effect of breed or CMH supplementation was observed in fried pork on the formation of HAA determined as mutagenic activity. It may be concluded that feed supplementation with CMH at levels up to 50 g per day for five days prior to slaughter does not increase the level of heterocyclic aromatic amines detected as mutagenic activity formed upon frying of pork.

  4. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  5. Effect of Feeding Different Protein and Energy Supplements on Performance and Health of Beef Calves During the Backgrounding Period

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Robert Jesse

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS ON PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF BEEF CALVES DURING THE BACKGROUNDING PERIOD By R. Jesse Austin Committee Chair: Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) Newly received or weaned calves are highly susceptible to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease. In addition to high levels of stress, decreased feed intake and exposure to foreign antigens result in increased morbidity and possib...

  6. Economic benefits of using prebiotic and probiotic products as supplements in stimulation feeds administered to bee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    PATRUICA, Silvia; HUTU, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Spring stimulation feeding of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera carpatica) is a very important technique for the encouragement of productive foraging. In addition to improving bee health by creating favorable conditions for the development of a beneficial intestinal bacterial flora, the use of prebiotic and probiotic supplements in the feed promotes good colony development, thus increasing the forager population. This paper presents the results for the economic benefit measured following use ...

  7. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Sharma; Mahendra Singh; Ashwani Kumar Roy; Sunita Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body conditi...

  8. Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Strategic supplementation of feeds with legume forages and non-conventional plant resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification and evaluation of potential plant resources and their dissemination among rural farmers have been attempted. The work was done in three phases. In the first phase, laboratory evaluation of proximate components, in vitro digestibility and energy contents was carried out. Fifteen plant species were evaluated in this phase. Some of the plant species (Sesbania, Dhaincha, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were promising, containing relatively large amounts of protein (18 - 34%) and having high digestibility values (53 - 60%). Some species contained reasonably good levels of metabolizd energy (6.5- 8.5 MJ/kg). In the second phase, four promising species (Sesbania, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were offered as supplements to lactating and growing cattle, in four in vivo feeding trials carried out on-station. Supplementation with Sesbania gave significantly (P <0.01) higher milk yields, resulting from increased feed intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF). Lathyrus also gave similar results in terms of milk yield and digestibility but had little effect on feed intake. Leucaena supplementation also significantly (P <0.05) increased milk yield but not feed intake or digestibility. Crotalaria gave a significant (P <0.05) increase in live-weight gain of growing calves. In the third phase, Sesbania, Lthyrus and Leucaena forages were grown by rural smallholders for feeding to their cattle. The forages were fed to lactating cows as supplements to straw-based diets. All the forage supplements resulted in increased milk yield compared to the control diets, however, Sesbania gave the best result in terms of output. The practice of cultivating legume forages and feeding to cattle receiving straw diets created enormous interest among the farmers as the increase in milk yield was cost effective. (author)

  9. Study Of Trace Elements On UMMB As A Feed Supplement n Ruminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the trace element contents in Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) as ruminant feed supplement such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Pb. The X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) was used for measuring of these trace elements. The samples counting were done all at once by putting . the sample on the surface of detector and irradiated by radioisotope excitation source for a half an hour. the result indicates that the UMMB no. I contains Mn: 5.31 ppm, Fe: 53.76 ppm, Cu: 0.65 ppm, and Pb: 17.5 ppm, UMMB No.2 contains Mn: 0.35 ppm, Fe: 20.36 ppm, and Pb: 5.84 ppm, and UMMB no.3 consist of Mn: 3.12 ppm, Fe: 58.82 ppm, Cu: 3.12 ppm, Se: 1.84 ppm and Pb: 112.24 ppm. The trace elements content in each UMMB were in normal level and also not in poisoning level to be used for woof supplement

  10. Methylation and Gene Expression Responses to Ethanol Feeding and Betaine Supplementation in the Cystathionine Beta Synthase-Deficient Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Schroeder, Diane I.; Woods, Rima; LaSalle, Janine M.; Geng, Yongzhi; Shibata, Noreene M.; Peerson, Janet; Hodzic, Emir; Dayal, Sanjana; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W.; Halsted, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is caused in part by the effects of ethanol on hepatic methionine metabolism. Methods To investigate the phenotypic and epigenetic consequences of altered methionine metabolism in this disease, we studied the effects of 4-wk intragastric ethanol feeding with and without the methyl donor betaine in cystathionine beta synthase (CβS) heterozygous C57BL/6J mice. Results The histopathology of early ASH was induced by ethanol feeding and prevented by betaine supplementation, while ethanol feeding reduced and betaine supplementation maintained the hepatic methylation ratio of the universal methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the methyltransferase inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). MethylC-Seq genomic sequencing of heterozygous liver samples from each diet group found 2–4% reduced methylation in gene bodies but not promoter regions of all autosomes of ethanol fed mice, each of which were normalized in samples from mice fed the betaine supplemented diet. The transcript levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) were increased, while those of peroxisome proliferator receptor-a (Pparα) were reduced in ethanol fed mice, and each was normalized in mice fed the betaine supplemented diet. DNA pyrosequencing of CβS heterozygous samples found reduced methylation in a gene body of Nos2 by ethanol feeding that was restored by betaine supplementation, and was correlated inversely with its expression and positively with SAM: SAH ratios. Conclusions The present studies have demonstrated relationships among ethanol induction of ASH with aberrant methionine metabolism that was associated with gene body DNA hypomethylation in all autosomes and was prevented by betaine supplementation. The data imply that ethanol-induced changes in selected gene transcript levels and hypomethylation in gene bodies during the induction of ASH is a result of altered methionine metabolism that can be reversed

  11. Effect of Feed Supplementation with Propolis on Liver and Kidney Morphology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Babińska*, K. Kleczek1, W. Makowski1 and J. Szarek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin-like mixture produced by bees and composed of natural substances demonstrating a broad range of biological activity, e.g. antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidizing, immunostimulating and immunomodulating effects. Among abundant research on its properties has been carried out but a few reports concerning the use of this substance in animal production, particularly in poultry breeding are available. There is little information about its effects upon the morphology of individual organs and tissues predisposed to damage as a result of intensive fattening of poultry. A-day old 400 chicks were divided into equal four groups. Group 1 and 2 served as negative and positive control, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were kept on propolis (10 and 50 mg/kg of feed supplemented feed for 42 days, respectively. At the end, randomly selected 12 birds from each group were killed humanly. Gross lesions were noted and liver and kidney samples were processed for histopathological studies. The results demonstrated a protective effect of propolis particularly upon the liver of broiler chickens, in which it reduced the intensity of regressive lesions. This protective effect was noticeable especially in the group of birds receiving a higher dose of propolis.

  12. Wheat straw as ruminant feed. Effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in

  13. CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM KELP AND COPPER SULFATE: INITIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIOXIN FORMATION IN MINERAL FEED SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  14. Stress, nutrition and parental care in a teleost fish: exploring mechanisms with supplemental feeding and cortisol manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolderdo, A J; Algera, D A; Lawrence, M J; Gilmour, K M; Fast, M D; Thuswaldner, J; Willmore, W G; Cooke, S J

    2016-04-15

    Parental care is an essential life-history component of reproduction for many animal species, and it entails a suite of behavioural and physiological investments to enhance offspring survival. These investments can incur costs to the parent, reducing their energetic and physiological condition, future reproductive capabilities and survival. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on how these physiological costs are mediated. Male smallmouth bass provide parental care for developing offspring until the brood reaches independence. During this energetically demanding life stage, males cease active foraging as they vigorously defend their offspring. Experimental manipulation of cortisol levels (via implantation) and food (via supplemental feeding) in parental males was used to investigate the fitness consequences of parental care. Improving the nutritional condition of nest-guarding males increased their reproductive success by reducing premature nest abandonment. However, supplemental feeding and cortisol treatment had no effect on parental care behaviours. Cortisol treatment reduced plasma lymphocyte numbers, but increased neutrophil and monocyte concentrations, indicating a shift in immune function. Supplemental feeding improved the physiological condition of parental fish by reducing the accumulation of oxidative injury. Specifically, supplemental feeding reduced the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) on DNA nucleotides. Increasing the nutritional condition of parental fish can reduce the physiological cost associated with intensive parental activity and improve overall reproductive success, illustrating the importance of nutritional condition as a key modulator of parental fitness. PMID:26896551

  15. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were co

  16. 日粮添加不同水平的奶牛专用霉菌毒素吸附剂对粪中双歧杆菌数量和乳中黄曲霉毒素含量的影响%The Effect of Different Mycotoxin Binder Levels Supplementation on Feces Bifidobacterium Bifidum Number and Milk AFM1 Content in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤月明; 黄谢江; 刘仕军

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxin in feed can bring negative effect on dairy health and decrease production of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes of feces bifidobacterium bifidum number and milk AFM1 concentration when dietary different levels mycotoxin binder was supplemented in lactating dairy cattle. Eighty Chinese Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to control group with 20g powdered zeolite for a cow per day. The three experimental group received supplementation of 10g mycotoxin binder and 10g powdered zeolite for a cow per day, 15g mycotoxin binder and 5g powdered zeolite, or 20g mycotoxin binder. Meantime, all cows were fed the same basal diets. It was shown that dietary different levels of mycotoxin binder adding can decline bifidobacterium bifidum number of feces, but there was no significant difference. In contrast with before the experiment, aflatoxin M1 of raw milk in experimental treatment declined(P<0.05 ), and aflatoxin M1 residues was in less with mycotoxin binder enhancing. Milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in control treatment did not change compared with start of experiment. Therefore, the study indicated that different levels mycotoxin binder may improve raw milk quality.%奶牛饲料原料中霉菌毒素广泛存在,并严重地威胁着奶牛健康,影响着奶牛生产性能的发挥.本试验选择年龄、胎次、产奶量、泌乳天数相近的荷斯坦牛80头探讨日粮添加4种剂量(0、10、15、20g)的霉菌毒素吸附剂对奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌数量和原料奶中黄曲霉毒素残留量的影响.与对照组(添加霉菌毒素吸附剂0g)相比,试验组奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌的外排量明显降低,但各实验组之间差异不显著,仅有数值上的变化.同时,随着霉菌毒素吸附剂含量的增加,原料奶中体细胞数呈现下降的趋势.与试验前相比,原料奶中黄曲霉毒素含量显著降低(P<0.05),且随着添加剂量的增加其黄曲霉毒素残留量

  17. Reducing Reliance on Supplemental Winter Feeding in Elk (Cervus canadensis): An Applied Management Experiment at Deseret Land and Livestock Ranch, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mangus, Dax L

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers have fed elk in North America for nearly 100 years. Giving winter feed to elk can compensate for a shortage of natural winter range and may boost elk populations while also helping prevent commingling with livestock and depredation of winter feed intended for livestock. In contrast to these benefits of supplemental feeding, there are economic and environmental costs associated with feeding, and elk herds that winter on feeding grounds have a higher risk of contracting and ...

  18. SUPPLEMENTATION OF VITAMIN E AND C IN FEED ON MEAT QUALITY, THIOBARBITURIC ACID REACTIVE SUBSTANCE (TBARS AND MYOGLOBIN LEVEL OF MUSCOVY DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tugiyanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to analyze vitamin E and C supplementation in feed on meet quality,thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and myoglobin level of muscovy duck. This researchused 84 Indonesian muscovy duck divided into 7 group of experimental diet, namely E0C0 : basal feedwithout vitamin E and C supplementation, E400 : basal feed with 400 IU of vitamin E supplementation,E600 : basal feed with 600 IU of vitamin E supplementation, C400 : basal feed with 400mg vof itamin Csupplementation, C600 : basal feed with 600mg of vitamin C supplementation, E200C200 : basal with 200 IUof vitamin E and 200mg of vitamin C supplementation, E300C300 : basal feed with 300 IU of vitamin Eand 300mg of vitamin C. A completely randomized design was applied and each treatment had 4replications. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance showed thattreatments significantly affect (P>0.01 meat quality, myoglobin level and TBARS level. Vitamin E andC was proven able to improve final pH of muscovy duck meat. Supplementation of 300 IU of vitamin Eand 300mg of vitamin C at feed with 21% of protein and 3100 kcal/kg of energy could improve DIA,cooking loss, flavor, and color of muscovy duck meat; however, the highest meat tenderness wasresulted from 400 IU vitamin E supplementation.

  19. Evaluation of lesser-known feed supplements for dairy cattle in the North-East of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)

  20. Effect of supplementation of feed with Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Mazhar Hussain; Ali, Shujait; Zubair, Muhammad; Jamil, Huma; Ahmad, Nazir

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls. Methods In this study, 12 adult healthy bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad district Sahiwal, were used. These bulls were divided into three equal groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, while in groups B and C supplementation of feed was provided by using flaxseed oil @125 ml/day and 250 ml/...

  1. The Impact of the Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Supplement in the Feed Ration on the Quality of Poultry Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pebriansyah, Akhir

    2014-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) (SB) is a shrub which belongs to the family Elaeagnaceae, it have been used in Asia, Europe, and North America for human consumption, cosmetics, and also animal feeding as a dried by-product after fruit processing for juices. This study was aimed to find any positive effect of the SB supplement in feed ration on the laying hens´ productivity and quality of eggs. Two experiments were conducted at the ITP (International Testing of Poultry) in Ústrašice, Czech...

  2. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and mortality increased......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  3. Dietary Supplementation with Allspice Pimenta dioica Reduces the Occurrence of Streptococcal Disease during First Feeding of Mozambique Tilapia Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014. PMID:25229484

  4. Pre- and post-partum feed supplementation to improve sheep productivity in small-holder farms in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried out to assess the effect of feed supplementation in ewes during the pre- and post-partum period and subsequent ewe-lamb growth rates and reproductive performance during their first breeding season. In the first experiment, 50 Romney Marsch ewes on one farm were used and half were supplemented for 50 days before and after lambing with 500 g dry matter of grassland silage/day, and half were not supplemented. In the second experiment, six small flocks of Criollo ewes belonging to Mapuche farmers were used. Three flocks (total 30 ewes) were supplemented with a commercial multinutrient block (molasses, urea and mineral salts) for 50 days before and after lambing. The other 3 flocks (total 45 ewes) were maintained without supplementation. In both experiments, ewe live weight, body condition score (BCS), lamb birth weight and the subsequent ewe-lamb growth rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. The birth weight of ewe-lambs born to the supplemented dams in Experiment 1 was not statistically different (P>0.05) from the control group (3.9 kg vs. 4.2 kg). There was, however, a significant improvement (P0.05). However, differences (P<0.05) were found between ewe-lambs born to the supplemented dams and non-supplemented dams on weaning weight (21.8 vs. 17.2 kg), BCS, the age at onset of luteal activity (269 vs. 290 days) and pregnancy rate at the end of the first breeding season (55.6 vs. 30%). The results indicates that pre- and post-partum supplementation of ewes can improve ewe-lamb performance within their first reproductive season. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  5. The Use of Local Mineral Formulas as a Feed Block Supplement for Beef Cattle Fed on Wild Forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to study the diversity of mineral contents of wild forages and to evaluate the beneficial effect of mineral feed supplement formulated by using locally available materials on the performances of beef cattle. The present research was initiated by analyzing mineral contents of wild forages grown around Limau Manis campus areas. Forage samples were collected at 9 sampling areas scattered at plantation, conservation and idle lands. Samples were then analyzed for macro minerals of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S and micro minerals of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn. Feeding trial was then conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of supplementation of local mineral formulas (LMF produced by using locally available materials on the performances of cattle. Feeding trial was conducted for 6 weeks by using 9 Simmentals cross bred heifers. The trial consisted of 3 treatments, i.e., P1: only grass without supplementation, P2: grass + LMF and P3: grass + mineral premix enriched LMF. Variables measured were: body weight, feed intake, FCR, feed cost and net return. Results showed that the highest macro mineral content of wild forages was Na of about 13.05±2.22 g/kg, varied from 4.1 to 23.8 g/kg, followed by K (11.09±1.43 g/kg and Ca (6.10±1.09 g/kg DM. Three minerals of Mg, P, and S were found in relatively small concentrations of 1.34±0.30, 0.83±0.23, and 0.17±0.01 g/kg, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in relatively high concentrations. The highest concentration of micro minerals was Fe of about 613.8±128.9 mg/kg, followed by Mn of 143.9±23.3 mg/kg, while Zn and Cu were found in relatively small amount of about 31.3±5.5 and 13.2±2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Heifers supplemented with LMF (P2 and mineral premix enriched LMF (P3 showed higher body weight gain, lower FCR and net return than those cattle fed only grass (P1. The most profitable feeding strategy was by supplementation of heifers with mineral premix

  6. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  7. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  8. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. PMID:25352682

  9. Influence of Bacillus spp culture supplementation through feed or drinking water on the performance of layer chiken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P Kompiang

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Three thousands 65 weeks old layers were used and divided into 3 groups of 1000 birds, and further divided into 4 sum group (250 birds/group as treatment replicates, and distributed randomly.Layer in group 1 were fed a basal diet + antibiotic (AB, group 2 were fed a basal diet + 10^9 CFU Bacillus spp culture (PB-M and group 3 were fed a basal diet and Bacillus spp culture was supplemented in their drinking water (10^9 CFU/litre (PB-A. The trial was conducted for 14 weeks (2 weeks adaptation period, 10 weeks the feeding treatments, and 2 weeks post treatment, where the AB group continues supplemented with antibiotic, while the PB-M and PB-A group, the Bacillus spp culture supplementation was withdrawned. During the treatment period,% HD production and its FCR of the bird supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were highly significant (P<0.001 better than the one receiving antibiotic. There was no significant different between the PB-M and the PB-A groups. Prosentage HD production and its FCR during post treatment, the birds previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were remained significantly better than the one recieving antibiotic. The birds which were previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture in the feed had significantly (P<0.01 better % HD production and FCR.It is concluded that Bacillus spp culture, could be used to replace antibiotics as a growth promotor, it even gave better results.

  10. Does supplementation of beef calves by creep feeding systems influence milk production and body condition of the dams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sidnei Antônio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; Valente, Ériton Egídio Lisboa; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Martins, Leandro Soares

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of beef calves' supplementation in creep feeding systems on milk yield, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) of their dams on tropical pastures using a meta-analytical approach. The database was obtained from 11 experiments conducted between 2009 and 2014 in Brazil, totaling 485 observations (cows). The database consisted of 273 Nellore and 212 crossbred (7/8 Nellore × 1/8 Holstein) cows. All experiments were carried out in the suckling phase (from 3 to 8 months of age of calves) during the transition phase between rainy and dry seasons from February to June of different years. The data were analyzed by a meta-analytical approach using mixed models and taking into account random variation among experiments. Calves' supplementation (P ≥ 0.59) and the calves' sex (P ≥ 0.48) did not affect milk yield of cows. The average fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield was 6.71 and 6.83 kg/day for cows that had their calves supplemented and not supplemented, respectively. Differences were observed (P < 0.0001) for milk yield due to the genetic group where crossbred cows presented greater FCM yield (7.37 kg/day) compared with Nellore cows (6.17 kg/day). There was no effect of the calves' supplementation on BW change (P ≥ 0.11) and BCS change (P ≥ 0.23) of the cows. Therefore, it is concluded that supplementation of beef calves using creep feeding systems in tropical pastures does not affect milk yield, body weight, or body condition of their dams. PMID:27193314

  11. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity. PMID:26561741

  12. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity.

  13. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  14. Haemato-immunological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry fed with Aloe vera extract supplemented feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Haghighi; Mostafa Sharif Rohani; Hamid Pourmoghim; Tayebeh Toliat; Meysam Samadi; Meysam Tavoli; Maryam Islami; Rahmat Yusefi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera extract on the immunity responses and haematological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry to develop alternative drug to chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Methods:Six hundred rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry were randomly allocated into two treatment groups including 1) placebo-treated group (control), 2) Aloe vera extract-treated group, each of three replicates. The fishes were hand-fed once a day with diet medicated AE or placebo at the rate of 1%in feed in the first feeding for 10 weeks. At the end of the identical every two weeks 24 h after feeding, some of haematological and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results:The results showed that serum total protein, albumin and globulin, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity and serum lysozyme activity vary among the two treatment groups which were found to be higher in Aloe vera extract-treated group (P0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that supplementation of AE at a rate of 1%in feed registered higher immunological responses in compared to placebo group. Therefore, supplementation of AE in fish diets enhances non-specific immune system in fish. It may use in fish diets particularly at time of outbreaks.

  15. Oxidative and lipolytic changes during ripening of Iberian hams as affected by feeding regime: extensive feeding and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, R; Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    1999-06-01

    The effect of pig feeding in an extensive system based on acorn and pasture or in confinement with a control diet containing 5 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) of feed and a 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) enriched diet on evolution of lipid changes throughout ripening of dry-cured hams was investigated. Feeding regime significantly affected TBA-RS, peroxide value and hexanal content of Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles. Muscles from pigs fed supplemented diet with α-tocopherol or fed extensively on acorn and grass showed significant lower (p<0.05) TBA-RS and peroxide value than ham muscles from pigs fed the basal diet at 210 days of processing. Both feedings reduced significantly (p<0.05) hexanal content at day 210 and day 700. Muscle slices from pigs fed on acorn showed significant higher scores (p<0.05) in aroma and flavour intensity, cured flavour and numerically lower rancid scores than those from control diet hams. ©

  16. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG] or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]. DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY, fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01. The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%, TDN intake, digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01 in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01 than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  17. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  18. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron M. Foley,; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  19. Role of live microbial feed supplements with reference to anaerobic fungi in ruminant productivity:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil K Puniya; Ravinder Kumar; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Sanjay Kumar; Sumit S Dagar; Gareth W Grififth; Monica Puniya; Sreenivas R Ravella; Nikhil Kumar; Tejpal Dhewa

    2015-01-01

    To keep the concept of a safe food supply to the consumers, animal feed industries world over are showing an increasing interest in the direct-fed microbials (DFM) for improved animal performance in terms of growth or productivity. This becomes al the more essential in a situation, where a number of the residues of antibiotics and/or other growth stimulants reach in milk and meat with a number of associated potential risks for the consumers. Hence, in the absence of growth stimulants, a positive manipulation of the rumen microbial ecosystem to enhance the feedstuff utilization for improved production ef-ifciency by ruminants has become of much interest to the researchers and entrepreneurs. A few genera of live microbes (i.e., bacteria, fungi and yeasts in different types of formulations from paste to powder) are infrequently used as DFM for the domestic ruminants. These DFM products are live microbial feed supplements containing natural y occurring microbes in the rumen. Among different DFM possibilities, anaerobic rumen fungi (ARF) based additives have been found to improve ruminant productivity consistently during feeding trials. Administration of ARF during the few trials conducted, led to the increased weight gain, milk production, and total tract digestibility of feed components in ruminants. Anaerobic fungi in the rumen display very strong cel-wal degrading cel ulolytic and xylanolytic activities through rhizoid development, resulting in the physical disruption of feed structure paving the way for bacterial action. Signiifcant improvements in the ifber digestibil-ity were found to coincide with increases in ARF in the rumen indicating their role. Most of the researches based on DFM have indicated a positive response in nutrient digestion and methane reducing potential during in vivo and/or in vitro sup-plementation of ARF as DFM. Therefore, DFM especial y ARF wil gain popularity but it is necessary that al the strains are thoroughly studied for their

  20. HMX/TATB/binder development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, T.L.; Osborn, A.G.; Schaffer, C.L.; Crutchmer, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    The processing and sensitivity characteristics of three HMX/TATB/Binder formulations were investigated. Viton A, Kraton G 1650, and Estane 5702-F1 binders were studied. The thermal stabilities of these compositions are near those of HMX/binder formulations, whereas impact, skid and friction sensitivity levels are less than HMX compositions, but greater than those of TATB/binder systems.

  1. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  2. Histopathological alterations in Aflatoxicity and its amelioration with herbomineral toxin binder in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. E. Ahmed

    Full Text Available An experiement was conducted to study the protective role of herbo-mineral toxin binder product in induced aflatoxicosis in broilers on the basis of histopathological studies. Total sixty day old broiler chicks of either sex were randomly divided into three groups, each comprising of twenty birds and two replicates. Healthy birds of group I were supplemented with standard basal ration as per NRC (1994, group II birds were fed with standard feed mixed with aflatoxin B1@1ppm, group III birds were fed with mycotoxicated feed of 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 and medicated with Toxiroak (M/s Ayurvet Ltd, Baddi, India @ 0.125%. Fourty percent of birds were sacrificed at sixth week for necropsy examination. Microscopically, congestion of liver parenchyma, cytoplasmic vacoulation/fatty change of hepatocytes and renal tubules, necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration was observed in aflatoxicated group II. Milder form of pathological lesions in treatment groups birds reveal pallor discoloration of liver and hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and mild lesion in kidneys. Present study revealed that supplementation of herbomineral toxin binder product could ameliorate aflatoxicity in broilers. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 390-392

  3. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI5th to 25th to supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  4. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  5. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites.

  6. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites. PMID:23527144

  7. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  8. Effect of feed supplements on the occurrence of coccidia oocysts in the digestive tract of pheasants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Zábranský

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of coccidiosis is an enormous problem of pheasant farming. The aim of this study is to show, that this disease can be cured by unconventional dietary supplements. Dietary supplements which were used in this study were as follows: prebiotics (Ascophyllum nodosum, probiotics (Lactobacillus thermophilus and homeopathics. Four groups of pheasants were made - three experimental groups and one control group. All groups were consisted of 12 individuals. The pheasant Phasianus colchicus was used in this experiment. Dietary supplements were served for 30days. The favourable effect of homeopatics (P < 0.05 and Lactobacillus thermophilus (P < 0.05 on the intestinal tract of pheasant was statistical significant.

  9. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States

  10. Effect of strategic feed supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six experiments were carried out to study the effect of strategic supplementation during the critical period of the dry season on milk production and reproductive performance in two locations (Tucupido and Tucacas) in Venezuela. Fish meal as a source of undergrade protein was used in two experiments without significant biological responses on production or reproductive performance. However, in two other experiments using either fish meal or cotton-seed meal, higher milk production and improved reproductive performance were found in supplemented animals that had higher body condition at calving (e.g. 15.3 vs 13.3 kg milk/cow/day and 136 vs 200 days interval from calving to conception for cotton-seed supplemented cows with ≥ 2.5 body condition -Nird and non-supplemented cows with <2.5 body condition, P <0.05). In another experiment, cows were supplemented with multinutrient blocks (Urea-molasses blocks - UMB) in the pre-partum period and with undergrade protein during the post-partum period. There was an interaction between pre-partum supplementation and body condition. Cows with Nird <2.5 at calving and consuming UMB had an inferior reproductive response compared to those without blocks (days to resumption to ovarian cyclicity 90.2 vs 62.8, days open 140.4 vs 98.2, pregnancy rate at 200 days post-partum 60 vs 80, respectively, P<0.05). In the last experiment, lipid supplementation and calf rearing systems (restricted suckling and artificial rearing) were compared. Lipid supplementation did not affect production or reproductive performance whereas cows with restricted suckling had longer calving-conception intervals than cows without suckling (117.0 vs 93.0 days, P<0.05). (author). 29 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  12. The feeding value of the ration based on alfalfa haylage supplemented with high moisture corn in wether sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine the effects of high moisture corn (HMC supplementation to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N balance in wether sheep. The study consisted of three feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMC d-1kg-1 body weight of Suffolk wethers. Inclusion of HMC in the AH based ration had negative linear effects on acid detergent fibre (ADF intake (p<0.001 and digestibility (p<0.05 while a positive on the digestibility of dry matter (DM (p<0.05, organic matter (OM (p<0.01 and the digestibility of OM in DM (D-value (p<0.01. A positive associative response of AH and HMC was observed for DM and OM ad libitum intake (g kg-1M0.75d-1 (quadratic, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Negative linear effects of AH and HMC were observed for nitrogen (N intake (p<0.05. The inclusion of HMC into AH based ration did not influence N balance in wether sheep. It was concluded that a positive associative response of the two forages was recorded for a limited number of parameters, probably due to lower quality of HMC than required for improved utilization of the AH based ration.

  13. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  14. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  15. The Effect of Prebiotic and Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Wax Glands of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pătruică

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of acidifying substances (lactic acid or acetic acid, Enterobiotics products(Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14 and Bifidobacterium lactis BI-04 and Enterolactis Plus (Lactobacillus casei onthe wax glands of worker bees. The research was conducted in Timis County, Romania, between March 25 and April20, 2011, on 110 colonies of bees (Apis mellifera carpatica, allocated to 11 experimental treatment groups. Coloniesin the experimental groups were given three weekly feeds of sugar syrup supplemented with acidifying substances(lactic acid or cider vinegar and/or probiotic products (Enterobiotics or Enterolactis Plus. Three weeks after theadministration of the experimental diets, 10 worker bees from each treatment group were sampled for histologicalexamination of their wax glands. Gland development was shown to be influenced by administration of prebioticand/or probiotic supplements. Wax gland cell sizes ranged from 25.1 microns for the control group to between 27.8and 31.8 microns in the group fed with acidifying substances and between 26.9 and 29.2 microns in bees fed withprobiotic products. Bees supplemented with both lactic acid and probiotic product (group LE9 and LE10 showedmean wax cell sizes of 31.8 microns.

  16. Vitamin D supplementation prevents hypocalcemia and cortical bone loss associated with chronic feeding in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary cholecalciferol supplementation alone or combined with calcium has shown great promise in improving bone health, which has been attributed to endocrine actions involved in calcium regulation and/or paracrine/autocrine actions within bone. Indeed, we and others have suggested that dietary su...

  17. Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation.

  18. A Comprehensive Review on Physiological and Nutritional Properties of Prebiotics as Poultry Feed Supplement - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/comprehe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Ganguly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the effect of dietary prebiotics viz., dietary organic acid (OA supplements, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS and β-glucan supplementation on different body growth parameters of poultry birds at their various growing stages. The article stresses on the effect on live body weight gain, dressing percentage, weight of vital organs and muscles and mean villus lengths in digestive tract of poultry birds along with their application as growth promoters in commercial poultry feed.

  19. Effect of supplementation of phytogenic feed additives (powdered vs. encapsulated) on performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Schieder, C; Zentek, J

    2016-03-01

    Inclusion of phytogenic feed additives (PFA) in feed may enhance performance of broilers. Levels of essential oils in powdered form (characterized by menthol and anethole) at 150 mg/kg (P-150) and matrix-encapsulated form (characterized by carvacrol, thymol, and limonene) at 100 mg/kg (ME-100) were supplemented in diet to investigate their effect on performance (trial 1) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients (trial 2) in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old broilers (Cobb 500) were used in trial 1 and 120 broilers in trial 2. Broilers were distributed in 24 pens with 8 pens per treatment (trial 1) and 6 pens with 2 pens per treatment (trial 2), with 20 birds per pen. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experimental periods in both trials. In trial 1, body weight of birds at d 42 and overall body weight gain from d 1 to d 42, was higher in treatment ME-100 than birds in control treatment (P = 0.023 and P = 0.024, respectively). Feed efficiency during finisher phase was improved in treatment ME-100 relatively to control and P-150 treatments (P = 0.035). At d 21 in trial 2, the apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein was higher in ME-100 treatment in comparison with control and P-150 treatments (P < 0.001). Apparent ileal absorption (AIA) of phosphorus was higher in ME-100 treatment than control treatment (P = 0.028). AID of cysteine was higher in both phytogenic additive supplemented treatments in comparison with control treatment (P = 0.001). In conclusion, inclusion of a powdered phytogenic additive characterized by menthol and anethole at 150 mg/kg had no effect but only a tendency towards improved performance and AIA of phosphorus, whereas essential oils addition in encapsulated form characterized by caravacol, thymol, and limonene at 100 mg/kg improved performance as well as apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients in broilers, possibly due to improved secretion of digestive enzymes.

  20. Effect of feeding maize silage supplemented with concentrate and legume hay on growth in Nellore ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Malisetty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main intension of this research work is to develop a feeding system for growing Nellore ram lambs by feeding maize silage based rations supplemented with concentrate and or legume hay at certain levels to investigate the growth rate. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (Nellore ram lambs were purchased from local sandy and maize silage was prepared at village by using silos (9''L X 9''W X 8''D and concentrate mixture was prepared at feed mill located at department by using locally available ingredients. Animals were housed in well ventilated sheds and were dewormed and vaccinated against diseases. Fortnightly body weights were taken by using spring balance and calculated the total weight gain and ADG. The experimental animals were divided into seven groups based on their body weight to contain six in each and were fed intensively for five months with sole maize silage (R-I, silage + concentrate at 0.5 per cent body weight (R-II, silage + concentrate at 1.0 per cent body weight (R-III, silage + concentrate at 1.5 per cent body weight (R-IV, silage + lucerne hay (R-V and silage + GN haulms (R-VI and sweet sorghum bagasse based complete diet (R-VII to study the growth rate. Results: Significantly (P<0.01 increase in ADG was observed in ram lambs fed R-IV ration was 16.58, 20.49, 24.10, 29.74, 38.28 and 62.01 per cent, respectively in comparison to those fed R-VII, R-V, R-III, R-VI, R-II and R-I rations. Almost similar ADG was noticed in lambs fed R-III, R-V and R-VII rations and the supplementation of concentrate at 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of body weight plus maize silage ad lib has increased the growth/gain in ram lambs by 62.48, 99.81 and 163.25 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole silage feeding. Similarly, supplementation of lucerne hay and groundnut haulms with maize silage has increased the weight gain by 109.31 and 84.97 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole maize silage fed animals. Sole sweet sorghum bagasse

  1. Feed Supplementation with Thermo-Tolerant, Lactic Acid-Producing Bacteria as Probiotics for Swine Husbandry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research work had an objective to employ the thermo tolerant, lactic acid-producing bacteria, Bacillus coagulans strain NF17 as feed additive for swine raising. The bacterial isolate NF17, kept in the culture collection of Khon Kaen University that could tolerate high temperature and produce lactic acid, was employed in this experiment. Cell suspension of isolate NF17 was exposed to gamma irradiation at various doses (1-5 KGy). The isolated survivors were screened on the basis of forming larger colonies and clear zones than the parent strain NF17 when grown on Glucose- Yeast extract-Peptone (GYP) containing CaCO3. We obtained 55 effective isolates which the isolate L5I2 to 14(5), designated as K14 was chosen for further experiments. Isolate K14 together with the parent strain were characterized using morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. They were all identified as Bacillus coagulans. All isolates had optimal growth pH of 6.5 and grew best at 42.50 oC. The strain K14 could tolerate the temperature as high as 59 oC and was then employed in the fermentation of food waste that collected from the university cafeteria. It was found that food waste could support growth of Bacillus K14 and produce about 107 to 108 CFU/g food waste within 1-3 days. Nutritional value of the fermented food waste in the form of protein was also increased. When mixing this selected bacterium as feed additive in daily pig rations, it was found that Bacillus K14 helped increase feed conversion ratio and reduced the mortality in weaned piglets. Experiments were also performed with the growing pigs. It showed that Bacillus Sp. K14 significantly improved the feed conversion ratio

  2. Chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives (chito-oligosaccharides) as feed supplements in poultry and swine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Wlosek, A; Jozefiak, D

    2015-02-01

    Chitosan is a non-toxic polyglucosamine, widespread in nature, which is deacetylated to varying degrees form of chitin, a component of exoskeleton of shrimps, crabs and insects. Because chitosan contains reactive functional groups, that is, amino acids and hydroxyl groups, it is characterised by antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, antitumor, immunostimulatory and hypocholesterolemic properties when fed as dietary additive for farm animals. This article reviews and discusses the results of studies on the effects of dietary chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives on performance and metabolic response in poultry and pigs, that is, haematological, biochemical and immunological blood characteristics, microbiological profile of intestines, intestinal morphology and digestibility of nutrients, as well as on the quality of meat and eggs. The results of most of the experiments presented in this review indicate that chitosan used as a feed additive for poultry and pigs has some beneficial, biological effects, including immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, antimicrobial and hypocholesterolemic properties. These properties of chitosan, unlike many other kinds of feed additives, were often reflected in improved growth performance (body weight gain and/or feed conversion ratio) of young animals, that is, broiler chickens and weaned pigs. PMID:25041091

  3. In Vitro Test of Feed Supplements Quality in Urea Multi nutrient Molase Block (UMMB) Derived from Several Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted due to the huge number of UMMB manufacturers in the suburbs, using local supplements which feed quality is not yet known. Feed supplements of UMMB came from P3TIR as sample A (from soy sauce dregs), and sample B (from soy oil cake), South Sulawesi, Bali, Bandung, Padang as Saka Block, Wonosobo, Sleman, Blora, Malang, and Boyolali. Quality parameters which are measured are dry matter (DM), crude fibre (CF), crude fatty acid (CFA), Ash, crude protein (CP), Ca, P, NaCl and comparison of bacterium and protozoa ratio with 32P. Result of analysis shows highest ash content (mineral) of UMMB was found in soy oil cake of P3TIR, which is equal to 28.88% Saka block from Padang is the lowest which is equal to 11.94%. The highest crude protein is from P3TIR and the lowest is from Malang equal to 32.21 and 5.21 % respectively. The highest crude fibre is form Blora 15.55% and Malang is lowest 4.83. The highest crude fat is from soy sauce dregs from P3TIR 9.43 and Bandung is the lowest with 0.81. The highest ratio of bacterium and protozoa of UMMB come from Malang 27 : 1 and the lowest is from Boyolali 2 : 1 and in grass 0.25 : 1. Source of protein mostly comes from coconut oil cakes. All energy source come from, brans, with dried cassava flour added, milled maize seed, waste of tapioca etc. While for mineral source used are TSP, agriculture calcify, sulfur and there are some added with scallop-shell or prawn-head. (author)

  4. Effects of supplemental feeding on survivorship, reproduction, and dispersal in San Joaquin kit foxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Previous field studies at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California indicated that a decline in tie population size of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox might be linked to declining prey abundance. To evaluate whether kit fox populations we limited by food resources; survival probabilities, sources of mortality, reproductive success, and dispersal rates were compared between foxes with access to supplemental food and foxes without access to supplemental food (controls). Of foxes born in 1988, the probabilities of supplementary fed foxes surviving to age one and age two were higher than corresponding probabilities of control foxes. Survival probabilities of fed foxes from the 1988 cohort also were higher than the average survival probabilities of foxes born in the previous eight years. Most foxes that died during their first year of life died in June, July, or August. Monthly probabilities of survival were higher for fed pups than control pups curing the months of July and August of 1988. Survival probabilities of fed foxes originally r captured as adults and fed foxes born in 1989 were not significantly different than survival probabilities of corresponding control groups. Most foxes for which a cause of death could be determined were lolled by predators. Average dispersal distances were not significantly different between fed and control groups but the two longest dispersal distances were made by control foxes. These results indicate that food availability affects survival, reproduction, and dispersal by kit foxes and provides evidence that kit fox populations may at times be limited by food abundance.

  5. Feeding Supplemental Iodine to Adult Mink;Effect on Thyroid Hormones in Adult and offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RossE.Jones; RichardJ.Aulerich; 等

    1993-01-01

    We fed adult mink diets containing supplemental iodine,from o 50 320ppm,for one or seven months prior to breeding.Bllod samples collected from the adults and their offspring(kits)at 4wk post-partum were assayed for total thyroxine(T4),triiodothyronine(T3),reverse T3(rT3),and T4-binding indices.As expected T4 concentrations of the adult and kit mink varied inversely with the level of supplemental iodine.In addition,T3 and r T3 concentrations decreased gradually in kits from the long-term experiment in response to the increased dietary iodine of the dams.T3 concentrations of kits from dams fed iodine short-term decreased markedly while r T3 concentrations were elevated greatly in response to increased dietary iodine of the dam.These decreases in hormone levels are due to serum odine blocking the thyroid uptake of iodine and subsequent decrease of hormone synthesis,Excess iodine may also block the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone.The T4-binding indices of the adults,in general,were depressed,while the T4-binding indices of the kits were more variable.These effects are probably due to fluctuations in thyroglobulin.

  6. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  7. Effect of in-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde and caprylic acid on chicken cecal microbiome in response to Salmonella Enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen causing enteric illnesses in humans, with undercooked eggs and poultry meat as the primary sources of infection. Our previous research revealed that in-feed supplementation of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status, natural compounds,...

  8. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  9. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and en

  10. Effect of chamomile supplements to feeding doses on antimicrobial parameters in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to a ban of use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry it is necessary to look for alternative solutions. The use of some herbs showing antimicrobial effects can be one of such alternatives. In this experiment, effects of three different concentrations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla extract, (0.3%; 0.6% and 1.2% in feeding doses on the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chickens were studied. The main attention was paid to the population of Clostridium perfringens and to numbers of coliform microbes. Clostridia were cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 46 °C on the Tryptone Sulfite Neomycin (TSN agar for a period of 24 hours. Coliform microbes were grown on the violet red bile lactose (VRBL agar at 37 °C for a period of 24 hours. The experiment lasted 39 days and involved 80 chicks that were slaughtered in the course of their growth period at the age of 18, 25, 32 and 39 days; there were 5 chicks in each group. The obtained results indicated that increasing doses of chamomile in the feeding ration decreased numbers of coliform microbes in the digestive tract of chicks and also reduced the population of C. perfingens.

  11. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  12. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  13. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds.

  14. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  15. Antioxidant protection of proteins and lipids in processed pork loin chops through feed supplementation with avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Galindo-García, Jorge; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the impact of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins during pork processing. Loins from control (fed basic diet) and treated pigs (fed on avocado-supplemented diet) were roasted (102 °C/20 min) and subsequently packed in trays wrapped with oxygen-permeable films and chilled at 4 °C for 12 days. At each processing stage (raw, cooked and cooked & chilled), pork samples from both groups were analyzed for the concentration of TBARS, the loss of tryptophan and free thiols, and the formation of protein carbonyls, disulphide bonds and Schiff bases. Processing led to a depletion of tryptophan and sulfur-containing amino acids and an increase of lipid and protein oxidation products. Dietary avocado was not able to protect against the oxidation of tryptophan and thiols but cooked & chilled loins from treated pigs had significantly lower concentration of lipid and protein carbonyls than control counterparts. Likewise, dietary avocado alleviated the formation of Schiff bases during cooking. These results illustrate the benefits of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of processed pork loins.

  16. Antioxidant protection of proteins and lipids in processed pork loin chops through feed supplementation with avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Galindo-García, Jorge; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the impact of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins during pork processing. Loins from control (fed basic diet) and treated pigs (fed on avocado-supplemented diet) were roasted (102 °C/20 min) and subsequently packed in trays wrapped with oxygen-permeable films and chilled at 4 °C for 12 days. At each processing stage (raw, cooked and cooked & chilled), pork samples from both groups were analyzed for the concentration of TBARS, the loss of tryptophan and free thiols, and the formation of protein carbonyls, disulphide bonds and Schiff bases. Processing led to a depletion of tryptophan and sulfur-containing amino acids and an increase of lipid and protein oxidation products. Dietary avocado was not able to protect against the oxidation of tryptophan and thiols but cooked & chilled loins from treated pigs had significantly lower concentration of lipid and protein carbonyls than control counterparts. Likewise, dietary avocado alleviated the formation of Schiff bases during cooking. These results illustrate the benefits of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of processed pork loins. PMID:27478235

  17. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further.

  18. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  19. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David

    2014-09-01

    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. PMID:25022677

  20. The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

  1. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers. PMID:25865420

  2. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  3. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2, 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3 and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4. The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001 higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001 also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.3 kg. The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05 higher than those reared in the control (T1 (54.0 g/goat/day and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4 had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good

  4. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filt...

  5. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with ...

  6. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    processing which are intended to improve the performance of pellet binders, and have directly saved energy by increasing filtration rates of the pelletization feed by as much as 23%.

  7. Antimicrobial ability and growth promoting effects of feed supplemented with probiotic bacterium isolated from gut microlfora of Cirrhinus mrigala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita Bhatnagar; Ritu Lamba

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to isolate, select, identify and characterize gut bacteria as antimicrobial and growth promoting agent for the feed of economical y important ifsh Cirrhinus mrigala. Intestinal microlfora were isolated, counted, and identiifed, and their in vitro antibacterial properties were determined. The results have revealed that occurrence of Gram-negative rods was around 75%and of Gram-positive rods was 25%. Among the isolates Gram-positive were main-tained in nutrient agar slants at 4°C. Of these, eight strains were replica-plated on agar seeded with Aeromonas hydrophila and only one strain CM2 (C. mrigala 2) exhibited antibacterial properties in vitro showing inhibition against ifsh pathogen by wel diffusion assay. This isolated strain was identiifed as Bacil us cereus. This bacterium was mass cultured and incorpo-rated in the pel eted diet (40%protein and 18 kJ g–1 gross energy) of C. mrigala to investigate its effect on growth perfor-mance, digestibility, nutrient retention and activities of digestive enzymes. The results of feeding trial revealed signiifcantly (P<0.05) high growth performance in terms of speciifc growth rate, growth percent gain in body weight (BD) (272.4±1.5)%, high apparent protein digestibility ((79.9±0.30)%) and low food conversion ratio in the group of ifshes fed on diet containing B. cereus in comparison to the ifshes fed on diet without probiotics. The carcass composition also revealed high accumula-tion of proteins ((15.28±0.15) g 100 g–1) in ifshes fed on diet containing probiotics. Intestinal enzyme activities of protease, amylase and cel ulase were also signiifcantly (P<0.05) high in the group of ifshes fed on diet supplemented with probiotics indicating the extracel ular enzyme production by B. cereus. These results indicate that probiotics stimulate the digestion through the supply of digestive enzyme and certain essential nutrients to animals. Also signiifcantly (P<0.05) low excretion of

  8. Sustainable improvement of livestock production through strategic supplementation with urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) and other feed resources available in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are a vital source of meat and milk, and livestock production is an integral part of agriculture in Pakistan. The ruminant feeding system is based on low quality roughages that can be improved by creating conditions in the rumen for maximizing fibre digestion. A solidified urea-molasses multi-nutrient Block (UMMB), prepared with commonly available, cheap ingredients to provide critical nutrients for microbial fermentation, was formulated and tested. Another constraint to livestock production is the scarcity and fluctuation of quality and quantity of animal feed supply throughout the year. To overcome these problems, particularly in salt-affected wastelands, non-conventional and low-cost feed resources require evaluation. The present project attempts to introduce new management practices based on proven technologies for improvement of productivity and reproductive efficiency of livestock. Pilot farms were selected to evaluate the effects of UMMB feeding and various studies conducted on cattle and buffalo have shown its positive effects. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in improvements in intake of low quality roughages, digestibility, weight gain, milk production and resumption of post-partum oestrus. Supplementation of animals raised on low quality fodders with UMMB may be an alternative to other forms of supplementation especially when these become unavailable or too expensive. The cheapest source of nitrogen as well as of energy available has proved to be UMMB. The UMMB technology can also be utilized for the control of parasites in livestock through its potential as a carrier of anthelmintics, traditional herbal medicines and plants with anthelmintic properties. Effectiveness of medicated UMMB feed blocks to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goat was tested. The medicated UMMB and conventional anthelmintics were both found to be highly effective but conventional therapies were thought to be most appropriate for application in most

  9. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...... collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition...

  10. Impact of medicated feed along with clay mineral supplementation on Escherichia coli resistance to antimicrobial agents in pigs after weaning in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Kabore, Kiswendsida Paul; Fravalo, Philippe; Letellier, Ann; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotype and virulence and AMR gene profiles in Escherichia coli from pigs receiving in-feed antimicrobial medication following weaning and the effect of feed supplementation with a clay mineral, clinoptilolite, on this dynamic. Eighty E. coli strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs receiving a diet containing chlortetracycline and penicillin, with or without 2% clinoptilolite, were examined for antimicrobial resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. Overall, an increased resistance to 10 antimicrobials was observed with time. Supplementation with clinoptilolite was associated with an early increase but later decrease in blaCMY-2, in isolates, as shown by DNA probe. Concurrently, a later increase in the frequency of blaCMY-2 and the virulence genes iucD and tsh was observed in the control pig isolates, being significantly greater than in the supplemented pigs at day 28. Our results suggest that, in the long term, supplementation with clinoptilolite could decrease the prevalence of E. coli carrying certain antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes.

  11. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  12. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  13. Evaluation of Rice Bran and Wheat Bran as Supplemental Feed Compared to a Commercial Feed for Monoculture of GIFT Strain of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Sakhawat; HOSSAIN Md. Arshad; MAMUN Md. Abdullah-Al; ALI Md. Zulfikar; BULBUL Mahbuba; Koshio, Shunsuke; Kader, Md. Abdul; コシオ, シュンスケ; 越塩, 俊介

    2011-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of rice bran and wheat bran as supplementary feed in comparison to a commercial feed for monoculture of GIFT strain of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets such as commercial tilapia diet, rice bran, wheat bran, and a mixture of rice bran and wheat bran (50:50) were assigned to four treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Triplicate groups of fish (initial mean weight 2.80 g) were delivered the test diet...

  14. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus, and green mungbeans (Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  15. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans ((Phaseolus aureus,and green mungbeans ((Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  16. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  17. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    in this study to incorporate seaweed as one of the ingredients in pelleted feed and to evaluate the efficacy of the feeds on the growth of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.). The main objective of this study was mainly to produce cost effective, cheap..., and efficient feed for a better growth of carps. Since foraging carps readily accept artificial pelleted feeds under any culture conditions, Catla catla belonging to the same group was selected to study the performance of feed developed in his study...

  18. Methods of polymer binder examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents selected methods of examining polymer binders (in particular current or promising ones, including spectroscopy, microscopy, nanometry, chromatography and thermal analysis. The table (containing 23 literature references collates and generally characterises over 20 analytical methods from the above groups. In addition, information is presented on research conducted by the Environmental Protection Lab of the Chair of Casting Process Engineering, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology concerning the physical chemistry of polymer casting binders.

  19. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    This study compared physiological, health, and productive parameters in dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (OMN; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the transition period. Thirty-eight nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (n=19) or not (CON; n=19) OMN at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis) beginning 35 d before expected date of calving. Before calving, cows were maintained in single drylot pen with ad libitum access to corn silage, and received (as-fed basis) 3kg/cow daily of a concentrate. After calving, cows were moved to an adjacent drylot pen, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after both milkings. Cows received OMN individually as top-dressing in the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -35 relative to expected calving date. After calving and until 46 d in milk, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded, and milk samples were collected daily for total solids and somatic cell count analyses. Blood was sampled daily from 0 to 7 d in milk, every other day from 9 to 21 d in milk, and every 5 d from 26 to 46 d in milk. On 30 and 46 d in milk, cows were evaluated for endometritis via cytobrush technique, based on % of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in 100 total cell count (PMN + endometrial cells). On 48.7±1.6 d in milk, 9 cows/treatment received a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (0.25μg/kg of BW), and blood was sampled hourly from -2 to 8 h, at 12-h intervals from 12 to 72 h, and at 24-h intervals form 96 to 120 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment differences were detected on BW, BCS, serum concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose, haptoglobin, cortisol, and

  20. Metabolic response to feeding in weight-losing pancreatic cancer patients and its modulation by a fish-oil-enriched nutritional supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, M D; McMillan, D C; Preston, T; Ross, J A; Fearon, K C

    2000-04-01

    Weight-losing patients with advanced cancer often fail to gain weight with conventional nutritional support. This suboptimal response might be explained, in part, by an increased metabolic response to feeding. It has been suggested that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can modify beneficially the metabolic response to cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the metabolic response to feeding in cancer and the effects of an EPA-enriched oral food supplement on this response. A total of 16 weight-losing, non-diabetic patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and six healthy, weight-stable controls were studied by indirect calorimetry in the fasting and fed states. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedence analysis. Cancer patients were then given a fish-oil-enriched nutritional supplement providing 2 g of EPA and 2550 kJ daily, and underwent repeat metabolic study after 3 weeks of such supplementation. At baseline, resting energy expenditure whether expressed per kg body weight, lean body mass or body cell mass was significantly greater in the cancer patients compared with controls. Fat oxidation was significantly higher in the fasting state in cancer patients [median 1.26 g.kg(-1).min(-1) (interquartile range 0.95-1.38)] than in controls [0.76 g.kg(-1). min(-1) (0.62-0.92); Pfeeding period, changes in insulin and glucose concentrations in cancer patients suggested relative glucose intolerance. In response to oral meal feeding, the percentage change in the area under the curve of energy expenditure was significantly lower in the cancer patients [median 7.9% (interquartile range 3.4-9.0)] than in controls [12.6% (9.9-15.1); Ppatients had increased and the energy expenditure in response to feeding had risen significantly [9.6% (6. 3-12.4)], such that it was no different from baseline healthy control values. Similarly, fasting fat oxidation fell to 1.02 g. kg(-1).min(-1) (0.8-1.18), again no longer significantly different from baseline healthy

  1. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n=28 or without (Control; n=26 supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (P<0.05, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG (P<0.05, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.05 were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109 and lactation (days 1 and 3 than in early gestation (day 10. Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows’ serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P<0.05 and TBARS (P<0.01 on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows’ counts of faecal lactobacillus (P<0.001 while reducing Escherichia coli (P<0.001 and Enterococcus (P<0.001. In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow’s feed intake (P=0.07, which resulted in higher average daily gain (P<0.01 of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows’ diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  2. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  3. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Lund, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    with whole cracked rapeseed (WCR), control supplemented with rumen protected vegetable fat (Lipmix 40/60, Lipitec, NLM Vantinge Aps, Ringe, Denmark) (RPF), and RPF supplemented with HMBi (MetaSmart, Adisseo, France) (RPFA). Rations contained 2.63%, 5.63%, 5.55%, and 5.59% crude fat on dry matter (DM) basis...

  4. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime;

    2013-01-01

    -fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  5. Effects of phytoestrogen supplementation in the feed on the shell gland of laying hens at the end of the laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistedt, A; Ridderstråle, Y; Wall, H; Holm, L

    2012-08-01

    Shell quality decreases as laying hens age and the aim of present study was to investigate how a supplement of daidzein, a natural phytoestrogen in soya, affects key factors in the shell gland and eggshell quality in late-stage laying hens. Hybrids of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB), received either a daidzein diet (50 mg/kg feed) or a control diet from 60 to 72 weeks of age. Both the total number of capillaries and capillaries with carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity were higher in the LSL hybrid than in the LB. After daidzein supplementation the number of CA positive capillaries was unaffected in the LSL but increased in the LB hybrid indicating a higher sensitivity to daidzein in this hybrid. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ) were localized and the complete picture of the two ERs can now be described in shell gland of domestic hens. Nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was generally stronger for ERβ, while membrane associated staining was present only for ERα. Interestingly, capillary endothelium contained only ERβ and since estrogen regulation of CA is well documented, the presence of an endothelial ER provides one possible route for the increase in CA positive capillaries found in LB hybrids. Eggshell quality or egg production was not affected by daidzein supplementation. The hybrids used in this study showed anatomical differences and reacted differently to daidzein supplementation, but if this can be explained by the divergences in ERβ localization noted between the hybrids remains to be clarified. PMID:22835656

  6. In-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde reduces layer-chicken egg-borne transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Baskaran, Sangeetha A; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Schreiber, David T; Khan, Mazhar I; Darre, Michael J; Curtis, Patricia A; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen in the United States, causing gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated eggs. Chickens are the reservoir host of S. Enteritidis. In layer hens, S. Enteritidis colonizes the intestine and migrates to various organs, including the oviduct, leading to egg contamination. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation with trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) plant compound obtained from cinnamon, in reducing S. Enteritidis cecal colonization and systemic spread in layers. Additionally, the effect of TC on S. Enteritidis virulence factors critical for macrophage survival and oviduct colonization was investigated in vitro. The consumer acceptability of eggs was also determined by a triangle test. Supplementation of TC in feed for 66 days at 1 or 1.5% (vol/wt) for 40- or 25-week-old layer chickens decreased the amounts of S. Enteritidis on eggshell and in yolk (Pliver, and oviduct in TC-supplemented birds was decreased compared to that in controls (P0.05). In vitro cell culture assays revealed that TC reduced S. Enteritidis adhesion to and invasion of primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells and reduced S. Enteritidis survival in chicken macrophages (P<0.001). Follow-up gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that TC downregulated the expression of S. Enteritidis virulence genes critical for chicken oviduct colonization (P<0.001). The results suggest that TC may potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce egg-borne transmission of S. Enteritidis.

  7. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  8. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.;

    2016-01-01

    -weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85...... and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might...

  9. Environmental Assessment of Ronozyme® P5000 CT Phytase as an Alternative to Inorganic Phosphate Supplementation to Pig Feed Used in Intensive Pig Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    to inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling of the two considered systems...... of avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural land use for enzyme production is small and unimportant unless use......Ronozyme® P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can be used as an alternative...

  10. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  11. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod.

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of Pulvis Curcuma Longa on the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and Growth performance of Broiler rabbits under summer stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj

    Full Text Available Eighteen four weeks’ old weaned Broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with Turmeric (Curcuma longa Rhizoid Powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mg and T2 ( basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Feeding cum growth trial and digestion trial were during summer months of April, May and June to study voluntary feed intake, growth rate and nutrient utilization by the experimental animals. TRP included in the diets of experimental groups consisting 6.72 % CP, 5.04% ether extract, 3.96% crude fibre, 7.85% total ash. Depression in voluntary feed intake due to summer stress did not alter due to the inclusion of turmeric powder. The weekly mean body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of nutrients did not show significant difference by the supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder in the diets of rabbit in present study. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 369-372

  13. Dietary supplementation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum preventing streptococcal disease during first-feeding of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdan Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary cumin (Cuminum cyminum powder (CP as a feed additive on growth performance and disease resistance during first-feeding of Mozamique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isocaloric (18.9 kj g-1 diets were formulated to contain 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0% CP. In a 45-day feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L were stocked with 40 fry (0.012 ± 0.001 g each. After feeding experiment, fish were infected with Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that a dietary CP level of 1.14% provided the best survival rate challenge infection with S. iniae, growth performance and feed utilization. In conclusion, CP can be used as growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in tilapia fry, and it can be also used as an antimicrobial agent during first-feeding of O. mossambicus. Therefore, CP can be suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture.

  14. Supplementation with different energy and protein sources on the feeding behavior and performance of dairy heifers grazing Marandu during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation different energy and protein sources in the dry season of the year, on body development and diurnal feeding behavior of crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy heifers 12.8 ± 4.6 months old, 215.50 ± 43.2 kg average body weight were distributed in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture with supplements being offered daily in proportion of 0.75% of the body weight. A completely randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used, with six replicates per treatment. Supplements contained whole soybean (WS or whole cottonseed (WC as the protein sources and citrus pulp (CPU or corn (C as the energy sources. Marandu grass pasture was managed according a rotational grazing system, six days grazing and 30 days of rest period. It was recorded the animals weight, height at withers, heart girt, rump length and corporal score after the grazing cycle. The considered behavioral variables were grazing time, ruminating time, idle time, trough time. No significant differences on the initial, heart girt, height at withers, rump length and corporal score final and initial to protein and energy sources. However, a significant effect was observed (P<0.05 in heifers supplemented with WC had greater final body weight and heart girt and average daily gain live weight (271.1 kg, 152.2 cm and 0.382 kg/animal, respectively in comparison to those with WS (251.1 kg, 148.7 cm and 0.255 kg/animal, respectively. The CPU base supplement resulted in smaller grazing time and greater ruminating and idle time (P>0.05. The WS base supplemented animals had kept lesser time eating supplement in comparison to the WC base supplemented ones (P<0.05, with no variation in grazing, rumination or idle times regarding protein font (P>0.05. The hour of the day influenced all the considered behaviors (P<0.01.

  15. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  16. 鱼油在鲤饲料中的适宜用量%Optimum level of fish oil supplementation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任泽林; 郭庆; 霍启光; 卢建军

    2001-01-01

    在高蛋白质半纯化饲料中分别添加0、30、50、70、90 g/kg的未加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油,投喂58 g左右2龄鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鱼种46 d,结果表明:添加新鲜鱼油量为30 g/kg时,鲤生产性能最佳;鲤肝体比(HSI)、肝胰脏脂肪含量、肌肉营养不良症和肌肉渗出性损失随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续上升,而肌肉和肾脏氧化稳定性则随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续下降,当添加鱼油量升至30、70、70、50、70、70 g/kg时,上述6项指标与对照组差异显著(P<0.05)。综合各项指标,未添加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油在高蛋白质鲤饲料中适宜用量以不超过30 g/kg为宜。%Juvenile carp of 58 g were fed a high protein semi-purified feed supplemented with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 g/kg fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant (Peroxide value,POV,0.64 mmol/kg ) for 46 days. The results showed that the carp had the best performance at 30 g/kg supplementation of fish oil. With the increment of fish oil supplementation, hepatopancreas somatic indices (HSI), fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy and muscular exudative losses were increased, while oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney were reduced. There were significant differences in fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy, and oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney between the control group (no fish oil supplementation) and the 70 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). HSI of the control group was significantly different with that at 30 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the muscular exudative losses was significantly different at 50 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups(P<0.05). In conclusion, fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant should be supplemented in carp feed with high protein at no more than 30 g/kg.

  17. Optical microscopy analysis of briquette binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Xiangfei Bai

    2014-01-01

    Environmental requirements and demands from the coal industry have resulted in a boom in briquetting technology in China. In this work, a low-volatility bituminous coal from the Changcun mine and bentonite binders are used for briquetting. The compressive strength, impact strength, and thermal stability of briquettes made using different binder concentration are deter-mined. The morphology and distribution of binders in briquettes are studied by optical microscopy and digital image-processing technologies. The concept of roundness is introduced to indicate the pressure to which the binders are subjected during briquetting. The influences of binder morphology on briquette strength are discussed. The binders are mainly in aggregated and dispersed forms, present in similar proportions in the briquettes. Aggregated binders with large differences in size are not well-distributed. Binder roundness values are concentrated between 1.5 and 4.0, which indicates that most aggregated binders are compressed and conform well to the surfaces of coal particles. A few binders had roundness value approximating 1 or above 4, which indicated that these were under little pressure or overloaded, respectively. The relationships between briquette strength and binder morphology show that aggregated binders are detrimental to mechanical strength while dispersed binders benefit briquetting.

  18. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate

  19. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p garlic powder decreased the blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-esterified fatty acids (p garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. PMID:26608665

  20. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  1. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P CT (1.5 %) through LMM improved humoral and CMI immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep.

  2. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  3. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  4. Analysis of Citrinin in Cereals, Red Yeast Rice Dietary Supplement, and Animal Feed by Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Leeman, Dave; Donnelly, Carol

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of citrinin in various cereals (wheat, oats, maize, rice, and rye and multigrain breakfast cereal), red yeast rice (dietary supplement and traditional medicine), distillers dried grain with solubles, and barley (animal feed) was carried out using a citrinin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample cleanup before LC analysis with fluorescence detection (LC-fluorescence). To establish method performance characteristics, wheat was spiked with citrinin at levels of 10-200 μg/kg, whereas red yeast rice was spiked at levels of 100-3000 μg/kg. Methanol-water (75 + 25, v/v) was used for the extraction of cereals and animal feed, and extraction was with 100% methanol for red yeast rice. Cleanup used a commercial citrinin IAC, followed by LC-fluorescence (λex, 330 nm; λem, 500 nm). Recoveries ranged from 80 to 110%, with r from 0.7 to 4.3%. The LOQ for citrinin in both wheat and red yeast rice was 10 μg/kg, with an LOD of 3 μg/kg. Satisfactory performance was demonstrated in a proficiency testing exercise for a sample of maize contaminated with both citrinin and ochratoxin A. It was concluded that the commercial citrinin IAC was capable of providing an efficient and effective cleanup of complex food and feed matrixes to enable citrinin to be reliably determined with the specific LC-fluorescence system used.

  5. Analysis of Citrinin in Cereals, Red Yeast Rice Dietary Supplement, and Animal Feed by Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Elaine; Brown, Phyllis; Leeman, Dave; Donnelly, Carol

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of citrinin in various cereals (wheat, oats, maize, rice, and rye and multigrain breakfast cereal), red yeast rice (dietary supplement and traditional medicine), distillers dried grain with solubles, and barley (animal feed) was carried out using a citrinin immunoaffinity column (IAC) for sample cleanup before LC analysis with fluorescence detection (LC-fluorescence). To establish method performance characteristics, wheat was spiked with citrinin at levels of 10-200 μg/kg, whereas red yeast rice was spiked at levels of 100-3000 μg/kg. Methanol-water (75 + 25, v/v) was used for the extraction of cereals and animal feed, and extraction was with 100% methanol for red yeast rice. Cleanup used a commercial citrinin IAC, followed by LC-fluorescence (λex, 330 nm; λem, 500 nm). Recoveries ranged from 80 to 110%, with r from 0.7 to 4.3%. The LOQ for citrinin in both wheat and red yeast rice was 10 μg/kg, with an LOD of 3 μg/kg. Satisfactory performance was demonstrated in a proficiency testing exercise for a sample of maize contaminated with both citrinin and ochratoxin A. It was concluded that the commercial citrinin IAC was capable of providing an efficient and effective cleanup of complex food and feed matrixes to enable citrinin to be reliably determined with the specific LC-fluorescence system used. PMID:27328902

  6. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Nutritional strategies for ruminants fed on local feed supplemented with molasses multi-nutrient blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)

  7. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  8. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  9. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  10. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  11. Methods of polymer binder examination

    OpenAIRE

    M. Holtzer; B. Grabowska; Bobrowski, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents selected methods of examining polymer binders (in particular current or promising ones), including spectroscopy, microscopy, nanometry, chromatography and thermal analysis. The table (containing 23 literature references) collates and generally characterises over 20 analytical methods from the above groups. In addition, information is presented on research conducted by the Environmental Protection Lab of the Chair of Casting Process Engineering, Faculty of Foundry Enginee...

  12. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  13. Supplementing an emissions tax by a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity to address learning spillovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of learning spillovers related to renewable energy technologies, an optimal strategy to mitigate climate change should complement an emissions tax by a subsidy for renewables. This article addresses the question how such subsidy should be designed. It is shown that the widely-used approach of a revenue-neutral fixed feed-in tariff can yield an optimal outcome under restrictive conditions only. It has to be adapted continuously as the electricity price changes. Moreover, funding the tariff by a surcharge on the electricity price has important implications for the design of the emission tax. The optimal tax rate has to be below the Pigovian level, differentiated across fossil fuels and adapted over time as the patterns of technological development change. These requirements may pose a formidable challenge for practical decision-making. However, it is important to point out that the eventual choices made with respect to the design and funding of a feed-in tariff have to be based on a careful and more comprehensive policy assessment, including, inter alia, economic effects beyond the electricity sector and existing institutional constraints. - Highlights: • Learning spillovers may warrant a combination of emissions and technology policies. • A revenue-neutral feed-in tariff can correct learning spillovers efficiently. • Optimal implementation of this approach is tedious in practice though. • Tariff and emissions tax have to be differentiated and adapted continuously. • Eventual policy decision depends on institutional constraints and economy-wide effects

  14. The performance of village chickens in selected rural areas of Uganda, given Newcastle disease I-2 thermostable vaccine, Levamisole[registered] treatment and feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry health and management interventions for Newcastle disease, endo-parasite control and feed supplementation were introduced to a free-range poultry production system in six villages in two Agro-ecological zones of Uganda to improve chicken productivity. Newcastle disease vaccination using a locally produced I-2 thermostable vaccine of Embryo-infective dose (EID50) of 108 per ml and LaSota cold chain vaccine of Embryo infective dose (EID50) of 109 ml, one for each zone, where given to chickens by the eye drop method on a 3 month-interval-vaccination schedule for 9 months. Endo parasite control using Levamisole[registered] was given twice in the wet and once in the dry season. Feed supplementation, using commercial chick mash, at estimated quantity of 30 gm per chick per day was provided for chicks for 3 months in two villages. Serum-samples, collected one month after each vaccination from 8 chickens per household were tested by the Haemagglutination inhibition test (HI). Faecal samples, also collected from 4 chickens per household were used to establish the helminth parasite infestation rates. The chick numbers and their weights were established weekly in each household for 3 months. Protection in chickens against Newcastle disease increased to mean HI log2 titres of 4.5 and 3.7 with mean protection levels of 83% and 80% for I-2 thermostable and LaSota vaccines respectively. Mean parasite infestation rates dropped by 27%. Mean chick survival rates improved by 29% and chick age weights increased significantly. Overall, there was an increase in poultry stock numbers, mean household flock sizes and egg production. The health interventions were cost effective by cost benefit analysis. (author)

  15. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  16. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  17. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR.

  18. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  19. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  20. Effect of strategic feed supplementation with multinutrient blocks on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out on four commercial farms in Guarico state, Venezuela to evaluate the effectiveness of multinutrient blocks (UMB) on the body condition score (BCS), milk production and reproductive performance of dual-purpose cows. Forty crossbred animals (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) in each farm were randomly allocated to supplemented and not-supplemented groups through a period of 105 days. The UMB composition was: 46% sugar-cane molasses, 10% urea, 10% Glyricidia sepium, 5% mineral mixture, 11% calcium hydroxide, 5% triple superphosphate, 10% maize crop residue and 3% animal fat. UMB intake was recorded every two days and individual milk production was registered daily or twice a week. Block consumption was higher during the dry season than in the rainy season. There were no significant differences in total milk production during the first 15 weeks of lactation between treatments in Farms 1 and 3. Body condition at calving and during the early post-partum period may explain some of the improvements on reproductive performance which occurred during the dry season. This indicates the importance of nutritional status of cows before calving on post-partum reproductive activity. 25 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  2. Dietary supplementation with nonconventional feeds from the Middle East: assessing the effects on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of Awassi sheep milk and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilali, M; Iñiguez, L; Knaus, W; Schreiner, M; Wurzinger, M; Mayer, H K

    2011-12-01

    Increased feed costs affect the livelihoods of dairy sheep farmers in the Middle East. Farmers endure high risks with large fluctuations in the price of grain used as animal feed, which is further affected by drought and declining range productivity. Using agricultural by-products and treated straw or vetch grazing for supplementing sheep diets would provide resource-poor dairy farmers with increased options to reduce feed costs, but the effects of such feeds on the quality of yogurt (the main product) need to be better understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate these effects. The first trial evaluated alternative diets using locally available feedstuffs, including agricultural by-products, compared with traditional diets used by dairy sheep farmers, and was conducted on-station at the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA, Tel Hadya, Aleppo, Syria). Milking Awassi ewes (n=56) were used to test 6 alternative diets against a traditional control diet containing barley, wheat bran, and barley straw. The 6 alternative diets contained 4 or more of the following ingredients: barley, sugar beet pulp, molasses, cotton seed cake, wheat bran, urea-treated wheat straw, and barley straw. Ewes on one of the alternative diets grazed vetch pasture, whereas ewes on the control diet and the 5 alternative diets grazed native range pasture. The milk fat content was higher in diets containing urea-treated straw. Yogurt firmness and adhesiveness were significantly lower in energy-rich diets (e.g., the control diet) and in the diets rich in soluble sugar (molasses). The effects of diet on yogurt color and on citric and succinic acid contents were significant. A yogurt produced from the milk of the group grazing on vetch was the most yellowish in color, which is appealing to Syrian consumers. The content of citric acid tended to be higher in yogurts produced from diets containing molasses. The second trial was conducted on 3 farms in northern

  3. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  4. The effect of supplementation level of concentrate feeding (25 vs. 75%) on rice straw treated with urine on Ongole Crossbred cattle productivity and methane emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .3 and 240.4 L/d, respectively. This was an unexpected result. Normally, methane production will lower in higher quality feeding regimes. This phenomenon might be explained by an effect of rice straw, the roughage supplemented with. Rice straw is highly fibre fibrous feed and low digestibility; therefore the retention time in gastrointestinal tract will be longer, and within this period the fermentation process resulting methane. This reason might be different at high quality concentrate supplementation that might activate microbial fermentation in straw in which resulting a shorter retention time. However, this shorter retention time did not resulting in lower methane production, because when rumen distension lowers it will sign animal to eat, and therefore, the total daily DMI in both treatments was similar (6.72 and 7.59 kg/d). This result agreed with the statement of Shibata et al., that methane production is highly correlated with DMI. The significant different of LWG, however, if taken into calculation of methane production per kg LWG found the C75 was lower (P = 0.0186) than that of C25, being 205.8 vs. 967.2 L/kg LWG, respectively. The present study showed that supplementation of high quality concentrate in the low quality diet such as rice straw, did not lower the methane production quantitatively, but if the animal product such as live weight gain taking in the consideration, the significant mitigation of methane was clearly observed. The results of the present study are similar to our previous study by using soybean pulp to supplement Napier grass hay. This study showed that high quality concentrate feeding could relatively maintain methane production at promising level by increasing the production, and suggested that combination of rice straw treated with urine and wheat bran and beer cake - both was by-product of food industries could lead to a significant productivity and mitigation of methane from cattle or other ruminants in tropical climates. (author)

  5. Assessing Program Coverage of Two Approaches to Distributing a Complementary Feeding Supplement to Infants and Young Children in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Strutt, Nicholas; Boateng, Nathaniel Amoh; Guevarra, Ernest; Siling, Katja; Norris, Alison; Ghosh, Shibani; Nyamikeh, Mercy; Attiogbe, Antoine; Burns, Richard; Foriwa, Esi; Toride, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Sarpong, Daniel; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house). Delivery Model 2 was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and used a market-based approach, with the product being sold through micro-retail routes (i.e., small shops and roadside stalls) in three districts supported by behavior change communications and demand creation activities led by a local social marketing company. Both delivery models were implemented sub-nationally as 1-year pilot programs, with the aim of informing the design of a scaled-up program. A series of cross-sectional coverage surveys was implemented in each program area. Results from these surveys show that Delivery Model 1 was successful in achieving and sustaining high (i.e., 86%) effective coverage (i.e., the child had been given the product at least once in the previous 7 days) during implementation. Effective coverage fell to 62% within 3 months of the behavior change communications and demand creation activities stopping. Delivery Model 2 was successful in raising awareness of the product (i.e., 90% message coverage), but effective coverage was low (i.e., 9.4%). Future programming efforts should use the health extension / microfinance / petty trader approach in rural settings and consider adapting this approach for use in urban and peri-urban settings. Ongoing behavior change communications and demand creation activities is likely to be essential to the continued success of such

  6. 'Leaves and eats shoots': direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Grey

    Full Text Available We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the feeding dynamics of a population of red swamp crayfish in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, after the crash of submerged macrophytes and associated macroinvertebrates, and during a natural draw-down of the lake water level. We expected a heavy reliance upon a diet of detrital matter to sustain the population as a consequence, and indeed, for the majority of the crayfish population caught from the lake, we saw a concomitant shift in isotopic values reflecting a dietary change. However, we also caught individual crayfish that had occupied the footprints of hippopotamus and effectively extended their range beyond the lake up to 40 m into the riparian zone. Isotopic analysis confirmed limited nocturnal observations that these individuals were consuming living terrestrial plants in the vicinity of the footprints. These are the first empirical data to demonstrate direct use of terrestrial resources by an aquatic crayfish species and further highlight the traits that make red swamp crayfish such opportunistic and successful invaders.

  7. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  8. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Strube, Mikael L; Hansen, Marie B; Lindved, Bodil K; Lihme, Allan; Boye, Mette; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85% pure pig IgG (ppIgG). The ppIgG thus comprised natural pig immunoglobulins and was subsequently shown to contain activity towards four pig-relevant bacterial strains (three different types of Escherichia coli and one type of Salmonella enterica) but not towards a fish pathogen (Yersinia ruckeri), and was demonstrated to inhibit the binding of the four pig relevant bacteria to a pig intestinal cell line (IPEC-J2). Finally it was demonstrated in an in vivo weaning piglet model for intestinal colonization with an E. coli F4+ challenge strain that ppIgG given in the feed significantly reduced shedding of the challenge strain, reduced the proportion of the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, increased the proportion of families Enterococcoceae and Streptococcaceae and generally increased ileal microbiota diversity. Conclusively, our data support the idea that natural IgG directly purified from pig plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might not be known. PMID:26824607

  9. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Pmarketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID:21929638

  10. Rheological characteristics of aged asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪慧; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 朱国军

    2008-01-01

    Different aging levels(RTFOT,PAV-10h,PAV-20h and PAV-30 h) of asphalt binders with various mass ratios of mineral powder to asphalt(0,0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6,2.0) were used to investigate the rheological properties of aged asphalt binders with respect to their short and long terms aging characteristics.Viscosity test,dynamic shear test and creep test were conducted.The test results indicate that the viscosity of aged asphalt binder increases sharply with the extension of aging period.Complex shear modulus of aged asphalt increases,which indicates that the stiffness of asphalt binders can increase.The phase angle for aged asphalt binders reduces,which indicates that the elastic portion for viscoelastic property of asphalt binders increases.|G*|·sin δ increases after aging procedure which means that the fatigue resistance becomes poor.The creep test results show that creep strain curves varies remarkably for virgin and aged asphalt binders.The total strain during loading period and the permanent strain decreases significantly for aged asphalt binders,which implies that the elastic portion increases and the viscous portion decreases.

  11. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  12. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  13. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos para bezerros Nelore em creep-feeding: desempenho produtivo, consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Energy sources in multiple supplements for Nellore calves in creep-feeding: productive performance, nutrient intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo, o consumo e a digestibilidade em bezerros Nelore em fase de amamentação em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementada com diferentes fontes de energia. A área foi dividida em cinco piquetes de 6,8 ha, com disponibilidade média de matéria seca e matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 4,10 e 2,38 t/ha, respectivamente. Foram utilizados 45 bezerros Nelore, com peso e idade iniciais de 96,0 ± 11,0 kg e 101 ± 12 dias, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5 × 2 (cinco suplementos e dois sexos. Os suplementos foram: MM - mistura mineral (controle; GM - farelo de soja (FS + grão de milho triturado (GM e mistura mineral; FTGM - farelo de soja + farelo de trigo + grão de milho triturado e mistura mineral; FA - farelo de soja + farelo de arroz e mistura mineral; GMS - farelo de soja + grão de milho triturado + grão de sorgo triturados e mistura mineral, fornecidos diariamente na quantidade de 60 g/animal para o grupo controle e 500 g/animal para os demais suplementos. Os animais que receberam suplemento múltiplo com milho e sorgo como fonte de energia proporcionaram ganho diário médio adicional de 100 g/animal (16,39% em comparação à mistura mineral. O uso do suplemento múltiplo à base de grão de milho como fonte de energia reduziu o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica de pasto e fibra em detergente neutro em relação às fontes energéticas farelo de arroz e à combinação de milho com sorgo. A suplementação com as fontes de energia, sobretudo as combinações de farelo de trigo e milho ou de milho e sorgo, podem proporcionar ganhos adicionais em animais em creep-feeding. A suplementação múltipla aumenta o consumo de pasto quando se utilizam grão de milho e sorgo combinados como fonte de energia.The performance, intake and digestibility were evaluated in Nellore beef calves supplemented with different energy sources in Brachiaria decumbens pasture

  14. Modeling binder removal in ceramic compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incledon, Matthew L.

    Binder is often added to ceramic systems to provide mechanical strength to the green bodies during processing. The binder removal sequence for an individual system is difficult to predict due to the thermal reaction and mass transport of the volatile products. The objective of this work is to use computational methods to predict the kinetics of binder removal as a function of composition, particle size, pore size and tortuosity, temperature, body size and shape, etc.. The model will be used to predict the composition, temperature, and pore pressure as a function of time, position within the body, and heating sequence parameters. This will provide the ability to predict optimum heating sequences that minimize processing time and energy input while avoiding harmful high internal pressures and temperatures. Since there are many binder systems in use, a few specific cases will be considered. TGA (thermogravimetric analysis) of binders will be used to measure kinetics parameters that are inputs for the computational model. A framework will be developed to assess the binder removal sequence for a binder and ceramic system. The input for the model, computed in COMSOL Multiphysics, will be determined through analysis of TGA weight loss data and green body characterization. A set of tools will be presented that assist in the fitting of the TGA data, including the binder degrading into multiple species, higher order reactions, parallel and series reactions, etc.. The use of these ideas and tools will allow the modeler to better predict the heating sequence required for a ceramic and binder system to successfully remove all binder material.

  15. Co-ordinated research programme on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRP on ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques'' commenced in late 1989 as a second phase using funds available from the IAEA's Regular Budget. The major factors affecting livestock productivity previously identified were nutrition inadequacies, especially in the dry season, and lack of management expertise to enable livestock to maximize production utilizing existing resources. This present CRP was formulated around infrastructures already established and experience and knowledge gained from the previous Programme. The CRP aimed to defined the nutritional factors, both macro- and micro-nutrients, which reduce the reproductive efficiency and productivity of ruminant livestock enterprises on typical small-holder farms; and thereafter to devise and test feed supplementation strategies taking into account the use of locally available feedstuffs. 1 fig

  16. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  17. Alkali-activated binders : a review : part 2. about materials and binders manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge about alkali-activated binders, by reviewing previously published work. As it is shown in Part 1, alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary Portland cement) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact. The subjects of Part 2 of this paper are prime materials, alkaline activators, additives, curing type and constituents mixing order. Practical problems and theoretical questions are discussed. To...

  18. Characterization of 27 Mycotoxin Binders and the Relation with in Vitro Zearalenone Adsorption at a Single Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas De Mil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize 27 feed additives marketed as mycotoxin binders and to screen them for their in vitro zearalenone (ZEN adsorption. Firstly, 27 mycotoxin binders, commercially available in Belgium and The Netherlands, were selected and characterized. Characterization was comprised of X-ray diffraction (XRD profiling of the mineral content and d-spacing, determination of the cation exchange capacity (CEC and the exchangeable base cations, acidity, mineral fraction, relative humidity (RH and swelling volume. Secondly, an in vitro screening experiment was performed to evaluate the adsorption of a single concentration of ZEN in a ZEN:binder ratio of 1:20,000. The free concentration of ZEN was measured after 4 h of incubation with each of the 27 mycotoxin binders at a pH of 2.5, 6.5 and 8.0. A significant correlation between the free concentration of ZEN and both the d-spacing and mineral fraction of the mycotoxin binders was seen at the three pH levels. A low free concentration of ZEN was demonstrated using binders containing mixed-layered smectites and binders containing humic acids.

  19. UPDATED INSIGHT ON FOAM BINDER GRANULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli

    2013-01-01

    To have updated handy reference as source of outstanding knowledge on foam binder granulation process in granulating the material(s). Granulation considered being important unit operation for producing pharmaceutical oral dosage forms. Revolutionising binder application methodology as advancement of wet granulation process best owed said process. It is a modified version of atomised spraying method and gaining wide acceptance. Product and process development calls for method of optimisation i...

  20. Solidification of radioactive wastes with inorganic binders (literature survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is provided on solidification of radioactive waste solutions, sludges and tritium waste water through cement and other inorganic binders. A general survey of the possibilities described in the literature is followed by a somewhat more detailed description of the work carried on at four research establishments in the United States, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, supplemented by personal information. Additional sections describe the experiences with various types of cement and the possibilities for improvement of solidification products through preliminary fixation of the toxic nuclides (transformation into insoluble products or absorption); there is a further possibility of post-treatment through polymer impregnation. Finally, definition and determination of leachability are provided and some results compiled. 74 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  1. Self Healing Capacity of Asphalt Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Ling; JIANG Huan; WU Shuxiang; WU Shaopeng

    2012-01-01

    To test self healing capability of asphalt binders,three asphalt specimens (pure asphalt,modified asphalt and aged asphalt) were prepared.Every specimen was tested by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR).The temperature sweeps result indicates that both aging and SBS modifying influence the self healing capability of asphalt binder.The fatigue-heal-fatigue test was introduced to study the self healing capability of asphalt in its serving periods.Furthermore,three different periods (0.5 h,1 h,3 h) were set up to study the influence of rest time on fatigue time.It is concluded that longer rest time,less load will delay the appearance of cracks and extend the service life of asphalt binders.

  2. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  3. Pengimbuhan Ragi Roti dalam Pakan Meningkatkan Respons Imun Nonspesifik dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Nila (SUPPLEMENTATION OF BAKER’S YEAST IN FEED ENHANCE NONSPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE AND GROWTH OF NILE TILAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cereviciae to enhancenonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus. The fish were obtainedfrom Freshwater Hatchery Tateli (BP3I, Marine and Fisheries Office, North Sulawesi. After acclimatizationfor two weeks in 1000 L fiberglass tank, fish with an average weight of 9 g were put in five 45 L-aquaria ata density of 15 fish/aquarium. During the experiment, fish were fed with feed pellet supplemented withfive different doses of baker’s yeast (10, 20, 30, 40 g yeast/kg pellet for four consecutive weeks at 5% bw/day, twice a day. Fish in different aquarium received different dose of baker’s yeast. Immune parametersincluding total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity and growth of fish were measured at two weeksinterval. After four weeks of feeding, total leucocyte count and phagocytosis activity of phagocyte cells offish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet increased significantly as compared to that ofcontrol fish (p<0.01. Growth of fish fed pellet supplemented with 10 g yeast/kg pellet also increasesignificantly as compared to control group (p=0.01. Average weight gain of fish fed pellet supplementedwith 10 g yeast/kg pellet was 15.00±1.00 g while control fish was 8.33 g. As conclusion, supplementationof baker’s yeast in feed could enhance nonspecific immune response and growth of Nile tilapia fish.

  4. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (pDCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (pDCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish.

  5. 双低菜籽饼在育肥羔羊精料中的适宜添加量%Optimal Supplement Dosage of Double-Low Rapeseed Meal in Concentrated Feed of Fattening Lambs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志有; 侯生珍; 王兴福

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To determine the optimal supplement dosage of double-low rapeseed meal in concentrated feed of fattening lambs. [ Method ] A total of 120 Tibetan lambs at the age of 50 d were selected and divided randomly into four groups. The lambs in these four groups were fed with diets respsetively supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 50,100,150 and 200 g/kg. Their diets had the same nutritional levels of energy and protein. The experimental period was 120 d. [ Result] Daily gain,feed conservation ratio and economic benefits were largely increased in the lambs fed with diets supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 150 g/kg (Daily gain,P <0.01 ). However,the daily gain and feed conservation ratio were largely decreased in the lambs fed with diets supplemented the double-low rapeseed meal of 200 g/kg. Moreover,serum transaminase and thyroxine levels were not significant between the four groups. [ Conclusion] The optimal supplement dosage of the double-low rapeseed meal is 150 g/kg in fattening lambs.%[目的]确定双低菜籽饼在育肥羔羊精料中的适宜添加量.[方法]选择120只50日龄藏羔羊,随机分为4组,分别饲喂双低菜籽饼添加量为50、100、150和200 g/kg且能量和蛋白水平一致的混合精饲料.试验期为120 d.[结果]精料中添加150 g/kg双低菜籽饼能显著提高羔羊的日增重(P<0.01)、饲料转化率和经济效益.精料中添加200 g/kg双低菜籽饼则明显降低羔羊的采食量和饲料转化率.各组间血清转氨酶活性和血清甲状腺素水平均差异不显著.[结论]育肥羔羊精料中双低菜籽饼的适宜添加量为150 g/kg.

  6. A Comprehensive Review on Physiological and Nutritional Properties of Prebiotics as Poultry Feed Supplement - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/comprehe

    OpenAIRE

    Subha Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    The present article highlights the effect of dietary prebiotics viz., dietary organic acid (OA) supplements, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and β-glucan supplementation on different body growth parameters of poultry birds at their various growing stages. The article stresses on the effect on live body weight gain, dressing percentage, weight of vital organs and muscles and mean villus lengths in digestive tract of poultry birds along with their application as growth promoters in commercial poul...

  7. Effect of moisture on the aging behavior of asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Huang, Xiao-Ming; Mahmoud, Enad; Garibaldy, Emil

    2011-08-01

    The moisture aging effect and mechanism of asphalt binder during the in-service life of pavement were investigated by laboratory simulating tests. Pressure aging vessel (PAV) test simulating the long-term aging of binder during the in-service life of pavement was modified to capture the long-term moisture aging effect of binder. Penetration grade tests including penetration test, soften point test, and ductility test as well as Superpave™ performance grade tests including viscosity test, dynamic shear rheometer test, and bending beam rheometer test were conducted to fully evaluate the moisture aging effect of binder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test and Gel-permeation chromatography test were applied to provide a fundamental understanding of the moisture aging mechanism of binder. The results indicate that moisture condition can accelerate the aging of asphalt binder and shorten the service life of asphalt binder. The modified PAV test with moisture condition can well characterize the moisture aging properties of asphalt binder.

  8. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Liang; Kefu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and the mechanism of binder migration were studied in this paper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, the degree of binder migration was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wet sample just after coating application, the real information of binder distribution was kept by quenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed by freeze-drying. The results showed: under the condition of this research, binder migration occurred both in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred during coating application was much little than that occurred during drying. The mechanism of binder migration during the process of coating application was studied by force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposed that was binder migration was caused by Magnus force and Saffman force.

  9. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YunLiang; KefuChen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and themechanism of binder migration were studied in thispaper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, thedegree of binder migration was measured byenergy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wetsample just after coating application, the realinformation of binder distribution was kept byquenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed byfreeze-drying. The results showed: under thecondition of this research, binder migration occurredboth in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred duringcoating application was much little than that occurredduring drying. The mechanism of binder migrationduring the process of coating application was studiedby force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposedthat was binder migration was caused by Magnusforce and Saffman force.

  10. Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica fruits as dry season feed supplements for goats in a semi-arid environment: Summary of a DFID funded project in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: timsmith2@btopenworld.com; Mlambo, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, P.O. Luvengo (Swaziland); Sikosana, J.L.N.; Maphosa, V. [Department of Agricultural Research and Extension, Matopos Research Station, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe); Mueller-Harvey, I.; Owen, E. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Indehiscent fruits of six tree species, common in Matabeleland were examined in in vitro and in vivo trials. The results for two of them, Acacia nilotica and Dichrostachys cinerea are presented here. Acacia nilotica contained more total phenolics than D. cinerea, but less nitrogen (N) and fibre (ADF and NDF). After 48 h incubation, in vitro OMD of both species was increased by PEG and NaOH or wood ash treatment, except when NaOH or wood ash were used in combination with PEG with D. cinerea fruits. DM intake, DMD were lowest and N-retention negative in goats fed A. nilotica as supplement. However when fed a supplement of D. cinerea, untreated or treated with PEG or NaOH, digestibility and N-retention were highest, and similar to a commercial goat meal, with the untreated fruit. In a trial in which milking does were supplemented with D. cinerea fruits, for 65 before and 65 days after kidding, kid birthweight and weaning weight were increased by supplementation. Deaths of twin-born kids were lowest in the supplemented but unmilked group. Supplementation with D. cinerea fruit resulted in improved goat performance. The only treatment applied of practical significance, wood ash, is currently being tested in an in vivo study. More research is required on detoxification of tannins, especially with A. nilotica. (author)

  11. Assessing ''last mile'' tools for affinity binder databases

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, David James; Golenetskaya, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    International audience The EU ProteomeBinders coordination action helped define community standards for reporting and comparing binder and binder-target properties, with an eye toward quality control. This included reporting standards, an ontology for unambiguously describing binders and their properties, and a database schema for storing the experimental molecular interaction evidence used to support claims about those properties. But it left unresolved the question of how best to enable ...

  12. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as posit...

  13. A randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of dietary energy sources, feed supplements, and the presence of super-shedders on the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle using different diagnostic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Zerby, Henry N; Fluharty, Francis L; Loerch, Steve C; Kauffman, Michael D; Bard, Jaime L; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Alteration of the gastro-intestinal tract through manipulation of cattle diets has been proposed as a preharvest control measure to reduce fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the energy source's moisture content (high moisture corn and dry whole-shelled corn), two natural feed supplements (Saccaromyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell and Aspergillus oryzae-Amaferm), and two levels of vitamin A (2200 IU/kg and no supplementation) on the fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in naturally infected cattle. One hundred sixty-eight Angus-cross beef steers were randomly allocated to 24 pens, and each pen was assigned 1 of 12 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) and fecal grab samples using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and standard microbiological techniques. On the basis of multivariable multilevel logistic regression models, we found a statistically significant (p 10(4) colony forming units of E. coli O157:H7 per gram of feces) was present in the pen at the time of testing relative to animals fed high moisture corn and nonexposed to super-shedders. However, in similar models based on RAMS-IMS testing, the effect of corn type on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 varied with the type of feed additive used. Being exposed to a super-shedding pen-mate also increased the odds of being positive to E. coli O157:H7 in the RAMS-IMS models. These models demonstrate that the impact of different supplements may vary with the diagnostic test used, and that further research into the biological significance of differences between RAMS- and fecal-IMS test results is warranted.

  14. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  15. Phenomena during thermal removal of binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Kenneth Edward

    The research presented herein has focused on debinding of an ethylene copolymer from a SiC based molded ceramic green body. Examination of the binder burnout process was carried out by breaking down the process into two distinct regions: those events which occur before any weight loss begins, and those events occurring during binder removal. Below the temperature of observed binder loss (175sp°C), both reversible and irreversible displacement was observed to occur. The displacement was accounted for by relaxation of molding stresses, thermal expansion of the system, and melting of the semicrystalline copolymer occurring during heating. Upon further heating the binder undergoes a two stage thermal degradation process. In the first stage, acetic acid is the only degradation product formed, as determined by GC/MS analysis. In this stage, component shrinkage persisted and it was found that one unit volume of shrinkage corresponded with one unit volume of binder removed, indicating that no porosity developed. The escaping acetic acid effluents must diffuse through liquid polymer filled porous regions to escape. The gas pressure of the acetic acid species produced in the first stage of the thermal degradation may exceed the ambient pressure promoting bubble formation. Controlling the heating rate of the specimen maintains the gas pressure below the bubbling threshold and minimizes the degradation time. Experiments have determined the kinetics of the reaction in the presence of the high surface area (10-15msp2/g) ceramic powder and then verified that acetic acid was diffusing through the polymer phase to the specimen surface where evaporation is taking place. The sorption method measured the diffusivity and activity of acetic acid within the filled ceramic system within a TGA. These data were incorporated into a Fickian type model which included the rate of generation of the diffusing species. The modeling process involved prediction of the bloating temperature as a

  16. Effect of thymol and carvacrol feed supplementation on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, and immune response in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemipour, H.; Kermanshahi, H.; Golian, A.; Veldkamp, T.

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of phytogenic product containing an equal mixture of thymol and carvacrol at 4 levels (0, 60, 100, and 200 mg/kg of diet) on performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, digestive enzyme activities, an

  17. Effect of feed supplementation with phytohaemagglutinin in combination with a-ketoglutarate on growth and nitrogen elimination pathways in rats with acute renal failure induced by nephrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Rafat; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction:Phytomaemagglutinin (PHA) and alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) in growing rats stimulate a change in the proportion of N excretion via urine and faeces, in favour of faecal excretion. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect oforal supplementation of PHA and AKG on pathways of...... be enhanced by the oral administration of AKG....

  18. The effect of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on cardiometabolic health: Rationale, design, and methods of a controlled feeding efficacy trial in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie M; Davy, Brenda M; Halliday, Tanya M; Hulver, Mathew W; Neilson, Andrew P; Ponder, Monica A; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Prediabetes is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). An elevated lipopolysaccharide concentration, associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in the development of both T2D and CVD. Selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics reduces intestinal permeability and endotoxin concentrations, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in rodents. The effect of prebiotic supplementation on cardio-metabolic function in humans at risk for T2D is not known. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility in adults at risk for T2D. We hypothesize that prebiotic supplementation with inulin will improve insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. We will randomize 48 adults (40-75 yrs) with prediabetes or a score ≥ 5 on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk screener to 6 weeks of prebiotic supplementation with inulin (10 g/day) or placebo. Subjects will be provided with all food for the duration of the study, to avoid potential confounding through differences in dietary intake between individuals. Intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and fecal bacterial composition will be measured at baseline and following treatment. The identification of prebiotic supplementation with inulin as an efficacious strategy for reducing cardio-metabolic risk in individuals at risk of T2D could impact clinical practice by informing dietary recommendations and increasing acceptance of prebiotics by the scientific and medical community.

  19. Quantification of the effects of crumb rubber in CRM binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Bradley James

    Since the mid-1960s, crumb rubber has been used to modify asphalt binders. The crumb rubber, also referred to as crumb rubber modifier (CRM), is produced by grinding scrap tires into fine powders with particulate sizes generally smaller than 2 mm. In most cases, CRM is incorporated into binder using the "wet" method, where the crumb rubber is blended with the asphalt binder. The binder modification that occurs during this blending process is physical in nature, where the lighter oils of the binder diffuse into the CRM particles. As the rubber particles absorb the oils, the particles swell; therefore, increasing the viscosity and stiffness of the CRM binder. This research evaluated the viscosity and complex shear modulus (G*) of 36 different laboratory-produced CRM binder combinations (two CRM processing methods, two CRM contents, three CRM sizes, and three binder sources) and three base binders. From this investigation, a method was developed to quantify the effects of the crumb rubber modification. These effects were identified as the interaction effect (IE) resulting from the diffusion of the lighter binder factions into the rubber particles and the particle effect (PE), which is the result of the change in the rheological properties due to the filling effect of the particulate CRM. Following statistical analyses of the results, it was determined that CRM binders had greater viscosity and complex shear modulus (G*) values than the base binders. These values increased with CRM content. The CRMs having higher surface area (i.e., ambient ground and finer CRM) generally had higher IE values, while the PE generally increased with particle size. HP-GPC testing indicated that the CRM binders also had higher large molecular size (LMS) fractions and lower small molecular size (SMS) fractions as determined from the HP-GPC profiles. As the LMS increased and the SMS decreased, the IE increased. Two of the three binder sources followed this trend, indicating that those

  20. Curing Reaction Model of Epoxy Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Leilei; WANG Yaqi; SHEN Jialin

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the strength developing law of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a curing reaction model of the epoxy asphalt binder was proposed based upon the thermokinetic analysis.Given some assumptions,the model was developed by applying the Kissinger law as well as Arrhenius equation,and the differential scanning calorimetry was performed for estimating the model parameters.To monitor the strength development of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a strength test program was employed and then results were compared to those produced from the proposed model.The comparative evaluation shows that a good consistency exists between the outputs from test program and the proposed model,indicating that the proposed model can be used effectively for simulating the curing reaction process for the epoxy asphalt binder and predicting the strength development for the epoxy asphalt mixture.

  1. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-02-01

    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m2, it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa).

  2. New pharmaceutical applications for macromolecular binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Nicolas; Gauthier, Marc A; Bouvet, Céline; Moreau, Pierre; Petitjean, Anne; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Leblond, Jeanne

    2011-10-30

    Macromolecular binders consist of polymers, dendrimers, and oligomers with binding properties for endogenous or exogenous substrates. This field, at the frontier of host/guest chemistry and pharmacology, has met a renewed interest in the past decade due to the clinical success of several sequestrants, like sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel®) or sugammadex (Bridion®). In many instances, multivalent binding by the macromolecular drugs can modify the properties of the substrate, and may prevent it from reaching its site of action and/or trigger a biological response. From small (e.g., ions) to larger substrates (e.g., bacteria and cells), this review presents the state-of-the-art of macromolecular binders and provides detailed illustrative examples of recent developments bearing much promise for future pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21571017

  3. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss.

  4. Effect of supplementing sows' feed with alpha-tocopherol acetate and vitamin C on transfer of alpha-tocopherol to piglet tissues, colostrum, and milk: aspects of immune status of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli-Saavedra, A; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Hernández, J; Valenzuela, R; Scaife, J R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sows with alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA) and vitamin C on deposition of alpha-tocopherol (AT) in piglet lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, and spleen at birth and at weaning, as well as on indicators of immune response in piglets. Sows were given the following treatment diets: control, vitamin C 10 g/day, ATA 500 mg/kg feed, and combined vitamins (ATA 500+Vit-C 10). Supplementation with vitamins started at the beginning of pregnancy and lasted until weaning at 21+/-3 days of age. AT was determined in colostrum, milk, piglet plasma (cord blood) and tissues at birth and on day 21. Immunoglobulins were measured in piglet plasma, milk, and colostrum. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHA and ConA was determined in sow and piglet blood. ATA supplementation resulted in a significant increase (Ppiglet plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow, and spleen at weaning. The AT content of colostrum and milk significantly (Ppiglet plasma and tissues at weaning (day 21). Total Ig and IgG concentrations in piglet plasma were significantly increased in piglets given the combined vitamin treatment. No effect of AT supplementation was observed on IgG and IgA in colostrum and milk. In sows, vitamin C given alone significantly increased lymphocyte response to ConA and PHA; whereas, in piglets, there was no significant effect of treatments on lymphocyte response to PHA and ConA.

  5. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  6. Towards a microalgae-based road binder

    OpenAIRE

    AUDO, Mariane; Queffelec, Clémence; LEPINE, Olivier; Legrand, Jack; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky viscoelastic petroleum industry by-product, used in sealing surface but mostly as aggregates binder in road pavement. For about seven years, the worldwide petroleum production didn’t increase anymore. In that context, refining strategies are changing: for example, high molecular fractions can be cracked into lighter fuel fractions and consequently, in the future, it could be difficult to answer to the worldwide needs in asphalt. To avoid this problem, some biomass-ba...

  7. High Performance Binder for EMCDB Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel block polymer has been synthesised from caprolactone using hydroxy terminated polybutadiene as ring opening initiator. Usefulness of this polymer as propellant binder has been studied by generating data on physico-chemical properties of the polymer. The polymer exhibited high miscibility with nitrate ester and high solid loading capability. Preliminary data generated on typical propellant formulation indicated higher performance as compared to composite propellant.

  8. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  9. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  10. Evaluation of the supplementation of a feed additive as a potential protector against the adverse effects of 2.5 ppm T-2 toxin on growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A trial was conducted to evaluate a feed additive containing epoxidase activity from a bacterium (Mycofix-S as a potential protection against the adverse effects of 2.5 ppm dietary T-2 toxin in male growing broiler chickens. A total of 144 one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were individually wing-banded and allotted into each of the four experimental groups. Group 1: negative control, no T-2 toxin or additive; group 2: Mycofix-S, 2.5 g/kg; group 3: positive control, 2.5 ppm T-2 toxin; group 4: 2.5 ppm T-2 toxin + 2.5 g/kg Mycofix-S. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 28 days (days 1 to 28 of age. Each experimental treatment was replicated 6 times, with 6 birds per replicate pen. Response variables included performance parameters, serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and amylase, relative weight of selected organs and histology of the upper digestive system. T-2 toxin at 2.5 ppm significantly (P = 0.016 decreased the 28-day body weight gain and cumulative feed intake without affecting feed conversion. The feed additive counteracted these adverse effects. Serum enzyme activities were not significantly (P>0.05 affected for the four experimental groups but when data from the groups receiving T-2 toxin was pooled and compared against the pooled data from groups without the toxin a significant decrease in amylase activity was observed in chickens receiving T-2 toxin. The histological examination of the upper digestive system revealed lesions in mouth, esophagus, proventriculus, gizzard and duodenum in the chickens fed T-2 toxin without the additive. Chickens fed T-2 toxin plus the additive showed lesions in the same tissues except in the duodenum. The results of the present study show that the addition of 2.5 g/kg of the feed additive tested protects against adverse effects on performance and also the integrity of the duodenal mucosa.

  11. Cementitious binder from fly ash and other industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Garg, M. [Central Building Research Inst., Roorkee (India)

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, investigations were undertaken to formulate cementitious binder by judicious blending of fly ash with Portland cement as well as by admixing fly ash with calcined phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, and chemical activators of different finenesses. The effect of addition of calcined clay in these types of binders was studied. Data showed that cementitious binders of high compressive strength and water retentivity can be produced. The strength of masonry mortars increased with the addition of chemical activators. The strength development of binders takes place through formation of ettringite. C-S-H, and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}. The binders are eminently suitable for partial replacement (up to 25%) of the cement in concrete without any detrimental affect on the strength. The results showed that fly ash can be used in the range from 45% to 70% in formulating these binders along with other industrial wastes to help in mitigating environmental pollution.

  12. Application of Microwaves for Binder Content Assessment in Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in the sandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.

  13. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    OpenAIRE

    St.M. Dobosz; K. Major-Gabryś

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid),polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding s...

  14. Fabrication and properties of binder for powder extrusion molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By optimizing formulation and fabrication methods, a new binder for plasticizing powder extrusion molding ofhard metal, with excellent integrated properties and uniform distribution characters, has been developed. Thermal debond-ing mechanism and the extruding rheological behaviours have been studied. The technology of fabrication of binder andthermal debonding process have also been investigated. Using the novel binder, the hard-metal extrusion-molding rods withdiameter up to 25mm, have been manufactured.

  15. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  16. Thermal Reactivity and Structure of Carbonized Binder Pitches

    OpenAIRE

    Madshus, Stian

    2005-01-01

    Pitches are used on a large scale in the manufacture of carbon anodes for the production of primary aluminium. The role of the pitch is to act as a binder between the petroleum coke grains. The structure of the carbonized pitch binder (pitch coke) has an important impact on the overall performance of the anode. Even though the binder pitch is the minor constituent in an anode, it is impossible to make a good quality anode without a good quality binder pitch.Pitch is an extremely complex mixtu...

  17. Comparison of the effects of feeding Indian fish liver oils supplemented with or without cholesterol and bile salts on certain enzymes in liver, heart and serum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanksale K

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes viz. glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, cholesterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13, aspartate amino transferase (EC 2.6.1.1 and alanine amino transferase (2.6.1.2 are intimately related to lipid metabolism. Hence their activities are bound to be affected by the type of dietary fat and substances like bile salts and cholesterol which also influence the lipid metabolism. This relationship between dietary lipid constituent and enzymes was studied in albino rats maintained on diets containing three Indian Shark Liver Oils viz. Waghbeer, Khada mushi and Pisori supple-mented with or without cholesterol and bile salts, Enzyme activities were studied in liver, heart and serum. It was noted that higher unsaturation of dietary fat increased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase enzyme while activities of transaminases and chole-sterol esterase were lowered. Addition of cholesterol and bile salts to these diets decreased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase and hydrolytic activity of cholesterol esterase. There was increase in the activities of transaminases and esterifying activity of choles-terol esterase due to supplementation with cholesterol and bile salts.

  18. Thermal debinding dynamics of novel binder system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继承; 黄伯云; 张传福; 刘业翔

    2001-01-01

    The thermal debinding dynamics of newly developed binders for cemented carbides extrusion molding was studied. It is shown that the thermal debinding processes can be divided into two stages: low temperature region, in which the low molecular mass components (LMMCs) are removed; and high temperature region, in which the polymer components are removed. The rate of thermal debinding is controlled by diffusion mechanism. The thermal debinding activation energies were solved out by differential method and integral method. The results show that the addition of other components acted as a catalyzer can effectively decrease the activation energy of thermal debinding processes.

  19. Assessment of nutritional value of single-cell protein from waste-activated sludge as a protein supplement in poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M; Lebitso, Moses T

    2012-12-01

    The amount of protein wasted through sludge in Gauteng, South Africa, amounts to 95 000 metric tonne/yr, with the order of magnitude of the national protein requirement of approximately 145 000 metric tonne/yr. Waste-activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that treat domestic wastewater contains protein in a ratio of 2:1 against fishmeal. This protein source has not been utilized because of the high content of toxic heavy metals and other potential carcinogenic pollutants in the sludge. In this study, a pretreatment method of modified aqua regia dilute acid wash was used to lower the metal content by approximately 60%. However, this resulted in a 33% loss of amino acids in the acid-washed WAS. A feed substitution test in poultry with different fishmeal-sludge ratios (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% WAS as percent substitution of fishmeal) showed no impact of sludge single-cell protein (SCP) on mortality rate. However, sludge substitution in the feed yielded weight gains and cost savings up to 46%. PMID:23342942

  20. Rheological Properties of Mixtures of 316L Stainless Stell Powders With Polyproplylen Based Binders

    OpenAIRE

    KARATAŞ, Çetin

    1998-01-01

    The flowabilities of feedstocks for powder injection molding (PIM), of 316L stainless steel powders (mean diameters 5.84, 30.42, 40.35, 67.42 mm) with thermoplastic binders (60% paraffin, 35% polypropylene, 5% stearic acid) were investigated. For this purpose, a capillary rheometer was designed and constructed. The rheometer was heated in 30 minutes to 300 °C with an accuracy of \\pm 1 °C. Its load range was 63-55.000 grams. The best flow measurements were made at 175 °C for all feed...

  1. Evolution of geopolymer binders: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, M. F.; Malkawi, A. B.; Fauzi, A.; Mohammed, B. S.; Almattarneh, H. M.

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to present the current state of research about the terminology, chemical reactions, mechanisms, and microstructure modelling of geopolymer binders. Modelling the structure of the geopolymerization products is essential for controlling the product properties. The currently available models have shown some limitations in determining the rate of geopolymerization and setting time of the gel. There is a need for deeper knowledge regarding the physicochemical analysis of geopolymer binders. Most of the available models have used pure material like metakaolin; however, the less pure materials are expected to have different mechanisms. The FTIR and MAS-NMR analysis are considered as effective tools in providing information on the molecular deviations during geopolymerization. However, XRD analysis is not effective because most of the changes take place in amorphous phases. Also, the role of the iron oxides and some of the other impurities still not clear where none of the previous method of investigation can be used to detect the molecular changes of the iron compounds. This issue is very relevant hence the iron oxides are existed in substantial amounts in most of the waste materials that are suitable to be used as geopolymer source materials.

  2. Dynamic linear viscoelastic properties and extensional failure of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yonghong

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in USA to maintain old pavements that are badly cracked. In order to reduce this expenditure, it is desirable to have criteria for selecting asphalts with superior cracking resistance that will provide pavements with longer durability. Literature reports indicate that the ductility of binders recovered from asphalt pavements correlates with cracking failure. However, ductility measurement is a time and material consuming process, and subject to reproducibility difficulties, as are all failure tests. In addition, ductility measurement does not belong to the currently used Superpave(TM) specification. Correlations between ductility and dynamic viscoelastic properties (measured with the dynamic shear rheometer, DSR), which are much easier and faster to perform and may be included into the Superpave(TM) system, are studied for both straight and modified binders. Ductility correlates quite well with G'/(eta '/G') for conventional asphalt binders aged at different conditions, especially when ductility is below 10 cm. However, for modified asphalts, there is no universal correlation between ductility and G'/(eta'/G'), even in the low ductility region. As far as the asphalt binder in pavement is concerned, the loss due to oxidative aging of its ductility is an important reason for pavement cracking. Polymer modification modifies the rheological and oxidative hardening properties of asphalt binders. The effect of polymeric modifiers on various properties of asphalt binders was investigated. Modifiers studied were diblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene) rubber (SBR), triblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), and tire rubber. Polymer modified binders have a lower hardening and oxidation rate than their corresponding base asphalts. In addition, modified binders have lower hardening susceptibility compared with their base materials and in some cases the results can be dramatic. Polymer modification improves asphalt binders' shear

  3. Suplementación pre y post parto en ovejas. Efecto sobre la pubertad y actividad reproductiva de sus hijas Pre and postpartum feed supplementation in ewes; effect on puberty and reproductive activity of the ewelambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. SEPÚLVEDA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para evaluar en ovejas la suplementación alimenticia durante el período pre y postparto y su efecto sobre la tasa de crecimiento y actividad reproductiva de sus hijas durante su primera estación reproductiva. Se utilizaron 50 ovejas de la raza Romney Marsh, divididas en dos grupos: un grupo fue suplementado (OS durante 50 días antes del parto y 50 días después del parto con 2 kg de ensilaje de pradera por día; el otro grupo de ovejas se mantuvo como control (OC. Cada quince días se controló el peso, la condición corporal, además, el peso de los corderos al nacimiento, y la actividad reproductiva de las borregas en su primera estación de reproducción. El peso al nacimiento no fue diferente (p0, 05 entre los corderos nacidos de diferentes grupos de ovejas, sin embargo, al destete el peso de los corderos fue significativamente superior (pFifty mature pregnant Romney Marsh ewes were used to investigate the influence of feed supplementation during the pre and post lambing period and subsequent ewe-lambs growth rates and pubertal events and reproductive activity during their first breeding season. Ewes were maintained in a pasture and divided into two groups: one group (n=25 was supplemented (OS for 50 days after and 50 days before lambing with 2 kg of grassland silage/day, and the other group (n=25 was not-supplemented (OC. Ewe liveweight, body condition score (BCS, lamb birthweight and ewe-lamb reproductive performance at first reproductive season was evaluated trough progesterona measurement in blood serum, using RIA technique. Lamb birthweight were not statistically different (P0,05 from the OC and OS groups. There was, however, significant improvement (p<0,05 of weights (OC=31,2 kg and OS=35,8 kg, age of puberty of ewe-lambs (210 days and 178 days, and lambing rate for ewe lamb (33% v/s 58% for OC and OS groups. In conclusion the ewe-lambs from supplemented dams improved their growing rate and reproductive

  4. Environmental assessment of Ronozyme (R) p5000 CT phytase as an alternative to inorganic phosphate supplementation to pig feed used in intensive pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. Ronozyme (R) P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can...... use for enzyme production is small and unimportant unless use of agricultural land is given very large relative weight. Recommendations and Perspectives. Hundreds of enzyme products are commercially available on the market today, each with a range of different applications. There are several...... indications that enzymes like Ronozyme Phytase can play an important role in a transition to a more sustainable society, and more focus should be addressed to the evolving enzyme technology in environmental research....

  5. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  6. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  7. Viscoelastic Behaviour of Solid Propellants based on Various Polymeric Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prabhakaran

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic mechanical properties of different binders and corresponding propellants are studied in terms of storage modulus and loss tangent. The binders investigated are HTPB, CTPB, PBAN, HEF-20 and ISRO polyol. The viscoelastic behaviour is investigated using Rheovibron viscoelastometer at 35 Hz covering a wide temperature range (-100 degree centigrade to 100 degree centigrade. The properties of the binder and corresponding propellant are compared in terms of parameters, tan delta/sub max/, T/sub g/ and the trend of their master relaxation modulus curves. It is found that polybutadiene binders exhibit lowest T/sub g/ (around -60 degree centigrade and ISRO polyol the highest (near -20 degree centigrade. The propellants have higher moduli than the binders at any temperature. The master relaxation modulus curve is influenced by the type of propellant.

  8. RSS Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/rss.html RSS Feeds To use the sharing features on this page, ... NLM RSS Feeds and Podcasts . General Interest RSS Feeds What's New: MedlinePlus Announcements and Special Features The ...

  9. Environmentally Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Production of Portland cement (PC), the ubiquitous binding material for construction works, is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nearly half of these emissions arise from the decomposition of calcareous raw materials, and the other half from kiln fuel combustion and cement clinker grinding operations. As such, PC production contributes significantly to global warming and climate change. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower associated green house gas emissions. An important class of such binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders have very low CO2 emissions from grinding of the starting material, and some from the production of the activating chemical. The total CO2 emission from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/5th - 1/10th of those of Portland cement concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time makes their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Perlite is a volcanic aluminosilicate glass abundant in Turkey, China, Japan, the US and several EU countries. It has been used in its expanded form, for horticulture, for insulation, and for producing lightweight concrete. Turkish perlites contain more than 70 % SiO2, and have a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ~5.5. This study shows that ground perlite can be mixed with alkaline activators like sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate to yield mortars with strengths comparable to those of portland cement mortars. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in 24 h or less. Since perlite is natural, perlite geopolymers can have environmental, energetic, and

  10. A novel binder and binder extraction method for powder injection molding of tungsten cemented carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝宝军; 曲选辉; 陶颖

    2003-01-01

    An improved wax-based multi-component binder and a new debinding method termed high-pressure condensed solvent extraction were developed for powder injection molding of tungsten cemented carbide. The results indicate that a critical powder loading of 65% (volume fraction) and an ideal rheological properties were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. High debinding rate and specimens with high strength were obtained by the debinding method. Moreover, by making high temperature holding time adjustable, it makes the subsequent thermal degradation process more flexible to debinding atmosphere and carbon content of the as debinded specimens controllable. The transverse rupture strength, hardness and density of the as-sintered specimens made by an optimized PIM process are 2.48Gpa, HRA90 and 14.72g/cm3, respectively. Good shape retention and about 0.02% dimension deviation were achieved.

  11. Dilatometric examination of moulds with plaster binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concerning thermal expansion of moulding materials with plaster binder have been performed for two mixture compositionsof Authors’ own design, as well as for the material used in jewellery industry under the Prima-Cast trade name, and for ThermoMold 1200moulding material. The results of dilatometric examinations of these materials, carried out within the temperature range from about 20°Cto 650°C by means of the DA-3 automatic dilatometer, have been compared. An analysis of this comparison has revealed that it is thematrix composition which is decisive for the magnitude of dimensional changes of moulds, and that applying components which do notexhibit polymorphic transformations reduces dimensional changes of a mould during its thermal treatment.

  12. Rheology of crumb-rubber modified asphalt binders and mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Vikas Rameshchandra

    Laboratory test procedures are presented to determine the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA) binders and mixes. These tests provide simple, fast, and cost-effective alternatives to evaluate the performance (rutting and cracking potential) of binders and mixes used for pavement construction. Viscoelastic properties of CRMA binders are measured using dynamic shear analysis. Master curves were generated using the principle of time-temperature superposition to evaluate the effects of aging, rubber concentration, and curing conditions on the rheology of the modified binder. Results indicate that the rheology of CRMA binders can be divided into three regions of viscoelasticity: glassy region at high frequencies, transition/viscoelastic region at intermediate frequencies, and viscous region at low frequencies. Modification of the asphalt by addition of rubber leads to an improvement in both the high and low temperature properties, as reflected by changes in Gsp' and Gsp{''}, which causes the binder to have a greater resistance to specific pavement failure mechanisms. Both transient and dynamic properties of CRMA mixes were measured in the laboratory using the creep and recovery, direct tension, and frequency sweep tests. Rheological properties of the mix generated from the test data were compared to those of the binder to evaluate the effect of aging, rubber concentration, and curing conditions on mix performance. Several rheological parameters have been identified to characterize the rutting and cracking potential of mixes. A power law equation was found to give good correlations between several mix rheological parameters. Analysis of binder and mix failure energies show that work of cohesion of the binder is negligible compared to the failure energies. A unique relationship between Paris law material parameters has been confirmed. It is also shown that mix failure properties bear a one-to-one correlation with binder failure properties. Based

  13. Effects of Environmental Temperature and Dietary Ascorbic Acid on the Diurnal Feeding Pattern of Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Hasan Rüştü

    2000-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the diurnal feeding patterns of broiler chickens given a choice between ascorbic acid (AA) supplemented and unsupplemented feeds under heated or unheated conditions. Broiler chickens were offered supplemented (with 200 mg AA/kg feed) and unsupplemented feeds, and the feeding behaviour for each feed was monitored by continuous recording of the weight of the feed container for 4 days under unheated (UH) and the next 4 days under heated (H) cond...

  14. Diet adjustments of maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger (Mammalia, Canidae, subjected to supplemental feeding in a private natural reserve, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim A. Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available From the analysis of 230 scats, the diet of the maned wolves, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, was determined in a private natural reserve in southeastern Brazil in which ecotourism activities are developed and the animals are deliberately fed bovine meat. A total of 569 occurrences of food items were recorded, of which 56.8% were of animal origin and 29.1% of vegetal origin. Rodents, insects and birds added up to 35.8% of the occurrences, yet accounted for 68.5% of the total number of preys (277. Insects, however, had practically no importance (0.1% in the total estimated biomass consumed. Even though the fruit Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil. is a common food item in the diet of the maned wolf, its occurrence in the diet at the Serra do Caraça Reserve was insignificant, accounting for only 4.8% of the total number of food item occurrences and 3.4% of the total estimated biomass consumption. Food items of anthropic origin and inorganic items (e.g., plastic represented 14.1% of all occurrences, which shows that the animals are used to the presence of humans. Seasonal variations in consumption were found for S. lycocarpum (c² = 10,09; p < 0,001, for other fruits (c² = 19,73; p < 0,001, and for reptiles (c² = 15,56; p < 0,001, all of which were more frequently eaten during the dry months. There was a significant correlation between the availability of small mammals and their consumption by the maned wolves (r s = 0.59; p = 0.041, yet the same was not observed for the fruits of S. lycocarpum (r s = 0,101; p = 0,754. Our findings stress the need for a better understanding of the effects of additional foods on the natural feeding habits of the maned wolf.

  15. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali mucilage (Basella alba as tablet binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ramu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basella alba leaf mucilage was investigated as a binder in paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Mucilage at four levels (concentrations of mucilage binders: 4, i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w were studied. No significant work has been reported to use it as a tablet binder. The evaluation of granules showed 0.62 to 0.76 mm granule size, 28°47′ to 30°27′ angle of repose and 31.57 to 23.45% fines. Moisture content of the different granulations was less than 1%. The tablets were prepared and evaluated for average weight and weight variation, thickness, content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro dissolution profiles. All the batches of tablets exhibited good uniformity in content. The hardness was within the range of 4.5 to 5.5 kg/cm 2 . The hardness was increased and friability decreased with the increasing concentration of binding agent. The disintegration time also increased with increasing binder concentrations. The evaluation of tablet showed 0.434 to 0.410% friability, 9 to 18 minutes disintegration time and the drug release was more than 70% in 60 minutes. Tablets at 7.5% w/w binder concentration showed more optimum results as tablet binder. The B. alba mucilage was found to be good as a binder to paracetamol tablets.

  16. Performance prediction of hot mix asphalt from asphalt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)

  17. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of a CRP completed in 1989 and entitled ''Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Milk, Meat and Fibre Producing Livestock with the Use of Radioimmunoassay Techniques'' clearly indicated that nutritional inadequacies and livestock management deficiencies were the major factors affecting livestock productivity in Latin America. Based on these conclusions a CRP entitled ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques'' was initiated late in the same year. The primary aim of the Programme was to improve the productivity of indigenous ruminant livestock species maintained on typical small-holder farms in the region. Central to the approach was to first identify the nutritional and management constraints which affect reproductive and productive efficiency, and subsequently to devise and test corrective measures which would be practical, sustainable and economically viable. Important related goals of the Programme were to enhance the level of expertise and the educational quality within animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact between scientists and institutions in developing and developed countries and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali mucilage (Basella alba) as tablet binder

    OpenAIRE

    Ramu, G.; G. Krishna Mohan; Jayaveera, K N

    2011-01-01

    Basella alba leaf mucilage was investigated as a binder in paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Mucilage at four levels (concentrations of mucilage binders: 4, i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w) were studied. No significant work has been reported to use it as a tablet binder. The evaluation of granules showed 0.62 to 0.76 mm granule size, 28°47′ to 30°27′ angle of repose and 31.57 to 23.45% fines. Moisture content of the different granulations was less than 1%. The tablets were...

  19. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  1. A Redox-Active Binder for Electrochemical Capacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Corentin; Demeter, Dora; Bélanger, Daniel; Cougnon, Charles

    2016-04-18

    A promising strategy for increasing the performance of supercapacitors is proposed. Until now, a popular strategy for increasing the specific capacity of the electrode consists of grafting redox molecules onto a high surface area carbon structure to add a faradaic contribution to the charge storage. Unfortunately, the grafting of molecules to the carbon surface leads to a dramatic decrease of the electrochemical performances of the composite material. Herein, we used the organic binder as an active material in the charge/discharge process. Redox molecules were attached onto its polymeric skeleton to obtain a redox binder with the dual functionalities of both the binder and the active material. In this way, the electrochemical performance was improved without detrimentally affecting the properties of the porous carbon. Results showed that the use of a redox binder is promising for enhancing both energy and power densities. PMID:26997572

  2. A New Type of Granular Soil Stabilizing Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new type granular soil stabilizing binder was prepared.Its composition was designed in the system of slag-clinker-gypsum-activating agent.Its properties were compared with those of 425# Portland blastfurnace-slag cement.

  3. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Seshadri; M Selvaraj; R Kesava Moorthy; K Varatharajan; M P Srinivasan; K B Lal

    2003-02-01

    The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature. The binder plays an important role in that it not only helps in adjustment of sol viscosity but also helps in binding the sol particle with porous support. Here a comparative study on the role of different binders, viz. polyvinyl alcohol, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylamide, effect of their viscosity and surface tension effect on the morphology of the titania membrane is presented. The results show that among the three binders studied polyvinyl alcohol gave rise to membranes of desired characteristics when the sol viscosity was 0.08 pa.s.

  4. New BioCo binders containing biopolymers for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of cross-linking of new polymer binders from the BioCo group, their hardening in moulding sands at the application of cross-linking agents both physical and chemical are presented. Their thermal stability was determined. It was proved, that moulding sands bound by the BioCo binders are characterised by the compression strength (Ruc of an order of 2 MPa, and the bending strength (Rug of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of a sample curing. The worked out BioCo binders are biodegradable and renewable in the part which was not completely burned. The investigated moulding sands with the BioCo binders are easily knocked out and have a good susceptibility for mechanical reclamation processes.

  5. COLOR ASPHALT CONCRETE COATING ON POLIMER-TAR BINDER

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotarev, V.; Golovenchic, S.; Oksak, S.; S. Efremov

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of receiving of color asphalt concrete on polimer-tar binder is found. Principal moments of production technology of coloured mixtures and device of asphalt concrete coating have been revealed.

  6. Epitope-Specific Binder Design by Yeast Surface Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jasdeep K; Park, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    Yeast surface display is commonly used to engineer affinity and design novel molecular interaction. By alternating positive and negative selections, yeast display can be used to engineer binders that specifically interact with the target protein at a defined site. Epitope-specific binders can be useful as inhibitors if they bind the target molecule at functionally important sites. Therefore, an efficient method of engineering epitope specificity should help with the engineering of inhibitors. We describe the use of yeast surface display to design single domain monobodies that bind and inhibit the activity of the kinase Erk-2 by targeting a conserved surface patch involved in protein-protein interaction. The designed binders can be used to disrupt signaling in the cell and investigate Erk-2 function in vivo. The described protocol is general and can be used to design epitope-specific binders of an arbitrary protein. PMID:26060073

  7. THE USE OF METAL PHOSPHATE BINDER AND SAND IN FOUNDRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Illarionov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some features of the use of mixtures of metal phosphate binder and management principles of their properties for production of castings of ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys were shown.

  8. Rheological Evaluation of Polymer Modiifed Asphalt Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; CHANG Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and dynamic rheological characteristics of asphalt containing different polymer modifiers (crumb rubber, styrene-butadiene-styrene and crumb rubber mix with styrene-butadiene-styrene) at mid and high service temperature levels were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) and repeat creep test. The main objective of the investigation was to rank the modifiers based on their effect on performance characteristics of asphalt under service conditions. To evaluate the effect of different modiifers on the viscoelastic response of asphalt, the temperature and frequency dependences of the dynamic viscoelastic properties were compared. The mid-temperature fatigue resistance and high-temperature rutting resistance of three polymer modiifed asphalts were evaluated to predict their ifeld performance in roads. Based on the current results, an improved rutting factor was proposed to determine the rutting resistance of asphalt pavements. In addition, the viscous stiffness (Gv), deifned as the reciprocal of viscous compliance, was used to evaluate the high-temperature deformation resistance of asphalt mixtures. The experimental results indicate that the asphalt containing crumb rubber only shows superior performance at mid and high service temperatures in all three modiifed asphalt binders due to the action of the crumb rubber.

  9. Development of composite solid propellent using dicyclopentadien binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Stephen Ray

    Through the history of composite solid propellant binders new chemicals are introduced as binders to improve upon the previous generation. Sometimes this is done to improve upon the flaws or shortcomings of a previous binder. Other time it is to meet a new set of requirements desired by industry. Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) is a hydrocarbon monomer being considered for its potential as a new binder in the composite propellant industry. The binder of a composite solid propellant is arguably the most important feature of the propellant. It is the binder that provides the majority of the structural characteristics of the propellant while also contributing itself as fuel to the combustion process. A binder in composite propellants must also be able to accept the introduction of a large quantity of solid filler; oxidizer, fuel, and other energetic and non-energetic particles. Many of the composite propellants used in industry today have over 80% of their weight composed of non-binder solid or liquid fillers. These requirements must be met by the binder in some form or fashion to produce a propellant able to compete with binders currently in use. When DCPD is polymerized it produces an extremely tough plastic with excellent tensile and impact strength. Experimentation has found that DCPD is able to support a large quantity of solid materials, over 80% weight of the mixture, while still retaining a great portion of its original strength. When compared to another similarly loaded binder currently used in industry, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), it was found that DCPD composite propellant had nearly 1.5 times the stress capacity while still exhibiting over 75% of the strain capacity of HTPB based composite propellant. In addition it was also shown that DCPD composite propellant allows for tailoring of its mechanical properties with the addition of plasticizers. The DCPD based composite propellant also exhibits a burning rate nearly twice that HTPB. These factors

  10. Realizing of Optimization of Binder Backfill Material Under Certain Strength with Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明义; 胡华

    2001-01-01

    The main factors deciding the compressive strength of binder backfill body are tailing density and binder dosage in binder backfill materials. Based on the antecedent of certain pulp density, the method of increasing the tailing density and reducing the binder dosage, or the manner of cutting down the tailing density and gaining the binder dosage are taken to guarantee the strength of backfill body. The problem that should be solved is how to determine the tailing density and the binder dosage rationally. This paper tries to realize the correct selection of the tailing density and the binder dosage in computer with the method of fuzzy mathematics.

  11. Chemistry principles for thermoplastic polymer binder formula selection for powder injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁叔全; 唐艳; 黄伯云; 李少强

    2004-01-01

    The polymer binder selection is one of the very important aspects for the powder injection molding.However, even nowadays the binder selection is still mainly performed by try and error method. Six commercial or intensive studied binder formulas were analyzed according to state diagram and chemical characteristics of ingredients in each binder formula. In addition, the interactions between the binder components and additives were also taken into account. Based on the analysis, the optimum binder formula was selected and some selection criterions were put forward for the binder and additives.

  12. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For the calcinations of Portland cement, temperatures up to 1480 oC are needed, while the calcination of for instance hemihydrate requires a temperature of 170 oC

  13. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Reinforcing Effects of Carbon Black on Asphalt Binder for Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Sasaki, Iwao; Nishizaki, Itaru; Meiarashi, Seishi; Moriyoshi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    Carbon black, used as a reinforcing filler for rubber materials, was evaluated for asphalt binders in pavements. Carbon black added to straight asphalt within 20 wt% caused an increase in the elastic modulus and a decrease in the viscosity of the asphalt, especially at temperatures higher than room temperature. Addition of carbon black raised the maximum service temperature of asphalt in the category of the binder performance grade according to the SHRP (Strategic Highway Research Program) sp...

  15. THE STUDY OF CORE SAND MIXTURES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Natalia V. Zakharova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using foamed polystyrene waste as the binder in manufacturing core sand mixtures. The article provides experimental data obtained by studying the core sand mixtures properties depending on the methods of addition, foamed polystyrene solution amount, its viscosity and the method of drying. The author investigates the ways of using foamed polystyrene as the binder and as the polymeric additive.

  16. A novel screening system for claudin binder using baculoviral display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kakutani

    Full Text Available Recent progress in cell biology has provided new insight into the claudin (CL family of integral membrane proteins, which contains more than 20 members, as a target for pharmaceutical therapy. Few ligands for CL have been identified because it is difficult to prepare CL in an intact form. In the present study, we developed a method to screen for CL binders by using the budded baculovirus (BV display system. CL4-displaying BV interacted with a CL4 binder, the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE, but it did not interact with C-CPE that was mutated in its CL4-binding region. C-CPE did not interact with BV and CL1-displaying BV. We used CL4-displaying BV to select CL4-binding phage in a mixture of a scFv-phage and C-CPE-phage. The percentage of C-CPE-phage in the phage mixture increased from 16.7% before selection to 92% after selection, indicating that CL-displaying BV may be useful for the selection of CL binders. We prepared a C-CPE phage library by mutating the functional amino acids. We screened the library for CL4 binders by affinity to CL4-displaying BV, and we found that the novel CL4 binders modulated the tight-junction barrier. These findings indicate that the CL-displaying BV system may be a promising method to produce a novel CL binder and modulator.

  17. Aqueous Tape Casting Process with Styrene-acrylic Latex Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xue-min; OUYANG Shi-xi; HUANG Yong; YU Zhi-yong; ZHAO Shi-ke; WANG Chang-an

    2004-01-01

    A commercial styrene-acrylic latex binder has been investigated as a good binder for aqueous Al2O3 suspensions tape-casting process. This paper focuses on the forming film mechanism of latex binder, the rheological behaviors of the suspensions, physical properties of green tapes and drying process of aqueous slurries with latex binder system. The drying process of the alumina suspensions is shown to follow a two-stage mechanism (the first stage: evaporation controlled process; and the second stage: diffusion controlled process). During the drying stage of the suspensions, the compressive force presses the latex particles and makes them be distorted, which results in cross-linking structure in contacted latex particles of the solidified tapes.A smooth-surface and high-strength green tape was fabricated by aqueous tape casting with latex binder system. The results from the SEM images of the crossing section microstructure of green tapes show that the latex is a very suitable binder for aqueous tape casting.

  18. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  19. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  20. Development of an innovative bio-binder using Asphalt-rubber technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Williams, R. Christopher; Rover, Marjorie; Machado, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This research work evaluates several parameters that can affect Asphalt Rubber (AR) binder performance and applies the AR technology to the development of an innovative renewable bio-binder that can fully and cost-effectively replace asphaltic bitumen derived from petroleum in flexible pavement construction. The “Binder Accelerated Separator” method was used to divide the constituents of the Asphalt Rubber and bio-binder (residual binder and swelled rubber). The physical and chemi...

  1. Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on feeding tolerance In infants undergoing surgery%静脉补充谷氨酰胺对外科手术新生儿喂养耐受的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 陶晔璇; 蔡威; 汤庆娅; 冯一; 吴江

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价含丙氨酰谷氨酰胺(Ala-Gin)肠外营养(PN)对接受外科手术新生儿喂养耐受的影响.方法 对两家儿童医疗中心2006年1月至2007年1月收治的40例接受外科手术的新生儿进行研究,采用平行、随机、双盲、对照实验,随机分为常规PN组(对照组)和常规PN+Ala-Gln组(研究组),二组各20例,对照组氨基酸的剂量为2~3g·kg-1·d-1;研究组添加0.3g·kg-1·d-1 Ala-Gln双肽,其中Ala-Gln双肽取代了处方中相应氨基酸的量.首要终点指标为术后开始喂养时间,术后达到全肠内喂养天数(标准配方摄入量≥120 ml·kg-1·d-1)、完全脱离肠外营养时间和病死率.结果 研究组和对照组比较,患儿术后开始喂养时间[研究组(8±4)d,对照组(8±5)d]、术后达到全肠内喂养天数[研究组(14±8)次,对照组(15±7)次]以及完全脱离肠外营养时间[研究组(15±8)d,对照组(16±7)d]差异均无统计学意义.对照组有3例死亡,研究组患儿无死亡,病死率通过非意向性分析,二组比较差异有统计学意义,OR值为0.789,95%CI为0.626~0.996.但是通过意向性分析,OR值为0.706,95%CI为0.136~3.658,病死率比较差异没有统计学意义.结论 本研究显示,静脉补充谷氨酰胺未能使接受外科手术的新生儿减少术后开始喂养时间和术后达到全肠内喂养天数,缩短全肠外营养应用时间;但关于是否能够降低患儿病死率,通过意向性分析和非意向性分析的结果有差异,尚需进一步研究.%Objective To assess the effects of parenteral nutrition (PN) with glutamine supplementation on feeding tolerance in infants undergoing surgery. Methods We preformed a multicenter, randomized, double-masked, clinical trial to assess the effects of PN supplemented with glutamine in infants undergoing surgery. Forty infants at two children centers were randomly assigned to either a control group (sPN; the dosage of amino acid according to Chinese guidelines for the

  2. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  3. Feed efficiency in Mangalarga Marchador foals fed diet supplemented with probiotics or phytase Eficiência alimentar de potros da raça Mangalarga Marchador alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos ou fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effect of probiotic or phytase supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion (FC in 24 Mangalarga Marchador foals (16 males, 8 females, with 241.6 ± 23.2 days of age, and 216.7 ± 27.8 kg of body weight (BW. The study lasted 28 days, the first 23 days for diet and handling adaptation, and the last five days for feces collection. The basal diet consisted of Cynodon pasture and pelleted concentrate (1.2 kg/100 kg BW, as well as water and mineral salt ad libitum. Treatments groups were assigned as follows: basal diet (control; basal diet + 5 g/day of live yeast culture (10(9 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; basal diet + 2 g/day of live bacteria (10(8 CFU/g of B. bifidum, E. faecium, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and yeast culture (10(5 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; and basal diet + 1250 FTU/day of phytase. Pasture DMI was estimated with an external marker (LIPE™ associated with cecal in situ digestibility of dry matter. All foals were randomized, by replicated, using a 4 × 2 factorial, and results were compared using Student t-test, taking into consideration the effect of initial BW as covariate for the percentage DMI per BW. Among foals, DMI varied from 2.4 to 2.8% BW, with foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast having lower DMI (total diet and forage. All animals had an ADG of 0.33 kg/day, and foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast had FC 32.42 to 43.83% lower than foals supplemented with phytase or fed only basal diet. The phytase dose of 205 FTU/kg DM in the basal diet had no effects. Probiotic composed of live bacteria and yeast culture improved feed efficiency of forage and can be used as a nutritional strategy to maintain body condition in foals during the dry season.O trabalho foi realizado visando avaliar a influência da suplementação de probióticos ou fitase sobre o consumo diário de matéria seca (CMS, o ganho de peso diário (GPD e a conversão alimentar

  4. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sports supplements often use persuasive before and after pictures that make it look easy to get a muscular, toned body. But the goal of supplement advertisers is to make money by selling more supplements, and many claims may be misleading. Teens and kids may seem like an easy sell ...

  5. Interfacial reaction in squeeze cast SiCw/AZ91 composites with different binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The whisker/matrix interfaces in squeeze cast SiCw/AZ91 composites with different binders (silica binder, acid aluminum phosphate binder and without binder), were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The SiCw/AZ91 interface is very clean in the composites with no binders. For the composites with acid aluminum phosphate binders or silica binders, there exists fine discrete interfacial reaction products MgO at the interface, and a definite orientation relationship between MgO and SiCw. The interfacial reaction products MgO is unevenly distributed at different parts of the composite ingot with silica binder, and mainly distributed to the interface at the side part of the composite cylinder. While in the SiCw/AZ91 composite with acid aluminum phosphate binder, MgO particles are distributed evenly at the interface in almost all the parts of the composite ingot.

  6. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  7. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  8. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  9. Study of radionuclides migration in hydraulic binders. Influence of binder alteration on transfer mechanisms and kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of low and medium activity wastes surface storage, hydraulic binders materials are usually used as containment barrier. The safety analysis of this storage mode involves the knowledge of their behaviour and of their retention capacity towards radionuclides, at short and long-term. The knowledge of diffusional processes inside their liquid phase and those of the interactions existing between the diffusing element and the cement matrix, as well as their kinetics, are essential elements for the study of their durability on 300 years. An experimental methodology has been defined, allowing the characterization of the transfer of an element j in a porous material by the determination of the diffusion coefficient of j in the pores of the material x and the determination of the local equilibrium constant characterizing the interaction of j with the material x. This can be made from the analytical expressions coming from the Fick laws. These parameters have been studied from diffusion and leaching experiments of radionuclides in pure cement pastes. A modelling of the leaching processes is proposed here. The decomposition of the hydraulic binders, by their leaching in a demineralized solution at 'aggressive' pH, leads essentially to their decalcification - whose kinetics answers to a pure diffusion law in √t - and an increase of their porosity. In these attack conditions, it seems that it exists a decalcification limit condition, from which a lattice of interconnected microcracks is developed in all the material. In consequence, the retention capacity of these degraded materials towards radionuclides decreases. The cesium transfer appears more sensitive to the degradation of the material than of those of the tritium. (O.M.)

  10. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  11. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  12. Performance Characterization of Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Saboo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue sensitivity of four different asphalt binders and three different asphalt mixes was evaluated in the study. Binders were subjected to Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS test at three temperatures of 10, 20, and 30°C. Four-point beam bending test (4PBBT was conducted on the asphalt mixes at a temperature of 20°C for strain amplitudes varying from 200 to 1000 microstrains. Tests like retained Marshall Stability and indirect tensile strength (ITS were also carried out to judge the mix performance. Experimental studies demonstrated that elastomeric modified binder and mixes gave the best performance in fatigue. Plastomeric modification was found to be highly strain susceptible and resulted in poor fatigue performance. The fatigue life of stone mastic asphalt (SMA was found to be almost five times higher than the dense graded mixes. For similar strain levels, the results of LAS test could be linearly correlated with the 4PBBT results.

  13. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  14. Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhitiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.; Adanur, Sabit

    2005-01-01

    Three improvements have been devised for the cold-box process, which is a special molding process used to make sand/binder cores for casting hollow metal parts. These improvements are: The use of fiber-reinforced composite binder materials (in contradistinction to the non-fiber-reinforced binders used heretofore), The substitution of a directed-vortex core-blowing subprocess for a prior core-blowing process that involved a movable gassing plate, and The use of filters made from filtration-grade fabrics to prevent clogging of vents. For reasons that exceed the scope of this article, most foundries have adopted the cold-box process for making cores for casting metals. However, this process is not widely known outside the metal-casting industry; therefore, a description of pertinent aspects of the cold-box process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the aforementioned improvements. In the cold-box process as practiced heretofore, sand is first mixed with a phenolic resin (considered to be part 1 of a three-part binder) and an isocyanate resin (part 2 of the binder). Then by use of compressed air, the mixture is blown into a core box, which is a mold for forming the core. Next, an amine gas (part 3 of the binder) that acts as a catalyst for polymerization of parts 1 and 2 is blown through the core box. Alternatively, a liquid amine that vaporizes during polymerization can be incorporated into the sand/resin mixture. Once polymerization is complete, the amine gas is purged from the core box by use of compressed air. The finished core is then removed from the core box.

  15. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  16. Influence of conductive additive on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少鹏; 李波; 陈筝; 黄旭

    2008-01-01

    The effects of graphite on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders were investigated by penetration test,Ring & Ball softening point test and viscosity test.And penetration index(IP),viscosity-temperature susceptibility(SVT),and penetration-viscosity numbers(NPV) were introduced to evaluate the effects.The results show that the penetration,softening point and viscosity of asphalt binder increase with the increase of content of graphite.This means that the addition of graphite makes asphalts stiffer.The results from IP,NPV and SVT show that temperature susceptibility is reduced by the addition of graphite.

  17. Artificial Nutrition: Principles and Practice of Enteral Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, David A. J.; Powell-Tuck, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a commonly used form of nutritional supplementation for patients with intestinal failure, both in hospitals and in the community. This article concentrates on the basic principles of enteral feeding, including the physiological effects of feeding into the intestinal tract. It covers the indications for enteral feeding, the different methods of supplying enteral feeds to the gastrointestinal tract, and the potential complications. There is also a discussion of the indication...

  18. Glutamine supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formul...

  19. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel.

  20. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. PMID:26684056

  1. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  2. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  3. Effects of density and feed supplement on layer production and yolk cholesterol under grazing conditions%放养条件下密度和补饲量对蛋鸡生产性能及蛋黄胆固醇含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉; 孙宝盛; 孙熠; 卢营杰; 李建慧; 张俊珍

    2014-01-01

    Although the birth of ecological chicken industry was greeted with great enthusiasm, unreasonable feeding density has largely killed plant cover, exposed hill slopes bare and damaged the ecology. How to use the land resource and shade environment under trees has become a major problem requiring an urgent solution. A total of 441 healthy 45-week-old layer hens were randomly divided into 7 groups to study the effects of density and feed supplement rate on layer production and yolk cholesterol content under grazing conditions. Hens of groups 1ԟ6 were reared under jujube/alfalfa wood. Treatments were set at feed supplement rates of 50%and 70%of free ingestion and at densities of 100, 250 and 400 hens per 667 m2. The 7th group of hens was reared in cages with free ingestion. Each plot area was 62 m2, 3 replicas set up for each group and 3 plots of each group used for rotation grazing. Preliminary trial period was 7 days while normal trial period was 70 days. The results showed that while density and feed supplement interaction had significant effects on egg laying rate (P0.05). However, in cage-reared hens with free ingestion, egg laying rate was significantly higher than in other treatments (P>0.05), egg weight significantly higher than in 50%feed supplement with density of 100 hens per 667 m2 (P>0.05), and feed/egg ratio significantly lower than in 50%feed supplement with density of 100 hens per 667 m2 (P 0.05). However, hen density had significant effect on egg cholesterol content (P0.05)。笼养+自由采食组(CK)与补饲量70%、100只·667m−2组蛋重、平均产蛋率及料蛋比差异不显著(P>0.05),但产蛋率显著高于其他各组(P0.05);放养密度对全蛋胆固醇含量影响极显著(P<0.01)。笼养+自由采食组蛋黄重极显著高于补饲量50%、100只·667m−2组(P<0.01),蛋黄胆固醇含量和全蛋胆固醇含量显著高于100只·667m−2组(P<0.05)。补饲量70%下,100只·667m−2放养密度对牧草的破坏性

  4. Effects of binders on the performance of electric double-layer capacitors of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chensha; WANG Dazhi; ZHANG Baoyou; WANG Xiaofeng; CAO Maosheng; LIANG Ji

    2005-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitor (EDLCs) were made from carhon nanotubes. Effects of different binders, which are phenolic resin (PF) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), on the properties of polarizable electrodes are studied. Results indicate that the microstructure, pore size distribution and specific capacitance of the electrodes with PTFE binder are superior to those electrodes with PF binder after carbonization. The suitable binder (PTFE) for carbon nanotubes electrodes is proposed.

  5. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  6. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...

  7. Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersveld, van E.M.S.; Es, van J.; German, A.L.; Cuperus, F.P.; Weissenborn, P.; Hellgren, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying

  8. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... vessel had been requisitioned for title under section 902(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1242(a)) at the time of the attachment of the insurance under said policy:...

  9. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  10. Sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais Feeding systems and oyster shell meal supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Emygdio de Faria

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar diferentes sistemas de alimentação e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos, determinados constituintes sangüíneos, e sobre a disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo dietéticos, em 120 galinhas Lohmann LSL, com 70 semanas de idade, distribuídas em 20 unidades experimentais com seis aves cada. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: sistemas de alimentação (ad libitum e jejum das 7 às 18 h e suplementação de farinha de casca de ostras (0 e 6,5 g/ave/dia, totalizando quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada. Os resultados mostraram menor consumo de ração para as galinhas submetidas à restrição alimentar. Produção, peso e massa de ovos, conversão alimentar, porcentagem de casca, espessura de casca, densidade aparente dos ovos e os coeficientes de disponibilidade aparente do cálcio e fósforo não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o fornecimento de ração após às 18 h e a suplementação de casca de ostras não se mostraram vantajosos para o desempenho e a qualidade da casca dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different feeding schedule and oyster shell supplementation on the performance and eggshell quality, determined blood constituents, and on the calcium and phosphorus apparent availability using 120 laying hens Lohmann LSL, aged 70 weeks, distributed in 20 experimental units with six hens each. A completely randomized experimental design was used in a factorial arrangement 2 x 2: feeding systems (ad libitum and fasting from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. and oyster shell meal supplementation (0 and 6.5 g/hen/day, totalizing four treatments with five replicates each. The results showed smaller feed intake with fasting. The characteristics egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed:gain ratio, shell percent, shell thickness, egg

  11. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X...... chamber for 7 days at 70 °C and 95% relative humidity. In the case of the PUF binder coated fibres, quantitative XPS measurements showed some significant changes in the atomic composition of the PUF binder coated mineral fibres after ageing, including decreased urea and carbonyl groups concentrations...... of amide, methylene ether and methylene linkages between urea groups present in the PUF binder. In the case of the alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres, both XPS and ToF-SIMS techniques consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of the alkanol...

  12. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  13. A Double-Blind, Randomised, Controlled Trial to Study the Effects of an Enteral Feed Supplemented with Glutamine, Arginine, and Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Predicted Acute Severe Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum B Pearce

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Context :Current best evidence is in favour of early institution of enteral feeding in acute severe pancreatitis with promising results from trials in immunonutrition on other patient groups. Objective: To identify which groups of patients and products are associated with benefit, we investigated immunonutrition in patients with predicted acute severe pancreatitis. Design :A randomised trial of a study feed containing glutamine, arginine, tributyrin and antioxidants versus an isocaloric isonitrogenous control feed was undertaken. Patients: Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis predicted to develop severe disease: 15 study feeds and 16 control feeds. Interventions: Enteral feeding via nasojejunal tube for 3 days. If patients required further feeding the study was continued up to 15 days. Main outcome measures :Reduction in Creactive protein (CRP by 40 mg/L after 3 days of enteral feeding was the primary endpoint. Carboxypeptidase B activation peptide (CAPAP levels were taken at regular intervals. Results :After 3 days of feeding, in the study group 2/15 (13% of patients had reduced their CRP by 40 mg/L or more. In the control group 6/16 (38% of patients had reduced their CRP by this amount. This difference was found to be near the statistical significant limit (P=0.220. Conclusions :The cause of the unexpectedly higher CRP values in the study group is unclear. The rise in CRP was without a commensurate rise in CAPAP or outcome measures so there was no evidence that this represented pancreatic necrosis. The contrast between the CRP and CAPAP results is of interest and we believe that specific pancreatic indices such as CAPAP should be considered in larger future studies.

  14. Effects of co-cultured fish species combination and formulated feed supplement on phytoplankton community in the enclosures with inte-grated culture of freshwater pearl mussel and fishes%不同鱼类混养组合与饲喂方式对鱼蚌综合养殖水体浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金玉; 王岩; 戴杨鑫; 李由明

    2014-01-01

    利用三角帆蚌(Hyriopsis cumingii)、草鱼(Ctenoparyngodon idellus)、银鲫(Carassius gibelio)、鲢(Hypopthalmic-hthys molitrix)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)构建鱼蚌综合养殖系统,通过155 d围隔(面积32 m2)实验检验两种鱼类组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙或鲢+鳙)和两种饲喂方式(投喂或不投喂配合饲料)对浮游植物群落结构的影响。采用2×2设计,设4个处理: GISB-F(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)、GISB-NF(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)、SB-F(鲢+鳙+投喂配合饲料)和SB-NF(鲢+鳙+不投喂配合饲料)。每个围隔内三角帆蚌、草鱼、鲫、鲢和鳙的放养量分别为20、15、5、5和5 ind。结果表明,各处理围隔内浮游植物生物量平均值为3.7×108~6.0×108 cell·L–1。改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式对浮游植物种类组成、优势种优势度、群落多样性、生物量以及浮游植物生物量中蓝藻的比例无显著影响,但投喂配合饲料导致叶绿素 a 增加。浮游植物实验前期主要优势种为十字藻属(Crucigenia)和栅藻属(Scenedesmus)种类,后期为平裂藻属(Merismopedia)和微囊藻属(Microcyslis)种类,表明浮游植物群落演变具有明显的季节性特点以及优势种逐渐演化为蓝藻的规律。水温、氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数对浮游植物群落结构具有显著影响。各处理围隔内氨态氮、总氮和高锰酸钾指数均随时间延长而增加,说明改变鱼类组合和饲喂方式不会影响围隔内蓝藻水华发生的趋势。%A 155-day enclosure experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of co-cultured fish species combina-tion (either the combination of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, gibel carp Carassius gibelio, silver carp Hypoph-thalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis or the combination of silver carp and bighead carp) and formulated feed supplement regime (with or without feed supplement) on phytoplankton community in

  15. Análise dos teores de ácidos cianídrico e fítico em suplemento alimentar: multimistura Analysis of hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents in feeding supplements: multimixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Helbig

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou quantificar o teor de ácido cianídrico em folhas de mandioca, que receberam tratamento prévio antes da secagem, e a concentração de ácido fítico na multimistura submetida à cocção úmida. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a multimistura produzida pela Pastoral da Criança da cidade de Pelotas (RS, constituída por: farelos de trigo (30% e arroz (30%: farinhas de milho (15% e trigo (10%; pós de casca de ovo (5%, de folha de mandioca (5% e de sementes (5%, abóbora ou girassol. Foi realizada orientação ao fornecedor da folha de mandioca sobre a forma recomendada de preparo antes da secagem. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de ácidos cianídrico e fitatos no suplemento alimentar foram respectivamente de 85mg.kg-1 e 35.90mg.100-1. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que a mudança na forma de secagem das folhas de mandioca foi eficiente para a redução de glicosídeos cianogênicos, e que o processo de torrefação dos ingredientes foi suficiente para produzir a redução de ácido fítico da multimistura aos níveis preconizados pela legislação, não sendo observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes quando comparadas as amostras que também foram tratadas com calor úmido.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves that were treated before drying and the concentration of phytic acid in a multimixture submitted to wet cooking. METHODS: The multimixture produced by the Pastoral da Criança of the city of Pelotas (RS consisting of wheat flour (30%, rice flour (30%, corn flour (15%, wheat (10%, egg shell powder (5%, cassava leaves (5% and pumpkin or sunflower seeds (5% was used. The supplier was advised on how to process the cassava leaves before drying them. RESULTS: The hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents of the feeding supplement are 85mg.kg-1 and 35.90mg.100-1 respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing the way the cassava leaves were dried was efficient to reduce

  16. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Chaimoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historical background, reaction mechanisms and reaction products. The similarities and differences of both binders are discussed. The application to environmental engineering on hazardous waste management using stabilization/solidification is also described.

  17. Mechanical analysis of asphalt mixtures produced with waste plastic modified binders

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Liliana M. B.; Fernandes, Sara R. M.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Oliveira, Joel; Miranda, Ricardo Filipe Martins

    2015-01-01

    This work compares the viscoelastic properties of an asphalt binder (70/100 pen) modified with different waste plastics and the mechanical properties of the resultant asphalt mixtures. Two different plastic wastes were used, namely recycled HDPE and EVA. Three different polymer modified binders were produced with these plastic wastes: i) 5% HDPE modified binder (P5); ii) 5% EVA modified binder (E5) and; iii) a modified binder with 4% of EVA and 2% HDPE (E4P2). Asphalt mixtures were produced w...

  18. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  19. Nepali Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  20. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  1. Supplemental Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lookup > COPD > Diagnosing and Treating COPD Supplemental Oxygen Sometimes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung ... in people with severe lung disease Three Ways Oxygen Therapy Is Supplied Compressed oxygen gas and liquid ...

  2. Hygroscopicity -resistant mechanism of an α -starch based composite binder for dry sand molds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia ZHOU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity-resistance of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds (cores has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Focus is placed on the relationship between the hardening structure and humidity-resistance of the composite binder. The results show that the α-starch composite binder has good humidity-resistance due to its special complex structure. SEM observations illustrate that the composite binder consists of reticular matrix and a ball- or lump-shaped reinforcement phase, and the specific property of the binding membrane with heterogeneous structure is affected by humidity to a small extent. Based on the analyses on the interplays of different ingredients in the binder at hardening, the structure model and hygroscopicity-resistant mechanisms of the hardening composite binder were further proposed. Moreover, the reasons for good humidity-resistance of the composite binder bonded sand are well explained by the humidity-resistant mechanisms.

  3. Systematic Investigation of Binders for Silicon Anodes: Interactions of Binder with Silicon Particles and Electrolytes and Effects of Binders on Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Yoon, Taeho; Seo, Daniel M; Guduru, Pradeep; Lucht, Brett L

    2016-05-18

    The effects of different binders, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and cross-linked PAA-CMC (c-PAA-CMC), on the cycling performance and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on silicon nanoparticle electrodes have been investigated. Electrodes composed of Si-PAA, Si-CMC, and Si-PAA-CMC exhibit a specific capacity ≥3000 mAh/g after 20 cycles while Si-PVdF electrodes have a rapid capacity fade to 1000 mAh/g after just 10 cycles. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal that PAA and CMC react with the surface of the Si nanoparticles during electrode fabrication. The fresh Si-CMC electrode has a thicker surface coating of SiOx than Si-PAA and Si-PAA-CMC electrodes, due to the formation of thicker SiOx during electrode preparation, which leads to lower cyclability. The carboxylic acid functional groups of the PAA binder are reactive toward the electrolyte, causing the decomposition of LiPF6 and dissolution of SiOx during the electrode wetting process. The PAA and CMC binder surface films are then electrochemically reduced during the first cycle to form a protective layer on Si. This layer effectively suppresses the decomposition of carbonate solvents during cycling resulting in a thin SEI. On the contrary, the Si-PVDF electrode has poor cycling performance and continuous reduction of carbonate solvents is observed resulting in the generation of a thicker SEI. Interestingly, the Lewis basic -CO2Na of CMC was found to scavenge HF in electrolyte. PMID:27135935

  4. Osmolality of Elemental and Semi-Elemental Formulas Supplemented with Nonprotein Energy Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Pitta-Grós Dias, M; Virella, D; Serelha, M.

    2008-01-01

    Elemental and semi-elemental formulas are used to feed infants with short bowel syndrome, who may not be able to tolerate feeds of more than 310 mOsm kg(-1). The present study aimed to measure the osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, with and without the addition of nonprotein energy supplements.

  5. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser Y.Mostafa; Q.Mohsen; A.El-maghraby

    2014-01-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  6. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Mohsen, Q.; El-maghraby, A.

    2014-06-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  7. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  8. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  9. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  10. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  11. A binder phase of TiO based cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-kui; GUAN Shao-kang; ZHONH Hui; LI Jiang; ZHONG Hai-yun

    2005-01-01

    A binder phase of TiO based cermets, a kind of imitated gold materials, was developed by adding active element Si to Fe-Cr alloy, and the related mechanisms were studied. The wettability, matching in thermodynamics and interfacial strength were investigated by the high temperature sessile drop method and element area scanning. The linear expansion coefficients of the materials were measured using TAH100 thermal analyzer. The results show that the wettability of Fe-Cr alloy on TiO are small, with a wetting angle about 90°. After adding some Si in Fe-Cr alloy, its wetting angle can be decreased to about 25°, the interfacial reactions can be prevented effectively and high interface binding can be formed. Fe-25%Cr-1.5%Si matches the thermal expansion coefficient of TiO, so it is a kind of relatively perfect binder for TiO based cermets imitated gold.

  12. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Mette Helene; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics w...... implications for the risk of deep venous thrombosis formation.......In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...... were measured in supine position with venous occlusion plethysmography. In an upright-seated position arterial oxygen saturation was measured by a pulseoxymeter for 1 h before spirometry was performed with a turbine flow measurement device. All the tests were performed in a randomized order...

  13. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics w...... implications for the risk of deep venous thrombosis formation Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11......In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...... were measured in supine position with venous occlusion plethysmography. In an upright-seated position arterial oxygen saturation was measured by a pulseoxymeter for 1 h before spirometry was performed with a turbine flow measurement device. All the tests were performed in a randomized order...

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder...

  16. Method of producing fugitive binder-containing nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel material green body of density from about 30 to 70% of theoretical density having tensile strength and plasticity adequate to maintain the integrity of the body during processing leading to ultimate sintered condition is produced by adding an amine carbonate or carbamate or mixture thereof to a particulate mass of the nuclear fuel material under conditions resulting in reaction with the amine compound to form a water-soluble compound effective as a binder for the particulate material

  17. New experimental methods to monitor and characterize asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pais, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    The need for continuous quality improvement of the road pavements, leads to the development of new binders, such as asphalt rubber (AR). AR is produced by the digestion of crumb rubber from used tires on bitumen. The resulting AR is a heterogeneous material with high viscosity. The study of this product during its production is essential due to the sudden and sharp increase in the volume of AR in this phase. Knowledge of the extent of this phenomenon has obvious implications in...

  18. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  19. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung Jae; Bang, Jin Wook; Kim, Jeong Su; Jang, Young Il

    2015-01-01

    The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB), were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB) filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2%) and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that alth...

  20. Examining the thermal degradation of polymer binders using FTIR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the general theoretical basis for examining polymers using FTIR infrared spectroscopy. It presents results of research on using the FTIR to analyse the course of structural changes during the thermal degradation of polymer binders exemplified by a sodium salt of the maleic acid – acrylic acid copolymer. This polymer was selected for the research due to its structure (an aliphatic structure polymer) and its physical chemistry properties (polarity, presence of reactive CO...

  1. Influence of environment on the historical material with mineral binder

    OpenAIRE

    Štukovnik, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of historical materials with mineral binders in buildings of architectural heritage can be influenced by several different factors, which are often the result of changes in the environment where the buildings are located. In order to analyse the damages of these materials and the causes for their occurrence, three buildings of architectural heritage located in three different climatic zones were subjected to visual analysis and non-destructive testing using 3D microscopic system...

  2. Physicochemical and binder properties of starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manek, Rahul V; Builders, Philip F; Kolling, William M; Emeje, Martins; Kunle, Olobayo O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States Pharmacopeia standards established for widely used starches like maize and potato. The X-ray powder diffraction pattern and moisture sorption profile of Cyperus starch were comparable to that of maize starch. Cyperus starch had lower swelling power than maize and potato starch, indicative of stronger associative forces within the granules. Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate that Cyperus starch should have comparable flow properties with respect to maize and potato starch. Cyperus starch was employed as binder for the formulation of metronidazole tablets. Formulations containing 5%, 7.5%, and 10% Cyperus starch were compared with those containing 10% potato starch. At 10% binder concentration, the tablets containing Cyperus starch exhibited better hardness and negligible friability as compared with those with potato starch. Although the binder concentration had a significant effect on the disintegration time of the tablets, it did not seem to affect the dissolution profile. These results indicate that Cyperus starch provides excellent binding properties without compromising drug release characteristics and should be explored in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22350737

  3. Energy analysis of Binder-jetting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; METEYER, Simon; PERRY, Nicolas; ZHAO, Yaoyao Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Considering the potential for new product design possibilities and the reduction of environmental impacts, Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are considered to possess significant advantages for automotive, aerospace and medical equipment industries. One of the commercial AM techniques is Binder-Jetting (BJ). This technique can be used to process a variety of materials including stainless steel, ceramic, polymer and glass. However, there is very limited research about this AM technology on...

  4. Energy consumption model of Binder-jetting additive manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; METEYER, Simon; PERRY, Nicolas; ZHAO, Yaoyao Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Considering the potential for new product design possibilities and the reduction of environmental impacts, Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are considered to possess significant advantages for automotive, aerospace and medical equipment industries. One of the commercial AM techniques is Binder-Jetting (BJ). This technique can be used to process a variety of materials including stainless steel, ceramic, polymer and glass. However, there is very limited research about this AM technology on...

  5. Respuesta productiva de becerros en pastoreo de praderas de pangola, suplementados con alimento comercial y harina de Cacahuananche (Gliricidia sepium - Productive response the calf in grazing of pangola grass sward supplemented with commercial feed and Cacahuananche flour (Gliricidia sepium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre, Herminio Aniano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa investigación se realizó en Santiago Llano Grande, Oaxaca, México,con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta productiva, el consumo desuplemento, cambios de peso vivo (PV de becerros y relaciónbeneficio:costo (RBC por efecto de la suplementación en condiciones de pastoreo.SummaryThe trial was carried out in Santiago Llano Grande, Oaxaca, México, with the objective of determine the productive response, the supplement intake, live weight changes, benefict:cost ratio, for effect of the supplementation.

  6. Preparation of carbon brushes with thermosetting resin binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon brushes with a resin binder were prepared according to an industrial process and the effects of the molding pressure, grains size and cure temperature on the properties of brush samples were discussed. The results show that the bulk density,bending strength and Rockwell hardness increase, while resistivity decreases with increasing molding pressure. Cure temperature has much more influence on the properties of brushes than molding pressure and grains size. Isothermal differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) was used to estimate the degree of cure of resin binder and a novel method of using the true density to measure the degree of cure of resin binder was presented and discussed briefly. Based on optimal process parameters carbon brushes were manufactured, durability tests for brushes were carried out on an alternate current motor and scanning electron microscope(SEM)was adopted to observe the morphology of worn surface of brushes. The results show that a luster oxide film can be formed on the surface of brushes and their service life reaches 380 h.

  7. Examining the thermal degradation of polymer binders using FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the general theoretical basis for examining polymers using FTIR infrared spectroscopy. It presents results of research on using the FTIR to analyse the course of structural changes during the thermal degradation of polymer binders exemplified by a sodium salt of the maleic acid – acrylic acid copolymer. This polymer was selected for the research due to its structure (an aliphatic structure polymer and its physical chemistry properties (polarity, presence of reactive COO- carboxylic groups. In addition, results of previous research on using acrylic polymers as binders for casting pastes have shown that they can be applied in casting technologies.Results of FTIR examinations were used to determine the structural changes resulting from the gradual degradation consisting in theprogressive fragmentation of polymer chains, the formation of new, shorter hydrocarbon chains of various structural arrangements. It wasfound that the thermal degradation of the initial polymer starts at about 120 C. Examinations of the thermal degradation process aresignificant, particularly with reference to processes taking place in the casting paste when it comes into contact with liquid metal. In thecase of casting paste whose matrix is formed of quartz sand and the binder is a sodium salt of the maleic acid/acrylic acid copolymer, thedegradation process of the polymer in the paste starts at about 300 C, and at 450 C the destruction is practically complete.

  8. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Stabilised Polybutadiene Binder under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Cannaval Sbegue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polybutadiene elastomers are versatile materials, being employed at several applications from rocket propellant binder to adhesives and sealants. The elastomers derived from hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene are usually stabilised with antioxidants to prevent degradation. In this study, a comparative assessment among 2,2’-methylene-bis (4-methyl-6-tert-butylphenol (AO2246, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, p-phenylenediamine (pPDA, and triphenylphosphine (TPP regarding stabilisation of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder under accelerated ageing (six months at 65 °C was carried out. Evaluation of antioxidants effectiveness was examined through Oxidation Induction time, sol/gel extraction, swelling and mechanical testing, dynamic mechanical analysis, and mass variation measurement. AO2246 yielded the best performance, meanwhile BHT was poorly protective. TPP acted as prooxidant, causing a severe degradation of the binder, and pPDA was not manageable to be assessed due to the lower curing degree of the resulted polyurethane.

  10. Calcium salts of keto-amino acids, a phosphate binder alternative for patients on CAPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, M; Coronel, F; Navarro, J F; Gallego, E; Herrero, J A; Méndez, M L; Chahin, J; García, J

    1997-09-01

    Control of hyperphosphoremia is crucial to the prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcium salts of keto-amino acids (KAA) were employed as phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients. We wanted to assess the efficacy of these substances as quelating agents in patients under continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Also, as an amino acid supplement, we determined their possible effect on some parameters related to nutritional status. We studied 13 patients (7 M; 6 F) with a mean age of 45.2 +/- 17 years and a mean time on CAPD of 18.4 +/- 11.4 months. None had severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and/or clinically relevant aluminium intoxication. They were not receiving calcitriol and none were using low-calcium peritoneal dialysis fluids. All were under aluminum hydroxide (AlOH3) treatment and 8 patients also received calcium carbonate. These quelating agents were withdrawn and after 21 days (wash-out period) KAA were initiated. We analyzed serum levels of bone metabolism parameters (calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin [OC], intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH], alkaline phosphatase [AP]) and nutritional parameters (total protein, albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin) in four periods: (A) during AlOH3; (B) immediately after the washout period; (C) after 1.5 months; and (D) after 3 months of KAA therapy. In 5 patients serum aluminum level was also measured in periods (A) and (D). The serum phosphate level at period (B) was significantly higher than in other periods. After 3 months of treatment phosphate levels decreased significantly (A = 1.77 +/- 0.3 mmol/l vs D = 1.48 +/- 0.2; p < 0.05). Serum calcium levels increased, while iPTH and OC decreased (p = ns). AP remained stable during the study. All nutritional parameters increased at the end of the study (p = ns). Calcium salts of keto-amino acids showed to be an effective alternative to aluminum-containing phosphate binders. They were well tolerated, without relevant side-effects. These compounds could also

  11. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  12. Why is the electroanalytical performance of carbon paste electrodes involving an ionic liquid binder higher than paraffinic binders? A simulation investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatee, M H; Namvar, S; Zolghadr, A R; Moosavi, F

    2015-10-14

    Recently, carbon paste electrodes (CPE) fabricated using an ionic liquid (IL) binder have shown enhanced electroanalytical performance over conventional paraffinic binders. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of graphite mixed with ionic liquid and with paraffin binder can unravel the potential atomistic factors responsible for such enhancement. Based on an experimentally optimized binder/graphite mass ratio, which has been reported to be crucial for such a performance, comprehensive simulations (at 323 K) are performed with the ensembles involving an ionic liquid binder (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim]PF6) and a paraffin binder (n-C20H42) mixed with graphite comprising large-size hexagonal-shaped double graphene plates. Structural analysis indicates both binders form only a monolayer on the graphite surface, covering the surface locally by IL but all-encompassing by paraffin. With charged and uncharged graphite, the IL monolayer tends to cover mainly the graphite center without approaching the edge planes. On the contrary, a monolayer of the paraffin binder covers uniformly the center, near the center, and the edge planes. Cations and anions of the IL form well-defined two dimensional pentagonal matrixes with characteristic high adsorption energy, almost 2.4 times higher than paraffin adsorption. The cation and anion coordination ability of the IL is responsible for such a local distribution. The simulation of these phenomena under experimental conditions unravels strong two-dimensional coordination properties inherent to the ionic liquid when distributed over the graphite surface. This direct MD simulation comparison of the IL properties with an organic liquid counterpart, made for the first time, can be used to explain the high electroanalytical performance (electron transfer) of CPEs involving an IL binder over paraffin binders.

  13. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  14. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  15. Binder fraction reduction in non-ferrous metals concentrates briquetting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jodkowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results on a method of reducing the amount of binder applied during formation of metal concentrates are presented. Research was done on a model copper concentrate, which was mixed in assumed mass fraction with binder, as well as binder with addition of waste polyols. Such mixtures were formed and tested using static compressive strength, both immediately after forming and after the assumed seasoning times: 24, 96, 192 and 336 hours. The results confirm the possibility of binder dose lowering using high-efficiency system of binder dispersing with small addition of waste polyols and by homogeneous mixing of the binder with the material. In all examined cases increase in seasoning time influenced mechanical strength of the formed shapes advantageously.

  16. The influence of recycled asphalt pavement on 20mm binder course mix performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakovic, Amir; Gibney, Amanda; Gilchrist, M. D.; McNally, Ciaran

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ongoing research on the mechanical performance of a 20mm binder course asphalt pavement mix incorporating recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). A series of binder course mixes were designed containing varying percentages of RAP. A mix made only from virgin material was selected as the control mix for the investigation. The effect of introducing RAP into the binder course mix was evaluated through a series of laboratory tests including the Marshall Test, Indire...

  17. Microarray Detection of Duplex and Triplex DNA Binders with DNA-Modified Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Han, Min Su; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a chip-based assay, using microarray technology, for determining the relative binding affinities of duplex and triplex DNA binders. This assay combines the high discrimination capabilities afforded by DNA-modified Au nanoparticles with the high-throughput capabilities of DNA microarrays. The detection and screening of duplex DNA binders are important because these molecules, in many cases, are potential anticancer agents as well as toxins. Triplex DNA binders are also promisi...

  18. INJECTION-BASED STABILIZATION OF PERVIOUS SOILS, CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES USING PARTICULARLY FINELY DISPERSED BINDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko Igor Yakovlevich; Bazhenov Marat Ildarovich

    2012-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of maintenance of buildings and structures of architectural merit. Expedient resolution of this problem consists in the application of a mineral hydraulic binder that has a particularly fine, gradually and smoothly changing granulometric composition and explicit and steady chemical and mineral composition. The above binder is recovered as a result of the air separation of Portland cement. The above binder comprises Portland clinker, furnace slag, ...

  19. The Influence of Aggregate Size and Binder Material on the Properties of Pervious Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tun Chi Fu; Weichung Yeih; Jiang Jhy Chang; Ran Huang

    2014-01-01

    Specimens were prepared by altering parameters such as aggregate sizes, binder materials, and the amounts of binder used and were subsequently tested by using permeability, porosity, mechanical strength, and soundness tests. The results indicated that the water permeability coefficient and connected porosity decreased as the amount of binder used increased and increased with increasing aggregate size. In the mechanical strength test, the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths ...

  20. New bicomponent binders for foundry moulding sands composed of phenol-furfuryl resin and polycaprolactone

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major – Gabryś; A. Grabarczyk; St. M. Dobosz; J. Jakubski

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to test the properties of foundry moulding sands with a new bicomponent organic binder. The new binder is the composition of phenol-furfuryl resin, commonly used in foundry practice and biodegradable material – polycaprolactone. The paper presents the research of strength properties, thermal destruction and thermal deformation of moulding sands with a new bicomponent binder. It was proved that inserting polycaprolactone to phenol-furfuryl resin did not lower the ...

  1. Design of open graded friction courses with sulfur extended asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylak, D.; Ho, K. K.; Gallaway, B. M.; Little, D. N.

    1982-09-01

    The combination of the anticipated shortage of asphalt cement and the projected abundance of sulfur has led to the investigation of the potential for substituting this element for the former in the paving industry. Sulfur was incorporated with asphalt to form sulfur-extended asphalt (SEA) binders for use in open graded friction course mixtures. The experimental design variable included aggregated type, asphalt cement, level of sulfur contents in the binder and method of preparing SEA binders.

  2. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  3. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  4. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil, L.; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P. K.; Gopala Krishna, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with disti...

  5. A new binder for powder injection molding titanium and other reactive metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2006-06-26

    We have developed a new aromatic-based binder for powder injection molding (PIM) reactive metals, such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum. Because of careful selection of the binder constituents, thermal removal is readily accomplished at low temperatures and short-times via vacuum sublimation. In this way the binder can be cleanly extracted from the green part prior to sintering to minimize the amount of residual carbon left in the final component. Rheological measurements indicate that powder loadings in the PIM feedstock as high as 67 vol% could be achieved using the new binder system, while still maintaining low mixing torques and injection molding pressures.

  6. Electrochemical Behavior of CoSb3-based Electrodes Using Binary PAni/PVDF Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIE; Xinbing ZHAO; Gaoshao CAO

    2007-01-01

    The polyaniline (PAni)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hybrid was served as a novel binder for CoSb3-based alloy electrode. The effect of PAni content on the electrochemical performances of the alloy electrode was investigated. It was found that the CoSb3 electrode using the binary PAni/PVDF binder exhibits higher reversible capacity than that using the single PVDF binder, especially in the initial cycles. As a result, the PAni/PVDF hybrid could be a promising binder for the alloy electrode.

  7. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  9. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmetally DurableThermal Control Material Systems. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase I proposal will develop new binder systems through the systematic investigations to tailor required unique performance properties and...

  10. Biotechnologically engineered protein binders for applications in amyloid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Christian; Fändrich, Marcus

    2014-10-01

    The aberrant self-assembly of polypeptide chains into amyloid structures is a common phenomenon in several neurodegenerative diseases, systemic amyloidosis, and 'normal' aging. Improvements in laboratory-scale detection of these structures, their clinical diagnosis, and the treatment of disease likely depend on the advent of new molecules that recognize particular states or induce their clearance in vivo. This review will describe what biotechnology can do to generate proteinaceous amyloid-binders, explain their molecular recognition mechanisms, and summarize possibilities to functionalize further these ligands for specific applications.

  11. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Olobayo O. Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  12. Alanine dosimeter for practical use using polyethylene as binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Tsuneo (Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Kobayashi, Toshikazu; Iso, Katsuaki; Sone, Yasuhiro; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1992-02-01

    Alanine dosimeters were manufactured using polyethylene as a binder and their characteristics were studied with the intention of developing cheap dosimeter for practical routine use having high precision in a dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. The effects of temperature and humidity during storage after irradiation on fading of the ESR response, which is proportional to radiation-induced free radicals in alanine, and the influence of ESR measurement conditions on the ESR response were investigated in detail. As the results, it was confirmed that practical dosimetry of satisfactorily high precision is possible with the manufactured dosimeters by following appropriate measurement procedures. (author).

  13. Alanine dosimeter for practical use using polyethylene as binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine dosimeters were manufactured using polyethylene as a binder and their characteristics were studied with the intention of developing cheap dosimeter for practical routine use having high precision in a dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. The effects of temperature and humidity during storage after irradiation on fading of the ESR response, which is proportional to radiation-induced free radicals in alanine, and the influence of ESR measurement conditions on the ESR response were investigated in detail. As the results, it was confirmed that practical dosimetry of satisfactorily high precision is possible with the manufactured dosimeters by following appropriate measurement procedures. (author)

  14. Effect of different binders and encapsulation techniques in the structure and functional properties of microdiets for fish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grenha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of micro diets, for fish larvae, has been a major challenge in past years; however some problems remain without a resolution. Besides its tremendous growth rates, at early developmental stages, fish larvae present an immature digestive system and a progressive metamorphic process that suggest special nutritional requirements. It is therefore essential to provide fish larvae with easy and/or quickly metabolized protein sources, like protein hydrolisates, high bioavailable forms of vitamins and trace minerals. The low molecular weight of such compounds, in association to the high surface area of the micro-particles, makes them highly soluble and prone to water leaching losses. These nutrient losses, not only makes these nutrients unavailable to the larvae, but originate an important increase of organic matter in the rearing tanks, leading to detrimental water quality criteria. The development of high-performing micro-particulate diets for fish larvae requires a delicate balance between an adequate quantitative and qualitative nutritional supply and good water stability of the feeds, without compromising the palatability and the digestive breakdown. A series of binders, protein-based (e.g. fish gelatin, wheat gluten, spray-dried plasma and carbohydrate-based (gums, alginates, pectins, starches, dextrin, polyols were incorporated at graded levels (1, 2.5 and 5% in a standard formulation for seabream larvae. Diets were manufactured by a proprietary low-shear extrusion process and afterwards processed to obtain a 200-400 micron fraction. All diets were analyzed for the following criteria: water leaching of nitrogenous compounds, turbidimetry and particle water stability. An additionally approach relied on the use of various encapsulation techniques (spray-drying, fluid-bed drying and vacuum coating to incorporate trace minerals (Zn and Mn and amino acids (taurine, lysine and methionine. Technological results show that the beneficial

  15. 肠内补充谷氨酰胺对喂养不耐受早产儿胃肠激素的影响%Influence of Glutamine Supplemented in Enteral on Gastrointestinal Hormones of Feeding Intolerance Premature Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顺何; 杨秀芬; 白文; 叶英伟

    2016-01-01

    目的::探讨口服谷氨酰胺对喂养不耐受早产儿胃肠激素的影响。方法:对60例有喂养不耐受的极低出生体重儿,随机分为对照组及观察组各30例。对照组每次喂奶前30min口服或鼻饲依托红霉素,观察组在对照组基础上加予口服谷氨酰胺,在治疗前后检测两组病例的血清GAS、血浆MOT水平。结果:两组患儿治疗后的血浆MOT、血清GAS平均水平比治疗前显著升高(P<0.05),观察组血浆MOT、血清GAS平均水平比对照组升高显著(P<0.05)。结论:口服谷氨酰胺可提高喂养不耐受极低出生体重儿血清GAS、血浆MOT水平,促进早产儿胃肠功能的成熟。%Objective:To investigate the effect of oral glutamine on feeding intolerance in preterm infants 'gastrointestinal hormone.Methods:60 cases of feeding intolerance infants with very low birth weight were randomly divided into control group and observation group with 30 cases in each group.The control group re-ceived oral or nasal feeding erythromycin estolate n30min.before feeding.The observation group were treated with oral glutamine based on the treatment of the control group.Then check the serum GAS and plasma MOT levels of two groups before and after treatment.Results:Plasma MOT and level of serum GAS of the two groups after treatment in children were significantly higher than that before treatment (P<0.05).Plas-ma MOT and serum GAS levels of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Oral glutamine can improve plasma MOT serum GAS for the feeding intoler-ance infants with very low birth and can promote gastrointestinal function in premature children.

  16. Rheological evaluation of polymer-modified asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Romero Santos Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most used polymer for asphalt binder modification is the thermoplastic elastomer styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and aromatic oil is commonly added to the mixtures to improve their compatibly. This paper proposes the use of oil shale from sedimentary rock as a compatibilizer agent for polymer-modified asphalt binder (PMB. PMBs were produced by mixing a bitumen with a linear SBS copolymer (3.5% (w.w-1 using two oil shale contents (2 and 4% and petroleum aromatic oil to evaluate comparatively the effect of the compatibilizer agent on the SBS PMB properties. The rheological characteristics of the SBS PMBs were analyzed in a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and the morphology accessed by fluorescence optical microscopy. The viscoelastic behavior of the samples corroborated the results for the classical properties and varied according to the sample morphology and composition. The results indicate that the aromatic and shale oils have similar effects on the microstructure, storage stability and viscoelastic behavior of the PMBs. Thus, shale oil could be successfully used as a compatibilizer agent without loss of properties or could even replace the aromatic oil. Following the Superpave methodology it was observed that the linear- and radial-SBS PMBs and linear-SBS PMB with 2% of shale oil can be used up to 70 °C, and the linear-SBS PMBs with 4% of shale oil or 2% of aromatic oil can be used only up to 64 °C.

  17. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Binders for Solid Composite Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A new family of polymeric binders for solid composite propellants is proposed, based on two component interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs. These networks comprise two different polyurethanes based on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene and ISRO polyol interpenetrated with two different vinyl polymers, viz poly methyl methacrylate and polystyrene. the networks synthesized by the simultaneous interpenetrating technique have been characterized for their properties, such as stress-strain, density, viscosity, thermal degradation, and heat of combustion. Phase morphologies have been determined using electron microscopy. Suitable explanations have been adduced to rationalize the properties of IPNs in terms of their structures and chain interactions. A study of the mechanical properties and burning rates of the ammonium perchlorate (AP-based solid propellant using the newly synthesised IPNs as binders, has been carried out. The results show that both mechanical strength and burning rate of solid propellants could be suitably modified by simply changing the nature and/or the ratio of the two interpenetrating polymer components.

  18. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  19. The curious case of zeolite-clay/binder interactions and their consequences for catalyst preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Gareth T; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Oord, Ramon; Paalanen, Pasi; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-07-01

    Zeolite-based catalyst bodies are commonly employed in a range of important industrial processes. Depending on the binder and shaping method chosen, vast differences in the reactivity, selectivity and stability are obtained. Here, three highly complementary micro-spectroscopic techniques were employed to study zeolite ZSM-5-binder interactions in SiO2-, Al2O3-, SiO2 : Al2O3- (2 : 1 mix) and kaolinite-bound catalyst pellets. We establish how their preparation influences the zeolite-clay/binder interactions. Using thiophene as an acid-catalyzed staining reaction, light absorbing oligomers produced in each sample were followed. To our surprise, kaolinite decreased the overall reactivity of the sample due to the phase change of the binder, creating a hard impenetrable outer layer. Aluminum migration to the zeolite was observed when Al2O3 was selected as a binder, creating additional Brønsted acid sites, which favored the formation of ring-opened thiophene oligomers compared to the larger oligomer species produced when SiO2 was used as a binder. In the latter case, the interaction of the Si-OH groups in the binder with thiophene was revealed to have a large impact in creating such large oligomer species. Furthermore, the combination of a SiO2 : Al2O3 mix as a binder enhanced the reactivity, possibly due to the creation of additional Brønsted acid sites between the two binder components during pellet preparation. It is evident that, independent of the shaping method, the intimate contact between the zeolite and binder heavily impacts the reactivity and product selectivity, with the type of binder playing a vital role. PMID:27101314

  20. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

  1. Comparison of three patterns of feed supplementation with live Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on postweaning diarrhea, health status, and blood metabolic profile of susceptible weaning pigs orally challenged with Escherichia coli F4ac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Colombo, M; Priori, D; Fontanesi, L; Galimberti, G; Calò, G; Motta, V; Latorre, R; Fanelli, F; Mezzullo, M; Pagotto, U; Gherpelli, Y; D'Inca, R; Bosi, P

    2015-05-01

    The development of effective feeding strategies to reduce the detrimental effect of enterotoxigenic F4ac (ETEC) plays a crucial role in reducing the occurrence of therapeutic intervention with antibiotics in livestock. The ability of CNCM I-4407 (SCC), supplied in different patterns to counteract ETEC infection in weaned pigs, was evaluated. Fifty pigs weaned at 24 d were then divided into 5 groups: control (CO), CO + colistin (AB), CO + 5 × 10(10) cfu of SCC/ kg feed, from d 0 to 21 (PR), CO + 5 × 10(10) cfu of SCC/ kg feed from d 7 to 11 (CM), and CO + 1 shot of 2 × 10(11) cfu of SCC when the first diarrhea appeared (CU). On d 7 postweaning, all the pigs were orally challenged with 10(8) cfu of ETEC. Blood samples were taken from the pigs (d 7, 8, 12, and 21) while the fecal excretion of ETEC was assessed on d 7 and 10. Fecal consistency was scored from 12 h before infection to 144 h postinfection (p.i.). On d 21, the pigs were sacrificed. The in vitro adhesion test on the intestinal villi confirmed individual susceptibility to ETEC, excluding the presence of resistant pigs. Growth performance did not differ between the treatments. Mortality was reduced in the AB group (PYeast administration reduced the fecal score when compared to the CO group 12 and 48 h p.i. (P = 0.04). Total IgA never differed among the treatments, but the ETEC-specific IgA concentration was lower in the AB group than in CO (P = 0.04) at d 12. Four days p.i., the pigs fed live yeast had reduced ETEC excretion compared with the CO pigs (P = 0.05). Blood concentrations of dodecenoyl-L-carnitine (P yeast, even in concomitance with ETEC infections, reduces pig illness and mortality. The strain of SCC tested did not show a therapeutic effect.

  2. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Enhancement of mechanical strength in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor through liquid binder addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of the binder addition on the green compacts. We studied the superconducting properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. The mechanical properties of the green compacts with binder addition were characterized with the compression tests. We could produce bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with binder additions. We have studied the effects of the liquid binder (polyvinyl alcohol) addition (0-10 wt%) on the mechanical properties of the green compacts and also on the superconducting properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors of 20 mm diameter produced with the top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process. The mechanical properties of the green compacts with binder addition were characterized with the compression tests, which revealed that mechanical strength increased dramatically with increasing the amount of the binder addition. The binder-added green compacts were then subjected to the TSMG process and oxygen annealing. The trapped field measurements showed that we could produce single-grain bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O samples with binder additions up to 8 wt% without any deterioration in the superconducting properties.

  4. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  5. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani, Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  6. Effect of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics andperformance of group-housed weanling pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.; Schrama, J.W.; Hartog, den, J.M.P.; Everts, H.; A. C. Beynen

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effects of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 16 litters (149 piglets) were fed a commercial creep feed (3,040 kcal NE/kg, 15.2 g lysine/kg) supplemented with 1% chromic oxide. Another five litters (48 piglets) were not given access to creep feed (no-feed). Piglets were weaned at 28 d after birth. On d 18, 22, and 27 of age, fecal samples from all the piglets were taken using fecal loops. A green color of...

  7. Alteration of mammalian cell metabolism by dynamic nutrient feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weichang; Rehm, Jutta; Europa, Anna; Hu, Wei-Shou

    1997-01-01

    The metabolism of hybridoma cells was controlled to reduce metabolic formation in fed-batch cultures by dynamically feeding a salt-free nutrient concentrate. For this purpose, on-line oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement was used to estimate the metabolic demand of hybridoma cells and to determine the feeding rate of a concentrated solution of salt-free DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with other medium components. The ratios among glucose, glutamine and other medium components in the feeding nut...

  8. Functional binders as graphite exfoliation suppressants in aggressive electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Graphite electrodes are cycled in propylene carbonate rich electrolytes. • Binder swelling adversely affects electrode degradation. • Presence of carboxyl groups and sodium ions improve SEI properties. • Protection correlates with surface coverage and functionality of binder. • CMC-Na is less surface selective and provides protection at low binder content. - Abstract: A comparative study of various electrode binders for graphite electrodes was conducted in a carbonate-based electrolyte with a high content of propylene carbonate (PC) as a means to evaluate anode degradation in presence of different binders. Because of its direct contact with the active material, a binder can be interpreted as an interfacial layer and as a local part of the electrolyte, the properties of which greatly depend on the interaction with the liquid electrolyte. In this work we demonstrate how a carefully chosen binder can create a specific surface environment that can protect graphite from exfoliation when the binder exhibits poor solubility in the electrolyte solvent and good surface adhesion to the active material. The exceptional stability of graphite electrodes containing poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAA-Na) and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na), respectively, in a PC-rich electrolyte is explained through the understanding of binder swelling and functionality. Interfacial resistances and electrochemical stability were investigated with impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling. Electrode morphologies and distributions of material were analysed with SEM and EDX. Evidence is presented that the surface selectivity increases with concentration of functional groups and polymer flexibility. Therefore only the less selective, stiff polymer with less functional groups, CMC-Na, provides sufficient protection at low binder contents

  9. Lithium Dendrite Suppression with UV-Curable Polysilsesquioxane Separator Binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wonjun; Lee, Albert S; Lee, Jin Hong; Hwang, Seung Sang; Kim, Eunkyoung; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2016-05-25

    For the first time, an inorganic-organic hybrid polymer binder was used for the coating of hybrid composites on separators to enhance thermal stability and to prevent formation of lithium dendrite in lithium metal batteries. The fabricated hybrid-composite-coated separators exhibited minimal thermal shrinkage compared with the previous composite separators (separators revealed excellent C-rate and cyclability performance due to the prevention of lithium dendrite growth on the lithium anode even after 200 cycles under 0.2-5C (charge-discharge) conditions. The mechanism for lithium dendrite prevention was attributed to exceptional nanoscale surface mechanical properties of the hybrid composite coating layer compared with the lithium metal anode, as the elastic modulus of the hybrid-composite-coated separator far exceeded those of both the lithium metal anode and the required threshold for lithium metal dendrite prevention. PMID:27148625

  10. Polymethyl Methacrylate as a Binder for Pyrotechnic Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Sontakke

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA as a binder for igniter and delay compositions are reported. Igniter compositions based on magnesium and boron as fuels and potassium nitrate as oxidiser, delay compositions comprising ferrosilicon and red lead, have been investigated. These compositions were subjected to various tests, such as linear burning rate, sensitivity, calorimetric value, compatibility, pelleting properties, spark sensitivity, ignition temperatures and performance characteristics. The results indicate that the igniter compositions Mg:KNO/sub 3/:PMMA (42:50:8 and B:KNO/sub 3/:PMMA (30:70:10 as well as the delay composition comprising FeSi:Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4:PMMA (25:75:1 have improved properties and therefore could find practical applications.

  11. Thermal Degradation Studies of A Polyurethane Propellant Binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assink, R.A.; Celina, M.; Gillen, K.T.; Graham, A.C.; Minier, L.M.

    1999-06-12

    The thermal oxidative aging of a crosslinked hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)/isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) based polyurethane rubber, used as a polymeric binder in solid propellant grain, was investigated at temperatures from 25 C to 125 C. The changes in tensile elongation, polymer network properties and chain dynamics, mechanical hardening and density were determined with a range of techniques including modulus profiling, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation and O{sub 2} permeability measurements. We critically evaluated the Arrhenius methodology that is commonly used with a linear extrapolation of high temperature aging data using extensive data superposition and highly sensitive oxygen consumption experiments. The effects of other constituents in the propellant formulation on aging were also investigated. We conclude that crosslinking is the dominant process at higher temperatures and that the degradation involves only limited hardening in the bulk of the material. Significant curvature in the Arrhenius diagram of the oxidation rates was observed. This is similar to results for other rubber materials.

  12. A Review of Conventional and Unconventional Feeds in Fish Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    Full Text Available A review of conventional and unconventional feeds in fish nutrition was carried out to provide information on supplemental feed and its formulation for effective culture fisheries management. Foods for fry and fingerlings frequently exceed 50% crude protein. As growth rate decreases and fish age, protein levels in diets are decreased accordingly. Technology associated with rearing of live foods is improving rapidly. This is having a positive impact on larval rearing, a frequent bottleneck for commercialization of “new” species. This article reviews live feed for fish larvae, fish foods, fish feed ingredients, some common conventional feed stuff, animal and plant sources of unconventional feeds for culture fish, fish feed formulation and feeding methods to provide more information for the effective management of fish farming.

  13. Pharmaceutical equivalence of metformin tablets with various binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Block

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Metformin hydrochloride is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. As it is highly crystalline and has poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop adequate metformin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product, Glucophage® (marketed as Glifage® in Brazil. Metformin 500mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with various binders (A = starch, B = starch 1500®, C = PVP K30®, D = PVP K90®. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and dissolution profile (basket apparatus at 50 rpm, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The 4 formulations, F1 (5% A and 5% C, F2 (5% B and 5% C, F3 (10% C and F4 (5% D, demonstrated adequate uniformity of content, hardness, friability, disintegration and total drug dissolution after 30 minutes (F1, F2 and F4, and after 60 minutes (F3. The drug release time profiles fitted a Higuchi model (F1, F2 and F3, similarly to the pharmaceutical reference, or a zero order model (F4. The dissolution efficiency for all the formulations was 75%, except for F3 (45%. F1 and F2 were thus equivalent to Glifage®. Keywords: dissolution; metformin; tablet; binder; pharmaceutical equivalence

  14. Effect of concentrate supplementation on feed consumption, nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in captive spotted deer (Axis axis) fed oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, C; Das, A; Katole, Shrikant; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, D

    2013-03-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of a maize-soybean meal-wheat bran concentrate supplement fed to captive spotted deer fed an oat and berseem fodder-based diet. Twelve adult spotted deer [64-76 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into three groups of four each and were housed individually. A diet consisting of 5 kg of oat fodder and 5.5 kg of berseem fodder was offered to each one of the experimental animals. The animal in group I received no supplementary concentrate, whereas, those in groups II and III received 0.5 and 1 kg of supplementary concentrate, respectively. A 60 days digestibility trial was conducted with a 5 days collection period on Days 55-59 of the trial. Blood samples were collected from all animals on Day 60 of the experiment. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) was 1,224, 1,613, and 1,574 g/day in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was lowest (P < 0.01) in group I. Intake of P, Cu, and Zn was highest (P < 0.01) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was highest (P < 0.05) in group II. Digestibility of OM and CP was lowest (P < 0.05) in group I. Digestibility of gross energy was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (74.9%), followed by groups II (69.3%) and I (66.2%). Digestible energy (DE) intake (kcal/kg BW(0.75) ) was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (195.4), followed by groups II (180.9) and I (129.8). Initial BW was 72.7, 72.5, and 71.0 kg, whereas, final BW was 71.0, 72.7, and 73.5 kg, in groups I, II and III, respectively. Average daily change in body mass was significantly (P < 0.01) different among the groups. The body mass was lost (-29.2 g/day), maintained (4.1 g/day) and gained (41.6 g/day) in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Blood glucose and cholesterol concentration was highest (P < 0.05) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Serum concentration of Cu and

  15. Effects of co-cultured fish and feed supplement on water chemistry characteristics of freshwater pearl mussel farming%不同混养鱼类和投喂方式对鱼蚌综合养殖水体化学特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴杨鑫; 王岩; 唐金玉; 李由明

    2013-01-01

      选用草鱼(Ctenoparyngodon idellus)、银鲫(Carassius gibelio)、鲢(Hypopthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)作为本研究的混养鱼类,通过围隔实验检验了不同混养鱼类组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙或鲢+鳙)和配合饲料投喂方式(投喂或不投喂)对三角帆蚌(Hyriopsis cumingii)养殖水体化学特征的影响,实验为期155 d.结果表明,实验设计的混养鱼类组合可显著影响鱼蚌综合养殖水体的 Ca2+、总碱度(Alk)、总硬度(HT)和总磷(TP)水平;投喂配合饲料可显著影响 Ca2+、Alk、HT、氨氮(TAN)、TP 和化学耗氧量(CODMn).采用混养组合(草鱼+鲫+鲢+鳙)且投喂配合饲料的围隔内溶氧(DO)水平和透明度(SD)较低, Ca2+、HT、TN、TP、TAN 和 CODMn 水平较高;采用混养组合(鲢+鳙)且不投喂的围隔内 DO 和 SD 水平较高,而 Ca2+、HT、TN、TP、TAN 和 CODMn 水平较低.随养殖时间延长,各组围隔内 Ca2+水平下降, TN、TP、TAN 和 CODMn 水平升高.实验期间, DO 与 SD 水平呈正相关; DO 和 SD 与 TAN、TN、TP、Ca2+和 CODMn 水平呈负相关.因此,鱼蚌综合养殖中,控制 CODMn 和 TAN 浓度,维持 Ca2+稳定及较高的 DO 水平是水质管理的基本目标.%Integrated culture is widely used in freshwater pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii) farming; however, water chemistry characteristics relating to H. cumingii farming are poorly understood. To assess the effects of co-cultured fish (grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp or silver carp and bighead carp) and formu-lated fish feed supplement (with or without feed supplement) on water chemistry characteristics, a 155-day field experiment was carried out in land-based enclosures. Four treatments including GGSB-F (co-cultured fish grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp were fed formulated feed), GGSB-NF (co-cultured fish grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp were not fed formulated feed), SB

  16. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  17. Estimation of low-temperature cracking threshold for asphalt binders using an acoustic emmission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apeagyei, Alex K.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2009-03-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) approach to evaluate low temperature cracking susceptibility of asphalt binders is presented. Thin films of asphalt binders were bonded to granite substrates and exposed to temperatures ranging from 15°C to - 50°C. Differential thermal contraction between granite substrates and asphalt binders induces progressively higher thermal stress in the binders resulting in thermal crack formation, which is accompanied by a release of elastic energy in the form of transient waves. Using piezoelectric sensors (Digital Wave, Model B-1025), a four-channel acoustic emission system was used to record the acoustic emission activity during the binder/granite cooling process. Assuming the cracking temperature (Tcr) to be the temperature at which the AE signal energy exceeds a pre-selected threshold energy level, this AE testing approach was found to be sensitive and repeatable for predicting cracking temperatures (Tcr) in four SUPERPAVE core asphalt binders. These AE-based Tcr predictions showed strong correlation (R2 = 0.9) with predictions based on either AASHTO TP1 or MP1A protocols. Unlike TP1 and MP1A protocols, the presented AE approach does not require the use of sophisticated software for predicting thermal stresses, and no assumption is required regarding the testing cooling rate and the binder coefficient of thermal contraction.

  18. Application of Microbial Biopolymers as an Alternative Construction Binder for Earth Buildings in Underdeveloped Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth buildings are still a common type of residence for one-third of the world’s population. However, these buildings are not durable or resistant against earthquakes and floods, and this amplifies their potential harm to humans. Earthen construction without soil binders (e.g., cement is known to result in poor strength and durability performance of earth buildings. Failure to use construction binders is related to the imbalance in binder prices in different countries. In particular, the price of cement in Africa, Middle East, and Southwest Asia countries is extremely high relative to the global trend of consumer goods and accounts for the limited usage of cement in those regions. Moreover, environmental concerns regarding cement usage have recently risen due to high CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, biopolymers have been introduced as an alternative binder for soil strengthening. Previous studies and feasibility attempts in this area show that the mechanical properties (i.e., compressive strength of biopolymer mixed soil blocks (i.e, both 1% xanthan gum and 1% gellan gum satisfied the international criteria for binders used in earthen structures. Economic and market analyses have demonstrated that the biopolymer binder has high potential as a self-sufficient local construction binder for earth buildings where the usage of ordinary cement is restricted.

  19. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  20. Shear resistance properties of TPS modified bitumen binders and asphalt mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庭维; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 张涛

    2008-01-01

    Shear resistance properties of the virgin bitumen and modified bitumen binders with Tafpack Super(TPS) modifier and SBS modified bitumen were discussed.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) was used to measure the laboratory creep data for these binders over a wide range of constant shear stresses at 20 ℃ to characterize the shear creep behaviors of all kinds of asphalt binders,and the rutting test system was used to investigate the permanent deformation of porous asphalt mixtures using the above bitumen binders for a fixed compressive stress.The shear strain rate and shear creep modulus were used to characterize the shear creep behavior of the TPS modified bitumen,and the rutting test results were used to show the consistency of porous asphalt mixtures with the bitumen binders.Results indicate that a distinction of shear creep strain can be made among different contents of TPS modified bitumen at the same stress level,where the shear creep strain-time response curve of the SBS modified bitumen binder is between the curves of the 8% TPS and 12% TPS modified bitumen binders.The shear strain rate and the shear creep modulus of the TPS modified bitumen binders are obtained to compare with those of the SBS modified bitumen binder which results in the same trend as the shear creep strain-time response curve.Permanent deformation results of all the porous asphalt mixtures from the rutting test show reasonable agreement with the findings of the shear strain rates and shear creep modulus over the range of shear stress levels.

  1. Experimental evaluation on high temperature rheological properties of various fiber modified asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筝; 吴少鹏; 朱祖煌; 刘杰胜

    2008-01-01

    High temperature rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders and impact of the type and content on such properties were studied.Three types of fiber,including polyester(PET),polyacrylonitrile(PAN) and cellulose(CEL),a control content(0%) and four levels of fiber content(2%,4%,6% and 8% by total asphalt binder mass) were used with asphalt binders.The high temperature rheological properties,consisting of complex modulus(G*) and phase angle δ,were measured using SHRP’s dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) between 46-82 ℃.Experimental results indicate that the changes of G* and tan δ of fiber modified asphalt binders with the increase of test temperature tend to slow down,and the temperature susceptibility is improved obviously compared to that of original asphalt binder.Fiber modification results in the increase of rutting parameter(G*/sin δ) at high temperatures,the decrease of temperature susceptibility,and further improved high temperature performance of asphalt binder.An excellent correlation exhibits between fiber content and high temperature performance of asphalt binder.Moreover,fiber type also has different influences on the improvement of G*/sin δ,G*/sin δ of PET and PAN fiber asphalt binders are both higher than that of CEL fiber,but G*/sin δ of CEL fiber is still higher than that of original asphalt.However,there is a critical fiber content when fibers start to interact with each other.Therefore,based on the critical fiber content and economic consideration,the optimum fiber contents for various fiber-modified asphalt binders are obtained.

  2. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Cirugía ortognática y rinoplastia en el síndrome de Binder Orthognathic surgery and rhinoplasty in Binder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Binder es una patología caracterizada por hipoplasia nariz-maxilar, ángulo naso-frontal plano, senos frontales hipoplasicos, ausencia de la espina nasal anterior, columela corta y ángulo nasolabial agudo. El tratamiento del los pacientes con síndrome de Binder puede ser ortodóntico o quirúrgico según la gravedad de la malformación. En este trabajo hemos realizado una revision bibliográfica sobre la etiología, el diagnóstico diferential y el tratamiento de la sindrome de Binder y presentamos un caso clínico de un paciente binderiano sometido a intervención de cirugía ortognática y rinoplastia con injerto de cartílago costal para recostruir el dorso y la punta nasal.Binder syndrome is a disorder characterized by nasomaxillary hypoplasia that results in a short nose, a frontonasal angle of almost 180 degrees, hypoplasia of the frontal sinuses, an absent anterior nasal spine, a short columella and an acute nasolabial angle. The patient can be treated orthodontically or surgically depending on the seriousness of the malformation. We review the literature on the etiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of Binder syndrome. We present the case of a boy with this syndrome surgically treated with orthognatic surgery and rhinoplasty with an L-shaped rib cartilage graft.

  18. FTIR spectroscopy of water glass - the binder moulding modified by ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bobrowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the determination of the infl uence of the colloidal nanoparticles of zinc oxide on the structure of sodium water glass. Nanoparticles of zinc oxide in ethanol solvent were introduced into the water glass. The modification and structural changes were determined by means of the FT-IR absorption spectra. In order to determine the kind of infl uence: binder-modifier the spectroscopic FTIR analysis of samples of a fresh binder and of a binder hardened for 24 h in the air was performed by means of the spectrometer Digilab Excalibur with a standard DTGS detector.

  19. Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time on the asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Silvrano Adonias Dantas; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Sousa, Jorge B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a study about the mechanical behavior of dense graded asphalt-rubber hot mixes prepared with two different types of asphalt-rubber binders. These asphalt-rubber binders were obtained with penetration grade asphalt (AC 50/70) mixed with 21% and 25% of crumb rubber in weight. The rubber was recycled from unserviceable tires using the ambient grinding process. Hot mixes made with the conventional binder AC 50/70 were also studied for comparison. The...

  20. Influence of microcrystalline wax on properties of MIM multi-component wax matrix binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 黄伯云; 李益民; 李松林

    2002-01-01

    The properties of PW-EVA-HDPE binder with the addition of MW were studied. It shows that the addition of MW from 1% to 20%(mass fraction) causes an increase in the tensile strength and a decrease in shrinkage of the binder. After blending PW with MW, the crystallation behavior of wax base changes, which results in fine grain for the binder and more isotropic microstructure for the feedstock. The powder loading capacity increases and homogeneity of feedstock becomes better. The reason of the modification is also discussed.

  1. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  2. Hygroscopicity-resistant mechanism of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds and cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hygroscopicity-resistance of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds (cores) has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Focus is placed on the relationship between the hardening structure and humidity-resistance of the composite binder. The results show that the α-starch composite binder has good humidity-resistance due to its special complex structure. SEM observations illustrate that the composite binder consists of reticular matrix and a ball- or lump-shaped reinforcement phase, and the specific property of the binding membrane with heterogeneous structure is affected by humidity to a small extent. Based on the analyses on the interplays of different ingredients in the binder at hardening, the structure model and hygroscopicity-resistant mechanisms of the hardening composite binder were further proposed. Moreover, the reasons for good humidity-resistance of the composite binder bonded sand are well explained by the humidity-resistant mechanisms.

  3. Efeito do ambiente térmico e níveis de suplementação nos parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó Effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiologic parameters of Moxotó goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. V. Gomes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, determinar o efeito do ambiente térmico e de diferentes níveis de suplementação sobre os parâmetros fisiológicos de caprinos Moxotó, criados em confinamento no semi-árido nordestino. Utilizaram-se 16 animais machos, que receberam duas dietas compostas de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziowii e dois níveis de suplementação (0,5 e 1,5% do peso vivo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em regime de subparcelas, com 2 tratamentos e 8 repetições. No interior do aprisco os índices de conforto ambiental ficaram elevados a partir das 11 h e, no período da tarde, esses índices ficaram acima do ideal para os animais, ou seja, fora da zona de conforto térmico, porém, os caprinos da raça Moxotó conseguiram manter a temperatura retal dentro dos limites normais; entretanto, com aumento dos batimentos cardíacos. Ocorreu aumento da freqüência respiratória como uma forma de dissipação de calor para manter a homeotermia. Uma percentagem maior de suplementação provocou aumento da temperatura retal.This research was carried out to determine the effect of thermal ambient and feed supplementation levels on physiological parameters of Moxotó goats in confinement in the northeastern semi-arid. Sixteen males were used, which were fed with two diets composed of forage cactus, 'maniçoba' (Manihot glaziowii hay and two supplementation levels (0.5 and 1.5% of live weight with 18% of crude protein. A completely randomized design was used in sub-plots with two treatments and eight replicates. Inside the housing the ambient comfort parameters were high starting from 11 am, but during the afternoon period they were characterized as thermally uncomfortable. However, Moxotó goats had their rectal temperature maintained inside the normal limits with an increase of heart beat. An increase of respiratory frequency occurred as a form of heat

  4. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos de auto-regulação de consumo na recria de novilhos mestiços em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens durante o período das águas Energy sources in multiple supplements of self-feed of growing crossbred steers at pastures of Brachiaria Decumbens in wet season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Fonseca Paulino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas em suplementos múltiplos de auto-regulação de consumo sobre o ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso total (GPT, pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em novilhos recriados em pastejo no período das águas. Foram avaliados suplementos contendo grão de milho moído (GMM, milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS, sorgo moído (SM e tratamento controle (mistura mineral - MM. Utilizaram-se 16 novilhos mestiços Holandês-Zebu, não-castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 265 kg para avaliar o desempenho. Os parâmetros ruminais foram obtidos utilizando-se quatro novilhos mestiços Holandês-Zebu fistulados no rúmen. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,43 a 6,62 (média de 6,55, não sendo influenciado pelas quantidades de sal e de suplemento consumidas. As concentrações de amônia foram de 9,61; 25,71; 24,45 e 26,04 mg/dL, respectivamente para os tratamentos MM, GMM, MDPS, SM. Não se verificou diferença entre os tratamentos, contudo o suplemento MDPS proporcionou ganhos adicionais em torno de 220 g/animal/dia. Maiores concentrações de amônia ruminal foram observadas nos animais suplementados.The effect of different energy sources in multiple supplements of self-feed on the average daily gain (ADG, total weight gain (TWG, pH and ruminal ammonia concentration of steers grazed at pasture in the wet season was evaluated. Treatments were supplements containing ground corn grain (GCG, corn, ears and cob (CEC, ground sorghum (GS and control treatment (mineral mix - MM. Sixteen crossbreed steers with initial age and weight of 12 months old and 265 kg were used. Ruminal parameters were obtained from four crossbreed steers fistulated in the rumen. The pH values ranged from 6.43 to 6.62, with an average of 6.55 not having effect for the amounts of salt and supplement consumed. Concentrations were 9.61, 25.71, 24.45 and 26.04 mg/dL, respectively, for MM, GCG

  5. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH LIDAH BUAYA SEBAGAI FEED SUPPLEMET PAKAN SAPI BALI DALAM UPAYA MENGURANGI EMISI METAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Mahardika

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste of Aloevera is one of the agriculture wastes which have highly potential for Bali cattle feed supplement, so that research in order to learn the effect of supplementation of Aloevera as High Quality Feed Supplement (HQFS is needed. Twenty male Bali cattle were used in this experiment, which weight range between 191 – 232 kg. Feed for cattle consisted of rice straw, concentrate and feed supplement in form of Hight Quality Feed Supplement (HQFS which mixed from sea grass and waste of aleovera. Randomized Block Design was applied in this experiment with 4 repetitions. Treatment A was ad lib of rice straw + 2 kg of concentrate, Treatment B was ad lib of rice straw + 2 kg of concentrate + 150 g HQFS, Treatment C was ad lib of rice straw + 2.5 kg of concentrate + 150 g HQFS, Treatment D was ad lib of rice straw + 3 kg of concentrate + 150 g HQFS and Treatment E was ad lib of rice straw + 3 kg of concentrate. Results of this experiment showed that supplementation of HQFS tended to decrease feed consumption and methan production, meanwhile supplementation of HQFS could increase diets efficiency and therefore increased the growth of cattle. HQFS supplementation gave more effective response at lower quality diets meanwhile in good quality diets gave no positive effect.

  6. Anisotropic injection molding of strontium ferrite powder using a PP/PEG binder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Jeung, W.Y. E-mail: wyjeung@kistmail.kist.re.kr

    2001-05-01

    In this study, new binder system for anisotropic injection molding of Sr-ferrite was developed and a process for injection molding of Sr-ferrite was optimized. The developed binder system is composed of 30 vol% PP, 60 vol% PEG-20 000 and 10 vol% PEG-4000. The extraction by water was applied to remove the major binder components PEGs and the minor binder component, PP, was subsequently burned out in air. Behaviors of extraction and thermal debinding with time and debinding atmosphere and variations of the magnetic properties with sintering temperature were studied. The sintered magnets made by PIM process showed residual carbon content of 230 ppm and a maximum energy product of 4.2 MGOe.

  7. Chemical Characterization of Lime-Based Binders in Historic Buildings of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilovica, I.; Gulbe, L.; Vitina, I.; Igaune-Blumberga, S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the chemical composition of stone materials of several local historic buildings with a purpose of elaboration of restoration strategy, including the choice of restoration materials. Most of the examined mortars are lime- based hydraulic mortars, characteristic of the architecture of 19th/20th century. Pure aerial lime binders show reduced compatibility with historic materials, that is why lime binders with pozzolan additive (cement) are an appropriate choice for restoration. In order to examine the changes of hydraulicity (i.e. the property of binders to harden when exposed to water) of perspective restoration binders, a series of blended lime-cement mixtures were synthesized with growing content of cement (up to 10% by weight). A significant relationship between cement content and hydraulic properties has been shown.

  8. Investigation of Ageing Effects on Organic Binders used for Mineral Wool Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder based mineral wool products’ mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while mineral wool products based on a newly developed alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder exhibited better ageing properties...... for the same duration of ageing. The main purpose of the present work is to examine the chemical changes occurring in the phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder based mineral fibres due to ageing, which cause deterioration of the mechanical properties of mineral wool products. This has been done using surface...... mainly due to hydrolyzation of urea containing groups. On the other hand, XPS and ToF-SIMS characterization of alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres consistently showed that the surface chemical composition of the organic components of these samples did not change appreciably during...

  9. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  10. Tungsten carbide coatings with different binders prepared by low power plasma spray system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; M.F.Morks; FU Ying-qing

    2004-01-01

    Thermal spraying of cermet coatings is widely used for protection of machining parts against wear and corrosion. These coatings consist of WC particles in metal binders such as Co, Cr and Ni. Three kinds of WC powders with different metal binders (Co, NiCr and CoCr) were sprayed by low power plasma spray system on Al-Si-Cu alloy substrate. Fundamental aspects of sprayed cermet coatings, including (i) the effects of binder type on the coating structure, (ii) the hardness and (iii) the microstructure, were investigated. All cermet coatings have the same phase structure such as WC and W2 C. However, the intensities of these phases are different in each coating, mainly due to the difference in solidification rate in each case. Moreover, the hardness measurements are found to be different in each coating. The results show that, binder type has a significant effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the sprayed coatings.

  11. Testing a Novel Geopolymer Binder as a Refractory Material for Rocket Plume Environments at SSC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project involved the development and testing of a new alumina-silicate based multi-purpose, cost-effective, ‘green’ cementitious binder (geopolymer)...

  12. Conception of a new binder containing plaster and sulfoaluminate clinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larbi Abidi Moulay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce an economic and ecological building material respecting the quality and safety common standards. Large wealth of gypsum even naturally in the careers or through phosphate industry has got in Morocco. After dehydration of gypsum, we obtain the plaster. This material is broadly used in the construction industry. The plaster is characterized by its good fire resistance, soundproofing and insulation and its decorative virtues. However, the principal limit of this substance is its water –keeping behavior. In order to resolve this problem, this study is focused on the conception of a new binder containing plaster and sulfoaluminate clinker.The treatement of the subject is based on the execution of three experimental plans. We will be lead into analyzing the relevance of the preparation of gypsum or plaster mortar and appreciate the impact of the sulfoaluminate clinker on the plaster.The optimization of the formulations of concreate containing plaster (or gypsum and sulfoaluminate clinker would be introducing a several challenges which may be at the origin in a new era in the fields of civil engineering.

  13. Study on the hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydration and hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder(CAB) was studied.The early hydration process,hydration products and paste microstructure of CAB made by Portland cement and anionic asphalt emulsion were investigated by calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,and environmental scanning electron microscopy.The early hydration process of CAB can be characterized as 5 stages similar to those of Portland cement.There is no chemical reaction detected between cement and asphalt,hence no new hydration products other than those of Portland cement are produced.The hardening of CAB begins with the hydration of cement.When the hydration of cement comes into the acceleration period and its exothermic rate comes to the maximum,the coalescence of asphalt particles in asphalt emulsion is triggered.In the hardened system of CAB,it was found that the hydration products of cement form the skeleton and are covered by the continuous asphalt film.They formed an interpenetrating network system.The emulsifiers in the asphalt emulsion may retard the hydration process of cement.

  14. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids' being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  15. Poly(lactic acid) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.; Mudde, J.P.

    1992-05-01

    Biochemical processes to derive value from the management of high carbohydrate food wastes, such as potato starch, corn starch, and cheese whey permeate, have typically been limited to the production of either ethanol or methane. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) believes that lactic acid presents an attractive option for an alternate fermentation end product, especially in light of lactic acids` being a viable candidate for conversion to environmentally safe poly(lactic acid) (PLA) degradable plastics, coatings, and binders. Technology is being developed at ANL to permit a more cost effective route to modified high molecular weight PLA. Preliminary data on the degradation behavior of these modified PLAs shows the retention to the inherent hydrolytic degradability of the PLA modified, however, by introduced compositional variables. A limited study was done on the hydrolytic stability of soluble oligomers of poly(L-lactic acid). Over a 34 day hold period, water-methanol solutions of Pl-LA oligomers in the 2-10 DP range retained some 75% of their original molecular weight.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB, were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2% and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that although an increase dosage of filler and SBR decreased the flow value of the semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, an increase dosage of asphalt emulsion improved the flow value. The indirect tensile strength and liquid immersion residual stability for the condition with greatest Marshall stability were most outstanding with 0.95 MPa and 83.6%, respectively. Evaluation of the recycled cold asphalt abrasion durability revealed that for the case of mixing more than 4% NCB the mass loss rate was lower than 20%. The abrasion durability was found to improve when using modified emulsified asphalt and SBR substitution. From the test results, it was found that the optimal mixing proportion of semiplastic recycled cold asphalt satisfied mechanical properties and durability is NCB with 4%, emulsified asphalt with 3%, and SBR substitution with 20%.

  17. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    normal (3.000; 3.100 and 3.200 kcal/kg ME and reduced (2.910; 3.007 and 3.040 kcal/kg ME and the protein levels were normal (21.18, 19.95 and 19.43% CP and reduced (20.54, 19.35 and 18.46% CP, respectively, for initial, growing and final phases, check diet had normal level of ME and CP, without enzyme. The body weight gain, ration intake, feed conversion and european factor production were evaluated. The results showed maintenance of the performance due to application of enzymes, that being verified by non significance (P> 0.05 of that factores at the 42 days and by improved feed conversion, reduction of the ration intake and higher european factor production at the 21 days of age. The study of the protein and enzyme levels interaction showed that 0.5 g/kg of enzyme the addition to the diet with reduced levels of the protein, there was higher weight gain of the birds. It was concluded that is viable the used addition exogen enzymes in ration of broiler chickens.

  18. A Comparative Study of Feeding Effects of Crystalline Methionine and Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Calcium Supplemented in Low Fish Meal Diets for Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)%低鱼粉饲料中补充晶体蛋氨酸和羟基蛋氨酸钙在凡纳滨对虾上饲喂效果的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文文; 霍雅文; 王猛强; 周歧存

    2015-01-01

    An 8-weeks feeding trial was conducted to compare the feeding effects of crystalline methionine ( C-Met) and methionine hydroxy analogue calcium ( MHA-Ca) supplemented in low fish meal diets for Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) . A total of 630 juvenile Pacific white shrimp with an initial body weight of (0.40±0.00) g were randomly divided into 7 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 shrimp for each rep-licate. Seven iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipid diets were formulated as experimental diets. Diet which was supple-mented with 30% fish meal was used as control diet. The diets of experimental groups used soybean meal, pea-nut meal and poultry meal complex protein source to replace 16.67%, 33.33% and 50.00% fish meal on the basis of control diet, respectively, and MHA-Ca or C-Met were supplemented to the experimental diets in order to match the methionine content of the control diet. The results showed as follows: the survival rate ( SR) of shrimp was not significantly different among all groups (P0.05) . No significant differences were observed in the contents of crude protein and dry matter in whole body and the contents of ether extract and ash in muscle (P>0.05). The ether extract content in whole body was significantly higher than that in each experimental group (P0.05). With replacement level of fish meal increasing, the serum total protein ( TP) and triglyceride ( TG) contents in MHA-Ca groups showed an increase trend, while those in C-Met groups showed a decrease trend; meanwhile, the serum total cholesterol ( TC ) content and alkaline phosphatase ( AKP) activity in MHA-Ca and C-Met groups were all firstly increased and then decreased;how-ever, no significant differences were observed in the contents of serum albumin ( ALB) , high density lipopro-tein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and glucose (GLU) (P>0.05). Thus, the results indicate that the growth performance and feed utilization of shrimp fed low fish meal diets supplemented with MHA

  19. Characterization of hydrocarbon emissions from green sand foundry core binders by analytical pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yujue Wang; Fred S. Cannon; Magda Salama; Jeff Goudzwaard; James C. Furness [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to compare the hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions of three foundry sand binders: (a) conventional phenolic urethane resin, (b) biodiesel phenolic urethane resin, and (c) collagen-based binder. These binders are used in the metal casting industry to create internal cavities within castings. Green sand contains silica sand, clay, carbonaceous additives (eg bituminous coal) and water. The core samples were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920{sup o}C with a heating rate of about 3000{sup o}C/sec. This simulated some key features of the fast heating conditions that the core binders would experience at the metal-core interface when molten metal is poured into green sand molds. The core samples were also pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000{sup o}C with a heating rate of 30{sup o}C/min, and this simulated key features of the slow heating conditions that the core binders would experience at distances that are further away from the metal-core interface during casting cooling. Hydrocarbon emissions from flash pyrolysis were analyzed with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, while hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions from TGA pyrolysis were monitored with mass spectrometry. The prominent hazardous air pollutant emissions during pyrolysis of the three binders were phenol, cresols, benzene, and toluene for the conventional phenolic urethane resin and biodiesel resin, and benzene and toluene for the collagen-based binder. Bench-scale analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a useful screening tool for the foundries to compare the relative emissions of alternative core binders and to choose proper materials in order to comply with air-emission regulations. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Compounding and processing of a water soluble binder for powder injection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Hélio Rui Caldeira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento Ciência e Engenharia de Polímeros The present work was focused on the development of new polymeric binder compounds for eco-sustainable powder injection moulding (PIM) process. Consequently, water debinding was a requirement once it is a lower environmental impact technology, economically attractive and less hazardous than the conventional catalytic, thermal or solvent debinding. Furthermore, the understanding of the influence of the binder composition o...

  1. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  2. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-04-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  3. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; L Filipe C Castro

    2014-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of t...

  4. Assessment of Coagulant Synergy for the Depollution of Binder Emulsion Plant Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Abdul Rehman Memon; Abdul Kareem Shah

    2012-01-01

    Binder emulsion plant effluent is a source of intense pollution when discharged into the environment without proper degree of treatment due to its strong color as well as higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) contents. An empirical study was conducted to optimize the effect of the coagulants used for the removal of Color, Turbidity, TSS, and COD from binder emulsion effluent. The coagulants, used with and without the induction of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) ...

  5. Influence of the bitumen properties on the functional and rheological behaviour of asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Machado, A.V.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about ten kilograms of tires are discarded per inhabitant annually. The negative impact of this residue can be reduced since rubber can be reused as a constituent of asphalt rubber (AR) builder in road pavements. However, the materials which constitute the AR binders and their interaction are not sufficiently characterized, In this work several base bitumens interacted with crumb rubber in order to produce AR binders, which were subsequently separated, by using a modified...

  6. A view on organic binder effects on technical properties of ceramic Raschig rings

    OpenAIRE

    Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y.; Salem, A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic binders such as polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose and Arabic gum are widely used to control the technological parameters required for green and sintered ceramic bodies. An industrial ceramic Raschig ring composed of kaolinite, illite, pyrophillite and quartz minerals was separately mixed with different content of above binders and formed by extrusion process in the shape of Raschig ring. The dried specimens were sintered at 1270°C and the physicalmechanical charac...

  7. A Review on Decomposition Deflagration of Oxidizer and Binders in Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Binder and oxidizer decomposition play very significant role during the combustion of composite solid propellants. Ammonium perchlorate (AP is the practical oxidizer in composite propellant formulations. Available information on binder decomposition in general and AP decomposition in particular have been collected and reviewed from the viewpoint of their application in propellants. This review may be useful in understanding the mechanism of propellant combustion.

  8. Water-soluble binders for MCMB carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtel, Fabrice M.; Niketic, Svetlana; Duguay, Dominique; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; Davidson, Isobel J. [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    We have investigated the suitability of four different binders for the conventional mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) anode material in Li-ion batteries. Unlike the conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), the binders were water soluble and were either cellulose based, such as the lithium and sodium salts of carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and LiCMC) and Xanthan Gum (XG), or the conjugated polymer: poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) (PEDOT, a.k.a. Baytron). All binders were commercially available except LiCMC, which was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR. Thermal studies of the binders by TGA and DSC showed that, in air, the binders have a broad melting event at 100-150 C, with an onset temperature for decomposition above 220 C. Li/MCMB half-cell batteries were assembled using the studied binders. Slow scan voltammograms of all cells showed characteristic lithium insertion and de-insertion peaks including that of the SEI formation which was found to be embedded into the insertion peaks during the first cycle. Cycling of the cells showed that the one containing XG binder gave the highest capacities reaching 350 mAh g{sup -1} after 100 cycles at C/12, while the others gave comparable capacities to those of the conventional binder PVDF. The rate capabilities of cells were examined and found to perform well up to the studied C/2 rate with more than 50% capacity retained. Further studies of the XG-based MCMB electrodes were performed and concluded that an optimal thickness of 300-365 {mu}m gave the highest capacities and sustained high C-rates. (author)

  9. An improved sodium silicate binder modified by ultra-fine powder materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-na; FAN Zi-tian; WANG Hua-fang; DONG Xuan-pu; HUANG Nai-yu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of modifying sodium silicate binder with ultra-fine powders. The sodium silicate binder modified by ultra-fine powder A and the organic B can reduce the addition amount of the binder. The results indicate that the 24 h strength has increased by 39.9% at room temperature and the residual strength has decreased by 30.7% at 800℃, compared to the conventional sodium silicate. An available material to improve the moisture resistance was also found by adding about 2% more inorganic C, and it can increase the moist strength by 20%. In the end, the microanalyses are given to explain the modifying machanism, i. e., the ultra-fine powder A can refine the sodium silicate binder to avoid holes in the binder bond, which can increase the 24 h strength at room temperture, and can lead to more cracks in the bond after the molding sand is heated to 800℃. This is because of the stress caused by the new eutectic complex of modified sodium silicate binder.

  10. Advancing the Use of Secondary Inputs in Geopolymer Binders for Sustainable Cementitious Composites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Obonyo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of concerns over the construction industry‘s heavy use of cement and the general dissatisfaction with the performance of building envelopes with respect to durability, there is a growing demand for a novel class of ―green‖ binders. Geopolymer binders have re-emerged as binders that can be used as a replacement for Portland cement given their numerous advantages over the latter including lower carbon dioxide emissions, greater chemical and thermal resistance, combined with enhanced mechanical properties at both normal and extreme exposure conditions. The paper focuses on the use of geopolymer binders in building applications. It discusses the various options for starting materials and describes key engineering properties associated with geopolymer compositions that are ideal for structural applications. Specific properties, such as compressive strength, density, pore size distribution, cumulative water absorption, and acid resistance, are comparable to the specifications for structures incorporating conventional binders. This paper presents geopolymer binders, with their three dimensional microstructure, as material for structural elements that can be used to advance the realization of sustainable building systems.

  11. Selection of appropriate polyoxymethylene based binder for feedstock material used in powder injection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J.; Stringari, G. B.; Megen, Z. M.; Oblak, P.; von Bernstorff, B. S.; Emri, I.

    2015-04-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) has found applications as a binder material in Powder Injection Moulding (PIM) due to its ability to depolymerize rapidly under acidic conditions. Such ability represents an advantage during the binder removal step of PIM. However, currently available POM has high viscosity that can complicate the injection moulding process of parts with complex geometry. For this reason it is necessary to investigate methods of lowering the viscosity of POM-based binders, but without affecting their solid mechanical properties (i.e. creep compliance). In this investigation, the addition of a low molecular weight polymer, and the reduction of the average molecular weight of POM were investigated as possible ways of decreasing the viscosity of PIM binders. The addition of the low molecular weight additive (WAX) caused a small decrease in the viscosity of the POM-based binder and a small increase in its solid creep compliance. On the other hand, lowering the average molecular weight of POM caused a large decrease in viscosity, but also an acceptable increase in creep compliance. Therefore, by selecting an appropriate molecular weight of POM, it is possible to improve the performance of POM-based binders for PIM.

  12. Phosphate Binders and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Stage 5D Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Mallamaci, Francesca; Cannata-Andía, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge informing the prescription and the choice of phosphate binders in end stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients has a weak evidentiary base. To date, no placebo-controlled trial based on meaningful clinical endpoints (death, cardiovascular events, bone fractures) has been performed to test the efficacy of these drugs. By the same token, we still lack solid proof that noncalcium binders afford better clinical outcomes as compared with calcium-based binders. Without proper trials, clinical decisions about the treatment of hyperphosphatemia rest on experience and contingent clinical judgment. The use of huge doses of calcium-based binders typically prescribed in the nineties now appears unwarranted. The relationship between phosphate and the risk of death is U shaped and moderate hyperphosphatemia carries just a mild-to-moderate risk excess and may not be seen as a compelling indication for the prescription of phosphate binders. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials assessing whether non-calcium and calcium-based binders reduce the risk of death and cardiovascular disease events in ESKD patients remain a public health priority. PMID:26278591

  13. Comparisons of operating envelopes for contaminated soil stabilised/solidified with different cementitious binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Stegemann, Julia A

    2014-03-01

    This work initiated the development of operating envelopes for stabilised/solidified contaminated soils. The operating envelopes define the range of operating variables for acceptable performance of the treated soils. The study employed a soil spiked with 3,000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel. The binders used for treatment involved Portland cement (CEMI), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and hydrated lime (hlime). The specific binder formulations were CEMI, CEMI/PFA = 1:4, CEMI/GGBS = 1:9 and hlime/GGBS = 1:4. The water contents employed ranged from 13 % to 21 % (dry weight), while binder dosages ranged from 5 % to 20 % (w/w). We monitored the stabilised/solidified soils for up to 84 days using different performance tests. The tests include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) and pH-dependent leachability of contaminants. The water content range resulted in adequate workability of the mixes but had no significant effect on leachability of contaminants. We produced design charts, representing operating envelopes, from the results generated. The charts establish relationships between water content, binder dosage and UCS; and binder dosage, leachant pH and leachability of contaminants. The work also highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the different binder formulations. PMID:24243092

  14. Investigation of film solidification and binder migration during drying of Li-Ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiser, Stefan; Müller, Marcus; Baunach, Michael; Bauer, Werner; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    The property determining micro-structure of battery electrodes essentially evolves during drying, appointing it a paramount, yet insufficiently understood processing step in cell manufacturing. The distribution of functional additives such as binder or carbon black throughout the film strongly depends on the drying process. A representative state-of-the-art model system comprising graphite, polymeric binder, carbon black and solvent is investigated to gain an insight into the underlying processes. A new experimental approach is introduced that allows for revelation of the evolution of binder concentration gradients throughout the film during drying. Binder is detected by means of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) at the top and bottom surface. Drying kinetics is investigated and the impact of the drying process on electrochemical performance is disclosed. The enrichment of binder at the surface, which is observed while applying high drying rates, is shown to depend on two fundamental processes, namely capillary action and diffusion. The findings reveal characteristic drying stages that provide fundamental insights into film solidification. Based on that, a top-down consolidation mechanism capable of explaining the experimental findings is disclosed. Adhesion of the active layer to the substrate is shown to strongly depend on the local binder concentration in the vicinity of the substrate.

  15. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  16. EFFECT OF FIBER SUPPLEMENT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL OF NIDDM SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Seema V Medhe* and Mangal V Medhe

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to assess effect of fiber rich supplement on blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients. Fiber rich supplement was tested on eleven type 2 diabetic subjects for blood glucose lowering effect by undertaking an intervention of two months feeding trials. Results with respect to two months supplementation indicated that the fiber rich supplement was helpful in significantly reducing the fasting and postprandial blood glucose level of subjects. The reduction in...

  17. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for c...

  18. Chitosan oligosaccharides: A novel and efficient water soluble binder for lithium zinc titanate anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical properties of chitosan oligosaccharides binder are researched. • Electrodes with COS and PVDF binder systems are fabricated to compare physical and electrochemical properties. • Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode with COS binder system shows improved electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) as a new, environmentally and water-based organic compound, is firstly applied as the electrode binder for Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared with conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder, the COS binder is used for Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode significantly improves the electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, cycling behavior, rate capability and long life cycle. At 0.1 A g−1, the initial discharge capacity of 215.6 mAh g−1 can be obtained for Li2ZnTi3O8 with COS binder system and the Columbic efficiency is as high as 93.6%, which are apparently better than PVDF binder system. Moreover, 66.1 mAh g−1 can be remained after 1000 cycles and the retention is 33.6% for COS binder system, while the PVDF binder system has only 37.9 mAh g−1 (22.8%). In addition, the cycling stability of Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode has been improved after using COS as binder. The elevated electrochemical performances of Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode with COS binder system can be ascribed to the characters of COS binder, which not only provide numerous hydroxyl groups formed strong hydrogen binds with both active materials and copper current collector, but also suppress swelling of electrode with electrolyte solution

  19. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the effect of feed supplementation, from weaning, with 3 sensory feed additives (FA1, FA2, and FA3) on feed preferences, feed intake, and growth of piglets. The FA1 contained extract of Stevia rebaudiana (10 to 20%), extract of high-saponin plants (5 to 10%), and excipients (70 to 85%), the FA2 was mainly composed of a natural extract of Citrus sinensis (60 to 80%), and the FA3 was made of a blend of extracts of hot-flavored spices (5 to 15%) and excipients (85 to 95%). At weaning (d 1), a total of 32 female piglets housed in individual pens were allocated to 4 treatments (FA1, FA2, FA3, and control [CON]) of equivalent mean weight. The pigs were fed a standard pelleted prestarter diet from weaning (d 1) to d 15 and a starter diet from d 16 to 28. The diets were supplemented with the feed additives (FA) corresponding to their treatment, while the CON treatment was the standard diets with no additive. Feed refusals were weighed daily and piglets were weighed weekly on d 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the day of feed transition (d 16) as well as 7 (d 23) and 10 d (d 26) later, the animals were consecutively subjected to 1- and 22-h double-choice feeding tests to investigate their preferences during a short period and a longer period of time for the CON starter diet and the starter diet added with the FA corresponding to their treatment. No overall effect of the feed additives was observed on ADFI, ADG, G:F, and final BW. No overall preference was highlighted for the FA1 treatment, except for a preference for the FA1 starter diet during the 1-h test on d 23 (78% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA2 treatment, the pigs consumed the FA2 starter diet more than the CON starter diet during the 22-h tests on d 16 (67% of total feed intake; P < 0.05) and 26 (62% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA3 treatment, on d 26, the FA3 starter diet was and tended to be consumed more than the CON starter diet during 1- (69% of total intake; P

  20. Saving by metering. Gas volume and gas quality decide feeding intervals and stirring times; Sparen durch Messen. Gasmenge und -qualitaet bestimmen Fuetterungszeitpunkt und Ruehrzeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Dorothee

    2012-11-01

    Nothing is more satisfying to a student than to put into practice what he just learned. Andreas Scheck was able to do this in his father's biogas plant at Hessenhoefe near Ulm: He developed a computer program which uses the data provided by newly installed Binder analyzers for regulating feeding intervals and stirring times.

  1. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation level on productivity, mortality, and carcass characteristics of Venda chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malebane, Ingrid M; Ng'ambi, Jones Wilfred; Norris, David; Mbajiorgu, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality of indigenous Venda chickens. The first experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity and mortality rate of 175 unsexed Venda chickens between 1 and 6 weeks old. The second experiment determined the effect of dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels on productivity, carcass characteristics, and mortality rate of 140 female Venda chickens between 8 and 13 weeks old. A completely randomized design was used in both experiments. Supplementation of grower diets with ascorbic acid ranged from 0 to 2,000 mg per kg DM feed in both experiments. Levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were determined using a quadratic equation. The optimal dietary ascorbic acid supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens during the starter phase were 1,050, 1,301, and 1,500 mg/kg DM feed, while, at the grower phase, the optimal supplementation levels for feed conversion ratio, growth rate, live weight, and breast meat yield were 1,000, 1,250, 1,482, and 769 mg/kg DM feed, respectively. Results indicate that different levels of ascorbic acid supplementation optimized feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight of Venda chickens at each growth phase. However, levels of ascorbic acid supplementation for optimum feed conversion ratio, growth rate, and live weight were higher than that for breast meat yield. These findings have implications on ration formulation for Venda chickens.

  2. Enhancing Asphalt Binder's Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Nano-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Renaldo C.

    The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB) has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact that nano-particles and bio modification have on the aging susceptibility of asphalt binder. As such, the following hypothesis was investigated: Introduction of nano particles to asphalt binder will reduce asphalt oxidation aging by increasing the inter layer spacing of the nano particles. Two nano scale materials were used for this study, nano-clay and bio-char as well as one micro scale material, silica fume. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B) is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. Silica Fume is an ultra-fine powder collected as a by-product of silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consists of spherical particles. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using RV testing (Rotational Viscometer), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Nano-clay is blended at 2% and 4% by weight of dry mass, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass). Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 5% and 10% by weight of dry mass. Silica Fume is added to virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 4% and 8% by weight of dry mass. The optimum percent of nano scale material that is added to virgin asphalt binder is expected to reduce aging susceptibility of asphalt binder, extending its service life.

  3. Early-age hydration and volume change of calcium sulfoaluminate cement-based binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunsali, Piyush

    Shrinkage cracking is a predominant deterioration mechanism in structures with high surface-to-volume ratio. One way to allay shrinkage-induced stresses is to use calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement whose early-age expansion in restrained condition induces compressive stress that can be utilized to counter the tensile stresses due to shrinkage. In addition to enhancing the resistance against shrinkage cracking, CSA cement also has lower carbon footprint than that of Portland cement. This dissertation aims at improving the understanding of early-age volume change of CSA cement-based binders. For the first time, interaction between mineral admixtures (Class F fly ash, Class C fly ash, and silica fume) and OPC-CSA binder was studied. Various physico-chemical factors such as the hydration of ye'elimite (main component in CSA cement), amount of ettringite (the main phase responsible for expansion in CSA cement), supersaturation with respect to ettringite in cement pore solution, total pore volume, and material stiffness were monitored to examine early-age expansion characteristics. This research validated the crystallization stress theory by showing the presence of higher supersaturation level of ettringite, and therefore, higher crystallization stress in CSA cement-based binders. Supersaturation with respect to ettringite was found to increase with CSA dosage and external supply of gypsum. Mineral admixtures (MA) altered the expansion characteristics in OPC-CSA-MA binders with fixed CSA cement. This study reports that fly ash (FA) behaves differently depending on its phase composition. The Class C FA-based binder (OPC-CSA-CFA) ceased expanding beyond two days unlike other OPC-CSA-MA binders. Three factors were found to govern expansion of CSA cement-based binders: 1) volume fraction of ettringite in given pore volume, 2) saturation level of ettringite, and 3) dynamic modulus. Various models were utilized to estimate the macroscopic tensile stress in CSA cement

  4. Novel, inorganic composites using porous, alkali-activated, aluminosilicate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Sean

    Geopolymers are an inorganic polymeric material composed of alumina, silica, and alkali metal oxides. Geopolymers are chemical and fire resistant, can be used as refractory adhesives, and are processed at or near ambient temperature. These properties make geopolymer an attractive choice as a matrix material for elevated temperature composites. This body of research investigated numerous different reinforcement possibilities and variants of geopolymer matrix material and characterized their mechanical performance in tension, flexure and flexural creep. Reinforcements can then be chosen based on the resulting properties to tailor the geopolymer matrix composites to a specific application condition. Geopolymer matrix composites combine the ease of processing of polymer matrix composites with the high temperature capability of ceramic matrix composites. This study incorporated particulate, unidirectional fiber and woven fiber reinforcements. Sodium, potassium, and cesium based geopolymer matrices were evaluated with cesium based geopolymer showing great promise as a high temperature matrix material. It showed the best strength retention at elevated temperature, as well as a very low coefficient of thermal expansion when crystallized into pollucite. These qualities made cesium geopolymer the best choice for creep resistant applications. Cesium geopolymer binders were combined with unidirectional continuous polycrystalline mullite fibers (Nextel(TM) 720) and single crystal mullite fibers, then the matrix was crystallized to form cubic pollucite. Single crystal mullite fibers were obtained by the internal crystallization method and show excellent creep resistance up to 1400°C. High temperature flexural strength and flexural creep resistance of pollucite and polycrystalline/single-crystal fibers was evaluated at 1000-1400°C.

  5. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  6. The effect of crumb rubber particle size to the optimum binder content for open graded friction course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC. PMID:24574875

  7. Hydrocolloids as binders for graphite anodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seven water-soluble hydrocolloids are tested as binders for graphite anodes in LIBs. • All hydrocolloids meet the thermal and electrochemical stability required. • Optimal binder concentration of 5 wt% is found for graphite/hydrocolloid electrodes. • Four of them show cycling performances comparable to graphite/PVDF electrode. - ABSTRACT: A series of seven different hydrocolloids are tested as water-soluble binders for synthetic graphite (SG)-based electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and compared with the standard poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) binder. The hydrocolloids selected are sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), sodium alginate (Na-Alg), gum arabic (GA), xanthan gum (XG), guar gam (GG), agar-agar (AA) and carrageenan (CAR), the latter three with no precedents in the literature. They all show thermal and electrochemical stability under the experimental conditions employed. For SG/hydrocolloid electrodes, binder concentrations of 5 wt% are found to be optimal, providing outstanding electrochemical performances for electrodes with Na-Alg Na-CMC, XG and GG in galvanostatic cycling experiments at constant (C/10, with C = 372 mA g−1) and variable (from C/10 to 2C) current rates, which are comparable, or even superior to those of SG/PVDF electrodes with higher binder content (8 wt%). In contrast, SG/GA, SG/CAR and SG/AA electrodes show poorer electrochemical performances, most likely owing to the low adhesion capacity of the binder (GA and CAR), or the formation of films covering the SG particles (CAR and AA)

  8. Efficacy of crushed lanthanum carbonate for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yukie; Takahashi, Taeko; Sato, Yuzuru; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LaC) is a non-calcium-based phosphate binder used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. Oral administration of LaC is difficult in patients undergoing tube feeding or those who are of advanced age because it is essential to chew the LaC tablet sufficiently before swallowing it. We report two cases in whom crushed LaC was used in hemodialysis patients undergoing tube feeding. In both cases, previously crushed LaC was mixed into enteral nutrients. We found that LaC administered this way was effective for decreasing serum phosphorus levels.

  9. Comparison of the activities of binder-added and binder-free Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts in methane dehydroaromatization at 1073 K in periodic CH4-H2 switch operation mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Xu; Hongtao Ma; Yo Yamamoto; Yoshizo Suzuki; Zhanguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Three industry-supplied,well-shaped Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts,two binder-added and one binder-free,were tested for the first time in methane dehydroaromatization to benzene at 1073 K and 10000 mL/(g.h) in periodic CH4-H2 switch operation mode,and their catalytic performances were compared with those of three self-prepared,binder-free powder Mo/HZSM-5 catalysts.XRD,27Al NMR,SEM,BET and NH3-TPD characterizations of all the catalysts show that the zeolites in the two binder-added catalysts are comparable to those in the three binder-free powder catalysts in crystallinity,crystal size,micropore volume and Br(¢)nsted acidity.The test results,on the other hand,show that the catalytic performances of the two binder-added catalysts are worse than those of the four binder-free catalysts on both catalyst mass and zeolite mass bases.Then,TPO and BET measurements of all spent samples were conducted to get a deep insight into the negative effects of binder addition,and the results suggest that the binder additives functioned mainly to enhance the polyaromatization of formed aromatics to coke on their external surfaces and consequently lower the benzene formation activity and selectivity of the catalyst.

  10. Influence of digestion time on the mechanical properties of gap graded hot mixes produced with asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas Neto, Silvrano Adonias; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt rubber binders are produced by mixing crumb rubber obtained from ground used tires with a straight run binder at high temperatures during a period of time named as digestion time. This is one of many variables that influence the physical properties of asphalt rubber produced by wet process. Thus, the objective of this paper is to evaluate how many mechanical properties of gap-graded hot mixes produced with asphalt rubber binder are influenced by the digestion time used to produce this...

  11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parks EP, Shaikhkhalil A, Groleau V, Wendel D, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ... 2016:chap. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ...

  12. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Niels; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders, at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as a general test method to analyse off gases from binders. Moulds, containing a standard size casting, were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds, resulting from thermal degradation of binders, was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gases in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off-gases vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gases is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand. PMID:20954042

  13. Lithium polyacrylate as a binder for tin-cobalt-carbon negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Le, D.-B. [3M Electronic Markets Materials Division, 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Ferguson, P.P. [Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dahn, J.R., E-mail: jeff.dahn@dal.c [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    A lithium polyacrylate (Li-PAA) binder has been developed by 3M Company that is useful with electrodes comprising alloy anode materials. This binder was used to prepare electrodes made with Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} material prepared by mechanical attrition. The electrochemical performance of electrodes using Li-PAA binder was characterized and compared to those using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binders. The Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} electrodes using Li-PAA and CMC binders show much smaller irreversible capacity than the ones using PVDF binder. Poor capacity retention is observed when PVDF binder is used. By contrast, the electrodes using Li-PAA binder show excellent capacity retention for Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} materials and a specific capacity of 450 mAh/g is achieved for at least 100 cycles. The results suggest that Li-PAA is a promising binder for electrodes made from large-volume change alloy materials.

  14. Adhesive Bonding and Self-Curing Characteristics of α-Starch Based Composite Binder for Green Sand Mould/Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia ZHOU; Jinzong YANG; Guohui QU

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between different components in α-starch based composite binder for green sand mould/core were investigated by using XRD, IR spectra, 1H NMR spectra and SEM. Several adhesive hardening structures and theories of the binder at room temperature were proposed according to the interactions between various compositions. Thus,the reasons for the binder to have excellent combination properties and unique adhesive bonding and self-curing characteristics were explained by these theories successfully. And the theories are of great directive importance to design and development of composite binder for green sand mould/core.

  15. Development of an MgO-based binder for stabilizing fine sediments and storing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Seo, Jeong-Yun; Hwang, Inseong

    2015-12-01

    An MgO-based binder was developed that could stabilize fine dredged sediments for reuse and store CO2. Initially, a binder consisting of fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was developed by using alkaline activators such as KOH, NaOH, and lime. The FA0.4-BFS0.6 binder (mixed at a FA-to-BFS weight ratio of 4:6) showed the highest compressive strength of 10.7 MPa among FA/BFS binders when 5 M KOH was used. When lime (L) was tested as an alkaline activator, the strength was comparable with those obtained when KOH or NaOH was used. The L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder (10 % lime mixed with the FA/BFS binder) showed the highest strength of 11.0 MPa. Finally, by amending this L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder with MgO, a novel MgO-based binder (MgO0.5-(L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9) 0.5) was developed, which demonstrated the 28th day strength of 11.9 MPa. The MgO-based binder was successfully applied to stabilize a fine sediment to yield a compressive strength of 4.78 MPa in 365 days, which was higher than that obtained by the Portland cement (PC) system (3.22 MPa). Carbon dioxide sequestration was evidenced by three observations: (1) the decrease in pH of the treated sediment from 12.2 to 11.0; (2) the progress of the carbonation front inward the treated sediment; and (3) the presence of magnesium carbonates. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that 67.2 kg of CO2 per ton of the treated sediment could be stored under the atmospheric condition during 1 year. PMID:26224682

  16. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  17. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dietary Supplements for Toddlers Page Content Article Body If you ... a diet recommended for children), she may need supplements of vitamins B12 and D as well as ...

  18. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cao, Peng, E-mail: p.cao@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Wen, Guian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Edmonds, Neil [School of Chemical Science, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-05-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions.

  19. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  20. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of asphaltic binder modified with zeolite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, E.M. da; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Sandra A.; Soares, Jorge B. [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Several new processes have been developed to reduce mixing and compaction temperatures of hot mix asphalt without sacrificing the quality of the resulting pavement. One of these processes utilizes the zeolite, a crystalline hydrated aluminum silicate. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the applicability of zeolite to improve the rheological and chemical behavior of an asphaltic binder. The synthetic asphaltic binder was produced with different zeolite contents (0,1; 0.3; and 0.5% w/w) by wet process. The rheological and chemical behavior was verified by Dynamic Shear Rheometer and Infrared Spectroscopy, respectively. The zeolite's chemical composition and morphology was studied by Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Additionally, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to establish the zeolite elemental composition. The results showed that investigated zeolite was classified as a sodium aluminum silicate and it was able to modify the rheological properties of the neat asphalt binder. The G*/sin{delta} parameter was affected by the zeolite presence, indicating better performance for the binders with zeolite. The results show that synthetic binders can partly replicate the rheological properties of conventional AB. Comparable complex modulus values was obtained. No significant difference was found in viscoelastic response, given by the phase angles as a function of both temperature and frequency. (author)