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Sample records for binder content

  1. Binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnavskiy, A.P.; Bayda, Yu.V.; Danyushevskiy, V.S.; Ignat' yev, N.I.

    1979-01-30

    A binder is proposed which includes a slag component and alkaline metal silicate. In order to improve stability to hydrosulfide aggression the binder contains ferromolybdenum slag as the slag component and it also contains sodium fluorosilicate. In order to estimate the hydrogen sulfide resistance of the hardened samples made from the proposed binder the stability factor is determined, which is the ratio of strength during compression of samples, which are stored in an industrial gas pipeline with hydrogen sulfide-containing gas to the strength limit of tested control samples. The binder is corrosion proof, if the stability factor is greater than 0.85. The stability factor of the proposed binder if 1.00--1.03, and for existing ones it is 0.71--0.05.

  2. Evaluation of ultra-high-performance-fiber reinforced concrete binder content using the response surface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop a practical method for adjusting the binder content of UHP-FRC. • We adjust the binder content of UHP-FRC mixtures using RSM. • Increasing the cement content does not contribute to enhance strength. • Increasing the content of cement will increase the flow of UHP-FRC mixtures. - Abstract: One of the major disadvantages in ultra-high-performance-fiber reinforced concrete (UHP-FRC) is its high ordinary Portland cement (OPC) content, which directly translates into an increase in OPC production. More OPC production results in increased emission of greenhouse gases, as well increased electrical energy consumption and concrete price. This study is aimed at adjusting the binder content (OPC and silica fume (SF) contents) of UHP-FRC using the response surface method. The present investigation shows that, for a given water/binder and superplasticizer/OPC, the compressive strength is independent of the binder content, whereas the flow depends on the binder content. Increasing the binder content does not enhance the strength compared with the required design strength because the capillary porosity increases with increasing OPC content; however, the workability increases. The final result is the production of a UHP-FRC with an OPC content of 720.49 kg/m3, an SF content of 214.25 kg/m3, a compressive strength of 181.41 MPa, a direct tensile strength of 12.49 MPa, a bending tensile strength of 30.31 MPa, and a flow of 167 mm

  3. The effect of crumb rubber particle size to the optimum binder content for open graded friction course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC. PMID:24574875

  4. A LABORATORY STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF HIGH RAP AND HIGH ASPHALT BINDER CONTENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Boriack, Paul Christian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of added asphalt binder content on the performance and volumetric properties of asphalt concrete mixes containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Mixes with three different percentages of RAP (0%, 20%, 40%) obtained from an asphalt producer and three different percentages of asphalt binder (design asphalt content, design +0.5%, and design +1.0%) were evaluated. Additionally, a laboratory produced mix containing 100% RAP with four asphalt binder contents...

  5. Influence of hydroxyl content of binders on rheological properties of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) screen printing inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Gadea, Christophe; Hjelm, Johan;

    2015-01-01

    The influence of hydroxyl content of binders on rheological properties of screen printing inks is investigated. The actual amount of hydroxyl groups is correlated to the level of hyper-entanglement that characterizes the binders in solution. Three of the most used binders (ethyl cellulose, and two...... vinyl resins) were selected and characterized in solution via viscosimetry method. A high degree of hyper-entanglement was observed for ethyl cellulose polymers, whereas a mitigated effect characterized the two vinyl resins. Cerium-gadolinium oxides (CGO)-based inks, prepared using the selected binders...

  6. The Effect of Crumb Rubber Particle Size to the Optimum Binder Content for Open Graded Friction Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC. Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12% and different percentages of binder content (4%–7%. The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.

  7. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64, polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  8. Effects of Sasobit® content on the rheological characteristics of unaged and aged asphalt binders at high and intermediate temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jamshidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the rheological properties of PG64, PG70, and PG76 asphalt binders blended with different Sasobit® contents. The rheological properties of the Sasobit®-modified binders were characterized after being subjected to different aging conditions using the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and rotational viscometer (RV according to SuperpaveTM test protocols. The results indicated that the characterization of aging in terms of the Aging Index (AI depends on the rheological property of the asphalt binder selected for use in evaluating aging, the amount of Sasobit®, the binder type, and the temperature range. Linear relationships between failure temperatures of unaged and short-term-aged asphalt were observed for three binder types. Design charts were developed to select the appropriate Sasobit® content as a function of temperature, taking into consideration the stiffening effects of Sasobit®, using the SuperpaveTM fatigue factor and asphalt mix construction temperatures.

  9. Procedure for preparation of high-water-content hydrogels using clay and a dendritic molecular binder

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a facile, quick and reproducible preparation of hydrogels. The protocol requires four components: water, clay nanosheets (Clay-NS), a dendritic macromolecule (Gn-binder; n = generation number) and sodium polyacrylate (ASAP). Upon mixing with ASAP in water, Clay-NS, which are heavily entangled with one another, are exfoliated and dispersed homogenously because of a possible site-specific wrapping of their positive-charged edge parts with anionic ASAP. Meanwhile, Gn-bind...

  10. Effects of Sasobit® content on the rheological characteristics of unaged and aged asphalt binders at high and intermediate temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Jamshidi; Meor Othman Hamzah; Mohamad Yusri Aman

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the rheological properties of PG64, PG70, and PG76 asphalt binders blended with different Sasobit® contents. The rheological properties of the Sasobit®-modified binders were characterized after being subjected to different aging conditions using the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and rotational viscometer (RV) according to SuperpaveTM test protocols. The results indicated that the characterization of aging in terms of the Aging Index (AI) depends on the rheological propert...

  11. On the influence of binder content in particleboards bonded with resins of high and low molar ratio on the formaldehyde release measured by the perforator method

    OpenAIRE

    Roffael, E.; Behn, C.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey and the results of investigations clearly show that the influence of resin level in particleboards on the perforator value (EN 120) depends on the molar ratio of the resin used as a binder. In case of high molar ratio resins (F:U 1.6:1) increasing the binder content in the boards leads to an increase in the perforator value of the boards. In contrast, boards bonded with very low molar ratio aminoplastic resins with molar ratio F:U of 1:1 (F:NH2 0.5:1) or even...

  12. Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

  13. Lectin binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lectins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, many of them being well characterized in their chemical structure and the effects they have on alien biological systems such as erythrocytes or lymphocytes. The biological function of plant lectins remains speculative. We therefore inspected plant extracts from components which might bind specifically to the lectin from the respective plant. Single proteins (lectin binders) could be isolated from each plant extract. The interaction of these proteins with lectins was demonstrated and qualified by several methods. Similar to the lectins, the lectin binders are localized in the cytoplasm in contrast to them, however, they persist during germination and plant growth. Their precise role in the plant is not known, but they are likely to be associated with lectins not only in vitro but also in vivo. They also interact with alien cells, and are able to stimulate mitosis in murine lymphocytes. Some lectin binders act specifically on B lymphocytes, leaving T cells uninfluenced

  14. The Effects of Various Conductive Additive and Polymeric Binder Contents on the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Liu, G.; Zheng, H.; Kim, S.; Deng, Y.; Minor, A.M.; Song, X.; Battaglia, V.S.

    2008-08-07

    Fundamental electrochemical methods, cell performance tests, and physical characterization tests such as electron microscopy were used to study the effects of levels of the inert materials (acetylene black (AB), a nano-conductive additive, and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a polymer binder) on the power performance of lithium-ion composite cathodes. The electronic conductivity of the AB/PVDF composites at different compositions was measured with a four-point probe direct current method. The electronic conductivity was found to increase rapidly and plateau at a AB:PVDF ratio 0.2:1 (by weight), with 0.8:1 being the highest conductivity composition. AB:PVDF compositions along the plateau of 0.2:1, 0.4:1, 0.6:1 and 0.8:1 were investigated. Electrodes of each of those compositions were fabricated with different fractions of AB/PVDF to active material. It was found that at the 0.8:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with increases in the AB/PVDF loading, whereas at the 0.2:1 AB:PVDF, the rate performance improved with decreases in the AB/PVDF loading. The impedance of electrodes made with 0.6:1 AB:PVDF was low and relatively invariant.

  15. Mechanical and Permeability Characteristics of Latex-Modified Pre-Packed Pavement Repair Concrete as a Function of the Rapid-Set Binder Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woong Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the strength and durability characteristics of latex-polymer-modified, pre-packed pavement repair concrete (LMPPRC with a rapid-set binder. The rapid-set binder was a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sand, where the fluidity was controlled using a latex polymer. The resulting mix exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa and a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h of curing (i.e., the traffic opening term for emergency repairs of pavement. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was varied through 0.40, 0.33, 0.29, and 0.25. Mechanical characterization revealed that the mechanical performance, permeability, and impact resistance increased as the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.29. The mixture exhibited a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.33. The permeability resistance to chloride ions satisfied 2000 C after 7 days of curing for all ratios. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material that satisfied all conditions for emergency pavement repair was ¤0.29.

  16. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  17. Quantification of the effects of crumb rubber in CRM binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Bradley James

    Since the mid-1960s, crumb rubber has been used to modify asphalt binders. The crumb rubber, also referred to as crumb rubber modifier (CRM), is produced by grinding scrap tires into fine powders with particulate sizes generally smaller than 2 mm. In most cases, CRM is incorporated into binder using the "wet" method, where the crumb rubber is blended with the asphalt binder. The binder modification that occurs during this blending process is physical in nature, where the lighter oils of the binder diffuse into the CRM particles. As the rubber particles absorb the oils, the particles swell; therefore, increasing the viscosity and stiffness of the CRM binder. This research evaluated the viscosity and complex shear modulus (G*) of 36 different laboratory-produced CRM binder combinations (two CRM processing methods, two CRM contents, three CRM sizes, and three binder sources) and three base binders. From this investigation, a method was developed to quantify the effects of the crumb rubber modification. These effects were identified as the interaction effect (IE) resulting from the diffusion of the lighter binder factions into the rubber particles and the particle effect (PE), which is the result of the change in the rheological properties due to the filling effect of the particulate CRM. Following statistical analyses of the results, it was determined that CRM binders had greater viscosity and complex shear modulus (G*) values than the base binders. These values increased with CRM content. The CRMs having higher surface area (i.e., ambient ground and finer CRM) generally had higher IE values, while the PE generally increased with particle size. HP-GPC testing indicated that the CRM binders also had higher large molecular size (LMS) fractions and lower small molecular size (SMS) fractions as determined from the HP-GPC profiles. As the LMS increased and the SMS decreased, the IE increased. Two of the three binder sources followed this trend, indicating that those

  18. Biodegradable materials as binders for IVth generation moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major-Gabry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders?compositions for foundry moulding and core sands. Results showed that there is a great possibility of using available biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sand binders. Using biodegradable materials as partial content of new binders, or additives to moulding sands may not only decrease the toxicity and increase reclamation ability of tested moulding sands, but also accelerate the biodegradation rate of used binders, and the new biodegradable additive (PCL did not decrease the strength and thermal properties. In addition, using polycaprolactone (PCL as a biodegradable material may improve the flexibility of moulding sands with polymeric binder and reduce toxicity.

  19. Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. Generally, gap graded mixes are thought to be weak in fatigue resistance. In this study, cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with fiber proportions of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% by weight of aggregates. The fiber-modified binder showed improved rheological properties and showed that the PG64-22 binder can be modified and raised to PG70-22 grade. The cellulose oil palm fiber (COPF was found to improve the diameteral fatigue performance of SMA design mix. The fatigue life increased to a maximum at a fiber content of about 0.6%, whilst the tensile stress and stiffness also showed a similar trend in performance. The initial strains of the mix were lowest at a fiber content of 0.6%.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnasamy Muniandy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix that is gaining popularity worldwide. Generally, gap graded mixes are thought to be weak in fatigue resistance. In this study, cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with fiber proportions of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% by weight of aggregates. The fiber-modified binder showed improved rheological properties and showed that the PG64-22 binder can be modified and raised to PG70-22 grade. The cellulose oil palm fiber (COPF was found to improve the diameteral fatigue performance of SMA design mix. The fatigue life increased to a maximum at a fiber content of about 0.6%, whilst the tensile stress and stiffness also showed a similar trend in performance. The initial strains of the mix were lowest at a fiber content of 0.6%.

  20. Effect of Gradation Optimization of Aggregate on Binder Content in Concrete%骨料级配优化对混凝土胶凝材料用量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡杰龙; 杨永民; 李伟

    2014-01-01

    骨料级配优化对于改善混凝土工作性能和节省胶凝材料用量具有重要的意义。该文分别对粗细骨料级配进行优化得到堆积密度大、空隙率小的细骨料和粗骨料,并分2种类型(直卸、泵送)和3种标号( C20、 C25、 C30)进行混凝土配合比试验对比骨料级配优化前后单方混凝土胶凝材料用量,最后通过实例进行验算。试验结果表明,当砂中0.315 mm以下细砂含量控制在一定比例,并在连续级配的5~31.5 mm碎石或5~25 mm碎石中掺入一定比例的5~10 mm石时,每m3混凝土中胶凝材料用量均可得到一定程度的降低,与理论验算结果较为吻合。骨料级配优化可操作性强,适合在混凝土生产企业中推广。%Aggregate Gradation optimization is of great importance in improving the working performance of concrete and saving binder content.In this article, gradation of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate is respectively optimized to obtain the aggregate with higher bulk density and lower voidage .Then design mix of concrete experiments on two kinds of concrete ( field concrete , pump concrete) and three kinds of grades(C20, C25, C30) are carried out to compared the binder content in an unit of concrete before and after gradation of aggregate is optimized .Finally, checking computations is implemented by example .It is shown that the binder content in an unit of concrete gets an certain degree of reduction if the ratio of fine sand (≤0.315mm) in fine aggregate is proper and a certain proportion of 5 ~10mm gravel is mixed into 5 ~31.5mm or 5 ~25mm gravel.And the result accords with the theoretical checking computations .Gradation optimization of aggregate is easily operability and suitable for promotion in concrete manufacturing enterprise .

  1. Mineral Wool Insulation Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowatsch, Stefan

    Mineral wool is considered the best known insulation type among the wide variety of insulation materials. There are three types of mineral wool, and these consist of glass, stone (rock), and slag wool. The overall manufacturing processes, along with features such as specifications and characteristics for each of these types, as well as the role of the binder within the process are described.

  2. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali mucilage (Basella alba as tablet binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ramu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basella alba leaf mucilage was investigated as a binder in paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Mucilage at four levels (concentrations of mucilage binders: 4, i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w were studied. No significant work has been reported to use it as a tablet binder. The evaluation of granules showed 0.62 to 0.76 mm granule size, 28°47′ to 30°27′ angle of repose and 31.57 to 23.45% fines. Moisture content of the different granulations was less than 1%. The tablets were prepared and evaluated for average weight and weight variation, thickness, content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time and in vitro dissolution profiles. All the batches of tablets exhibited good uniformity in content. The hardness was within the range of 4.5 to 5.5 kg/cm 2 . The hardness was increased and friability decreased with the increasing concentration of binding agent. The disintegration time also increased with increasing binder concentrations. The evaluation of tablet showed 0.434 to 0.410% friability, 9 to 18 minutes disintegration time and the drug release was more than 70% in 60 minutes. Tablets at 7.5% w/w binder concentration showed more optimum results as tablet binder. The B. alba mucilage was found to be good as a binder to paracetamol tablets.

  3. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  4. Wear mechanisms of WC–Co drill bit inserts against alumina counterface under dry friction: Part 1 — WC–Co inserts with homogenous binder phase content

    OpenAIRE

    Yahiaoui, Malik; Paris, Jean-Yves; Denape, Jean; Dourfaye, Alfazazi

    2015-01-01

    The tribological behavior of commercial roller cone bit inserts was studied by using a rotary tribometer and abrasive alumina counterfaces. Three cemented carbide WC–Co inserts were selected with different cobalt content and WC grain size distribution. During tests, a nominal load was set at 264 N, the velocity at 0.5 m ⋅ s− 1 and the test time at 1 h. The experimental measurements were performed using load, torque, displacement sensors, an acoustic emission sensor and four thermocouples. The...

  5. Preliminary investigation of patchaippasali mucilage (Basella alba) as tablet binder

    OpenAIRE

    Ramu, G.; G. Krishna Mohan; Jayaveera, K N

    2011-01-01

    Basella alba leaf mucilage was investigated as a binder in paracetamol tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Mucilage at four levels (concentrations of mucilage binders: 4, i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w) were studied. No significant work has been reported to use it as a tablet binder. The evaluation of granules showed 0.62 to 0.76 mm granule size, 28°47′ to 30°27′ angle of repose and 31.57 to 23.45% fines. Moisture content of the different granulations was less than 1%. The tablets were...

  6. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K;

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or...... aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3......% per half-year during CaCO3 treatment (P less than 0.05). Comparing the CaCO3 and Al(OH)3 periods the following differences were found: serum calcium increased during CaCO3 treatment, PTH(1-84) decreased (79% of initial values during CaCO3 versus 196% during Al(OH)3, mean area under curve, P less than...

  7. Application of mineral binders during briquetting of zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies a possibility to use mineral binders for briqueting zircon-blaring concentrates subject to chloride treatment in shaft furnaces. The effect of chloride treatment time and carbon content in the brickets on concentrates component break-down is investigated. Efficiency of mineral binder (bentonite and sodium silicate) application is confirmed: power consumption and treatment time decrease 8-10 times, a high level of concentrate break-down is achieved

  8. Briquetting of coal fines and sawdust. Part 1: binder and briquetting-parameters evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Taulbee; D.P. Patil; Rick Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2009-01-15

    Various technical and economic aspects relating to the briquetting of fine coal with sawdust have been evaluated with the results for two segments of that study presented here: binder and briquetting-parameter evaluations. Approximately 50 potential binder formulations were subjected to a series of screening evaluations to identify three formulations that were the most cost effective for briquetting fine coal with sawdust. Two of the binders, guar gum and wheat starch, were selected as most suitable for the pulverized coal market while the third formulation, lignosulfonate/lime, was targeted for the stoker market. Following binder selection, a number of briquetting parameters including binder and sawdust concentration, sawdust type, briquetting pressure and dwell time, coal and sawdust particle size, clay content, moisture content, and cure temperature and cure time were evaluated. Briquetting pressure and dwell time have the least impact while binder and sawdust concentrations, sawdust type, and curing conditions exerted the greatest influence on briquette quality. 7 refs.

  9. Radiosotopic assay and binder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and less costly radioisotopic assay for measuring the concentration of folate in blood serum is described. This procedure utilizes 3H-pteroylmonoglutamate, unlabeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and a partially purified folate binder, such as for example a folate binder extracted from hog kidney. The procedure involves radioisotopically relating the bound amounts of a labeled folate and a known folate at various concentrations of the known folate in a system containing a predetermined amount of the labeled folate, a predetermined amount of the binder factor for the folates, and a predetermined amount of defolated test serum. 16 claims, 8 drawing figures

  10. Binding Autobiographies: Torah Binders Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Oicherman, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The thesis investigates contemporary textile practice and its links to traditional forms of textile art. It focuses on the 19th century German circumcision binders (“Jewishing cloths”), ceremonial Torah scroll wrappings, which documented male births. The case study examines images on the seams of a 1836 binder, showing that the seams acted as a transitional territory, where the embroiderer consciously played around with traditional images, transposing the concern with birth and fertility into...

  11. A novel binder and binder extraction method for powder injection molding of tungsten cemented carbide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝宝军; 曲选辉; 陶颖

    2003-01-01

    An improved wax-based multi-component binder and a new debinding method termed high-pressure condensed solvent extraction were developed for powder injection molding of tungsten cemented carbide. The results indicate that a critical powder loading of 65% (volume fraction) and an ideal rheological properties were obtained by the feedstock based on the binder. High debinding rate and specimens with high strength were obtained by the debinding method. Moreover, by making high temperature holding time adjustable, it makes the subsequent thermal degradation process more flexible to debinding atmosphere and carbon content of the as debinded specimens controllable. The transverse rupture strength, hardness and density of the as-sintered specimens made by an optimized PIM process are 2.48Gpa, HRA90 and 14.72g/cm3, respectively. Good shape retention and about 0.02% dimension deviation were achieved.

  12. Influence of conductive additive on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少鹏; 李波; 陈筝; 黄旭

    2008-01-01

    The effects of graphite on temperature susceptibility of asphalt binders were investigated by penetration test,Ring & Ball softening point test and viscosity test.And penetration index(IP),viscosity-temperature susceptibility(SVT),and penetration-viscosity numbers(NPV) were introduced to evaluate the effects.The results show that the penetration,softening point and viscosity of asphalt binder increase with the increase of content of graphite.This means that the addition of graphite makes asphalts stiffer.The results from IP,NPV and SVT show that temperature susceptibility is reduced by the addition of graphite.

  13. Experimental evaluation on high temperature rheological properties of various fiber modified asphalt binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈筝; 吴少鹏; 朱祖煌; 刘杰胜

    2008-01-01

    High temperature rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders and impact of the type and content on such properties were studied.Three types of fiber,including polyester(PET),polyacrylonitrile(PAN) and cellulose(CEL),a control content(0%) and four levels of fiber content(2%,4%,6% and 8% by total asphalt binder mass) were used with asphalt binders.The high temperature rheological properties,consisting of complex modulus(G*) and phase angle δ,were measured using SHRP’s dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) between 46-82 ℃.Experimental results indicate that the changes of G* and tan δ of fiber modified asphalt binders with the increase of test temperature tend to slow down,and the temperature susceptibility is improved obviously compared to that of original asphalt binder.Fiber modification results in the increase of rutting parameter(G*/sin δ) at high temperatures,the decrease of temperature susceptibility,and further improved high temperature performance of asphalt binder.An excellent correlation exhibits between fiber content and high temperature performance of asphalt binder.Moreover,fiber type also has different influences on the improvement of G*/sin δ,G*/sin δ of PET and PAN fiber asphalt binders are both higher than that of CEL fiber,but G*/sin δ of CEL fiber is still higher than that of original asphalt.However,there is a critical fiber content when fibers start to interact with each other.Therefore,based on the critical fiber content and economic consideration,the optimum fiber contents for various fiber-modified asphalt binders are obtained.

  14. Functional binders as graphite exfoliation suppressants in aggressive electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Graphite electrodes are cycled in propylene carbonate rich electrolytes. • Binder swelling adversely affects electrode degradation. • Presence of carboxyl groups and sodium ions improve SEI properties. • Protection correlates with surface coverage and functionality of binder. • CMC-Na is less surface selective and provides protection at low binder content. - Abstract: A comparative study of various electrode binders for graphite electrodes was conducted in a carbonate-based electrolyte with a high content of propylene carbonate (PC) as a means to evaluate anode degradation in presence of different binders. Because of its direct contact with the active material, a binder can be interpreted as an interfacial layer and as a local part of the electrolyte, the properties of which greatly depend on the interaction with the liquid electrolyte. In this work we demonstrate how a carefully chosen binder can create a specific surface environment that can protect graphite from exfoliation when the binder exhibits poor solubility in the electrolyte solvent and good surface adhesion to the active material. The exceptional stability of graphite electrodes containing poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAA-Na) and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na), respectively, in a PC-rich electrolyte is explained through the understanding of binder swelling and functionality. Interfacial resistances and electrochemical stability were investigated with impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling. Electrode morphologies and distributions of material were analysed with SEM and EDX. Evidence is presented that the surface selectivity increases with concentration of functional groups and polymer flexibility. Therefore only the less selective, stiff polymer with less functional groups, CMC-Na, provides sufficient protection at low binder contents

  15. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  16. A view on organic binder effects on technical properties of ceramic Raschig rings

    OpenAIRE

    Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y.; Salem, A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic binders such as polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose and Arabic gum are widely used to control the technological parameters required for green and sintered ceramic bodies. An industrial ceramic Raschig ring composed of kaolinite, illite, pyrophillite and quartz minerals was separately mixed with different content of above binders and formed by extrusion process in the shape of Raschig ring. The dried specimens were sintered at 1270°C and the physicalmechanical charac...

  17. Assessment of Coagulant Synergy for the Depollution of Binder Emulsion Plant Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Abdul Rehman Memon; Abdul Kareem Shah

    2012-01-01

    Binder emulsion plant effluent is a source of intense pollution when discharged into the environment without proper degree of treatment due to its strong color as well as higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) contents. An empirical study was conducted to optimize the effect of the coagulants used for the removal of Color, Turbidity, TSS, and COD from binder emulsion effluent. The coagulants, used with and without the induction of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) ...

  18. Comparisons of operating envelopes for contaminated soil stabilised/solidified with different cementitious binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Stegemann, Julia A

    2014-03-01

    This work initiated the development of operating envelopes for stabilised/solidified contaminated soils. The operating envelopes define the range of operating variables for acceptable performance of the treated soils. The study employed a soil spiked with 3,000 mg/kg each of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, and 10,000 mg/kg of diesel. The binders used for treatment involved Portland cement (CEMI), pulverised fuel ash (PFA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and hydrated lime (hlime). The specific binder formulations were CEMI, CEMI/PFA = 1:4, CEMI/GGBS = 1:9 and hlime/GGBS = 1:4. The water contents employed ranged from 13 % to 21 % (dry weight), while binder dosages ranged from 5 % to 20 % (w/w). We monitored the stabilised/solidified soils for up to 84 days using different performance tests. The tests include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), hydraulic conductivity, acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) and pH-dependent leachability of contaminants. The water content range resulted in adequate workability of the mixes but had no significant effect on leachability of contaminants. We produced design charts, representing operating envelopes, from the results generated. The charts establish relationships between water content, binder dosage and UCS; and binder dosage, leachant pH and leachability of contaminants. The work also highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the different binder formulations. PMID:24243092

  19. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  20. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    OpenAIRE

    J. Łabaj; M. Jodkowski; Szeja, W.; Helhmann, J.; Kozioł, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  1. Rheological characteristics of aged asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘聪慧; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 朱国军

    2008-01-01

    Different aging levels(RTFOT,PAV-10h,PAV-20h and PAV-30 h) of asphalt binders with various mass ratios of mineral powder to asphalt(0,0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6,2.0) were used to investigate the rheological properties of aged asphalt binders with respect to their short and long terms aging characteristics.Viscosity test,dynamic shear test and creep test were conducted.The test results indicate that the viscosity of aged asphalt binder increases sharply with the extension of aging period.Complex shear modulus of aged asphalt increases,which indicates that the stiffness of asphalt binders can increase.The phase angle for aged asphalt binders reduces,which indicates that the elastic portion for viscoelastic property of asphalt binders increases.|G*|·sin δ increases after aging procedure which means that the fatigue resistance becomes poor.The creep test results show that creep strain curves varies remarkably for virgin and aged asphalt binders.The total strain during loading period and the permanent strain decreases significantly for aged asphalt binders,which implies that the elastic portion increases and the viscous portion decreases.

  2. Influence of Binder in Iron Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to use iron and its alloys as the matrix material in composite systems is of great importance because it is the most widely used metallic material with a variety of commercially available steel grades [1]. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of binder in particulate iron based metal matrix composites. There are four types of binder that were used in this study; Stearic Acid, Gummi Arabisch, Polyvinyl alcohol 15000 MW and Polyvinyl alcohol 22000 MW. Six different weight percentage of each binder was prepared to produce the composite materials using powder metallurgy (P/M) route; consists of dry mixing, uniaxially compacting at 750 MPa and vacuum sintering at 1100 deg. C for two hours. Their characterization included a study of density, porosity, hardness and microstructure. Results indicate that MMC was affected by the binder and stearic acid as a binder produced better properties of the composite.

  3. Modeling binder removal in ceramic compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incledon, Matthew L.

    Binder is often added to ceramic systems to provide mechanical strength to the green bodies during processing. The binder removal sequence for an individual system is difficult to predict due to the thermal reaction and mass transport of the volatile products. The objective of this work is to use computational methods to predict the kinetics of binder removal as a function of composition, particle size, pore size and tortuosity, temperature, body size and shape, etc.. The model will be used to predict the composition, temperature, and pore pressure as a function of time, position within the body, and heating sequence parameters. This will provide the ability to predict optimum heating sequences that minimize processing time and energy input while avoiding harmful high internal pressures and temperatures. Since there are many binder systems in use, a few specific cases will be considered. TGA (thermogravimetric analysis) of binders will be used to measure kinetics parameters that are inputs for the computational model. A framework will be developed to assess the binder removal sequence for a binder and ceramic system. The input for the model, computed in COMSOL Multiphysics, will be determined through analysis of TGA weight loss data and green body characterization. A set of tools will be presented that assist in the fitting of the TGA data, including the binder degrading into multiple species, higher order reactions, parallel and series reactions, etc.. The use of these ideas and tools will allow the modeler to better predict the heating sequence required for a ceramic and binder system to successfully remove all binder material.

  4. Anisotropic injection molding of strontium ferrite powder using a PP/PEG binder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Jeung, W.Y. E-mail: wyjeung@kistmail.kist.re.kr

    2001-05-01

    In this study, new binder system for anisotropic injection molding of Sr-ferrite was developed and a process for injection molding of Sr-ferrite was optimized. The developed binder system is composed of 30 vol% PP, 60 vol% PEG-20 000 and 10 vol% PEG-4000. The extraction by water was applied to remove the major binder components PEGs and the minor binder component, PP, was subsequently burned out in air. Behaviors of extraction and thermal debinding with time and debinding atmosphere and variations of the magnetic properties with sintering temperature were studied. The sintered magnets made by PIM process showed residual carbon content of 230 ppm and a maximum energy product of 4.2 MGOe.

  5. Development of tungsten carbide hardmetals using iron-based binder alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main work was carried out on hardmetals with 20 wt.% of iron rich binder alloys; the cobalt and nickel content of the alloys was varied upto 50 wt.%. The properties of the WC-Fe, WC-Co and WC-Ni hardmetals were measured for comparison. The influence of the carbon content, heat treatment and alloying with chromium andor molybdenum carbide was also evaluated. In addition to this, the effect of changes in the binder content and the carbide grain size on the properties of the hardmetals was determined. The structure of the WC-hardmetals with Fe-Co-Ni binders is similar to that of WC-Co, but the carbide grain size is somewhat smaller. The carbon content of the hardmetals has to be above the stoichiometric value of the tungsten carbide in order to obtain optimal hardmetal properties. The mechanical properties of the WC-Fe/Co/Ni hardmetals are strongly dependent on the binder composition and can be varied in a wide range. The optimal WC-Fe/Co/Ni hardmetals have at comparable transverse rupture strengths higher room temperature and hot hardness values, better fracture toughness and abrasive strength than the WC-Co hardmetals. Hardmetals whose binder is mainly martensitic have the best combination of all measured mechanical properties. (orig./IHOE)

  6. Investigating the effects of a polyester preforming binder on the mechanical and ballistic performance of E-glass fiber reinforced polyester composites

    OpenAIRE

    Tanoğlu, Metin; Seyhan, Abdullah Tuğrul

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the effects of a preforming binder on the mechanical properties and ballistic performance of E-glass-fiber/polyester composite systems. The glass preforms were consolidated by application of heat and pressure over plies of the glass fabrics coated with various concentrations of a thermoplastic polyester binder. The peel strength of the preforms with various binder content was measured and the highest peel strength was obtained from pr...

  7. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007; R...... strategy is theoretically based on systems theory as formulated by Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995; 2002) and on own work, where. Luhmann’s general ideas and concepts of the educational system are transposed into a didactical framework (Keiding, 2005,2007,2008).......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......, is subordinating content to methods as seen in modern didactics, hereby transforming content to a medium for achievement of learning-to-learn skills rather than something valuable in its own right. At the level of general didactics quite few attempts have been made to formulate criteria and...

  8. Electrochemical lithiation performance and characterization of silicon-graphite composites with lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium polyacrylate binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen-Ji; Yamagiwa, Kiyofumi; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Son, Jin-Young; Cui, Yi-Tao; Oji, Hiroshi; Kogure, Akinori; Harada, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Sumihisa; Aoki, Yasuhito; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-02-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAH), which is a water soluble polycarboxylic acid, is neutralized by adding different amounts of LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and ammonia (NH4OH) aqueous solutions to fix neutralization degrees. The differently neutralized polyacid, alkali and ammonium polyacrylates are examined as polymeric binders for the preparation of Si-graphite composite electrodes as negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The electrode performance of the Si-graphite composite depends on the alkali chemicals and neutralization degree. It is found that 80% NaOH-neutralized polyacrylate binder (a pH value of the resultant aqueous solution is ca. 6.7) is the most efficient binder to enhance the electrochemical lithiation and de-lithiation performance of the Si-graphite composite electrode compared to that of conventional PVdF and the other binders used in this study. The optimum polyacrylate binder highly improves the dispersion of active material in the composite electrode. The binder also provides the strong adhesion, suitable porosity, and hardness for the composite electrode with 10% (m/m) binder content, resulting in better electrochemical reversibility. From these results, the factors of alkali-neutralized polyacrylate binders affecting the electrode performance of Si-graphite composite electrodes are discussed. PMID:25559330

  9. High-performance LiFePO4/C electrode with polytetrafluoroethylene as an aqueous-based binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiyan; Su, Yuefeng; Bao, Liying; Li, Ning; Chen, Lai; Zheng, Yu; Tian, Jun; Li, Jian; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    An environmental-friendly and low-cost polymer, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been applied as an aqueous-based binder for the fabrication of LiFePO4/C electrode. The electrode with PTFE has been compared to the electrode with the conventional binder, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) via Rheology test, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical tests. The Rheology test indicates that the viscosity of the slurry prepared with PTFE as a binder is better than that prepared with PVDF. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the electrode with PTFE binder displays a higher discharge capacity of 161.1 mAh g-1 compared to the electrode with PVDF binder, which shows a discharge capacity of 150.7 mAh g-1. The EIS analysis indicates the LiFePO4/C electrode with PTFE binder shows a higher ionic conductivity and a smaller increasing in charge transfer rate compared to the LiFePO4/C electrode with PVDF binder. In addition, the electrodes applying the aqueous-based binder have been optimized by controlling the moisture content in the electrodes. The electrochemical enhancement of these electrodes can be achieved by controlling the vacuum drying temperature and time during the preparation of the electrodes.

  10. Effects of Nanosilica on Compressive Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete with Different Water to Binder Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forood Torabian Isfahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of different nanosilica dosages (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% with respect to cement on compressive strength and durability properties of concrete with water/binder ratios 0.65, 0.55, and 0.5 were investigated. Water sorptivity, apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity, and carbonation coefficient of concrete were measured. The results showed that compressive strength significantly improved in case of water/binder = 0.65, while for water/binder = 0.5 no change was found. Increasing nanosilica content, the water sorptivity decreased only for water/binder = 0.55. The addition of 0.5% nanosilica decreased the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient for water/binder = 0.65 and 0.55; however, higher nanosilica dosages did not decrease it with respect to reference value. The resistivity was elevated by 0.5% nanosilica for all water/binder ratios and by 1.5% nanosilica only for water/binder = 0.5. The carbonation coefficient was not notably affected by increasing nanosilica dosages and even adverse effect was observed for water/binder = 0.65. Further information of microstructure was also provided through characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of a certain nanosilica dosage addition into lower strength mixes was more noticeable, while, for the higher strength mix, the effectiveness was less.

  11. Alkali-activated binders : a review : part 2. about materials and binders manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge about alkali-activated binders, by reviewing previously published work. As it is shown in Part 1, alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary Portland cement) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact. The subjects of Part 2 of this paper are prime materials, alkaline activators, additives, curing type and constituents mixing order. Practical problems and theoretical questions are discussed. To...

  12. Volatile binders for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to form and sinter nuclear fuel particles made of uranium dioxide (or other uranium compounds) to which a volatile binder (about 0.5 to 7 wt.%) is added for better processing. Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, and other ammonium compounds are mentioned as binders. The components are mixed, pressed, preheated, then further heated and sintered, and cooling takes place in a controlled atmosphere. 3 examples illustrate the method. (UA)

  13. UPDATED INSIGHT ON FOAM BINDER GRANULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli

    2013-01-01

    To have updated handy reference as source of outstanding knowledge on foam binder granulation process in granulating the material(s). Granulation considered being important unit operation for producing pharmaceutical oral dosage forms. Revolutionising binder application methodology as advancement of wet granulation process best owed said process. It is a modified version of atomised spraying method and gaining wide acceptance. Product and process development calls for method of optimisation i...

  14. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabryś

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved abilit...

  15. Comparative Study on Characteristics and Potential of Rice Straws and Dry Leaves as a Binder in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges in order to develop the green environment. In this research, two types of binder were chosen in producing of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which is rice straws and dry leaves. The objective of the research is to identify which types of binder that can give the optimum performance. This two binder was mixed with paper and plastic waste with controlled mixing ratio which is 3:1 (ratio 1), 3:1.5(ratio 2) and 3:2 (ratio 3). In order to identify the optimum ratio of RDF, 45 number of samples was prepared and their properties such as moisture content, carbon content, sulfur content, chlorine content and calorific value were evaluated. Result indicated that samples with rice straw as a binder give the optimum result with the ratio of 3:1. The optimum values of the carbon content is 50.9 %, moisture content is 5.5 %, chlorine content is 0.0 %, sulfur content is 2.1 % and calorific value is 29.0 MJ/ kg. Hence, rice straws shows a great potential to be used as binder in production of RDF. (author)

  16. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  17. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  18. Early-age hydration and volume change of calcium sulfoaluminate cement-based binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunsali, Piyush

    -based binders without taking into account the viscoelastic effects. For the first time, model based on poromechanics was used to calculate the macroscopic tensile stress that develops in CSA cement-based binders due to crystallization of ettringite. The models enabled a reasonable prediction of tensile stress due to crystallization of ettringite including the failure of an OPC-CSA binder which had high CSA cement content. Elastic strain based on crystallization stress was calculated and compared with the observed strain. A mismatch between observed and calculated elastic strain indicated the presence of early-age creep. Lastly, the application of CSA cement in concretes is discussed to link the paste and concrete behavior.

  19. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  20. Hydrocolloids as binders for graphite anodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seven water-soluble hydrocolloids are tested as binders for graphite anodes in LIBs. • All hydrocolloids meet the thermal and electrochemical stability required. • Optimal binder concentration of 5 wt% is found for graphite/hydrocolloid electrodes. • Four of them show cycling performances comparable to graphite/PVDF electrode. - ABSTRACT: A series of seven different hydrocolloids are tested as water-soluble binders for synthetic graphite (SG)-based electrodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and compared with the standard poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) binder. The hydrocolloids selected are sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), sodium alginate (Na-Alg), gum arabic (GA), xanthan gum (XG), guar gam (GG), agar-agar (AA) and carrageenan (CAR), the latter three with no precedents in the literature. They all show thermal and electrochemical stability under the experimental conditions employed. For SG/hydrocolloid electrodes, binder concentrations of 5 wt% are found to be optimal, providing outstanding electrochemical performances for electrodes with Na-Alg Na-CMC, XG and GG in galvanostatic cycling experiments at constant (C/10, with C = 372 mA g−1) and variable (from C/10 to 2C) current rates, which are comparable, or even superior to those of SG/PVDF electrodes with higher binder content (8 wt%). In contrast, SG/GA, SG/CAR and SG/AA electrodes show poorer electrochemical performances, most likely owing to the low adhesion capacity of the binder (GA and CAR), or the formation of films covering the SG particles (CAR and AA)

  1. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major - Gabryś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved ability to reclamation as well as in accelerated biodegradation of binding material leftovers of mechanical reclamation.

  2. A view on organic binder effects on technical properties of ceramic Raschig rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y.; Salem, A.

    2010-07-01

    Organic binders such as polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose and Arabic gum are widely used to control the technological parameters required for green and sintered ceramic bodies. An industrial ceramic Raschig ring composed of kaolinite, illite, pyrophillite and quartz minerals was separately mixed with different content of above binders and formed by extrusion process in the shape of Raschig ring. The dried specimens were sintered at 1270 degree centigrade and the physical mechanical characteristics of sintered bodies were evaluated by measuring bulk density, total and closed porosities and compressive strength. In addition, the effect of binder type and amount on reliability of ceramic Raschig rings was evaluated by computing Weibull modulus. The obtained data exhibited optimum strength and reliability in presence 0,75 wt.% carboxymethyl cellulose. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Methods of characterization of the binder phase in WC-Co cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In technological application of cermets carbides are sintered with so-called binder metals Co and Ni. It is supposed that relevant properties are dependent on the partial solution of carbides and carbon in the binder. In thepresent work alloys W-Co-C were produced with more than 850Co to simulate the binder phase of the technological material, solution treated at 1300K, 1400K and 1500K, and saturation magnetisation plus the lattice parameter of the cubic Co determined. The corresponding property curves show breaks at the solubility limits. In the solubility regions the content dependence of the two properties were fitted to certain expressions. Whereas the W dependence is well-known from the literature the present work show als a significant C dependence. (G.Q.)

  4. Influence of Cellulosic Binders on Sensitivity and Combustion Behaviour of B-KNO3 Ignition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Bhingarkar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Boron-potassium nitrate (B-KNO3-based compositions have been used as an effective ignitersystem for solid rocket propellants. A systematic study was undertaken to generate exhaustivedata on B-KNO3 (25:65-based ignition systems with cellulosic binders, viz., nitrocellulose, ethylcellulose and plasticised ethyl cellulose. In addition, detailed investigations were carried outwith PEC as binder by varying its concentration from 2-10 per cent in the same system. Theexperimental compositions (B-KNO3: binder were evaluated by closed-vessel firing, thermalanalysis, sensitivity, mechanical properties and cal-val determination. The binders significantlyinfluenced the sensitivity and combustion behaviour of B-KNO3 compositions. The compositionwith nitrocellulose as binder produced high flame temperature and cal-val as compared to ethylcellulose and plasticised ethyl cellulose-based compositions. The data indicated that thecalculated flame temperature for all compositions was in the range 2716 K to 2957 K. As theplasticised ethyl cellulose content increased from 2 per cent to 10 per cent, the maximum pressureincreased with decrease in heat of combustion.

  5. Development of silane-hydrolysate binder for UV-resistant thermal control coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed characterizaton and formulation studies were performed on a methyltriakoxysilane hydrolysate as a binder for thermal control coatings. The binder was optimized by varying hydrolysis temperature, time, catalyst type, and water concentration. The candidate coating formulations, based on this binder with TiO2 pigment, were optimized via a detailed series of sprayed test panels that included the parameters of binder/pigment ratio, ethanol content, pigment particle size, coating thickness and cure conditions. A typical optimized coating was prepared by acetic acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyltriethoxysilane with 3.25 mol-equivalents of water over a 24 hour period at room temperature. The resulting hydrolysate was directly mixed with pre-milled TiO2 (12 grams pigment/26 grams binder) to yield a sprayable consistency. Panels were sprayed to result in a nominal cure coating thickness of 2 mils. Cure was affected by air drying for 24 hr at room temperature plus 72 hr at 150 F. These coatings are typically extremely tough and abrasion-resistant, with an absorptance (alpha) of 0.20 and emittance (e) of 0.89. No significant coating damage was observed in the mandrel bend test, even after exposure to thermal cycling from -160 to 160 F. Vacuum exposure of the coatings for 930 hours at 1 equivalent UV sun resulted in no visible degradation and no significant increase in absorptance.

  6. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of asphaltic binder modified with zeolite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, E.M. da; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Sandra A.; Soares, Jorge B. [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Several new processes have been developed to reduce mixing and compaction temperatures of hot mix asphalt without sacrificing the quality of the resulting pavement. One of these processes utilizes the zeolite, a crystalline hydrated aluminum silicate. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the applicability of zeolite to improve the rheological and chemical behavior of an asphaltic binder. The synthetic asphaltic binder was produced with different zeolite contents (0,1; 0.3; and 0.5% w/w) by wet process. The rheological and chemical behavior was verified by Dynamic Shear Rheometer and Infrared Spectroscopy, respectively. The zeolite's chemical composition and morphology was studied by Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Additionally, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to establish the zeolite elemental composition. The results showed that investigated zeolite was classified as a sodium aluminum silicate and it was able to modify the rheological properties of the neat asphalt binder. The G*/sin{delta} parameter was affected by the zeolite presence, indicating better performance for the binders with zeolite. The results show that synthetic binders can partly replicate the rheological properties of conventional AB. Comparable complex modulus values was obtained. No significant difference was found in viscoelastic response, given by the phase angles as a function of both temperature and frequency. (author)

  7. Innovative organic binders for metallurgy and the refractories industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zemlyanoi, K. G.; Kiik, A. A.; Markova, S. V.; Kormina, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    Questions related to the use of binders for briquetting in industry are considered. Results of pilot-plant and industrial tests of domestically produced innovative binders are presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  8. Effect of moisture on the aging behavior of asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Huang, Xiao-Ming; Mahmoud, Enad; Garibaldy, Emil

    2011-08-01

    The moisture aging effect and mechanism of asphalt binder during the in-service life of pavement were investigated by laboratory simulating tests. Pressure aging vessel (PAV) test simulating the long-term aging of binder during the in-service life of pavement was modified to capture the long-term moisture aging effect of binder. Penetration grade tests including penetration test, soften point test, and ductility test as well as Superpave™ performance grade tests including viscosity test, dynamic shear rheometer test, and bending beam rheometer test were conducted to fully evaluate the moisture aging effect of binder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test and Gel-permeation chromatography test were applied to provide a fundamental understanding of the moisture aging mechanism of binder. The results indicate that moisture condition can accelerate the aging of asphalt binder and shorten the service life of asphalt binder. The modified PAV test with moisture condition can well characterize the moisture aging properties of asphalt binder.

  9. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Liang; Kefu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and the mechanism of binder migration were studied in this paper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, the degree of binder migration was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wet sample just after coating application, the real information of binder distribution was kept by quenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed by freeze-drying. The results showed: under the condition of this research, binder migration occurred both in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred during coating application was much little than that occurred during drying. The mechanism of binder migration during the process of coating application was studied by force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposed that was binder migration was caused by Magnus force and Saffman force.

  10. THE STUDY ON MECHANISM OF BINDER MIGRATION DURING COATING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YunLiang; KefuChen

    2004-01-01

    Binder migration during coating process and themechanism of binder migration were studied in thispaper. After the latex was tagged by osmium, thedegree of binder migration was measured byenergy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. For the wetsample just after coating application, the realinformation of binder distribution was kept byquenching the sample in liquid nitrogen followed byfreeze-drying. The results showed: under thecondition of this research, binder migration occurredboth in the process of coating application and drying.But the amount of binder migration occurred duringcoating application was much little than that occurredduring drying. The mechanism of binder migrationduring the process of coating application was studiedby force analyses. And one viewpoint was proposedthat was binder migration was caused by Magnusforce and Saffman force.

  11. Assessing ''last mile'' tools for affinity binder databases

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, David James; Golenetskaya, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    International audience The EU ProteomeBinders coordination action helped define community standards for reporting and comparing binder and binder-target properties, with an eye toward quality control. This included reporting standards, an ontology for unambiguously describing binders and their properties, and a database schema for storing the experimental molecular interaction evidence used to support claims about those properties. But it left unresolved the question of how best to enable ...

  12. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as posit...

  13. Rheological evaluation of polymer-modified asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Romero Santos Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most used polymer for asphalt binder modification is the thermoplastic elastomer styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and aromatic oil is commonly added to the mixtures to improve their compatibly. This paper proposes the use of oil shale from sedimentary rock as a compatibilizer agent for polymer-modified asphalt binder (PMB. PMBs were produced by mixing a bitumen with a linear SBS copolymer (3.5% (w.w-1 using two oil shale contents (2 and 4% and petroleum aromatic oil to evaluate comparatively the effect of the compatibilizer agent on the SBS PMB properties. The rheological characteristics of the SBS PMBs were analyzed in a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and the morphology accessed by fluorescence optical microscopy. The viscoelastic behavior of the samples corroborated the results for the classical properties and varied according to the sample morphology and composition. The results indicate that the aromatic and shale oils have similar effects on the microstructure, storage stability and viscoelastic behavior of the PMBs. Thus, shale oil could be successfully used as a compatibilizer agent without loss of properties or could even replace the aromatic oil. Following the Superpave methodology it was observed that the linear- and radial-SBS PMBs and linear-SBS PMB with 2% of shale oil can be used up to 70 °C, and the linear-SBS PMBs with 4% of shale oil or 2% of aromatic oil can be used only up to 64 °C.

  14. Phenomena during thermal removal of binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Kenneth Edward

    The research presented herein has focused on debinding of an ethylene copolymer from a SiC based molded ceramic green body. Examination of the binder burnout process was carried out by breaking down the process into two distinct regions: those events which occur before any weight loss begins, and those events occurring during binder removal. Below the temperature of observed binder loss (175sp°C), both reversible and irreversible displacement was observed to occur. The displacement was accounted for by relaxation of molding stresses, thermal expansion of the system, and melting of the semicrystalline copolymer occurring during heating. Upon further heating the binder undergoes a two stage thermal degradation process. In the first stage, acetic acid is the only degradation product formed, as determined by GC/MS analysis. In this stage, component shrinkage persisted and it was found that one unit volume of shrinkage corresponded with one unit volume of binder removed, indicating that no porosity developed. The escaping acetic acid effluents must diffuse through liquid polymer filled porous regions to escape. The gas pressure of the acetic acid species produced in the first stage of the thermal degradation may exceed the ambient pressure promoting bubble formation. Controlling the heating rate of the specimen maintains the gas pressure below the bubbling threshold and minimizes the degradation time. Experiments have determined the kinetics of the reaction in the presence of the high surface area (10-15msp2/g) ceramic powder and then verified that acetic acid was diffusing through the polymer phase to the specimen surface where evaporation is taking place. The sorption method measured the diffusivity and activity of acetic acid within the filled ceramic system within a TGA. These data were incorporated into a Fickian type model which included the rate of generation of the diffusing species. The modeling process involved prediction of the bloating temperature as a

  15. Curing Reaction Model of Epoxy Asphalt Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Leilei; WANG Yaqi; SHEN Jialin

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the strength developing law of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a curing reaction model of the epoxy asphalt binder was proposed based upon the thermokinetic analysis.Given some assumptions,the model was developed by applying the Kissinger law as well as Arrhenius equation,and the differential scanning calorimetry was performed for estimating the model parameters.To monitor the strength development of the epoxy asphalt mixture,a strength test program was employed and then results were compared to those produced from the proposed model.The comparative evaluation shows that a good consistency exists between the outputs from test program and the proposed model,indicating that the proposed model can be used effectively for simulating the curing reaction process for the epoxy asphalt binder and predicting the strength development for the epoxy asphalt mixture.

  16. Valorization of phosphogypsum as hydraulic binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryatnyk, T; Angulski da Luz, C; Ambroise, J; Pera, J

    2008-12-30

    Phosphogypsum (calcium sulfate) is a naturally occurring part of the process of creating phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), an essential component of many modern fertilizers. For every tonne of phosphoric acid made, from the reaction of phosphate rock with acid, commonly sulfuric acid, about 3t of phosphogypsum are created. There are three options for managing phosphogypsum: (i) disposal or dumping, (ii) stacking, (iii) use-in, for example, agriculture, construction, or landfill. This paper presents the valorization of two Tunisian phosphogypsums (referred as G and S) in calcium sulfoaluminate cement in the following proportions: 70% phosphogypsum-30% calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. The use of sample G leads to the production of a hydraulic binder which means that it is not destroyed when immersed in water. The binder including sample S performs very well when cured in air but is not resistant in water. Formation of massive ettringite in a rigid body leads to cracking and strength loss. PMID:18433998

  17. UPDATED INSIGHT ON FOAM BINDER GRANULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikh Mahammed Athar Alli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To have updated handy reference as source of outstanding knowledge on foam binder granulation process in granulating the material(s. Granulation considered being important unit operation for producing pharmaceutical oral dosage forms. Revolutionising binder application methodology as advancement of wet granulation process best owed said process. It is a modified version of atomised spraying method and gaining wide acceptance. Product and process development calls for method of optimisation involving multidisciplinary activity and creates difficulties as several rudiments needed to be achievable, associated with umpteen features. Depth knowledge on process and formulation properties, monitoring granulation behaviour and its performance, is prerequisite. In this regard, information collected and presented as a handy note. Presented note will give insight on associated technicality and will assist researchers in getting optimised granule, having applicability in product evolution. This considered being offering outstanding knowledge and helping hand for getting granule with excellent feature.

  18. New pharmaceutical applications for macromolecular binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Nicolas; Gauthier, Marc A; Bouvet, Céline; Moreau, Pierre; Petitjean, Anne; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Leblond, Jeanne

    2011-10-30

    Macromolecular binders consist of polymers, dendrimers, and oligomers with binding properties for endogenous or exogenous substrates. This field, at the frontier of host/guest chemistry and pharmacology, has met a renewed interest in the past decade due to the clinical success of several sequestrants, like sevelamer hydrochloride (Renagel®) or sugammadex (Bridion®). In many instances, multivalent binding by the macromolecular drugs can modify the properties of the substrate, and may prevent it from reaching its site of action and/or trigger a biological response. From small (e.g., ions) to larger substrates (e.g., bacteria and cells), this review presents the state-of-the-art of macromolecular binders and provides detailed illustrative examples of recent developments bearing much promise for future pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21571017

  19. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-02-01

    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m2, it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa).

  20. High Performance Binder for EMCDB Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bhat

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel block polymer has been synthesised from caprolactone using hydroxy terminated polybutadiene as ring opening initiator. Usefulness of this polymer as propellant binder has been studied by generating data on physico-chemical properties of the polymer. The polymer exhibited high miscibility with nitrate ester and high solid loading capability. Preliminary data generated on typical propellant formulation indicated higher performance as compared to composite propellant.

  1. Towards a microalgae-based road binder

    OpenAIRE

    AUDO, Mariane; Queffelec, Clémence; LEPINE, Olivier; Legrand, Jack; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky viscoelastic petroleum industry by-product, used in sealing surface but mostly as aggregates binder in road pavement. For about seven years, the worldwide petroleum production didn’t increase anymore. In that context, refining strategies are changing: for example, high molecular fractions can be cracked into lighter fuel fractions and consequently, in the future, it could be difficult to answer to the worldwide needs in asphalt. To avoid this problem, some biomass-ba...

  2. Harmfulness Assessment of Moulding Sands with a Geopolymer Binder and a New Hardener, in An Aspect of the Emission of Substances from the Btex Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The harmfulness assessment of moulding sands with a geopolymer binder and a new hardener, in an aspect of the emission of substances from the BTEX group, was performed. Within the expedience project the new series of hardeners for the inorganic GEOPOL binder was developed. Before the introduction of the new system of moulding sands it was necessary to estimate their influence on the environment. To this aim the gasses emission from moulding sands subjected to the influence of liquid cast iron was tested with regard to the content of the gases from the BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. For the comparison the analogous investigations of the up to now applied moulding sands with the geopolymer binder, were performed. It was found that both systems of moulding sands binding emit similar amounts of gases, as well as similar amounts of substances from the BTEX group. Moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder are much more environmentally friendly than moulding sands with organic binders. The content of the BTEX group substances in gases emitted from moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder was approximately 10-times lower than in case of the moulding sands with organic binders.

  3. Final Report on Initial Samples Supplied by LLNL for Task 3.3 Binder Burnout and Sintering Schedule Optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, P

    1999-01-04

    Sixteen of the twenty-one samples have been investigated using the scanning laser dilatometer. This includes all three types of samples with different preparation routes and organic content. Cracks were observed in all samples, even those only heated to 300 C. It was concluded that the cracking was occurring in the early part of the heat treatment before the samples reached 300 C. Increase in the rate of dilation of the samples occurred above 170 C which coincided with the decomposition of the binder/wax additives as determined by differential thermal analysis. A comparison was made with SYNROC C material (Powder Run 143), samples of which had been CIPed and green machined to a similar diameter and thickness as the 089mm SRTC pucks. These samples contained neither binder nor other organic processing aids and had been kept in the same desiccator as the SRTC samples. The CIPed Synroc C samples sintered to high density with zero cracks. As the cracks made up only a small contribution to the change in diameter of the sample compared to the sintering shrinkage, useful information could still be gained from the runs. The sintering curves showed that there was much greater shrinkage of the Type III samples containing only the 5% PEG binder compared to the Type I which contained polyolefin wax as processing aid. Slight changes in gradient of the sintering curve were observed, however, due to the masking effect of the cracking, full analysis of the sintering kinetics cannot be conducted. Even heating the samples to 300 C at 1.0 or 0.5 C/min could not prevent crack formation. This indicated that heating rate was not the critical parameter causing cracking of the samples. Sectioning of green bodies revealed the inhomogeneous nature of the binder/lubricant distribution in the samples. Increased homogeneity would reduce the amount of binder/lubricant required, which should in turn, reduce the degree of cracking observed during heating to the binder burnout temperature. A

  4. Time-Dependent Properties of Multimodal Polyoxymethylene Based Binder for Powder Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Stringari, Gustavo Beulke; Zupancic, Barbara; Kubyshkina, Galina; Bernstorff, Bernd Von; Emri, Igor

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is one of the most versatile methods for the manufacturing of small complex shaped components from metal, ceramic or cemented carbide powders for the use in many applications. PIM consists of mixing the powder and a polymeric binder, injecting this mixture in a mold, debinding and then sintering. Catalytic debinding of polyoxymethylene (POM) is attractive since it shows high debinding rates and low risk of cracking. This work examines the possibility of using POM with bimodal molecular mass distribution as the main component of the binding agent by studying its time-dependent properties and comparing them to monomodal POM. Furthermore, possible optimization of the binder formulation was investigated by the addition of shorter polymeric chains (wax) to bimodal POM, as to create a multimodal material. It was observed that the magnitude of the complex viscosity for the commercial bimodal material was more than 2 times lower than for the chemically identical monomodal POM within the investigated frequency range and temperature. Viscosity values were observed to drop as the content of wax was increased, without compromising the binders mechanical properties in solid state. A new formulation of bimodal POM plus 8 wt.% of added wax provided the most appropriate results from investigated combinations. This work has shown how the addition of short polymeric chains in POM influences its time-dependent properties in solid and molten state, which can be an important tool for the optimization of binders designed to be used in PIM technology.

  5. Properties of asphalt-rubber binders related to characteristics of the incorporated crumb rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas Neto, Silvrano A.; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Santos, Luís Picado

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of asphalt binders modified with recycled crumb rubber depends on several factors, such as: rubber contents and type, temperature and time employed during the digestion process. This paper shows the results of a series of tests performed on asphaltrubber produced via the wet process. The tests included standard penetration, softening point, Brookfield viscosity and resilience. The results show that the limiting variable in the digestion process is the Brookfield vi...

  6. Fatigue behavior and associated binder deformation mechanisms in WC-Co cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Valle Alvarez, Lauro

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of WC-Co hardmetals has been studied by the occurrence of subcritical crack growth and strength degradation under cycling loading. The investigation is conducted on three WC-Co hardmetals grades with different binder content and/or grain size by assessing fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior and fatigue life tests at room temperature. Experimental fatigue results are compared to fracture toughness and flexural strength data. An analysis of the results within a fatig...

  7. Effects of metal binder on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti(C,N)-based cermets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qingzhong; Ai, Xing, E-mail: aixingsdu@163.com; Zhao, Jun; Gong, Feng; Pang, Jiming; Wang, Yintao

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Ni–Co binder improves the solid solution reaction and the wetting of hard phases. • Cermets with 25 wt.% binder have evenly distributed grains with moderate rims. • Co/(Ni + Co) ratios influence the grain sizes and microstructure features of cermets. • The cermets with pure Co as binder exhibit optimal mechanical properties. - Abstract: To optimize the mechanical properties of Ti(C,N)-based cermets used as tool materials, the cermets with different Ni–Co binder contents and Co/(Ni + Co) weight ratios were prepared. The effects of metal binder content and Co/(Ni + Co) ratio on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti(C,N)-based cermets were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and measuring the transverse rupture strength (TRS), Vickers hardness (HV) and fracture toughness (K{sub IC}). The experimental results reveal that increasing Ni–Co binder content can increase the thickness of rim phases by improving the solid solution reaction and the wetting of hard phases. The cermets with 25 wt.% binder addition present good comprehensive mechanical properties, which is attributed to the moderate rim phases and uniformly distributed Ti(C,N) grains. The Co/(Ni + Co) weight ratios in binder have a great influence on the grain sizes and microstructure features of Ti(C,N)-based cermets, in virtue of the synergic effects between the wettability of Co and the solubilizing capacity of Ni on hard phases. The cermets with pure Co as binder exhibit optimal mechanical properties with a TRS of 1767 ± 81 MPa, a hardness of 12.26 ± 0.10 GPa and a K{sub IC} of 8.40 ± 0.47 MPa m{sup 1/2}, which meet the requirements for tool materials. And the cermets with a Co/(Ni + Co) ratio of 0.2 have the second best mechanical properties with a TRS of 1848 ± 201 MPa, a hardness of 11.12 ± 0.40 GPa and a K{sub IC} of 9.43 ± 0.54 MPa m{sup 1/2}, in which the lower hardness can

  8. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    OpenAIRE

    St.M. Dobosz; K. Major-Gabryś

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid),polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding s...

  9. Fabrication and properties of binder for powder extrusion molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By optimizing formulation and fabrication methods, a new binder for plasticizing powder extrusion molding ofhard metal, with excellent integrated properties and uniform distribution characters, has been developed. Thermal debond-ing mechanism and the extruding rheological behaviours have been studied. The technology of fabrication of binder andthermal debonding process have also been investigated. Using the novel binder, the hard-metal extrusion-molding rods withdiameter up to 25mm, have been manufactured.

  10. Meal phosphate variability does not support fixed dose phosphate binder schedules for patients treated with peritoneal dialysis: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Simon; McCormick, Brendan; Wagner, Jessica; Biyani, Mohan; Lavoie, Susan; Imtiaz, Rameez; Zimmerman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Removal of phosphate by peritoneal dialysis is insufficient to maintain normal serum phosphate levels such that most patients must take phosphate binders with their meals. However, phosphate ‘counting’ is complicated and many patients are simply prescribed a specific dose of phosphate binders with each meal. Therefore, our primary objective was to assess the variability in meal phosphate content to determine the appropriateness of this approach. Methods In this prospective cohort s...

  11. Thermal Reactivity and Structure of Carbonized Binder Pitches

    OpenAIRE

    Madshus, Stian

    2005-01-01

    Pitches are used on a large scale in the manufacture of carbon anodes for the production of primary aluminium. The role of the pitch is to act as a binder between the petroleum coke grains. The structure of the carbonized pitch binder (pitch coke) has an important impact on the overall performance of the anode. Even though the binder pitch is the minor constituent in an anode, it is impossible to make a good quality anode without a good quality binder pitch.Pitch is an extremely complex mixtu...

  12. Thermal debinding dynamics of novel binder system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继承; 黄伯云; 张传福; 刘业翔

    2001-01-01

    The thermal debinding dynamics of newly developed binders for cemented carbides extrusion molding was studied. It is shown that the thermal debinding processes can be divided into two stages: low temperature region, in which the low molecular mass components (LMMCs) are removed; and high temperature region, in which the polymer components are removed. The rate of thermal debinding is controlled by diffusion mechanism. The thermal debinding activation energies were solved out by differential method and integral method. The results show that the addition of other components acted as a catalyzer can effectively decrease the activation energy of thermal debinding processes.

  13. Three-year performance of in-situ solidified/stabilised soil using novel MgO-bearing binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fei; Wang, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2016-02-01

    A new group of MgO-bearing binders has been developed recently which showed improved sustainability and technical performance compared to Portland cement (PC). However, the application of these MgO-bearing binders in the Solidification/Stabilisation (S/S) techniques is very limited. This study investigates the three-year performance of a highly contaminated soil treated by in-situ S/S using MgO-bearing binders and PC. The core quality, strength, permeability and the leaching properties of the S/S materials were evaluated. The effects of binder composition, addition of inorgano-organo-clay (IOC) and the grout content on the properties of the 3-y S/S materials are discussed. It is found that although MgO alone provided negligible strength to the soil, it is superior in immobilising both inorganic and organic contaminants. Replacing MgO by ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) significantly enhanced the strength while also performed well in immobilising the contaminants. The improved pH buffering capacity was attributed to the low solubilities of brucite and hydrotalcite-like phases formed in the MgO-bearing binders, and was also the reason for the improved performance in stabilising contaminants. The addition of IOC slightly decreased the strength and the permeability of the S/S materials but inconsistent effect on the contaminant immobilisation was found depending on the binder composition. This study showed no degradation of the S/S materials after 3 y exposure to field conditions and has proved the applicability and the advantages of MgO-bearing binders over PC in S/S. PMID:26408974

  14. High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr3C2 cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders

  15. Dynamic linear viscoelastic properties and extensional failure of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yonghong

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in USA to maintain old pavements that are badly cracked. In order to reduce this expenditure, it is desirable to have criteria for selecting asphalts with superior cracking resistance that will provide pavements with longer durability. Literature reports indicate that the ductility of binders recovered from asphalt pavements correlates with cracking failure. However, ductility measurement is a time and material consuming process, and subject to reproducibility difficulties, as are all failure tests. In addition, ductility measurement does not belong to the currently used Superpave(TM) specification. Correlations between ductility and dynamic viscoelastic properties (measured with the dynamic shear rheometer, DSR), which are much easier and faster to perform and may be included into the Superpave(TM) system, are studied for both straight and modified binders. Ductility correlates quite well with G'/(eta '/G') for conventional asphalt binders aged at different conditions, especially when ductility is below 10 cm. However, for modified asphalts, there is no universal correlation between ductility and G'/(eta'/G'), even in the low ductility region. As far as the asphalt binder in pavement is concerned, the loss due to oxidative aging of its ductility is an important reason for pavement cracking. Polymer modification modifies the rheological and oxidative hardening properties of asphalt binders. The effect of polymeric modifiers on various properties of asphalt binders was investigated. Modifiers studied were diblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene) rubber (SBR), triblock poly (styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS), and tire rubber. Polymer modified binders have a lower hardening and oxidation rate than their corresponding base asphalts. In addition, modified binders have lower hardening susceptibility compared with their base materials and in some cases the results can be dramatic. Polymer modification improves asphalt binders' shear

  16. Final report on initial samples supplied by LLNL for task 3.3 binder burnout and sintering schedule optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, P

    1999-01-04

    Sixteen of the twenty-one samples have been investigated using the scanning laser dilatometer. This includes all three types of samples with different preparation routes and organic content. Cracks were observed in all samples, even those only heated to 300 C. It was concluded that the cracking was occurring in the early part of the heat treatment before the samples reached 300 C. Increase in the rate of dilation of the samples occurred above 170 C which coincided with the decomposition of the binder/wax additives as determined by differential thermal analysis. A comparison was made with SYNROC C material (Powder Run 143), samples of which had been CIPed and green machined to a similar diameter and thickness as the 089 mm SRTC pucks. These samples contained neither binder nor other organic processing aids and had been kept in the same desiccator as the SRTC samples. The CIPed Synroc C samples sintered to high density with zero cracks. As the cracks made up only a small contribution to the change in diameter of the sample compared to the sintering shrinkage, useful information could still be gained from the runs. The sintering curves showed that there was much greater shrinkage of the Type III samples containing only the 5% PEG binder compared to the Type I which contained polyolefin wax as processing aid. Slight changes in gradient of the sintering curve were observed, however, due to the masking effect of the cracking, full analysis of the sintering kinetics cannot be conducted. Even heating the samples to 300 C at 1.0 or 0.5 C/min could not prevent crack formation. This indicated that heating rate was not the critical parameter causing cracking of the samples. Sectioning of green bodies revealed the inhomogeneous nature of the binder/lubricant distribution in the samples. Increased homogeneity would reduce the amount of binder/lubricant required, which should in turn, reduce the degree of cracking observed during heating to the binder burnout temperature. A

  17. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  18. Development of Silane Hydrolysate Binder for Thermal-Control Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Technical report describes theoretical and experimental development of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) hydrolysate binder for white, titanium dioxidepigmented thermal-control coatings often needed on satellites. New coating is tougher and more abrasion-resistant than conventional coating, S-13G, which comprises zinc oxide in hydroxyl-therminated dimethylsiloxane binder.

  19. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny;

    2015-01-01

    grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  20. Characterization and evaluation of acid-modified starch of Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese yam as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Okunlola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chinese yam (Dioscorea oppositifolia starch modified by acid hydrolysis was characterized and compared with native starch as a binder in chloroquine phosphate tablet formulations. The physicochemical and compressional properties (using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita equations of modified Chinese yam starch were determined, and its quantitative effects as a binder on the mechanical and release properties of chloroquine phosphate were analyzed using a 2³ full factorial design. The nature (X1, concentration of starch (X2 and packing fraction (X3 were taken as independent variables and the crushing strength-friability ratio (CSFR, disintegration time (DT and dissolution time (t80 as dependent variables. Acid-modified Chinese yam starch showed a marked reduction (p<0.05 in amylose content and viscosity but increased swelling and water-binding properties. The modified starch had a faster onset and greater amount of plastic flow. Changing the binder from native to acid-modified form led to significant increases (p<0.05 in CSFR and DT but a decrease in t80. An increase in binder concentration and packing fraction gave similar results for CSFR and DT only. These results suggest that acid-modified Chinese yam starches may be useful as tablet binders when high bond strength and fast dissolution are required.

  1. Properties of tungsten carbide hard metals with Fe-Co-Ni binder in sintered and thermally treated state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten carbide hard metals with various Fe-Co-Ni binding alloys were prepared and their properties determined in dependence on the binder composition and thermal treatment. The properties of the hard metals depend very largely on the composition of the binding alloy. Hard metals whose binder phases are mainly cubic face centered are inferior to conventional hard metals. By using iron-rich binding alloys, it was possible to achieve hard metal properties which are comparable to or better than the conventional WC-Co hard metals. WC-Fe-Co-Ni hard metals whose binder consists of a mixture of cubic body centered phases, have optimum properties. The properties of hard metals can be optimized with the help of the carbon content, binder alloy composition and thermal treatment. The replacement of the usual cobalt binder by an optimum iron-richer Fe-Co-Ni alloy does not only save as regards the expensive raw material cobalt but also leads to a better quality WC hard metals. (orig.)

  2. Influence of Binder Composition and Concrete Pore Structure on Chloride Diffusion Coefficient in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pengping; SU Dagen; WANG Shengnian; FAN Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The influence of binder composition and pore structure of concrete on chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete were investigated by the natural immersion test, MIP test, SEM and EDS test, respectively. The experimental results showed that the effect of binder composition on chloride diffusion coefficient was the comprehensive result of concrete pore structure and binder hydration products, and the porosity and pore size distribution were the main factors that influence the changes of diffusion coefficient. The chloride diffusion coefficient decreased with increasing the curing temperature and the relative humidity. The hydration degree were promoted by improving curing temperatures, and then the porosity of concrete decreased and the proportion of gel pore and transitional pore increased, respectively. But the water evaporation decreased with increasing the relative humidity and then decreased porosity and increased the proportion of gel pore and transitional pore. Additionally, The chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete got the lower value when the appropriate replacement of fly ash in the ranges of 10%-20%, when the double-adding fly ash and slag content was 50%. The porosity increased and the ratio of C/S in C-S-H decreased with further increasing the fly ash content, which led to increase the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete.

  3. Environmentally Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Production of Portland cement (PC), the ubiquitous binding material for construction works, is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nearly half of these emissions arise from the decomposition of calcareous raw materials, and the other half from kiln fuel combustion and cement clinker grinding operations. As such, PC production contributes significantly to global warming and climate change. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower associated green house gas emissions. An important class of such binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders have very low CO2 emissions from grinding of the starting material, and some from the production of the activating chemical. The total CO2 emission from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/5th - 1/10th of those of Portland cement concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time makes their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Perlite is a volcanic aluminosilicate glass abundant in Turkey, China, Japan, the US and several EU countries. It has been used in its expanded form, for horticulture, for insulation, and for producing lightweight concrete. Turkish perlites contain more than 70 % SiO2, and have a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ~5.5. This study shows that ground perlite can be mixed with alkaline activators like sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate to yield mortars with strengths comparable to those of portland cement mortars. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in 24 h or less. Since perlite is natural, perlite geopolymers can have environmental, energetic, and

  4. Evaluation of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. starch as pharmaceutical binder in solid dosage form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akhilesh V Singh; Anudwipa Singh; Lila K Nath; Nihar R Pani

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate binding efficiency of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. starch (TBS) in diclofenac sodium tablets. Methods: Diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared using wet granulation method. The starch paste in different concentrations (5%-15% w/w) was evaluated for optimized binder concentration. Preformulation study of the drug with TBS and different excipients were also analyzed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isothermal stress testing (IST). Results: Preformulation study of the drug, water chestnut starch and different excipients showed no interaction or, drug degradation in FTIR and IST, respectively. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration and dissolution studies, and all the parameters were found within the official specifications. Conclusions: The results reveal that this starch has potential to be used as binder at industrial scale in pharmaceutical solid dosage form development.

  5. Rheology of crumb-rubber modified asphalt binders and mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Vikas Rameshchandra

    Laboratory test procedures are presented to determine the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA) binders and mixes. These tests provide simple, fast, and cost-effective alternatives to evaluate the performance (rutting and cracking potential) of binders and mixes used for pavement construction. Viscoelastic properties of CRMA binders are measured using dynamic shear analysis. Master curves were generated using the principle of time-temperature superposition to evaluate the effects of aging, rubber concentration, and curing conditions on the rheology of the modified binder. Results indicate that the rheology of CRMA binders can be divided into three regions of viscoelasticity: glassy region at high frequencies, transition/viscoelastic region at intermediate frequencies, and viscous region at low frequencies. Modification of the asphalt by addition of rubber leads to an improvement in both the high and low temperature properties, as reflected by changes in Gsp' and Gsp{''}, which causes the binder to have a greater resistance to specific pavement failure mechanisms. Both transient and dynamic properties of CRMA mixes were measured in the laboratory using the creep and recovery, direct tension, and frequency sweep tests. Rheological properties of the mix generated from the test data were compared to those of the binder to evaluate the effect of aging, rubber concentration, and curing conditions on mix performance. Several rheological parameters have been identified to characterize the rutting and cracking potential of mixes. A power law equation was found to give good correlations between several mix rheological parameters. Analysis of binder and mix failure energies show that work of cohesion of the binder is negligible compared to the failure energies. A unique relationship between Paris law material parameters has been confirmed. It is also shown that mix failure properties bear a one-to-one correlation with binder failure properties. Based

  6. Performance prediction of hot mix asphalt from asphalt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)

  7. Investigation of carbonate rocks appropriate for the production of natural hydraulic lime binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, George; Panagopoulos, George; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Christidis, George; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Cement industry is facing growing challenges in conserving materials and conforming to the demanding environmental standards. Therefore, there is great interest in the development, investigation and use of binders alternatives to Portland cement. Natural hydraulic lime (NHL) binders have become nowadays materials with high added value, due to their advantages in various construction applications. Some of them include compatibility, suitability, workability and the versatility in applications. NHL binders are made from limestones which contain sufficient argillaceous or siliceous components fired at relatively low temperatures, with reduction to powder by slaking with or without grinding. This study is focused in developing technology for small-scale production of cementitious binders, combining the knowledge and experience of geologists and mineral resources engineers. The first step of investigation includes field techniques to the study the lithology, texture and sedimentary structure of Neogene carbonate sediments, from various basins of Crete Island, Greece and the construction of 3D geological models, in order to determine the deposits of each different geological formation. Sampling of appropriate quantity of raw materials is crucial for the investigation. Petrographic studies on the basis of the study of grain type, grain size, types of porosity and depositional texture, are necessary to classify effectively industrial mineral raw materials for this kind of application. Laboratory tests should also include the study of mineralogical and chemical composition of the bulk raw materials, as well as the content of insoluble limestone impurities, thus determining the amount of active clay and silica components required to produce binders of different degree of hydraulicity. Firing of the samples in various temperatures and time conditions, followed by X-ray diffraction analysis and slaking rate tests of the produced binders, is essential to insure the

  8. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  9. Cationic fluorinated polymer binders for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated quaternary ammonium-containing polymers were used as catalyst binders in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. The performance of the cathodes was examined and compared to NAFION ® and other sulfonated aromatic cathode catalyst binders using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), impedance spectroscopy, and performance tests in single chamber air-cathode MFCs. The cathodes with quaternary ammonium functionalized fluorinated poly(arylene ether) (Q-FPAE) binders showed similar current density and charge transfer resistance (R ct) to cathodes with NAFION ® binders. Cathodes containing either of these fluorinated binders exhibited better electrochemical responses than cathodes with sulfonated or quaternary ammonium-functionalized RADEL ® poly(sulfone) (S-Radel or Q-Radel) binders. After 19 cycles (19 d), the power densities of all the MFCs declined compared to the initial cycles due to biofouling at the cathode. MFC cathodes with fluorinated polymer binders (1445 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-H; 1397 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.4-Cl; 1277 mW m -2, NAFION ®; and 1256 mW m -2, Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) had better performance than those with non-fluorinated polymer binders (880 mW m -2, S-Radel; 670 mW m -2, Q-Radel). There was a 15% increase in the power density using the Q-FPAE binder with a 40% higher ion exchange capacity (Q-FPAE-1.4-H compared to Q-FPAE-1.0-Cl) after 19 cycles of operation, but there was no effect on the power production due to counter ions in the binder (Cl -vs. HCO 3 -). The highest-performance cathodes (NAFION ® and Q-FPAE binders) had the lowest charge transfer resistances (R ct) in fresh and in fouled cathodes despite the presence of thick biofilms on the surface of the electrodes. These results show that fluorinated binders may decrease the penetration of the biofilm and associated biopolymers into the cathode structure, which helps to combat MFC performance loss over time. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. EVALUATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA GUM AS A BINDER IN TABLET FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Basawaraj S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Various plant gums have been used as binders in tablet formulations. But still finding novel binder for the manufacture of tablets, in pharmaceutical industry. The Moringa oleifera gum was found its binding property. In the present study Moringa oleifera gum was employed as a binding agent in Chloroquine phosphate tablets at concentrations of 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 % w/w, in comparison with potato starch. The properties of Moringa oleifera gum were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, carr’s compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. The granules were evaluated for moisture content, angle of repose, bulk and tapped densities. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution profiles. Studies showed that increase in binding concentration of Moringa oleifera gum, increases the hardness, increases the disintegration time, decreases the percentage friability and decreases % cumulative release. Results obtained indicated that Moringa oleifera gum performed as good as potato starch as a binder to Chloroquine phosphate tablets.

  11. The Study Of Briquettes Produced With Bitumen, Caso4 And Starch As Binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ,Ikelle Issie Ikelle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work was based on production and study of the properties of smokeless briquettes of various compositions with coal and rice husk. Different briquettes were produced with starch, bitumen and CaSO4 as the binders while Ca(OH2 was the desulphurizing agent. The proximate analysis of the raw coal sample showed ash content 19.12%, moisture content 6.25%, volatile matter 41.12%, fixed carbon 33.51% and calorific value 117 KJ/g, the rice husk had the following values ash content 7.53%, moisture content 10.48%, volatile matter 68.74%, fixed carbon 13.25% and calorific value 65.24 KJ/g. The briquettes produced are in the following ratio of mixtures of coal and rice husk 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 respectively. The prepared briquettes were sun dried for seven days, subjected to various tests to assess their fuel quality. The briquettes produced with starch as the binder had better results for faster ignition time, lower amounts of sulphur emissions during burning, highest calorific values and longer burning time for all the different compositions.

  12. A Redox-Active Binder for Electrochemical Capacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Corentin; Demeter, Dora; Bélanger, Daniel; Cougnon, Charles

    2016-04-18

    A promising strategy for increasing the performance of supercapacitors is proposed. Until now, a popular strategy for increasing the specific capacity of the electrode consists of grafting redox molecules onto a high surface area carbon structure to add a faradaic contribution to the charge storage. Unfortunately, the grafting of molecules to the carbon surface leads to a dramatic decrease of the electrochemical performances of the composite material. Herein, we used the organic binder as an active material in the charge/discharge process. Redox molecules were attached onto its polymeric skeleton to obtain a redox binder with the dual functionalities of both the binder and the active material. In this way, the electrochemical performance was improved without detrimentally affecting the properties of the porous carbon. Results showed that the use of a redox binder is promising for enhancing both energy and power densities. PMID:26997572

  13. COLOR ASPHALT CONCRETE COATING ON POLIMER-TAR BINDER

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotarev, V.; Golovenchic, S.; Oksak, S.; S. Efremov

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of receiving of color asphalt concrete on polimer-tar binder is found. Principal moments of production technology of coloured mixtures and device of asphalt concrete coating have been revealed.

  14. Role of binder in the synthesis of titania membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Seshadri; M Selvaraj; R Kesava Moorthy; K Varatharajan; M P Srinivasan; K B Lal

    2003-02-01

    The synthesis of titania membrane through sol–gel route involves hydrolysis of alkoxide, peptization of hydrous oxide of titanium to obtain a sol, adjustment of the sol viscosity by including a binder and filtration of the viscous sol through a microporous support, gelation and sintering to desired temperature. The binder plays an important role in that it not only helps in adjustment of sol viscosity but also helps in binding the sol particle with porous support. Here a comparative study on the role of different binders, viz. polyvinyl alcohol, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylamide, effect of their viscosity and surface tension effect on the morphology of the titania membrane is presented. The results show that among the three binders studied polyvinyl alcohol gave rise to membranes of desired characteristics when the sol viscosity was 0.08 pa.s.

  15. Rheological Evaluation of Polymer Modiifed Asphalt Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; CHANG Chunqing

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure and dynamic rheological characteristics of asphalt containing different polymer modifiers (crumb rubber, styrene-butadiene-styrene and crumb rubber mix with styrene-butadiene-styrene) at mid and high service temperature levels were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) and repeat creep test. The main objective of the investigation was to rank the modifiers based on their effect on performance characteristics of asphalt under service conditions. To evaluate the effect of different modiifers on the viscoelastic response of asphalt, the temperature and frequency dependences of the dynamic viscoelastic properties were compared. The mid-temperature fatigue resistance and high-temperature rutting resistance of three polymer modiifed asphalts were evaluated to predict their ifeld performance in roads. Based on the current results, an improved rutting factor was proposed to determine the rutting resistance of asphalt pavements. In addition, the viscous stiffness (Gv), deifned as the reciprocal of viscous compliance, was used to evaluate the high-temperature deformation resistance of asphalt mixtures. The experimental results indicate that the asphalt containing crumb rubber only shows superior performance at mid and high service temperatures in all three modiifed asphalt binders due to the action of the crumb rubber.

  16. Development of composite solid propellent using dicyclopentadien binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Stephen Ray

    Through the history of composite solid propellant binders new chemicals are introduced as binders to improve upon the previous generation. Sometimes this is done to improve upon the flaws or shortcomings of a previous binder. Other time it is to meet a new set of requirements desired by industry. Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) is a hydrocarbon monomer being considered for its potential as a new binder in the composite propellant industry. The binder of a composite solid propellant is arguably the most important feature of the propellant. It is the binder that provides the majority of the structural characteristics of the propellant while also contributing itself as fuel to the combustion process. A binder in composite propellants must also be able to accept the introduction of a large quantity of solid filler; oxidizer, fuel, and other energetic and non-energetic particles. Many of the composite propellants used in industry today have over 80% of their weight composed of non-binder solid or liquid fillers. These requirements must be met by the binder in some form or fashion to produce a propellant able to compete with binders currently in use. When DCPD is polymerized it produces an extremely tough plastic with excellent tensile and impact strength. Experimentation has found that DCPD is able to support a large quantity of solid materials, over 80% weight of the mixture, while still retaining a great portion of its original strength. When compared to another similarly loaded binder currently used in industry, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), it was found that DCPD composite propellant had nearly 1.5 times the stress capacity while still exhibiting over 75% of the strain capacity of HTPB based composite propellant. In addition it was also shown that DCPD composite propellant allows for tailoring of its mechanical properties with the addition of plasticizers. The DCPD based composite propellant also exhibits a burning rate nearly twice that HTPB. These factors

  17. 海排灰的氯盐含量对三灰结合料微观机理影响研究%Study of Influence of Content of Chloride and Salt in Sea-Removed Dust on Microcosmic Mechanism for Binder of Cement-Lime-Fly Ash(3 dusts)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁炜; 包龙生; 于玲

    2009-01-01

    Study of microcosmic mechanism of '3 dusts' binder hydrated product, based on sea-removed dust, has revealed influence of chlorid ion on thrength of subbase materials. Study results show that cement and lime have consolidating effect on chloride ion in sea removed dust. Adequate amount of chloride ion in sea removed dust is helpful to subbase.%对基于海排灰的三灰结合料水化产物的微观机理进行研究,揭示氯离子对底基层材料强度形成的影响.研究表明:水泥、石灰材料对海排灰中的氯离子有固化作用,海排灰中适量的氯离子对底基层材料有益.

  18. Chemistry principles for thermoplastic polymer binder formula selection for powder injection molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁叔全; 唐艳; 黄伯云; 李少强

    2004-01-01

    The polymer binder selection is one of the very important aspects for the powder injection molding.However, even nowadays the binder selection is still mainly performed by try and error method. Six commercial or intensive studied binder formulas were analyzed according to state diagram and chemical characteristics of ingredients in each binder formula. In addition, the interactions between the binder components and additives were also taken into account. Based on the analysis, the optimum binder formula was selected and some selection criterions were put forward for the binder and additives.

  19. Realizing of Optimization of Binder Backfill Material Under Certain Strength with Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明义; 胡华

    2001-01-01

    The main factors deciding the compressive strength of binder backfill body are tailing density and binder dosage in binder backfill materials. Based on the antecedent of certain pulp density, the method of increasing the tailing density and reducing the binder dosage, or the manner of cutting down the tailing density and gaining the binder dosage are taken to guarantee the strength of backfill body. The problem that should be solved is how to determine the tailing density and the binder dosage rationally. This paper tries to realize the correct selection of the tailing density and the binder dosage in computer with the method of fuzzy mathematics.

  20. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For the calcinations of Portland cement, temperatures up to 1480 oC are needed, while the calcination of for instance hemihydrate requires a temperature of 170 oC

  1. Neutral hydrophilic cathode catalyst binders for microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saito, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Improving oxygen reduction in microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes requires a better understanding of the effects of the catalyst binder chemistry and properties on performance. A series of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) polymers with systematically varying hydrophilicity were designed to determine the effect of the hydrophilic character of the binder on cathode performance. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the PS-b-PEO binders enhanced the electrochemical response of the cathode and MFC power density by ∼15%, compared to the hydrophobic PS-OH binder. Increased cathode performance was likely a result of greater water uptake by the hydrophilic binder, which would increase the accessible surface area for oxygen reduction. Based on these results and due to the high cost of PS-b-PEO, the performance of an inexpensive hydrophilic neutral polymer, poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) (BAEH), was examined in MFCs and compared to a hydrophilic sulfonated binder (Nafion). MFCs with BAEH-based cathodes with two different Pt loadings initially (after 2 cycles) had lower MFC performance (1360 and 630 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) than Nafion cathodes (1980 and 1080 mW m -2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2). However, after long-term operation (22 cycles, 40 days), power production of each cell was similar (∼1200 and 700-800 mW m-2 for 0.5 and 0.05 mg Pt cm-2) likely due to cathode biofouling that could not be completely reversed through physical cleaning. While binder chemistry could improve initial electrochemical cathode performance, binder materials had less impact on overall long-term MFC performance. This observation suggests that long-term operation of MFCs will require better methods to avoid cathode biofouling. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. THE STUDY OF CORE SAND MIXTURES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Natalia V. Zakharova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using foamed polystyrene waste as the binder in manufacturing core sand mixtures. The article provides experimental data obtained by studying the core sand mixtures properties depending on the methods of addition, foamed polystyrene solution amount, its viscosity and the method of drying. The author investigates the ways of using foamed polystyrene as the binder and as the polymeric additive.

  3. Reinforcing Effects of Carbon Black on Asphalt Binder for Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Sasaki, Iwao; Nishizaki, Itaru; Meiarashi, Seishi; Moriyoshi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    Carbon black, used as a reinforcing filler for rubber materials, was evaluated for asphalt binders in pavements. Carbon black added to straight asphalt within 20 wt% caused an increase in the elastic modulus and a decrease in the viscosity of the asphalt, especially at temperatures higher than room temperature. Addition of carbon black raised the maximum service temperature of asphalt in the category of the binder performance grade according to the SHRP (Strategic Highway Research Program) sp...

  4. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  5. Thermal deformation of moulding sands with biopolymer binders

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabryś; St. M. Dobosz; J. Jakubski

    2010-01-01

    Investigations concerning an application of biopolymer materials as binders for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Theseinvestigations constitute the continuation of examinations related to applications of various biopolymers as binding agents. The results ofstrength tests, obtained for the investigated sands (with the PLA2 biopolymer binder) prepared in a self-hardening sands technology andair as well as microwave hardened, are presented. Examinations of sand thermal deformations bas...

  6. The Binder syndrome: review of the literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedev, Plamen Kostov

    2008-10-01

    Binder syndrome or maxillo-nasal dysplasia (nasomaxillary hypoplasia) is an uncommon developmental anomaly affecting primarily the anterior part of the maxilla and nasal complex. A 4-year-old boy with maxillo-nasal dysplasia (Binder's syndrome), featuring maxillary hypoplasia and relative mandibular prognathism, combined with acute leucosis was presented. We review the literature and describe how three-dimensional CT scanning was used to evaluate the facial morphology. The principal features, diagnosis and management of the syndrome are discussed. PMID:18691769

  7. A Granule Model for Evaluating Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Orafai

    2003-01-01

    Granule capability is defined in terms of the strength of individual granule and friability of granulation batch to withstand breaking, abrasion and compactibility. Binder(s) are added to perform the above properties .The common methods to asses their capability are to test crushing strength of the granules directly and to make statistical analysis and /or testing the friability of bulk granulation. In this work four substrate models including polymethylmetacrylate beads(PMMA),glass powder, a...

  8. An Open Challenge Problem Repository for Systems Supporting Binders

    OpenAIRE

    A. Felty; A. Momigliano; B. Pientka

    2015-01-01

    A variety of logical frameworks support the use of higher-order abstract syntax in representing formal systems; however, each system has its own set of benchmarks. Even worse, general proof assistants that provide special libraries for dealing with binders offer a very limited evaluation of such libraries, and the examples given often do not exercise and stress-test key aspects that arise in the presence of binders. In this paper we design an open repository ORBI (Open challenge problem Repos...

  9. Enhanced Cyclability of C/Lithium Iron Phosphate Cathodes with a Novel water-soluble lithium-ion binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Lithium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Li) was synthesized. CMC-Li, CMC-Li/Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) and carbon nanofiber/lithium iron phosphate/lithium-Ion compound (CNF/LFP/Li, CLL) composite nanofibers were successfully obtained. A new method to modify electrode materials with lithium-ion polymer by electrospinning was developed, and CMC-Li was used as a novel lithium-ion binder in batteries. The batteries show good electrochemical properties, excellent stability and hight specific capacity. - Highlights: • The synthesis of CMC-Li using cotton as raw material is newly reported. • Water-soluble polysaccharide CMC-Li nanofibers are obtained by electrospinning. • Novel water-soluble lithium-ion binder CMC-Li is used in lithium-ion battery. • The CMC-Li binder improves the cyclability of the lithium-ion battery. • These new material and process may find appliance with other electrode materials. - Abstract: Novel cellulose-derived lithium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Li) was synthesized using cotton as the raw material. Properties of electrospun CMC-Li-modified electrode materials and CMC-Li binders are described in this study. CMC-Li/Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) composite fibers and CMC-Li nanofibers were successfully obtained by electrospinning. Next, CMC-Li/LFP nano-composite fibers were carbonized under nitrogen at a high-temperature to form carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon nanofiber/lithium iron phosphate/lithium-Ion compound (CNF/LFP/Li, CLL) composite nanofibers were formed as the cathode material. CMC-Li was investigated as a novel water-soluble binder. Compared with conventional poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binders, the CMC-Li binder significantly improved cycling performance of the LFP cathode with 97.5% of retention of initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 175 mAh g−1. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrated that the CLL electrodes with CMC-Li binders have the highest

  10. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  11. A Granule Model for Evaluating Adhesion of Pharmaceutical Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Orafai

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Granule capability is defined in terms of the strength of individual granule and friability of granulation batch to withstand breaking, abrasion and compactibility. Binder(s are added to perform the above properties .The common methods to asses their capability are to test crushing strength of the granules directly and to make statistical analysis and /or testing the friability of bulk granulation. In this work four substrate models including polymethylmetacrylate beads(PMMA,glass powder, acetaminophen, and para-aminobebzoic acid were chosen. The binder models were corn starch, gelatin, methylcellulose (MC and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC. After massing the substrates with the binder solutions, discs were produced by the mean of the mold technique. The discs were dried and conditioned and then tested for tensile strength while the failed areas were scanned by SEM. Various granulations were made and the results of friability and crush strength were compared with the discs strength .The bond areas in the SEM showed the trend with the binder concentration .A comparison of the standard deviation shows that discs have much lower level of the strength than granules. The resulting discs showed a higher performance which is related to the stems for the discs shape .In conclusion, this method is a simple and is applicable to differentiate efficacy of binder under studies.

  12. Aqueous Tape Casting Process with Styrene-acrylic Latex Binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xue-min; OUYANG Shi-xi; HUANG Yong; YU Zhi-yong; ZHAO Shi-ke; WANG Chang-an

    2004-01-01

    A commercial styrene-acrylic latex binder has been investigated as a good binder for aqueous Al2O3 suspensions tape-casting process. This paper focuses on the forming film mechanism of latex binder, the rheological behaviors of the suspensions, physical properties of green tapes and drying process of aqueous slurries with latex binder system. The drying process of the alumina suspensions is shown to follow a two-stage mechanism (the first stage: evaporation controlled process; and the second stage: diffusion controlled process). During the drying stage of the suspensions, the compressive force presses the latex particles and makes them be distorted, which results in cross-linking structure in contacted latex particles of the solidified tapes.A smooth-surface and high-strength green tape was fabricated by aqueous tape casting with latex binder system. The results from the SEM images of the crossing section microstructure of green tapes show that the latex is a very suitable binder for aqueous tape casting.

  13. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  14. Development of an innovative bio-binder using Asphalt-rubber technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Williams, R. Christopher; Rover, Marjorie; Machado, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    This research work evaluates several parameters that can affect Asphalt Rubber (AR) binder performance and applies the AR technology to the development of an innovative renewable bio-binder that can fully and cost-effectively replace asphaltic bitumen derived from petroleum in flexible pavement construction. The “Binder Accelerated Separator” method was used to divide the constituents of the Asphalt Rubber and bio-binder (residual binder and swelled rubber). The physical and chemi...

  15. RECYCLING PHOSPHORUS SLAG AS A PRECURSOR FOR ALKALI-ACTIVATED BINDER; IMPACT OF TYPE AND DOSAGE OF ACTIVATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Hojjatollah Maghsoodloorad; Hamidreza Khalili Amiri; Allahverdi Ali; Lachemi Mohamed; Hossain Khandaker M. Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the suitability of phosphorus slag as a precursor for alkali-activated binder by studying the effects of type and dosage of alkaline activators on compressive strength and efflorescence formation of the material. Different alkaline activators including; potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, and their combinations with liquid sodium silicate were used. Different levels of total alkali content (1, 3,...

  16. Performance analysis of flexible DSSC with binder addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliani, Lia; Hidayat, Jojo; Anggraini, Putri Nur

    2016-04-01

    Flexible DSSC is one of modification of DSSC based on its substrate. Operating at low temperature, flexible DSSC requires a binder to improve particles interconnection. This research was done to compare the morphology and performance of flexible DSSC that was produced with binder-added and binder-free. TiO2 powder, butanol, and HCl were mixed for preparation of TiO2 paste. Small amount of titanium isopropoxide as binder was added into the mixture. TiO2 paste was deposited on ITO-PET plastic substrate with area of 1x1 cm2 by doctor blade method. Furthermore, SEM, XRD, and BET characterization were done to analyze morphology and surface area of the TiO2 photoelectrode microstructures. Dyed TiO2 photoelectrode and platinum counter electrode were assembled and injected by electrolyte. In the last process, flexible DSSCs were illuminated by sun simulator to do J-V measurement. As a result, flexible DSSC containing binder showed higher performance with photoconversion efficiency of 0.31%.

  17. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  18. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  19. Study of radionuclides migration in hydraulic binders. Influence of binder alteration on transfer mechanisms and kinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of low and medium activity wastes surface storage, hydraulic binders materials are usually used as containment barrier. The safety analysis of this storage mode involves the knowledge of their behaviour and of their retention capacity towards radionuclides, at short and long-term. The knowledge of diffusional processes inside their liquid phase and those of the interactions existing between the diffusing element and the cement matrix, as well as their kinetics, are essential elements for the study of their durability on 300 years. An experimental methodology has been defined, allowing the characterization of the transfer of an element j in a porous material by the determination of the diffusion coefficient of j in the pores of the material x and the determination of the local equilibrium constant characterizing the interaction of j with the material x. This can be made from the analytical expressions coming from the Fick laws. These parameters have been studied from diffusion and leaching experiments of radionuclides in pure cement pastes. A modelling of the leaching processes is proposed here. The decomposition of the hydraulic binders, by their leaching in a demineralized solution at 'aggressive' pH, leads essentially to their decalcification - whose kinetics answers to a pure diffusion law in √t - and an increase of their porosity. In these attack conditions, it seems that it exists a decalcification limit condition, from which a lattice of interconnected microcracks is developed in all the material. In consequence, the retention capacity of these degraded materials towards radionuclides decreases. The cesium transfer appears more sensitive to the degradation of the material than of those of the tritium. (O.M.)

  20. BINDER MODIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT FOR BRIQUETTING STEEL MILL RESIDUES; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternatives to the molasses-ordinary portland cement (OPC) binder as a binder for steel mill residues were extensively investigated. A large number of binder modifications were tested using a hand pelleting apparatus to identify effective compositions. The more effective compositions were evaluated in a series of three briquetting matrices using the Komarek press. Evaluations consisted of drop tests, compression tests of given and cured pellets, and tumble tests of cured pellets. Pyrolysis odor tests were performed to determine the effects of certain compositions on the disagreeable wet campfire odor produced during heating of the molasses-OPC briquettes. Several scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology studies were conducted to examine the nature of structures formed during pelleting or briquetting

  1. Performance Characterization of Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Saboo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue sensitivity of four different asphalt binders and three different asphalt mixes was evaluated in the study. Binders were subjected to Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS test at three temperatures of 10, 20, and 30°C. Four-point beam bending test (4PBBT was conducted on the asphalt mixes at a temperature of 20°C for strain amplitudes varying from 200 to 1000 microstrains. Tests like retained Marshall Stability and indirect tensile strength (ITS were also carried out to judge the mix performance. Experimental studies demonstrated that elastomeric modified binder and mixes gave the best performance in fatigue. Plastomeric modification was found to be highly strain susceptible and resulted in poor fatigue performance. The fatigue life of stone mastic asphalt (SMA was found to be almost five times higher than the dense graded mixes. For similar strain levels, the results of LAS test could be linearly correlated with the 4PBBT results.

  2. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  3. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF OKRA GUM AS A TABLET BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tavakoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The type and amount of binders decisively influence the characteristics of tablets prepared by wet granulation procedure. Commonly used binders like acacia, gelatin, starch and hydrolyzed starch have natural origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new binder extracted from Hibiscus esculentus (Okra gum in tabletting. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Okra fruit by maceration in distilled water followed by filtration of viscous solution as well as precipitation of gum extract by using acetone. To evaluate the binder effectiveness, two models, including a placebo formulation (lactose and a drug formulation (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and/or Calcium acetate were evaluated. Granules were prepared by different concentrations (0.5-6 %w/w of Okra gum and tabletted using a Kilian single punch press. Cornstarch (12.5 % w/w and P.V.P (22 %w/w were employed as the standard binders for comparison. The physical properties of the granulates and those of the tablets including disintegration time and dissolution rate were studied. The properties of placebo granulates (bulk and tapped density, granule strength, flowability as well as those of tablets (hardness, friability, disintegration time were generally good. Moreover, the physical properties of Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets containing Okra gum showed sufficient hardness, desirable disintegration time and low friability. The percent of drug released after 45 minutes were 15 %, 44 % and 96 % for Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen and Calcium acetate tablets, respectively..Okra gum produces some tablet formulations with good hardness and friability. However, this binder prolongs the dissolution rate of some slightly soluble drugs and hence may be good candidate for sustained release formulations.

  5. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  6. Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of recent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floege, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is treated by dietary measures, dialysis techniques and/or phosphate binders. For the present review PubMed was searched for new publications on phosphate binders appearing between January 2010 and October 2015. This review summarizes the latest information on non-pharmacological measures and their problems in lowering phosphate in CKD patients, effects of phosphate binders on morbidity and mortality, adherence to phosphate binder therapy as well as new information on specific aspects of the various phosphate binders on the market: calcium acetate, calcium carbonate, magnesium-containing phosphate binders, polymeric phosphate binders (sevelamer, bixalomer, colestilan), lanthanum carbonate, ferric citrate, sucroferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum-containing phosphate binders, and new compounds in development. The review also briefly covers the emerging field of drugs targeting intestinal phosphate transporters. PMID:26800972

  7. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  8. Utilisation of antibody microarrays for the selection of specific and informative antibodies from recombinant library binders of unknown quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibat, Janek; Schirrmann, Thomas; Knape, Matthias J;

    2016-01-01

    Many diagnostic and therapeutic concepts require antibodies of high specificity. Recombinant binder libraries and related selection approaches allow the efficient isolation of antibodies against almost every target of interest. Nevertheless, it cannot be guaranteed that selected antibodies perform...... well and interact specifically enough with analytes unless an elaborate characterisation is performed. Here, we present an approach to shorten this process by combining the selection of suitable antibodies with the identification of informative target molecules by means of antibody microarrays, thereby...... reducing the effort of antibody characterisation by concentrating on relevant molecules. In a pilot scheme, a library of 456 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) binders to 134 antigens was used. They were arranged in a microarray format and incubated with the protein content of clinical tissue samples...

  9. Enabling high areal capacitance in electrochemical double layer capacitors by means of the environmentally friendly starch binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Potatoes starch (PS), a natural polymer obtainable from non-edible sources, is for the first time evaluated as alternative water-processable binder for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) electrodes. Morphological and electrochemical properties of activated carbon (AC)-based electrodes are investigated and compared to those achieved with the state-of-the-art aqueous binder (CMC, i.e. Na-carboxymethyl cellulose). The obtained results suggest substantial benefits of PS, in particular regarding the electrode fabrication process. As a matter of fact, owing to its amylopectin content (moderately branched polysaccharide), PS displays only minimal shrinkage upon drying, resulting on rather homogeneous electrodes not presenting the dramatic surface cracking observed with CMC. Furthermore, owing to the smaller volume of water required for the processing, much higher active material loading per area unit can be achieved. This is reflected on improvements of up to 60% in terms of areal capacitance.

  10. Effect of type of binder on growth, digestibility, and energetic balance of Octopus maya

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, C; Tut, J; Baeza, J.; Sanchez, A.; Sosa, V.; Pascual, C; L. Arena; Domingues, P; Cuzon, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, total apparent digestibility, and some elements of the energetic balance of early O. maya juveniles. Two experiments were performed. One was aimed at evaluating the effect of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, and energetic balance and the other at knowing the effect of the binder on total apparent digestibility of O. maya. Binder type affected growth and survival of early O....

  11. Alkali – activated binders: a review part 1. Historical background, terminology, reaction mechanisms and hydration products

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2008-01-01

    The disintegration of concrete structures made of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a worrying topic of increasing significance. The development of new binders with longer durability is therefore needed. Alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to OPC binders, which seems to have superior durability and environmental impact. This paper reviews current knowledge about alkali-activated binders. The subjects of Part 1 in this paper are historical background, terminology a...

  12. Effects of binders on the performance of electric double-layer capacitors of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chensha; WANG Dazhi; ZHANG Baoyou; WANG Xiaofeng; CAO Maosheng; LIANG Ji

    2005-01-01

    Polarizable electrodes of electric double layer capacitor (EDLCs) were made from carhon nanotubes. Effects of different binders, which are phenolic resin (PF) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), on the properties of polarizable electrodes are studied. Results indicate that the microstructure, pore size distribution and specific capacitance of the electrodes with PTFE binder are superior to those electrodes with PF binder after carbonization. The suitable binder (PTFE) for carbon nanotubes electrodes is proposed.

  13. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nida Chaimoon; Krit Chaimoon

    2014-01-01

    For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB) and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historica...

  14. Cellular Composites with Ambient and Autoclaved Type of Hardening with Application of Nanostructured Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelyubova, V.; Pavlenko, N.; Netsvet, D.

    2015-11-01

    The research presents the dimensional and structural characteristics of nonhydrational hardening binders - nanostructured binders. Rational areas of their use in composites for construction purposes are given. The paper presents the results of the development of natural hardening foam concrete and aerated autoclaved concrete for thermal insulating and construction and thermal insulating purposes. Thus nanostructured binder (NB) in the composites was used as a primary binder and a high reactive modifier.

  15. Continuous control of parameters of production of phosphogypsum binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choice of basic technological parameters for production of phosphogypsum binder of β-modification is substantiated. The necessity of their continuous control is shown. Control methods and hardware of the main parameters permitting to use them for following control automation of β-gypsum production are suggested

  16. Polymethyl Methacrylate as a Binder for Pyrotechnic Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Sontakke; S. D. Kakade; R. M. Wagh; A. G. Dugam; P. P. Sane

    1995-01-01

    Studies on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as a binder for igniter and delay compositions are reported. Igniter compositions based on magnesium and boron as fuels and potassium nitrate as oxidiser, delay compositions comprising ferrosilicon and red lead, have been investigated. These compositions were subjected to various tests, such as linear burning rate, sensitivity, calorimetric value, compatibility, pelleting properties, spark sensitivity, ignition temperatures and performance char...

  17. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder. (a... vessel had been requisitioned for title under section 902(a) of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1242(a)) at the time of the attachment of the insurance under said policy:...

  18. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...

  19. 40 CFR 427.30 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. 427.30 Section 427.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.30 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (starch binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  20. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  1. Waste stabilization based on hydraulic binders: from theoretical principles to industrial implementation; Stabilisation des dechets a base de liants hydrauliques: des principes theoriques a la mise en oeuvre industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchelaghem, A.; Magnie, M.C.; Cojan, J.Y. [Inertec, 92 - Nanterre (France)

    1997-12-31

    The selection of reactive agents, binders and process formulation for industrial waste stabilization, through solidification and chemical fixation, is related to the type of waste and their content in soluble fraction, organic compounds, heavy metals, cyanides, arsenic, etc.: application examples are given with incineration residues, hydrocarbon-polluted residues, and residues with high contents of chromium VI and arsenic

  2. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  3. The Durability and Performance of Short Fibers for a Newly Developed Alkali-Activated Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Funke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the development of a fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binder (FRAAB with an emphasis on the performance and the durability of the fibers in the alkaline alkali-activated binder (AAB-matrix. For the development of the matrix, the reactive components granulated slag and coal fly ash were used, which were alkali-activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide (2–10 mol/L and an aqueous sodium silicate solution (SiO2/Na2O molar ratio: 2.1 at ambient temperature. For the reinforcement of the matrix integral fibers of alkali-resistant glass (AR-glass, E-glass, basalt, and carbon with a fiber volume content of 0.5% were used. By the integration of these short fibers, the three-point bending tensile strength of the AAB increased strikingly from 4.6 MPa (no fibers up to 5.7 MPa (carbon after one day. As a result of the investigations of the alkali resistance, the AR-glass and the carbon fibers showed the highest durability of all fibers in the FRAAB-matrix. In contrast to that, the weight loss of E-glass and basalt fibers was significant under the alkaline condition. According to these results, only the AR-glass and the carbon fibers reveal sufficient durability in the alkaline AAB-matrix.

  4. Assessment of Coagulant Synergy for the Depollution of Binder Emulsion Plant Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Binder emulsion plant effluent is a source of intense pollution when discharged into the environment without proper degree of treatment due to its strong color as well as higher total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD contents. An empirical study was conducted to optimize the effect of the coagulants used for the removal of Color, Turbidity, TSS, and COD from binder emulsion effluent. The coagulants, used with and without the induction of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC to enhance the decrease in pollution concentration, included Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Alum and Lime. Ferric Chloride used in combination with PAC produced a synergistic effect in terms of effluent depollution and transpired into efficient removal of effluent COD (83%, Color (98%, Turbidity (97% and TSS (96%. Induction of PAC with all the coagulants combined proved highly effective as well in decreasing the effluent COD, color, Turbidity and TSS by 91%, 99%, 99% and 97% respectively. In a combined process of coagulation and adsorption, combination of ferric chloride and PAC gave effective results in terms of pollutants removal by around 90% as compared to combination of PAC with other coagulants, yielding removal percentages of lower than 50%.

  5. Compression Pressure Effect on Mechanical & Combustion Properties of Sawdust Briquette using Styrofoam adhesive as binder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, briquettes were produced from sawdust at different compression pressure using Styrofoam (Polystyrene foam adhesive as binding material. The effects of changing the compression pressure used in moulding of briquettes on its combustion and mechanical properties were investigated. In evaluating Combustion properties, 0.940kg of water was boiled using oven-dried sample of briquette in the combustion chamber with air flow velocity supplied to the combustion chamber at 10.2m/s. Combustion properties investigated were afterglow time, burning rate, specific fuel consumption, power output, percentage heat utilized, flame propagation rate and percentage ash content. The mechanical properties investigated included density, compressive strength, impact resistance, water resistance and abrasion resistance. The blends of sieved sawdust and binder were prepared in the ratio of 4:1 and compacted at pressures ranging from 40 – 90 kN/m2 at 10 kN/m2 interval in a hydraulic press machine with a dwell time of 5minutes. The pressures of moulding were varied to evaluate the range that gives the best quality in terms of combustion and mechanical properties of the briquette produced. The potential use of Polystyrene foam adhesive as a binder in production of briquettes was found promising.

  6. Alkali-activated binders/geopolymer and an application to environmental engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Chaimoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For environmental reason, new binders that can be used as Portland cement replacement materials are being needed. Recently, alkali-activated binders (AAB and geopolymer have found increasing interest. As several research reports have showed that the two new binders are likely to have high potential to be developed and become an alternative to OPC. However, confusion in the classification of both binders is still there. This paper reviews knowledge about AAB and geopolymer including historical background, reaction mechanisms and reaction products. The similarities and differences of both binders are discussed. The application to environmental engineering on hazardous waste management using stabilization/solidification is also described.

  7. Microscopy Characterization of Silica-Rich Agrowastes to be used in Cement Binders: Bamboo and Sugarcane Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselló, Josefa; Soriano, Lourdes; Santamarina, M Pilar; Akasaki, Jorge L; Melges, José Luiz P; Payá, Jordi

    2015-10-01

    Agrowastes are produced worldwide in huge quantities and they contain interesting elements for producing inorganic cementing binders, especially silicon. Conversion of agrowastes into ash is an interesting way of yielding raw material used in the manufacture of low-CO2 binders. Silica-rich ashes are preferred for preparing inorganic binders. Sugarcane leaves (Saccharum officinarum, SL) and bamboo leaves (Bambusa vulgaris, BvL and Bambusa gigantea, BgL), and their corresponding ashes (SLA, BvLA, and BgLA), were chosen as case studies. These samples were analyzed by means of optical microscopy, Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Spodograms were obtained for BvLA and BgLA, which have high proportions of silicon, but no spodogram was obtained for SLA because of the low silicon content. Different types of phytoliths (specific cells, reservoirs of silica in plants) in the studied leaves were observed. These phytoliths maintained their form after calcination at temperatures in the 350-850°C range. Owing to the chemical composition of these ashes, they are of interest for use in cements and concrete because of their possible pozzolanic reactivity. However, the presence of significant amounts of K and Cl in the prepared ashes implies a limitation of their applications. PMID:26343378

  8. Utilisation of antibody microarrays for the selection of specific and informative antibodies from recombinant library binders of unknown quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibat, Janek; Schirrmann, Thomas; Knape, Matthias J; Helmsing, Saskia; Meier, Doris; Hust, Michael; Schröder, Christoph; Bertinetti, Daniela; Winter, Gerhard; Pardes, Khalid; Funk, Mia; Vala, Andrea; Giese, Nathalia; Herberg, Friedrich W; Dübel, Stefan; Hoheisel, Jörg D

    2016-09-25

    Many diagnostic and therapeutic concepts require antibodies of high specificity. Recombinant binder libraries and related selection approaches allow the efficient isolation of antibodies against almost every target of interest. Nevertheless, it cannot be guaranteed that selected antibodies perform well and interact specifically enough with analytes unless an elaborate characterisation is performed. Here, we present an approach to shorten this process by combining the selection of suitable antibodies with the identification of informative target molecules by means of antibody microarrays, thereby reducing the effort of antibody characterisation by concentrating on relevant molecules. In a pilot scheme, a library of 456 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) binders to 134 antigens was used. They were arranged in a microarray format and incubated with the protein content of clinical tissue samples isolated from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and healthy pancreas, as well as recurrent and non-recurrent bladder tumours. We observed significant variation in the expression of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (CHFR) as well as the glutamate receptor interacting protein 2 (GRIP2), for example, always with more than one of the scFvs binding to these targets. Only the relevant antibodies were then characterised further on antigen microarrays and by surface plasmon resonance experiments so as to select the most specific and highest affinity antibodies. These binders were in turn used to confirm a microarray result by immunohistochemistry analysis. PMID:26709003

  9. Systematic Investigation of Binders for Silicon Anodes: Interactions of Binder with Silicon Particles and Electrolytes and Effects of Binders on Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Yoon, Taeho; Seo, Daniel M; Guduru, Pradeep; Lucht, Brett L

    2016-05-18

    The effects of different binders, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and cross-linked PAA-CMC (c-PAA-CMC), on the cycling performance and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation on silicon nanoparticle electrodes have been investigated. Electrodes composed of Si-PAA, Si-CMC, and Si-PAA-CMC exhibit a specific capacity ≥3000 mAh/g after 20 cycles while Si-PVdF electrodes have a rapid capacity fade to 1000 mAh/g after just 10 cycles. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal that PAA and CMC react with the surface of the Si nanoparticles during electrode fabrication. The fresh Si-CMC electrode has a thicker surface coating of SiOx than Si-PAA and Si-PAA-CMC electrodes, due to the formation of thicker SiOx during electrode preparation, which leads to lower cyclability. The carboxylic acid functional groups of the PAA binder are reactive toward the electrolyte, causing the decomposition of LiPF6 and dissolution of SiOx during the electrode wetting process. The PAA and CMC binder surface films are then electrochemically reduced during the first cycle to form a protective layer on Si. This layer effectively suppresses the decomposition of carbonate solvents during cycling resulting in a thin SEI. On the contrary, the Si-PVDF electrode has poor cycling performance and continuous reduction of carbonate solvents is observed resulting in the generation of a thicker SEI. Interestingly, the Lewis basic -CO2Na of CMC was found to scavenge HF in electrolyte. PMID:27135935

  10. 日粮添加不同水平的奶牛专用霉菌毒素吸附剂对粪中双歧杆菌数量和乳中黄曲霉毒素含量的影响%The Effect of Different Mycotoxin Binder Levels Supplementation on Feces Bifidobacterium Bifidum Number and Milk AFM1 Content in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤月明; 黄谢江; 刘仕军

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxin in feed can bring negative effect on dairy health and decrease production of lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes of feces bifidobacterium bifidum number and milk AFM1 concentration when dietary different levels mycotoxin binder was supplemented in lactating dairy cattle. Eighty Chinese Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to control group with 20g powdered zeolite for a cow per day. The three experimental group received supplementation of 10g mycotoxin binder and 10g powdered zeolite for a cow per day, 15g mycotoxin binder and 5g powdered zeolite, or 20g mycotoxin binder. Meantime, all cows were fed the same basal diets. It was shown that dietary different levels of mycotoxin binder adding can decline bifidobacterium bifidum number of feces, but there was no significant difference. In contrast with before the experiment, aflatoxin M1 of raw milk in experimental treatment declined(P<0.05 ), and aflatoxin M1 residues was in less with mycotoxin binder enhancing. Milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in control treatment did not change compared with start of experiment. Therefore, the study indicated that different levels mycotoxin binder may improve raw milk quality.%奶牛饲料原料中霉菌毒素广泛存在,并严重地威胁着奶牛健康,影响着奶牛生产性能的发挥.本试验选择年龄、胎次、产奶量、泌乳天数相近的荷斯坦牛80头探讨日粮添加4种剂量(0、10、15、20g)的霉菌毒素吸附剂对奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌数量和原料奶中黄曲霉毒素残留量的影响.与对照组(添加霉菌毒素吸附剂0g)相比,试验组奶牛粪便中双歧杆菌的外排量明显降低,但各实验组之间差异不显著,仅有数值上的变化.同时,随着霉菌毒素吸附剂含量的增加,原料奶中体细胞数呈现下降的趋势.与试验前相比,原料奶中黄曲霉毒素含量显著降低(P<0.05),且随着添加剂量的增加其黄曲霉毒素残留量

  11. Recycling of blast furnace sludge by briquetting with starch binder: Waste gas from thermal treatment utilizable as a fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobíková, Klára; Plachá, Daniela; Motyka, Oldřich; Gabor, Roman; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Vallová, Silvie; Seidlerová, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Steel plants generate significant amounts of wastes such as sludge, slag, and dust. Blast furnace sludge is a fine-grained waste characterized as hazardous and affecting the environment negatively. Briquetting is one of the possible ways of recycling of this waste while the formed briquettes serve as a feed material to the blast furnace. Several binders, both organic and inorganic, had been assessed, however, only the solid product had been analysed. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of briquetting using commonly available laundry starch as a binder while evaluating the possible utilization of the waste gas originating from the thermal treatment of the briquettes. Briquettes (100g) were formed with the admixture of starch (UNIPRET) and their mechanical properties were analysed. Consequently, they were subjected to thermal treatment of 900, 1000 and 1100°C with retention period of 40min during which was the waste gas collected and its content analysed using gas chromatography. Dependency of the concentration of the compounds forming the waste gas on the temperature used was determined using Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix. Starch was found to be a very good binder and reduction agent, it was confirmed that metallic iron was formed during the thermal treatment. Approximately 20l of waste gas was obtained from the treatment of one briquette; main compounds were methane and hydrogen rendering the waste gas utilizable as a fuel while the greatest yield was during the lowest temperatures. Preparation of blast furnace sludge briquettes using starch as a binder and their thermal treatment represents a suitable method for recycling of this type of metallurgical waste. Moreover, the composition of the resulting gas is favourable for its use as a fuel. PMID:26684056

  12. Characterization of low-purity clays for geopolymer binder formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser Y.Mostafa; Q.Mohsen; A.El-maghraby

    2014-01-01

    The production of geopolymer binders from low-purity clays was investigated. Three low-purity clays were calcined at 750°C for 4 h. The calcined clays were chemically activated by the alkaline solutions of NaOH and Na2SiO3. The compressive strength was measured as a function of curing time at room temperature and 85°C. The results were compared with those of a pure kaolin sample. An amorphous aluminosilicate polymer was formed in all binders at both processing temperatures. The results show that, the mechanical properties depend on the type and amount of active aluminum silicates in the starting clay material, the impurities, and the processing temperature.

  13. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  14. OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES AS THE INDICATORS OF SULFUR BINDERS NANOMODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Both computed dependence and theoretical estimation of the variation range for generalized material’s quality criterion are presented. It is shown that first of all realization of nanotechnology should be held in respect to the properties which determine the area of material’s application. As the particular criteria of the material’s quality, it is most appropriate to use the attributes which are closely connected to the intrinsic features of the process or property being analyzed. The technology of sulfur-based binders was the area of application of nanoscale improvement of disperse phases. It was found that sulfur-based binders are chemically resistant materials (according to RU GOST 25246–82**. Fillers nanomodification increases resistance of materials within the predicted range of values.

  15. Compressive strength and rheology of environmentally-friendly binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Lizarazo Marriaga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary Portland cement production accounts for 9% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. This paper summarises the results of research aimed at developing environmentally-friendly binders which can be used as an alternative in civil construction, aimed at generating alternatives and sustainable materials. Mixes of the combination of granulated ground blast furnace slag, basic oxygen slag, cement kiln dust and plasterboard gypsum were used for optimising the binders, according to their compressive strength, to obtain 5 concrete mixtures made partially or completely with industrial waste. The results showed that the compressive strength of mixtures of Portland cement and industrial waste were suitable for different civil construction applications and, although mixtures formed entirely from industrial waste had a significant decrease in their compressive strength, the results sho- wed great potential for specific industrial applications. In addition to compressive strength, the rheological properties of these mixtures were determined for defining flow and workability characteristics.

  16. A binder phase of TiO based cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-kui; GUAN Shao-kang; ZHONH Hui; LI Jiang; ZHONG Hai-yun

    2005-01-01

    A binder phase of TiO based cermets, a kind of imitated gold materials, was developed by adding active element Si to Fe-Cr alloy, and the related mechanisms were studied. The wettability, matching in thermodynamics and interfacial strength were investigated by the high temperature sessile drop method and element area scanning. The linear expansion coefficients of the materials were measured using TAH100 thermal analyzer. The results show that the wettability of Fe-Cr alloy on TiO are small, with a wetting angle about 90°. After adding some Si in Fe-Cr alloy, its wetting angle can be decreased to about 25°, the interfacial reactions can be prevented effectively and high interface binding can be formed. Fe-25%Cr-1.5%Si matches the thermal expansion coefficient of TiO, so it is a kind of relatively perfect binder for TiO based cermets imitated gold.

  17. Studies on organic binders with high infrared transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that two kinds of polymers with high infrared transparency and good mechanical and physical properties have been prepared. An internal standard method is used to evaluate the infrared transparency of the binders. The physical and mechanical properties of the binders are measured according to corresponding standards. The results show the absorbance of polymer A in 8–14 μm range is 26% that of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and polymer B is 9% that of the EVA correspondingly. The film of polymer A shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 2. The film of polymer B shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 1. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Stability of polymer binders in Li-O2 batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-06-24

    A number of polymers with various chemical structures were studied as binders for air electrodes in Li-O2 batteries. The nature of the polymer significantly affects the binding properties in the carbon electrodes thus altering the discharge performance of Li-O2 batteries. Stability of polymers to the aggressive reduced oxygen species generated during discharge was tested by ball milling them with KO2 and Li2O2, respectively. Most of the polymers decomposed under these conditions and mechanisms of the decompositions are proposed for some of the polymers. Polyethylene was found to have excellent stability and is suggested as robust binder for air electrodes in Li-O2 batteries.

  19. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  20. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  1. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  2. Examining the thermal degradation of polymer binders using FTIR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the general theoretical basis for examining polymers using FTIR infrared spectroscopy. It presents results of research on using the FTIR to analyse the course of structural changes during the thermal degradation of polymer binders exemplified by a sodium salt of the maleic acid – acrylic acid copolymer. This polymer was selected for the research due to its structure (an aliphatic structure polymer) and its physical chemistry properties (polarity, presence of reactive CO...

  3. Influence of environment on the historical material with mineral binder

    OpenAIRE

    Štukovnik, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration of historical materials with mineral binders in buildings of architectural heritage can be influenced by several different factors, which are often the result of changes in the environment where the buildings are located. In order to analyse the damages of these materials and the causes for their occurrence, three buildings of architectural heritage located in three different climatic zones were subjected to visual analysis and non-destructive testing using 3D microscopic system...

  4. Method of producing fugitive binder-containing nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel material green body of density from about 30 to 70% of theoretical density having tensile strength and plasticity adequate to maintain the integrity of the body during processing leading to ultimate sintered condition is produced by adding an amine carbonate or carbamate or mixture thereof to a particulate mass of the nuclear fuel material under conditions resulting in reaction with the amine compound to form a water-soluble compound effective as a binder for the particulate material

  5. New experimental methods to monitor and characterize asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pais, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    The need for continuous quality improvement of the road pavements, leads to the development of new binders, such as asphalt rubber (AR). AR is produced by the digestion of crumb rubber from used tires on bitumen. The resulting AR is a heterogeneous material with high viscosity. The study of this product during its production is essential due to the sudden and sharp increase in the volume of AR in this phase. Knowledge of the extent of this phenomenon has obvious implications in...

  6. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  7. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung Jae; Bang, Jin Wook; Kim, Jeong Su; Jang, Young Il

    2015-01-01

    The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB), were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB) filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2%) and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that alth...

  8. Energy analysis of Binder-jetting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; METEYER, Simon; PERRY, Nicolas; ZHAO, Yaoyao Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Considering the potential for new product design possibilities and the reduction of environmental impacts, Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are considered to possess significant advantages for automotive, aerospace and medical equipment industries. One of the commercial AM techniques is Binder-Jetting (BJ). This technique can be used to process a variety of materials including stainless steel, ceramic, polymer and glass. However, there is very limited research about this AM technology on...

  9. Energy consumption model of Binder-jetting additive manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; METEYER, Simon; PERRY, Nicolas; ZHAO, Yaoyao Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Considering the potential for new product design possibilities and the reduction of environmental impacts, Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes are considered to possess significant advantages for automotive, aerospace and medical equipment industries. One of the commercial AM techniques is Binder-Jetting (BJ). This technique can be used to process a variety of materials including stainless steel, ceramic, polymer and glass. However, there is very limited research about this AM technology on...

  10. BinderCracker: Assessing the Robustness of Android System Services

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Huan; Shin, Kang G.

    2016-01-01

    In Android, communications between apps and system services are supported by a transaction-based Inter-Process Communication (IPC) mechanism. Binder, as the cornerstone of this IPC mechanism, separates two communicating parties as client and server. As with any client-server model, the server should not make any assumption on the validity (sanity) of client-side transaction. To our surprise, we find this principle has frequently been overlooked in the implementation of Android system services...

  11. High-Temperature ceramic coatings with geopolymeric binders

    OpenAIRE

    Medri, Valentina; Fabbri, Samanta; Sobalik, Z.; Vaccari, Angelo; Bellosi, Alida

    2009-01-01

    High-temperature (HT) resistant coatings represent an updating subject of high industrial interest on account of their relevant applications (turbines, engines, aeronautic, ecc.). While many HT resistant products are known, not simple appears to satisfy the requirement of their high and stable adhesion on the support. The aim of this work was to develop novel HT resistant ceramic coatings based on silicon carbide and/or zirconium oxide, using geopolymeric resins as binders. Geopolymers show m...

  12. Effect of various polymeric binders on the radiation resistance of glass fiber HEPA filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass fiber HEPA filter media bonded with various polymeric materials were exposed to several levels of radiation dosage from an electron beam source. The effects on water repellency, tensile strength, DOP filtration efficiency and organic content were noted. All media suffered degradation at the highest levels of radiation dosage (7 x 108 rads). However, at intermediate levels, radiation resistance was affected by the type of binder. Greatest resistance to radiation was exhibited by media bonded with a phenylated polysiloxane resin. Cross-linking polymers such as polystyrene and SBR displayed improvement in some properties, such as in water repellency and tensile strength, at low levels of radiation exposure (less than 2 x 108 rads), however degraded at higher levels of exposure. Filtration properties such as DOP efficiency and resistance to air flow did not appear to be greatly affected by radiolysis. (U.S.)

  13. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  14. Polyaromatic polymers as binders in PEMFC catalyst layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peron, J.M.; Edwards, D.; Le Marquand, P.; Shi, Z.; Holdcroft, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2009-07-01

    The catalyst layers in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are typically composed of platinum as the catalyst and carbon as the electron conductor. The binder that ensures the ionic pathway between catalyst particles and the electrolyte membrane is a perfluorinated polymer that brings the electrolyte, gaseous reactants, electrocatalyst and current collector into close contact within a confined spatial region known as the triple-phase-boundary. New non-fluorinated polymers have been developed in an effort to lower the cost and improve the stability of fuel cells. Although polyaromatic polymers have been extensively presented in the literature for membrane preparation, these new materials have been mainly characterized in presence of Nafion as a binder in the catalyst layer. This paper discussed the incorporation of polyaromatic polymers, such as sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK), and its properties as a binder. sPEEK-based catalyst ink solutions, using different sPEEK/Pt ratios and preparation methods, have been deposited on membranes to form catalyst-coated-membranes (CCM). Initial catalyst ink were characterized using dynamic light scattering to determine agglomerate size. Catalyst layers were examined using SEM and TEM and their porosity was determined by Hg porosimetry. Various electrochemical techniques were used for in-situ characterization of prepared sPEEK CCMs.

  15. Hexacyanoferrates and bentonite as binders of radiocaesium for reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of varying doses of caesium binders (Bentonite and several forms of iron-hexacyanoferrates) on radiocaesium accumulation in red blood cells and on radiocaesium transfer to urine and faeces were studied in feeding experiments with reindeer calves. The caesium binders were added to a ration of lichen (containing 9.5 kBq of 134Cs+137Cs originating from the Chernobyl accident) and fed together with a pelleted reindeer feed (RF-71) for 42 days. A 50% reduction in red blood cell radiocaesium concentration was obtained with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg body weigth of ammoniumironhexacyanoferrate (AFCF) and with 500 mg/kg of bentonite. Three mg/kg of AFCF or 2 g/kg of bentonite reduced both urinary excretion and RBC concentrations with more than 80%. It is concluded that iron-hexacyanoferrates, as a result of their high caesium binding capacity, are particularly useful as caesium binders for free ranging ruminants like the reindeer. (author)

  16. Investigation of the ageing effects on phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder and alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder coated mineral fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar; Schjødt-Thomsen, Jan; Sodhi, R.;

    2013-01-01

    Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder coated mineral fibres' mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder based mineral fibres exhibited better ageing properties for same duration of ageing. X...

  17. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  18. Effect of Maturation Degree of Areca Nut and Binder Treatment to The Physicochemical Properties and Citotoxicity of Spray-Dried Areca Nut (Areca catechu L Extracted Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yernisa Yernisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut (Areca catechu L is a rich polyphenol source which is potential health-benefit. Polyphenol could extract from the sources and then converted to solid powder by spray drying. Polyphenol powder is easy to use and to introduce it into food (materials. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maturation degree of areca nut (unripe, ripe and binder treatment (without a binder, arabic gum 2% w/v on the  physicochemical properties and citotoxicity of spray-dried areca nut extracted powder. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD. Data were analysed statistically used an analysis of variance. Analysis of the results exhibited unripe areca nut produced powder  with higher in yield, moisture content and total phenolic content but had no significant effect on pH and lower in bulk density and solubility than ripe areca nut. Arabic gum treatment produced powders with higher in yield, and solubility, but had no significant effect on moisture content and lower in bulk density, pH and total phenolic content than the treatment without binder. The areca nut extracted powders from all combination of treatments exhibited high cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 less than 1000 ppm, excepted the powders from ripe areca nut with arabic gum.

  19. Spray drying of spherical Li4Ti5O12/C powders using polyvinyl pyrrolidone as binder and carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The spherical Li4Ti5O12/C granules were prepared by spray drying. • Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as binder and carbon source. • Tap density and spherical structure increase with the increase of PVP content. • Li4Ti5O12/C granules exhibits better rate capability and excellent cyclability. - Abstract: Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as binder and carbon source to synthesize stable and spherical Li4Ti5O12/C granules by spray drying. The effects of PVP content and atmospheres on the properties of Li4Ti5O12 were investigated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests, respectively. The results indicate that the average particle size, tap density and degree of spherical structure increase accordingly to the increase of PVP content. However, the large secondary particle would deteriorate the rate capacity at high current density. The carbon coating could significantly improve the rate capacity, which is attributed to the smaller primary particle and higher electrical conductivity

  20. Influence of Mycotoxin Binders on the Oral Bioavailability of Doxycycline in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil, Thomas De; Devreese, Mathias; Saeger, Sarah De; Eeckhout, Mia; Backer, Patrick De; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-16

    Mycotoxin binders are feed additives that aim to adsorb mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, making them unavailable for systemic absorption. The antimicrobial drug doxycycline (DOX) is often used in pigs and is administered through feed or drinking water; hence, DOX can come in contact with mycotoxin binders in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper describes the effect of four mycotoxin binders on the absorption of orally administered DOX in pigs. Two experiments were conducted: The first used a setup with bolus administration to fasted pigs at two different dosages of mycotoxin binder. In the second experiment, DOX and the binders were mixed in the feed at dosages recommended by the manufacturers (= field conditions). Interactions are possible between some of the mycotoxin binders dosed at 10 g/kg feed but not at 2 g/kg feed. When applying field conditions, no influences were seen on the plasma concentrations of DOX. PMID:26902900

  1. Distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in carcinomas of the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, H; Ohshio, G; Ogawa, K; Kim, Y C; Wakatsuki, Y; Nakashima, Y; Yamabe, H; Inada, M

    1988-03-01

    To evaluate whether the increase in serum transcobalamin I, seen in patients with carcinoma, is caused by synthesis of R-binder to tumour cells, the distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in 125 malignant growths of the digestive tract was studied. Positive staining for R-binder with immunoperoxidase was observed in 85 (70%) carcinomas. Positive staining for R-binder was observed in all four cholangiocarcinomas studied, but was absent in nine hepatocellular carcinomas. These findings suggest that determination of R-binder in liver tumours may be of some value in differentiating hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinoma, and that synthesis of R-binder by tumour cells causes an increase in serum transcobalamin I. PMID:2834423

  2. Binder fraction reduction in non-ferrous metals concentrates briquetting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jodkowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research results on a method of reducing the amount of binder applied during formation of metal concentrates are presented. Research was done on a model copper concentrate, which was mixed in assumed mass fraction with binder, as well as binder with addition of waste polyols. Such mixtures were formed and tested using static compressive strength, both immediately after forming and after the assumed seasoning times: 24, 96, 192 and 336 hours. The results confirm the possibility of binder dose lowering using high-efficiency system of binder dispersing with small addition of waste polyols and by homogeneous mixing of the binder with the material. In all examined cases increase in seasoning time influenced mechanical strength of the formed shapes advantageously.

  3. Immunohistochemical localisation of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, H; Inada, M; Ohshio, G; Wakatsuki, Y; Ogawa, K; Hamashima, Y.; Miyake, T

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in the human digestive tract was studied using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Positive staining for R-binder was found in the mucous cells and ductal epithelial cells of the salivary glands and the oesophageal glands. In normal gastric mucosa, no positive staining for R-binder was found, but in the area with intestinal metaplasia, the columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells showed positive staining. Epithelial cells of the gallbladder, intr...

  4. New bicomponent binders for foundry moulding sands composed of phenol-furfuryl resin and polycaprolactone

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major – Gabryś; A. Grabarczyk; St. M. Dobosz; J. Jakubski

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to test the properties of foundry moulding sands with a new bicomponent organic binder. The new binder is the composition of phenol-furfuryl resin, commonly used in foundry practice and biodegradable material – polycaprolactone. The paper presents the research of strength properties, thermal destruction and thermal deformation of moulding sands with a new bicomponent binder. It was proved that inserting polycaprolactone to phenol-furfuryl resin did not lower the ...

  5. The influence of recycled asphalt pavement on 20mm binder course mix performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakovic, Amir; Gibney, Amanda; Gilchrist, M. D.; McNally, Ciaran

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ongoing research on the mechanical performance of a 20mm binder course asphalt pavement mix incorporating recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). A series of binder course mixes were designed containing varying percentages of RAP. A mix made only from virgin material was selected as the control mix for the investigation. The effect of introducing RAP into the binder course mix was evaluated through a series of laboratory tests including the Marshall Test, Indire...

  6. Investigation of application possibility of polyurethanes as binders in the fabrication of composite plastic explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three polyurethane, different viscosity, binders, on the base of polyethers, polyols, and di-isocyanates were synthetized. They could be used as binders in the process of fabrication of composite plastic explosives. Composite plastic explosives, differing in the type and the percentage of binder, were produced. RDH, HMX, and PETN were used as explosives. Basic explosive characteristics (sesitivity to the initation, detonation speed, sensitivity on friction) of given types of composite plastic explosives were defined

  7. Microarray Detection of Duplex and Triplex DNA Binders with DNA-Modified Gold Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Lytton-Jean, Abigail K. R.; Han, Min Su; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a chip-based assay, using microarray technology, for determining the relative binding affinities of duplex and triplex DNA binders. This assay combines the high discrimination capabilities afforded by DNA-modified Au nanoparticles with the high-throughput capabilities of DNA microarrays. The detection and screening of duplex DNA binders are important because these molecules, in many cases, are potential anticancer agents as well as toxins. Triplex DNA binders are also promisi...

  8. INJECTION-BASED STABILIZATION OF PERVIOUS SOILS, CONCRETE AND MASONRY STRUCTURES USING PARTICULARLY FINELY DISPERSED BINDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kharchenko Igor Yakovlevich; Bazhenov Marat Ildarovich

    2012-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of maintenance of buildings and structures of architectural merit. Expedient resolution of this problem consists in the application of a mineral hydraulic binder that has a particularly fine, gradually and smoothly changing granulometric composition and explicit and steady chemical and mineral composition. The above binder is recovered as a result of the air separation of Portland cement. The above binder comprises Portland clinker, furnace slag, ...

  9. The Influence of Aggregate Size and Binder Material on the Properties of Pervious Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tun Chi Fu; Weichung Yeih; Jiang Jhy Chang; Ran Huang

    2014-01-01

    Specimens were prepared by altering parameters such as aggregate sizes, binder materials, and the amounts of binder used and were subsequently tested by using permeability, porosity, mechanical strength, and soundness tests. The results indicated that the water permeability coefficient and connected porosity decreased as the amount of binder used increased and increased with increasing aggregate size. In the mechanical strength test, the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths ...

  10. Polyolefin Backbone Substitution in Binders for Low Temperature Powder Injection Moulding Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Berenika Hausnerova; Ivo Kuritka; Davit Bleyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al2O3 feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions co...

  11. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  12. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  13. A new binder for powder injection molding titanium and other reactive metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2006-06-26

    We have developed a new aromatic-based binder for powder injection molding (PIM) reactive metals, such as titanium, zirconium, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum. Because of careful selection of the binder constituents, thermal removal is readily accomplished at low temperatures and short-times via vacuum sublimation. In this way the binder can be cleanly extracted from the green part prior to sintering to minimize the amount of residual carbon left in the final component. Rheological measurements indicate that powder loadings in the PIM feedstock as high as 67 vol% could be achieved using the new binder system, while still maintaining low mixing torques and injection molding pressures.

  14. Next Generation Advanced Binder Chemistries for High Performance, Environmetally DurableThermal Control Material Systems. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative SBIR Phase I proposal will develop new binder systems through the systematic investigations to tailor required unique performance properties and...

  15. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. THE HIGH VOLUME REUSE OF HYBRID BIOMASS ASH AS A PRIMARY BINDER IN CEMENTLESS MORTAR BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Chee Ban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High Calcium Wood Ash (HCWA and Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA are by-products from the wood biomass and coal energy production which are produced in large quantity with combined annual production of 500 million tonnes. This poses a serious problem for disposal of the waste material especially at places where land is scarce. The prescribed study was aimed to examine the mineralogical phases and their respective amount present in the industrial wastes which governs the hydration mechanism towards self-sustained solidification of the ashes when used in combination. Besides, the influence of various forming pressure and hydrothermal treatment temperature on mechanical strength performance of HCWA-PFA cementless mortar blocks was also examined. In the study, the mechanical strength of the HCWA-PFA cementless mortar block produced using various forming pressure and hydrothermal treatment temperature was assessed in terms of compressive strength and dynamic modulus. The results of the study are indicative that HCWA is rich in calcium oxide and potassium oxide content. This enables the hybridization of HCWA with the amorphous silica and alumina rich PFA to form a solid geopolymer binder matrix for fabrication of cementless mortar block. Throughout the study, dimensionally and mechanically stable HCWA-PFA geopolymer mortar blocks were successfully produced by press forming and hydrothermal treatment method. Based on statistical analysis, the hydrothermal treatment temperature has a statistically insignificant effect on the mechanical strength of the HCWA-PFA cementless mortar blocks. The dominant factor which governs the mechanical strength of the HCWA-PFA cementless mortar blocks was found to be the hydraulic forming pressure. Moreover, it was found that hybridized HCWA-PFA can be recycled as the sole binder for fabrication of cementless concrete block which is a useful construction material.

  17. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Mette Helene; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...... were measured in supine position with venous occlusion plethysmography. In an upright-seated position arterial oxygen saturation was measured by a pulseoxymeter for 1 h before spirometry was performed with a turbine flow measurement device. All the tests were performed in a randomized order with or...

  18. Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus

    OpenAIRE

    Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Olobayo O. Kunle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate starch from the tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. and evaluate its physicochemical and binder properties. Extraction of starch using sodium metabisulfite yielded 37 g of starch per 100 g of the tubers. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that Cyperus starch consists of oval to elliptical particles with a smooth surface. Cyperus starch demonstrates a narrow particle size distribution with a mean of 8.25 μm. Cyperus starch conforms well to United States...

  19. Alanine dosimeter for practical use using polyethylene as binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Tsuneo (Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Kobayashi, Toshikazu; Iso, Katsuaki; Sone, Yasuhiro; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1992-02-01

    Alanine dosimeters were manufactured using polyethylene as a binder and their characteristics were studied with the intention of developing cheap dosimeter for practical routine use having high precision in a dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. The effects of temperature and humidity during storage after irradiation on fading of the ESR response, which is proportional to radiation-induced free radicals in alanine, and the influence of ESR measurement conditions on the ESR response were investigated in detail. As the results, it was confirmed that practical dosimetry of satisfactorily high precision is possible with the manufactured dosimeters by following appropriate measurement procedures. (author).

  20. Alanine dosimeter for practical use using polyethylene as binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine dosimeters were manufactured using polyethylene as a binder and their characteristics were studied with the intention of developing cheap dosimeter for practical routine use having high precision in a dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. The effects of temperature and humidity during storage after irradiation on fading of the ESR response, which is proportional to radiation-induced free radicals in alanine, and the influence of ESR measurement conditions on the ESR response were investigated in detail. As the results, it was confirmed that practical dosimetry of satisfactorily high precision is possible with the manufactured dosimeters by following appropriate measurement procedures. (author)

  1. 2:17-type SmCo magnets prepared by powder injection molding using a water-based binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2:17-type SmCo permanent magnets by powder injection molding using a water-based binder have been studied. The water-based binder is methylcellulose solution, which consists of deionized water and methylcellulose. When the solution concentration is 0.5 wt%, the carbon content of the sintered magnets is below 0.1 wt% and the magnets have better magnetic properties. The magnetic properties and density of the sintered magnets can be increased through pre-sintering in vacuum (10-3 Pa) at 1200 deg. C. However, the Sm content of the magnets loses obviously in pre-sintering for a long period. The appropriate pre-sintering duration is 20-40 min. The magnetic properties of the magnets are: Br=0.97 T, Hcj=871 kA/m, BHmax=157 kJ/m3. The structure of the magnet consists of the matrix phases (2:17 phases) and the precipitate phases (1:5 phases)

  2. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  3. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Binders for Solid Composite Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parthiban

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A new family of polymeric binders for solid composite propellants is proposed, based on two component interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs. These networks comprise two different polyurethanes based on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene and ISRO polyol interpenetrated with two different vinyl polymers, viz poly methyl methacrylate and polystyrene. the networks synthesized by the simultaneous interpenetrating technique have been characterized for their properties, such as stress-strain, density, viscosity, thermal degradation, and heat of combustion. Phase morphologies have been determined using electron microscopy. Suitable explanations have been adduced to rationalize the properties of IPNs in terms of their structures and chain interactions. A study of the mechanical properties and burning rates of the ammonium perchlorate (AP-based solid propellant using the newly synthesised IPNs as binders, has been carried out. The results show that both mechanical strength and burning rate of solid propellants could be suitably modified by simply changing the nature and/or the ratio of the two interpenetrating polymer components.

  4. The curious case of zeolite-clay/binder interactions and their consequences for catalyst preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Gareth T; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Oord, Ramon; Paalanen, Pasi; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-07-01

    Zeolite-based catalyst bodies are commonly employed in a range of important industrial processes. Depending on the binder and shaping method chosen, vast differences in the reactivity, selectivity and stability are obtained. Here, three highly complementary micro-spectroscopic techniques were employed to study zeolite ZSM-5-binder interactions in SiO2-, Al2O3-, SiO2 : Al2O3- (2 : 1 mix) and kaolinite-bound catalyst pellets. We establish how their preparation influences the zeolite-clay/binder interactions. Using thiophene as an acid-catalyzed staining reaction, light absorbing oligomers produced in each sample were followed. To our surprise, kaolinite decreased the overall reactivity of the sample due to the phase change of the binder, creating a hard impenetrable outer layer. Aluminum migration to the zeolite was observed when Al2O3 was selected as a binder, creating additional Brønsted acid sites, which favored the formation of ring-opened thiophene oligomers compared to the larger oligomer species produced when SiO2 was used as a binder. In the latter case, the interaction of the Si-OH groups in the binder with thiophene was revealed to have a large impact in creating such large oligomer species. Furthermore, the combination of a SiO2 : Al2O3 mix as a binder enhanced the reactivity, possibly due to the creation of additional Brønsted acid sites between the two binder components during pellet preparation. It is evident that, independent of the shaping method, the intimate contact between the zeolite and binder heavily impacts the reactivity and product selectivity, with the type of binder playing a vital role. PMID:27101314

  5. Chemical composition of nanomodified composite binder with nano- and microsized barium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several possibilities to improve cement-based binders. In particular, many properties of cement stone can be enhanced by means of micro- and nanoscale modification. In a number of previous works we had shown that application of barium hydrosilicates leads to such improvement. The present article is devoted to the investigation of the chemical composition of the cement stone which is modified by means of addition of barium hydrosilicates. The modification was performed on different scales: micro- and nanoscale; the results of simultaneous multi-scale modification are also presented. The examination was carried out with help of different modern research techniques – FT IR spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray phase analysis. Identification of the new phases and comparative quantitative assessment of their content are performed. It is found that the use of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates as additives leads to reduction of portlandite by 27...28%; by means of multi-scale modification it is possible to reduce the content of portlandite much more (by 83.3%. Due to addition of nano- and micro-sized barium-based modifiers both the amount of calcium hydrosilicates in reaction products is enlarged, and structure of the mentioned hydrosilicates is changed (the formation of a fine-grained structure of hydration products takes place. Micro-sized barium hydrosilicates are chemically active additives and promote the formation of an additional quantity of calcium hydrosilicates of type CSH (I. The use of nanoscale barium hydrosilicates promotes the formation of CSH (I and CSH (II calcium hydrosilicates, and also both riversidite and xonotlite. As a result of simultaneous application of nano- and micro-sized barium hydrosilicates the content of CSH (II increases. This can be confirmed by means of differential thermal and X-ray analysis. The amount of CSH (I, riversidite and various tobermorites is also increases. It is

  6. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung

    2012-10-10

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating these additives, we are able to improve the battery capacity/weight ratio. The NP film is formed by using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of colloidally synthesized, monodisperse cobalt NPs that are transformed through the nanoscale Kirkendall effect into hollow Co 3O 4. EPD forms a network of NPs that are mechanically very robust and electrically connected, enabling them to act as the Li-ion battery anode. The morphology change through cycles indicates stable 5-10 nm NPs form after the first lithiation remained throughout the cycling process. This NP-film battery made without binders and conductive additives shows high gravimetric (>830 mAh/g) and volumetric capacities (>2100 mAh/cm 3) even after 50 cycles. Because similar films made from drop-casting do not perform well under equal conditions, EPD is seen as the critical step to create good contacts between the particles and electrodes resulting in this significant improvement in battery electrode assembly. This is a promising system for colloidal nanoparticles and a template for investigating the mechanism of lithiation and delithiation of NPs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Enhancement of mechanical strength in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor through liquid binder addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of the binder addition on the green compacts. We studied the superconducting properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. The mechanical properties of the green compacts with binder addition were characterized with the compression tests. We could produce bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with binder additions. We have studied the effects of the liquid binder (polyvinyl alcohol) addition (0-10 wt%) on the mechanical properties of the green compacts and also on the superconducting properties of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors of 20 mm diameter produced with the top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process. The mechanical properties of the green compacts with binder addition were characterized with the compression tests, which revealed that mechanical strength increased dramatically with increasing the amount of the binder addition. The binder-added green compacts were then subjected to the TSMG process and oxygen annealing. The trapped field measurements showed that we could produce single-grain bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O samples with binder additions up to 8 wt% without any deterioration in the superconducting properties.

  8. Prenatally Diagnosed Cases of Binder Phenotype Complicated by Respiratory Distress in the Immediate Postnatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Yair J; Davis, Alexis S; Hintz, Susan R; Milan, Kristina; Messner, Anna H; Barth, Richard A; Hudgins, Louanne; Chueh, Jane; Homeyer, Margaret; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Enns, Gregory; Atwal, Paldeep; Manning, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Binder phenotype, or maxillonasal dysostosis, is a distinctive pattern of facial development characterized by a short nose with a flat nasal bridge, an acute nasolabial angle, a short columella, a convex upper lip, and class III malocclusion. We report 3 cases of prenatally diagnosed Binder phenotype associated with perinatal respiratory impairment. PMID:27162279

  9. 14 CFR 198.15 - Non-premium insurance-payment of registration binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.15 Non-premium insurance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-premium insurance-payment of...-premium insurance must be accompanied by the proper binder, payable to the FAA. A binder is not...

  10. Production of Steel Casts in Two-Layer Moulds with Alkaline Binders Part 1. Backing sand with the alkaline inorganic binder RUDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Steel casts in Z.N. POMET were produced in moulds made of the moulding sand Floster. This sand did not have good knocking outproperties, required a significant binder addition (4.5-5.0 parts by weight, and the casting surface quality gave rise to clients objections.Therefore a decision of implementing two-layer moulds, in which the facing sand would consist of the moulding sand with an alkalineorganic binder while the backing sand would be made of the moulding sand with an inorganic binder also of an alkaline character - wasundertaken. The fraction of this last binder in the moulding sand mass would be smaller than that of the binder used up to now (waterglass. The application of two moulding sands of the same chemical character (highly alkaline should facilitate the reclamation processand improve the obtained reclaimed material quality, due to which it would be possible to increase the reclaim fraction in the mouldingsand (up to now it was 50%. The results of the laboratory investigations of sands with the RUDAL binder are presented in the paper.

  11. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

    2012-07-01

    A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. PMID:22440404

  12. Study of chloride ion transport of composite by using cement and starch as a binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armynah, Bidayatul; Halide, Halmar; Zahrawani, Reski, Nurhadi; Tahir, Dahlang

    2016-03-01

    This study presents the chemical bonding and the structural properties of composites from accelerator chloride test migration (ACTM). The volume fractions between binder (cement and starch) and charcoal in composites are 20:80 and 60:40. The effect of the binder to the chemical composition, chemical bonding, and structural properties before and after chloride ion passing through the composites was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. From the XRD data, XRF data, and the FTIR data shows the amount of chemical composition, the type of binding, and the structure of composites are depending on the type of binder. The amount of chloride migration using starch as binder is higher than that of cement as a binder due to the density effects.

  13. Influence of properties of bituminous binders on the strength of formed coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Das, Bani P.; Tripathi, Prem S.M. [Central Fuel Research Institute, P.O. FRI-828108, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-03-20

    The role of different chemical characteristics (coking value, quinoline insolubles, elemental composition, {beta}-resin, toluene solubles) of various coal tar- and petroleum-based bituminous binders, such as heavy fraction of HTC tar, processed LTC tar, pitch and asphalt as also the mixed binder in controlling the strength of formed coke made from char prepared from non-coking Chirimiri coal and coke breeze (prepared after carbonising Jharia coal), respectively, has been studied in some detail. The objective was to investigate as to whether and how the properties of these bituminous binders govern the strength of formed coke. It is found that these properties of the binders do play significantly important role in controlling the strength of formed coke both during curing and carbonisation. These parameters of the binders are found to be closely related with their atomic C/H ratios. Notwithstanding the varying composition of the binders of different origin, be they coal tar or petroleum based, the atomic C/H ratio seems to be the most important characteristics of the bituminous binders, upon which the strength of formed coke depends predominantly. This also holds true when mixed binders were used. The results show that at a C/H ratio of about 1, the strength of the briquettes either on curing or on carbonising remains almost similar and that strong cured briquettes can be produced by using a bituminous binder with a C/H ratio less than 1, whilst for obtaining strong carbonised briquettes, binders with C/H ratio greater than 1 are preferable.

  14. Polymethyl Methacrylate as a Binder for Pyrotechnic Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Sontakke

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA as a binder for igniter and delay compositions are reported. Igniter compositions based on magnesium and boron as fuels and potassium nitrate as oxidiser, delay compositions comprising ferrosilicon and red lead, have been investigated. These compositions were subjected to various tests, such as linear burning rate, sensitivity, calorimetric value, compatibility, pelleting properties, spark sensitivity, ignition temperatures and performance characteristics. The results indicate that the igniter compositions Mg:KNO/sub 3/:PMMA (42:50:8 and B:KNO/sub 3/:PMMA (30:70:10 as well as the delay composition comprising FeSi:Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4:PMMA (25:75:1 have improved properties and therefore could find practical applications.

  15. Solidification of radioactive wastes with inorganic binders (literature survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is provided on solidification of radioactive waste solutions, sludges and tritium waste water through cement and other inorganic binders. A general survey of the possibilities described in the literature is followed by a somewhat more detailed description of the work carried on at four research establishments in the United States, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, supplemented by personal information. Additional sections describe the experiences with various types of cement and the possibilities for improvement of solidification products through preliminary fixation of the toxic nuclides (transformation into insoluble products or absorption); there is a further possibility of post-treatment through polymer impregnation. Finally, definition and determination of leachability are provided and some results compiled. 74 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  16. Lithium Dendrite Suppression with UV-Curable Polysilsesquioxane Separator Binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Wonjun; Lee, Albert S; Lee, Jin Hong; Hwang, Seung Sang; Kim, Eunkyoung; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2016-05-25

    For the first time, an inorganic-organic hybrid polymer binder was used for the coating of hybrid composites on separators to enhance thermal stability and to prevent formation of lithium dendrite in lithium metal batteries. The fabricated hybrid-composite-coated separators exhibited minimal thermal shrinkage compared with the previous composite separators (separators revealed excellent C-rate and cyclability performance due to the prevention of lithium dendrite growth on the lithium anode even after 200 cycles under 0.2-5C (charge-discharge) conditions. The mechanism for lithium dendrite prevention was attributed to exceptional nanoscale surface mechanical properties of the hybrid composite coating layer compared with the lithium metal anode, as the elastic modulus of the hybrid-composite-coated separator far exceeded those of both the lithium metal anode and the required threshold for lithium metal dendrite prevention. PMID:27148625

  17. Estimation of low-temperature cracking threshold for asphalt binders using an acoustic emmission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apeagyei, Alex K.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2009-03-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) approach to evaluate low temperature cracking susceptibility of asphalt binders is presented. Thin films of asphalt binders were bonded to granite substrates and exposed to temperatures ranging from 15°C to - 50°C. Differential thermal contraction between granite substrates and asphalt binders induces progressively higher thermal stress in the binders resulting in thermal crack formation, which is accompanied by a release of elastic energy in the form of transient waves. Using piezoelectric sensors (Digital Wave, Model B-1025), a four-channel acoustic emission system was used to record the acoustic emission activity during the binder/granite cooling process. Assuming the cracking temperature (Tcr) to be the temperature at which the AE signal energy exceeds a pre-selected threshold energy level, this AE testing approach was found to be sensitive and repeatable for predicting cracking temperatures (Tcr) in four SUPERPAVE core asphalt binders. These AE-based Tcr predictions showed strong correlation (R2 = 0.9) with predictions based on either AASHTO TP1 or MP1A protocols. Unlike TP1 and MP1A protocols, the presented AE approach does not require the use of sophisticated software for predicting thermal stresses, and no assumption is required regarding the testing cooling rate and the binder coefficient of thermal contraction.

  18. Preparation of Fiber Based Binder Materials to Enhance the Gas Adsorption Efficiency of Carbon Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Jeong Rak; Lim, Dae Young; Lee, So Hee; Yeo, Sang Young

    2015-10-01

    Fiber binder adapted carbon air filter is prepared to increase gas adsorption efficiency and environmental stability. The filter prevents harmful gases, as well as particle dusts in the air from entering the body when a human inhales. The basic structure of carbon air filter is composed of spunbond/meltblown/activated carbon/bottom substrate. Activated carbons and meltblown layer are adapted to increase gas adsorption and dust filtration efficiency, respectively. Liquid type adhesive is used in the conventional carbon air filter as a binder material between activated carbons and other layers. However, it is thought that the liquid binder is not an ideal material with respect to its bonding strength and liquid flow behavior that reduce gas adsorption efficiency. To overcome these disadvantages, fiber type binder is introduced in our study. It is confirmed that fiber type binder adapted air filter media show higher strip strength, and their gas adsorption efficiencies are measured over 42% during 60 sec. These values are higher than those of conventional filter. Although the differential pressure of fiber binder adapted air filter is relatively high compared to the conventional one, short fibers have a good potential as a binder materials of activated carbon based air filter. PMID:26726459

  19. Study on aluminum phosphate binder and related Al2O3-SiC ceramic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refractory and wear-resistant Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings have been fabricated on A3 steel using alumina (Al2O3), silicon carbide (SiC), aluminum phosphate binder (inorganic binder), and other additives as starting materials. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are applied to investigate the chemical compositions of the in-house synthesized aluminum phosphate binder and the morphologies of the fabricated ceramic coatings after abrasion test. The XRD results indicate that monoaluminum phosphate (Al(H2PO4)3) is the most effective binding phase in the synthesized aluminum phosphate binder. The TG/DTA analysis shows that two phase transformations occur at 100.7 and 217.7 deg. C when the synthesized aluminum phosphate binder is heated in a range 60-1000 deg. C and the binder after heat treatment is a mixture of several phases. The wear test results show that the wear durability of the A3 steel covered with Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings is about two times that of the uncoated A3 steel. The results also indicate that the wear properties of Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings are dependent on fabrication conditions such as the weight ratio of ceramics (Al2O3 and SiC) to the binder (RCB), the distribution of particle size of ceramics, the density of the aluminum phosphate binder, and the Al/P atomic ratio in the aluminum phosphate binder. Upon the above results, optimal fabrication conditions for achieving good wear resistance of Al2O3-SiC ceramic coatings are suggested in this paper

  20. Polyolefin Backbone Substitution in Binders for Low Temperature Powder Injection Moulding Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenika Hausnerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al2O3 feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions containing polyethylene glycol as the initial opening agent and governing the proper mechanism of the degradation process. Moreover, the replacement of synthetic polymer by the natural wax contributes to an increase of environmental sustainability of modern industrial technologies.

  1. Dry compaction of alumina granules, influence of the binder system glass transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard-Granger, G.; Mercier, E. [Saint-Gobain Ceramiques Industrielles, Evreux (France). Centre de Recherches de Norton Desmarquest Fine Ceramics

    1997-12-31

    Spray dried alumina granules have been prepared using three different binder systems. Compaction tests have been performed on a MTS machine and compaction curves have been compared regarding the different binders incorporated. For the green parts obtained from compaction, the influence of the binder system glass transition temperature (Tg) on the mechanical strength has been investigated. Finally, a simulation of the compaction behavior has been completed using the Cooper`s theory and the influence of Tg on the Cooper`s parameters has been analyzed. (orig.) 6 refs.

  2. Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time on the asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Silvrano Adonias Dantas; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Sousa, Jorge B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a study about the mechanical behavior of dense graded asphalt-rubber hot mixes prepared with two different types of asphalt-rubber binders. These asphalt-rubber binders were obtained with penetration grade asphalt (AC 50/70) mixed with 21% and 25% of crumb rubber in weight. The rubber was recycled from unserviceable tires using the ambient grinding process. Hot mixes made with the conventional binder AC 50/70 were also studied for comparison. The...

  3. Influence of microcrystalline wax on properties of MIM multi-component wax matrix binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 黄伯云; 李益民; 李松林

    2002-01-01

    The properties of PW-EVA-HDPE binder with the addition of MW were studied. It shows that the addition of MW from 1% to 20%(mass fraction) causes an increase in the tensile strength and a decrease in shrinkage of the binder. After blending PW with MW, the crystallation behavior of wax base changes, which results in fine grain for the binder and more isotropic microstructure for the feedstock. The powder loading capacity increases and homogeneity of feedstock becomes better. The reason of the modification is also discussed.

  4. Determination of binder distributions in green-state ceramics by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of reliable high performance structural ceramics requires a good understanding of the different steps involved in the process. The presence of nonuniformities in the distribution of the polymeric binder could give rise to local fluctuations of density that could produce failure of the ceramic piece. Specimens prepared from Al2O3 with 15 and 2.5% ww binder were imaged using NMR in order to measure binder distribution maps. Results show that NMR imaging could be a useful technique to nondestructively evaluate the quality of green-state specimens. 5 refs., 5 figs

  5. New bicomponent binders for foundry moulding sands composed of phenol-furfuryl resin and polycaprolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major – Gabryś

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to test the properties of foundry moulding sands with a new bicomponent organic binder. The new binder is the composition of phenol-furfuryl resin, commonly used in foundry practice and biodegradable material – polycaprolactone. The paper presents the research of strength properties, thermal destruction and thermal deformation of moulding sands with a new bicomponent binder. It was proved that inserting polycaprolactone to phenol-furfuryl resin did not lower the strength properties of tested moulding sands. The new additive did not affect the moulding sands thermal degradation but it changed their thermal deformation course.

  6. Effects of ageing on different binders for retouching and on some binder-pigment combinations used for restoration of wall paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In restoration of colour layers, the selection of the most appropriate retouching binder is a very important step that may have a crucial impact on materials durability. As different weather conditions can have versatile influence on stability of colour layers, we determined the effect of ageing on carefully selected samples of binders (Tylose, Klucel, ammonium caseinate, gum arabicum, fish and skin glues and some other synthetic binders) as well as on several binder-pigment combinations (the pigments in combinations being cinnabar, green earth and smalt). The samples were subjected to accelerated ageing tests in climatic chambers. In these tests the temperature and the relative humidity were daily oscillating between - 20 deg. C and 50 deg. C and 50% to 90%, respectively, for a period of one month. Then the samples were exposed to UV and visible light generated by a metal halide lamp for a month. The differences in microstructure before and after ageing were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the ageing of the organic structures in binders was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy

  7. Silicon-Encapsulated Hollow Carbon Nanofiber Networks as Binder-Free Anodes for Lithium Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Nan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-encapsulated hollow carbon nanofiber networks with ample space around the Si nanoparticles (hollow Si/C composites were successfully synthesized by dip-coating phenolic resin onto the surface of electrospun Si/PVA nanofibers along with the subsequent solidification and carbonization. More importantly, the structure and Si content of hollow Si/C composite nanofibers can be effectively tuned by merely varying the concentration of dip solution. As-synthesized hollow Si/C composites show excellent electrochemical performance when they are used as binder-free anodes for Li-ion batteries (LIBs. In particular, when the concentration of resol/ethanol solution is 3.0%, the product exhibits a large capacity of 841 mAh g−1 in the first cycle, prominent cycling stability, and good rate capability. The discharge capacity retention of it was ~90%, with 745 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles. The results demonstrate that the hollow Si/C composites are very promising as alternative anode candidates for high-performance LIBs.

  8. Synthesis of Mg-Fe-Cl hydrotalcite-like nanoplatelets as an oral phosphate binder: evaluations of phosphorus intercalation activity and cellular cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Yung-Feng; Sun, Ying-Sui; Lin, Chun-Kai; Uan, Jun-Yen; Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    The patients with end-stage of renal disease (ESRD) need to take oral phosphate binder. Traditional phosphate binders may leave the disadvantage of aluminum intoxication or cardiac calcification. Herein, Mg-Fe-Cl hydrotalcite-like nanoplatelet (HTln) is for the first time characterized as potential oral phosphate binder, with respect to its phosphorus uptake capacity in cow milk and cellular cytotoxicity. A novel method was developed for synthesizing the Mg-Fe-Cl HTln powder in different Mg(2+): Fe(3+) ratios where the optimization was 2.8:1. Addition of 0.5 g Mg-Fe-Cl HTln in cow milk could reduce its phosphorus content by 40% in 30 min and by 65% in 90 min. In low pH environment, the Mg-Fe-Cl HTln could exhibit relatively high performance for uptaking phosphorus. During a 90 min reaction of the HTln in milk, no phosphorus restoration occurred. In-vitro cytotoxicity assay of Mg-Fe-Cl HTln revealed no potential cellular cytotoxicity. The cells that were cultured in the HTln extract-containing media were even more viable than cells that were cultured in extract-free media (blank control). The Mg-Fe-Cl HTln extract led to hundred ppm of Mg ion and some ppm of Fe ion in the media, should be a positive effect on the good cell viability. PMID:27581184

  9. Hygroscopicity-resistant mechanism of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds and cores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hygroscopicity-resistance of an α-starch based composite binder for dry sand molds (cores) has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Focus is placed on the relationship between the hardening structure and humidity-resistance of the composite binder. The results show that the α-starch composite binder has good humidity-resistance due to its special complex structure. SEM observations illustrate that the composite binder consists of reticular matrix and a ball- or lump-shaped reinforcement phase, and the specific property of the binding membrane with heterogeneous structure is affected by humidity to a small extent. Based on the analyses on the interplays of different ingredients in the binder at hardening, the structure model and hygroscopicity-resistant mechanisms of the hardening composite binder were further proposed. Moreover, the reasons for good humidity-resistance of the composite binder bonded sand are well explained by the humidity-resistant mechanisms.

  10. Testing a Novel Geopolymer Binder as a Refractory Material for Rocket Plume Environments at SSC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project involved the development and testing of a new alumina-silicate based multi-purpose, cost-effective, ‘green’ cementitious binder (geopolymer)...

  11. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of thiol-functionalized polymer as binder in conductive ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    The technology of electrical printing has received industrial and scientific attention due to wide variety of application such as sensors, radio frequency identification cards (RFIDs), flexible display, and flexible solar cell. Especially a roll to roll gravure printing technique has been useful for mass production of electrical products. For the more high quality of conductive ink, the compatibility of organic binder and inorganic filler is very important. In this study, Thiol-functionalized polymer and core-shell conductive nanoparticles were used as the binder and filler. The thiol moieties in binder contribute to functionality of the synthesized polymer. Also, the conductivity and viscosity of synthesized ink and compatibility of filler with binder were characterized in various conditions.

  13. Temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of silica fume cement pastes with a very low water–binder ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, I., E-mail: ippei@dali.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 539, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Teramoto, A. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Faculty of Engineering, ES Building, No. 546, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Ultra-high-strength concrete with a large unit cement content undergoes considerable temperature increase inside members due to hydration heat, leading to a higher risk of internal cracking. Hence, the temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes made with silica fume premixed cement with a water–binder ratio of 0.15 was studied extensively. Development of autogenous shrinkage showed different behaviors before and after the inflection point, and dependence on the temperature after mixing and subsequent temperature histories. The difference in autogenous shrinkage behavior poses problems for winter construction because autogenous shrinkage may increase with decrease in temperature after mixing before the inflection point and with increase in temperature inside concrete members with large cross sections.

  14. Facile synthesis of binder-free reduced graphene oxide/silicon anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Cheng; Ma, Yulin; Cheng, Xinqun; Du, Chunyu; Gao, Yunzhi; Yin, Geping

    2016-04-01

    A novel binder-free reduced graphene oxide/silicon (RGO/Si) composite anode has been fabricated by a facile doctor-blade coating method. The relatively low C/O ratio plays an important role for the fabrication of the bind-free multilayered RGO/Si electrode with silicon nanoparticles encapsulating among the RGO sheet layers. The RGO provides the electron transport pathway and prevents the electrode fracture caused by the volume changes of active silicon particles during cycling. The RGO/Si composite anode with a silicon content of 66.7% delivers a reversible capacity of 1931 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and still remains 92% of the initial capacity after 50 cycles.

  15. Temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of silica fume cement pastes with a very low water–binder ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-high-strength concrete with a large unit cement content undergoes considerable temperature increase inside members due to hydration heat, leading to a higher risk of internal cracking. Hence, the temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes made with silica fume premixed cement with a water–binder ratio of 0.15 was studied extensively. Development of autogenous shrinkage showed different behaviors before and after the inflection point, and dependence on the temperature after mixing and subsequent temperature histories. The difference in autogenous shrinkage behavior poses problems for winter construction because autogenous shrinkage may increase with decrease in temperature after mixing before the inflection point and with increase in temperature inside concrete members with large cross sections

  16. Study on the hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydration and hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder(CAB) was studied.The early hydration process,hydration products and paste microstructure of CAB made by Portland cement and anionic asphalt emulsion were investigated by calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,and environmental scanning electron microscopy.The early hydration process of CAB can be characterized as 5 stages similar to those of Portland cement.There is no chemical reaction detected between cement and asphalt,hence no new hydration products other than those of Portland cement are produced.The hardening of CAB begins with the hydration of cement.When the hydration of cement comes into the acceleration period and its exothermic rate comes to the maximum,the coalescence of asphalt particles in asphalt emulsion is triggered.In the hardened system of CAB,it was found that the hydration products of cement form the skeleton and are covered by the continuous asphalt film.They formed an interpenetrating network system.The emulsifiers in the asphalt emulsion may retard the hydration process of cement.

  17. Evolution and function of mammalian binder of sperm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Geneviève; Prud'homme, Bruno; Fan, Jinjiang; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Binder of sperm (BSP) proteins are ubiquitous among mammals and have been extensively investigated over the last three decades. They were first characterized in bull seminal plasma and have now been identified in more than 15 different mammalian species where they represent a superfamily. In addition to sharing a common structure, BSP proteins share many characteristics. They are expressed by seminal vesicles and epididymides, interact with similar ligands and bind to the outer leaflet of sperm membranes via an interaction with choline phospholipids. In addition to playing a major role in sperm capacitation, they are implicated as molecular chaperones in sperm motility and viability, in the formation of the oviductal sperm reservoir, in the regulation of cell volume and possibly in the interaction between sperm and oocytes, making them crucial multifunctional proteins. Furthermore, BSP proteins can bind to egg yolk low-density lipoproteins and milk components, an interaction important for the protection of sperm during semen preservation in liquid or frozen state. Our current knowledge of BSP proteins strongly emphasizes their fundamental importance in male fertility and in the optimization of semen preservation techniques. Much work is still ahead in order to fully understand all the mysteries of BSP proteins. PMID:26386584

  18. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB, were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2% and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that although an increase dosage of filler and SBR decreased the flow value of the semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, an increase dosage of asphalt emulsion improved the flow value. The indirect tensile strength and liquid immersion residual stability for the condition with greatest Marshall stability were most outstanding with 0.95 MPa and 83.6%, respectively. Evaluation of the recycled cold asphalt abrasion durability revealed that for the case of mixing more than 4% NCB the mass loss rate was lower than 20%. The abrasion durability was found to improve when using modified emulsified asphalt and SBR substitution. From the test results, it was found that the optimal mixing proportion of semiplastic recycled cold asphalt satisfied mechanical properties and durability is NCB with 4%, emulsified asphalt with 3%, and SBR substitution with 20%.

  19. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-04-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  20. Compounding and processing of a water soluble binder for powder injection moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Hélio Rui Caldeira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento Ciência e Engenharia de Polímeros The present work was focused on the development of new polymeric binder compounds for eco-sustainable powder injection moulding (PIM) process. Consequently, water debinding was a requirement once it is a lower environmental impact technology, economically attractive and less hazardous than the conventional catalytic, thermal or solvent debinding. Furthermore, the understanding of the influence of the binder composition o...

  1. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; L Filipe C Castro

    2014-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of t...

  2. A Review on Decomposition Deflagration of Oxidizer and Binders in Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Binder and oxidizer decomposition play very significant role during the combustion of composite solid propellants. Ammonium perchlorate (AP is the practical oxidizer in composite propellant formulations. Available information on binder decomposition in general and AP decomposition in particular have been collected and reviewed from the viewpoint of their application in propellants. This review may be useful in understanding the mechanism of propellant combustion.

  3. Influence of the bitumen properties on the functional and rheological behaviour of asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Machado, A.V.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about ten kilograms of tires are discarded per inhabitant annually. The negative impact of this residue can be reduced since rubber can be reused as a constituent of asphalt rubber (AR) builder in road pavements. However, the materials which constitute the AR binders and their interaction are not sufficiently characterized, In this work several base bitumens interacted with crumb rubber in order to produce AR binders, which were subsequently separated, by using a modified...

  4. Mechanisms of Binder Removal Involved in Supercritical Debinding of Injection Moulded Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Thierry; Delhomme, Eric; Baumard, Jean-François

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of organic additives from extrusion-moulded ceramic parts by supercritical carbon dioxide has proved to be an efficient method for debinding [1, 2]. A model of binder extraction based on diffusion equations was developed. This model was found to be in fair agreement with experimental results. Experimental kinetics of extraction of low melt point paraffins, by supercritical fluids, from injection-moulded samples are now established. A redistribution of the binder in the liquid state...

  5. Enhancing mechanical properties of ceramic papers loaded with zeolites using borate compounds as binders

    OpenAIRE

    Juan P. Cecchini; Ramiro M. Serra; María A. Ulla; Miguel A. Zanuttini; Viviana G. Milt

    2013-01-01

    NaY zeolite-containing ceramic papers were prepared by a papermaking technique with a dual polyelectrolyte retention system that implied the use of cationic and anionic polymers. To improve their mechanical properties, we found that some borate compounds could be successfully used as ceramic binders. Three types of sodium and/or calcium borates were tested as binders: colemanite, nobleite, and anhydrous ulexite. The improvement in the mechanical properties depends both on the borate used and ...

  6. Environmental impact assessment of bio-based binders: from production to industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbinet, Saïcha; Belboom, Sandra; Briard, Vincent; Hampson, Carl; Léonard, Angélique

    2015-01-01

    A binder is used to hold together the fibers forming the mineral wool products (see figure 1). These fibers can be produced from sand and recycled glass for glass wool products (see figure 2) or from rock (volcanic rock, typically basalt or dolomite) for stone wool products. Traditionally, the binders used in mineral wool products are based on phenol-formaldehyde. Due to sanitary and environmental considerations and increased focus on indoor air quality, the producers developed new alternativ...

  7. Water-soluble binders for MCMB carbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtel, Fabrice M.; Niketic, Svetlana; Duguay, Dominique; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; Davidson, Isobel J. [National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    We have investigated the suitability of four different binders for the conventional mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) anode material in Li-ion batteries. Unlike the conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), the binders were water soluble and were either cellulose based, such as the lithium and sodium salts of carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC, and LiCMC) and Xanthan Gum (XG), or the conjugated polymer: poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) (PEDOT, a.k.a. Baytron). All binders were commercially available except LiCMC, which was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR. Thermal studies of the binders by TGA and DSC showed that, in air, the binders have a broad melting event at 100-150 C, with an onset temperature for decomposition above 220 C. Li/MCMB half-cell batteries were assembled using the studied binders. Slow scan voltammograms of all cells showed characteristic lithium insertion and de-insertion peaks including that of the SEI formation which was found to be embedded into the insertion peaks during the first cycle. Cycling of the cells showed that the one containing XG binder gave the highest capacities reaching 350 mAh g{sup -1} after 100 cycles at C/12, while the others gave comparable capacities to those of the conventional binder PVDF. The rate capabilities of cells were examined and found to perform well up to the studied C/2 rate with more than 50% capacity retained. Further studies of the XG-based MCMB electrodes were performed and concluded that an optimal thickness of 300-365 {mu}m gave the highest capacities and sustained high C-rates. (author)

  8. Investigation of film solidification and binder migration during drying of Li-Ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiser, Stefan; Müller, Marcus; Baunach, Michael; Bauer, Werner; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    The property determining micro-structure of battery electrodes essentially evolves during drying, appointing it a paramount, yet insufficiently understood processing step in cell manufacturing. The distribution of functional additives such as binder or carbon black throughout the film strongly depends on the drying process. A representative state-of-the-art model system comprising graphite, polymeric binder, carbon black and solvent is investigated to gain an insight into the underlying processes. A new experimental approach is introduced that allows for revelation of the evolution of binder concentration gradients throughout the film during drying. Binder is detected by means of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) at the top and bottom surface. Drying kinetics is investigated and the impact of the drying process on electrochemical performance is disclosed. The enrichment of binder at the surface, which is observed while applying high drying rates, is shown to depend on two fundamental processes, namely capillary action and diffusion. The findings reveal characteristic drying stages that provide fundamental insights into film solidification. Based on that, a top-down consolidation mechanism capable of explaining the experimental findings is disclosed. Adhesion of the active layer to the substrate is shown to strongly depend on the local binder concentration in the vicinity of the substrate.

  9. Selection of appropriate polyoxymethylene based binder for feedstock material used in powder injection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J.; Stringari, G. B.; Megen, Z. M.; Oblak, P.; von Bernstorff, B. S.; Emri, I.

    2015-04-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) has found applications as a binder material in Powder Injection Moulding (PIM) due to its ability to depolymerize rapidly under acidic conditions. Such ability represents an advantage during the binder removal step of PIM. However, currently available POM has high viscosity that can complicate the injection moulding process of parts with complex geometry. For this reason it is necessary to investigate methods of lowering the viscosity of POM-based binders, but without affecting their solid mechanical properties (i.e. creep compliance). In this investigation, the addition of a low molecular weight polymer, and the reduction of the average molecular weight of POM were investigated as possible ways of decreasing the viscosity of PIM binders. The addition of the low molecular weight additive (WAX) caused a small decrease in the viscosity of the POM-based binder and a small increase in its solid creep compliance. On the other hand, lowering the average molecular weight of POM caused a large decrease in viscosity, but also an acceptable increase in creep compliance. Therefore, by selecting an appropriate molecular weight of POM, it is possible to improve the performance of POM-based binders for PIM.

  10. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  11. Chelating effect in short polymers for the design of bidentate binders of increased affinity and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Sara; Fogolari, Federico; Scoles, Giacinto

    2015-10-01

    The design of new strong and selective binders is a key step towards the development of new sensing devices and effective drugs. Both affinity and selectivity can be increased through chelation and here we theoretically explore the possibility of coupling two binders through a flexible linker. We prove the enhanced ability of double binders of keeping their target with a simple model where a polymer composed by hard spheres interacts with a spherical macromolecule, such as a protein, through two sticky spots. By Monte Carlo simulations and thermodynamic integration we show the chelating effect to hold for coupling polymers whose radius of gyration is comparable to size of the chelated particle. We show the binding free energy of flexible double binders to be higher than that of two single binders and to be maximized when the binding sites are at distances comparable to the mean free polymer end-to-end distance. The affinity of two coupled binders is therefore predicted to increase non linearly and in turn, by targeting two non-equivalent binding sites, this will lead to higher selectivity.

  12. Chitosan oligosaccharides: A novel and efficient water soluble binder for lithium zinc titanate anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Physical properties of chitosan oligosaccharides binder are researched. • Electrodes with COS and PVDF binder systems are fabricated to compare physical and electrochemical properties. • Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode with COS binder system shows improved electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) as a new, environmentally and water-based organic compound, is firstly applied as the electrode binder for Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared with conventional polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder, the COS binder is used for Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode significantly improves the electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, cycling behavior, rate capability and long life cycle. At 0.1 A g−1, the initial discharge capacity of 215.6 mAh g−1 can be obtained for Li2ZnTi3O8 with COS binder system and the Columbic efficiency is as high as 93.6%, which are apparently better than PVDF binder system. Moreover, 66.1 mAh g−1 can be remained after 1000 cycles and the retention is 33.6% for COS binder system, while the PVDF binder system has only 37.9 mAh g−1 (22.8%). In addition, the cycling stability of Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode has been improved after using COS as binder. The elevated electrochemical performances of Li2ZnTi3O8 electrode with COS binder system can be ascribed to the characters of COS binder, which not only provide numerous hydroxyl groups formed strong hydrogen binds with both active materials and copper current collector, but also suppress swelling of electrode with electrolyte solution

  13. Enhancing Asphalt Binder's Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Nano-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Renaldo C.

    The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB) has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact that nano-particles and bio modification have on the aging susceptibility of asphalt binder. As such, the following hypothesis was investigated: Introduction of nano particles to asphalt binder will reduce asphalt oxidation aging by increasing the inter layer spacing of the nano particles. Two nano scale materials were used for this study, nano-clay and bio-char as well as one micro scale material, silica fume. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B) is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. Silica Fume is an ultra-fine powder collected as a by-product of silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consists of spherical particles. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using RV testing (Rotational Viscometer), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Nano-clay is blended at 2% and 4% by weight of dry mass, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass). Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 5% and 10% by weight of dry mass. Silica Fume is added to virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 4% and 8% by weight of dry mass. The optimum percent of nano scale material that is added to virgin asphalt binder is expected to reduce aging susceptibility of asphalt binder, extending its service life.

  14. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  15. Influence of digestion time on the mechanical properties of gap graded hot mixes produced with asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas Neto, Silvrano Adonias; Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt rubber binders are produced by mixing crumb rubber obtained from ground used tires with a straight run binder at high temperatures during a period of time named as digestion time. This is one of many variables that influence the physical properties of asphalt rubber produced by wet process. Thus, the objective of this paper is to evaluate how many mechanical properties of gap-graded hot mixes produced with asphalt rubber binder are influenced by the digestion time used to produce this...

  16. First Observation of the Blending Zone Morphology at the Interface of Reclaimed Asphalt Binder and Virgin Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Mohajeri, M.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Scarpas, T.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges in designing recycled asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP is to estimate the blending degree between RAP binder and the added virgin bitumen. The extent of blending is crucial in this case as asphalt concrete response is influenced by the final binder properties. This paper focuses on the evaluation of interaction and extent of blending between RAP-binder and virgin bitumen by studying the microstructures of the ‘blending zone’ with atomic force microscopy (AFM). ...

  17. Adhesive Bonding and Self-Curing Characteristics of α-Starch Based Composite Binder for Green Sand Mould/Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia ZHOU; Jinzong YANG; Guohui QU

    2004-01-01

    Interactions between different components in α-starch based composite binder for green sand mould/core were investigated by using XRD, IR spectra, 1H NMR spectra and SEM. Several adhesive hardening structures and theories of the binder at room temperature were proposed according to the interactions between various compositions. Thus,the reasons for the binder to have excellent combination properties and unique adhesive bonding and self-curing characteristics were explained by these theories successfully. And the theories are of great directive importance to design and development of composite binder for green sand mould/core.

  18. Lithium polyacrylate as a binder for tin-cobalt-carbon negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Le, D.-B. [3M Electronic Markets Materials Division, 3M Center, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Ferguson, P.P. [Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dahn, J.R., E-mail: jeff.dahn@dal.c [Dept. of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    A lithium polyacrylate (Li-PAA) binder has been developed by 3M Company that is useful with electrodes comprising alloy anode materials. This binder was used to prepare electrodes made with Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} material prepared by mechanical attrition. The electrochemical performance of electrodes using Li-PAA binder was characterized and compared to those using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binders. The Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} electrodes using Li-PAA and CMC binders show much smaller irreversible capacity than the ones using PVDF binder. Poor capacity retention is observed when PVDF binder is used. By contrast, the electrodes using Li-PAA binder show excellent capacity retention for Sn{sub 30}Co{sub 30}C{sub 40} materials and a specific capacity of 450 mAh/g is achieved for at least 100 cycles. The results suggest that Li-PAA is a promising binder for electrodes made from large-volume change alloy materials.

  19. Development of an MgO-based binder for stabilizing fine sediments and storing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Ahn, Jun-Young; Kim, Cheolyong; Seo, Jeong-Yun; Hwang, Inseong

    2015-12-01

    An MgO-based binder was developed that could stabilize fine dredged sediments for reuse and store CO2. Initially, a binder consisting of fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS) was developed by using alkaline activators such as KOH, NaOH, and lime. The FA0.4-BFS0.6 binder (mixed at a FA-to-BFS weight ratio of 4:6) showed the highest compressive strength of 10.7 MPa among FA/BFS binders when 5 M KOH was used. When lime (L) was tested as an alkaline activator, the strength was comparable with those obtained when KOH or NaOH was used. The L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder (10 % lime mixed with the FA/BFS binder) showed the highest strength of 11.0 MPa. Finally, by amending this L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9 binder with MgO, a novel MgO-based binder (MgO0.5-(L0.1-(FA0.4BFS0.6)0.9) 0.5) was developed, which demonstrated the 28th day strength of 11.9 MPa. The MgO-based binder was successfully applied to stabilize a fine sediment to yield a compressive strength of 4.78 MPa in 365 days, which was higher than that obtained by the Portland cement (PC) system (3.22 MPa). Carbon dioxide sequestration was evidenced by three observations: (1) the decrease in pH of the treated sediment from 12.2 to 11.0; (2) the progress of the carbonation front inward the treated sediment; and (3) the presence of magnesium carbonates. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that 67.2 kg of CO2 per ton of the treated sediment could be stored under the atmospheric condition during 1 year. PMID:26224682

  20. Rheological and thermal performance of newly developed binder systems for ceramic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kasparkova, Vera; Hnatkova, Eva

    2016-05-01

    In a novel binder system, carnauba wax was considered to replace the synthetic backbone polymers (polyolefins) enhancing the environmental sustainability of Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. The paper presents comparison of the rheological performance and thermal behavior of the aluminum oxide CIM feedstocks based on a binder containing carnauba wax with those consisting of a commercial binder. Further, acrawax (N, N'-Ethylene Bis-stearamide) has been considered as another possible substitute of polyolefins. For both proposed substitutes there is a significant reduction in viscosity, and in case of carnauba wax based feedstock also in processing temperature, which is essential for injection molding of reactive powders. Thermal characterization comprised analyses of single neat binders, their mixtures and mixtures with aluminum oxide. The presence of powder lowered melting temperatures of all tested binders except of polyolefin. Further depression in melting point of poly(ethylene glycol) is observed in combination with polyolefin in the presence of powder, and it is related to changes in size of the crystalline domains.

  1. Physical and Combustion Characteristics of Briquettes Made from Water Hyacinth and Phytoplankton Scum as Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the potential of water hyacinths and phytoplankton scum, an aquatic weed, as binder for production of fuel briquettes. It also evaluated some physical and combustion characteristics. The water hyacinths were manually harvested, cleaned, sun-dried, and milled to particle sizes distribution ranging from <0.25 to 4.75 mm using hammer mill. The water hyacinth grinds and binder (phytoplankton scum at 10% (B1, 20% (B2, 30% (B3, 40% (B4, and 50% (B5 by weight of each feedstock were fed into a steel cylindrical die of dimension 14.3 cm height and 4.7 cm diameter and compressed by hydraulic press at pressure 20 MPa with dwell time of 45 seconds. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics. Initial bulk density of uncompressed mixture of water hyacinth and phytoplankton scum at different binder levels varied between 113.86 ± 3.75 (B1 and 156.93 ± 4.82 kg/m3 (B5. Compressed and relaxed densities of water hyacinth briquettes at different binder proportions showed significant difference . Durability of the briquettes improved with increased binder proportion. Phytoplankton scum improved the mechanical handling characteristics of the briquettes. It could be concluded that production of water hyacinth briquettes is feasible, cheaper, and environmentally friendly and that they compete favourably with other agricultural products.

  2. The Influence of Aggregate Size and Binder Material on the Properties of Pervious Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun Chi Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens were prepared by altering parameters such as aggregate sizes, binder materials, and the amounts of binder used and were subsequently tested by using permeability, porosity, mechanical strength, and soundness tests. The results indicated that the water permeability coefficient and connected porosity decreased as the amount of binder used increased and increased with increasing aggregate size. In the mechanical strength test, the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths increased as the amount of binder used increased and decreased with the increase of aggregate size. Highly viscous binder enhanced compressive strength, water permeability, and the resistance to sulfate attacks. In the mechanics and sulfate soundness tests, the mix proportion of alkali-activated slag paste used in this study exhibited a superior performance than the Portland cement pervious concrete (the control did, but the difference in water permeability between the two types of concrete was insignificant. The mix proportions of cement paste containing 20% and 30% silica fume exhibited less mechanical strength than the control did. Moreover, compared with the control, the cement paste containing silica fume demonstrated poor resistance to sulfate attacks, and the difference in the water permeability between such specimen and the control was not noticeable.

  3. Debinding behaviour of a water soluble PEG/PMMA binder for Ti metal injection moulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cao, Peng, E-mail: p.cao@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Wen, Guian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Edmonds, Neil [School of Chemical Science, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2013-05-15

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been becoming a common component in the design of water soluble binder systems for metal injection moulding. Similar to solvent debinding, PEG can be leached out by water and the mechanism of debinding was proposed in the literature with somehow misleading information about the debinding mechanism, particularly about the formation of PEG gel. This work investigates the debinding behaviours of a PEG-based binder in titanium compacts. Titanium powder is formulated with PEG, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA) to formulate titanium feedstock. To determine the debinding kinetics, the PEG removal percentages are measured at three different temperatures and for various specimen thicknesses. A mathematic model based on diffusion-controlled debinding process is established. The evolution of porous microstructure during the water debinding process is observed using scanning electron microscopy. Based on these observations, a water debinding mechanism for titanium alloy compacts formulated with PEG-based binders is proposed. - Highlights: ► The water-debinding behaviours of the PEG binder system were investigated. ► PEG dissolution and transportation, and the pore structure development. ► A water debinding mechanism of PEG-based binders is proposed. ► Incorrect explanation of PEG gelling in the literature is corrected. ► Correction/modification made as per the reviewers' comments and suggestions.

  4. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikanova, L., E-mail: alasmit@mail.ru; Volkova, O., E-mail: v.olga.nikitina@gmail.com; Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D. [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} anion NO{sup −} are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} > FeSO{sub 4} > MgSO{sub 4}. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder’s mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  5. Chemical Stability Investigations of Polyisobutylene as New Binder for Application in Lithium Air-Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: The side reactions of LiO2, Li2O2 and Li2O, formed during the discharge process at the cathode/electrolyte interphase, are still a main challenge of lithium-air batteries. During these reactions, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF), as the commonly used cathode binder material, is decomposing, leading to a shorter lifetime of the battery. In this paper, we introduced and investigated polyisobutylene (PIB), a chemically and electrochemically inert polymeric material, to substitute PVdF as binder for lithium-air batteries. Results obtained by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods showed, that PIB is far more stable in the presence of O2−, O22− as well as O2− species compared to PVdF. This distinct inertness makes PIB a promising binder for lithium-air batteries

  6. The estimation of ability to reclame of moduling sands with biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Applied up till now organic binding materials, on the basis of synthetic resins are characterised by good technological properties, but cause high emission of harmful substances. That’s why contemporary scientific researches are leading to progressive replacing the binders obtained from petrochemical materials with polymer biocomposites coming from renewable resources. Increasing concern of aliphatic polyesters such as polylactide, polycaprolactone, poly(hydroxyalkanoates and aliphatic-aromatic polyesters is caused by the possibility of using them for producing many biodegradable products. In that context it is important to expand the researches connected to using biopolymers as moulding sands binders. Contemporary authors’ papers were focused on technological properties and harmfulness for the environment of this ecological moulding sands. TThis article takes into consideration the ability to reclamation of moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  7. STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL BASED ON GYPSUM BINDER AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUMAK Anastasia Gennadievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to carry out a number of studies in the area of nanomodi­fication of gypsum binder matrix and to investigate the influence of multilayer carbon nanotubes on the structure, physical and mechanical properties of obtained compos­ites. The study of the gypsum binders structure formation mechanisms with the use of nanoadditives makes it possible to control the production processes of gypsum materi­als and articles with the given set of properties. The main tasks of the binder nanomodification are: even distribution of carbon nanostructures over the whole volume of material and provision of stability for the nanodimensional modifier during production process of the construction composite.

  8. Development of a Polyuretbane Binder System Giving a 'Knottable' Composite Solid Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Devadoss

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane propellants, which constitute one of the 'work-horse' binder systems in modern solid rocketry are easily amenable for tailoring the mechanical properties in terms of variations in the molecular structure of the backbone polyols, the isocyanates and stoichiometry of the reactants. The paper deals with studies in developing an advanced binder system based on poly (oxy propylene glycol and toluene-di-isocyanate, which is capable of accommodating high solids loading and conceding elongatlon at maximum stress, of more than 125 per cent. The gum-stock properties of the binder are related with those of a low molecular weight version and the results are explained based on the network theory of condensation polymers.

  9. The role of the binder phase in the WC-Co sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva A.G.P. da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of hardmetal in the solid state is studied. The influence of the WC particle size on the sintering kinetics, the role of the binder phase in the densification process and how sintering depends on the heating conditions are investigated. It is observed that alloys with different WC particle size show quite different structural evolution during sintering, although the densification mechanisms are the same. This is explained by the formation of agglomerates of WC and Co. Hardmetal alloys can sinter very rapidly when high heating rates are used, since rapid heating accelerates the binder spreading and the formation of WC-Co agglomerates. The binder phase (Co spreads on the WC particles initially as a thin layer. Subsequently, more Co spreads on this layer and WC-Co agglomerates are formed.

  10. Poly(vinylimidazole) radiografted PVDF nanospheres as alternative binder for high temperature PEMFC electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Samuele; Coulon, Pierre-Eugène; Rizza, Giancarlo; Clochard, Marie-Claude; Castellino, Micaela; Sangermano, Marco; Nayoze, Christine; Morin, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    Within the framework of high-temperature polymer fuel cells doped with phosphoric acid, we investigate the replacement of the conventional binder in the catalyst layers by functionalized solid PVDF nanospheres. Aim of this study is to develop and test an innovative binder which might create enhanced electrode porosity and acid distribution. Aqueous suspensions of PVDF nanospheres (d ∼ 200 nm) are obtained by radical emulsion polymerization and are functionalized by Vinyl-Imidazole (VI) groups via in situ γ-radiation. As a consequence the nanospheres can interact with H3PO4 to obtain proton conductivity. Catalyst inks are prepared mixing the nanospheres with commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst powder, solvents and phosphoric acid. Prototype electrodes are deposited by spraying and preliminary fuel cell tests are carried out at 160 °C under dry H2/air. Electrodes with grafted PVDF nanospheres as solid binder are demonstrated and its understanding is in progress. Further improvements are outlined.

  11. Potential of the application of the modified polysaccharides water solutions as binders of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary tests of selected properties of the moulding sands with the binder in the form of a 5 % water solution of the sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (with a degree of substitution (DS of 0,2 and 0,87 arepresented in this study. The moulding sand properties such as permeability, abrasion resistance, tensile and bendingstrength - after curing - are shown in series of tests. The cure process was conducted in a field of electromagnetic radiation within the microwave range. The effect of the microwave treatment on the moulding sand was evaporating of water (solvent in a binder and cross-linking of the polymeric binder. As a result the cured moulding sands with particular properties, essential in the context of its application in the mould technology in the foundry industry, were obtained.

  12. Investigation of Ageing Effects on Organic Binders used for Mineral Wool Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafar, Ashar

    ToF-SIMS. In the production of mineral wool insulation products, amino-propyl-silane (APS) is used as a coupling agent and quaternary ammonium based surfactants (QACs) are used as a softener. If the degradation of these coatings takes place, it will indirectly affect the ageing properties of the......Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde (PUF) binder based mineral wool products’ mechanical properties have been observed to degrade during ageing at elevated temperatures and humidity, while mineral wool products based on a newly developed alkanol amine-acid anhydride binder exhibited better ageing properties...... for the same duration of ageing. The main purpose of the present work is to examine the chemical changes occurring in the phenol-urea-formaldehyde binder based mineral fibres due to ageing, which cause deterioration of the mechanical properties of mineral wool products. This has been done using...

  13. Assay for intrinsic factor based on blocking of the R binder of gastric juice by cobinamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro assay for measurement of gastric juice intrinsic factor (IF) was developed based on the ability of the cobinamide (Cbi) [(CN, OH) Cbi] to bind to the gastric juice R-type binders of cobalamin (Cbl) and not to the IF binder. Subsequently added radioactive Cbl, CN-[57Co] Cbl, binds only to the IF binders and allows for direct measurement of this Cbl binding protein. This Cbi blocking assay was found to function as well as the more conventional methods of IF measurement, G-100 column chromatography, and IF blocking antibody assay. The present assay has the advantage of eliminating the need for elaborate forms of protein separation and does not rely on a source of antibody

  14. WATER-BASED BINDERS USED IN PROCESS FOR MAKING AUTOMOBLE FILTER PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Li; Jian Hu; Huaiyu Zhan; Yi Wang

    2004-01-01

    A method for making a automobile filter which includes impregnating a filter paper with a cross-linkable binder composition is discussed in the article. The water-based binder comprises a latex containing 80 wt% acrylic acid in the latex solids,and 20 wt% melthyl methacrylate, the binder also contains 5 parts of a cross-linking resin per 100 weight parts of latex solids and 5% parts of catalyst for the cross-linking resin based on the weight of the cross-linking resin. 4 wt% water-based polymer emulsion, on a solids basis, which is used to impregnate filter paper and rigidify it. Such impregnated filter paper has good dry and wet tensile strength and stiffness. The method has no impairing to the environment.

  15. WATER-BASED BINDERS USED IN PROCESS FORMAKING AUTOMOBLE FILTER PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaLi; JianHu; HuaiyuZhan; YiWang

    2004-01-01

    A method for making a automobile filter whichincludes impregnating a filter paper with across-linkable binder composition is discussed in thearticle. The water-based binder comprises a latexcontaining 80 wt% acrylic acid in the latex solids,and 20 wt% melthyl methacrylate, the binder alsocontains 5 parts of a cross-linking resin per 100weight parts of latex solids and 5% parts of catalystfor the cross-linking resin based on the weight of thecross-linking resin. 4 wt% water-based polymeremulsion, on a solids basis, which is used toimpregnate filter paper and rigidify it. Suchimpregnated filter paper has good dry and wet tensilestrength and stiffness. The method has no impairingto the environment.

  16. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  17. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  18. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh; Chang, Ta-Peng; Chen, Chun-Tao; Yang, Tzong-Ruey; Nguyen, Tien-Dung

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S), Class F fly ash (FFA), and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA). To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B), curing regime, and FFA...

  19. Distribution of binder in granules produced by means of twin screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Fussell, Andrew Luke; Vercruysse, Jurgen;

    2014-01-01

    According to the quality by design principle processes may not remain black-boxes and full process understanding is required. The granule size distribution of granules produced via twin screw granulation is often found to be bimodal. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of...... binder distribution within granules produced via twin screw granulation in order to investigate if an inhomogeneous spread of binder is causing this bimodal size distribution. Theophylline-lactose-polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (30-67.5-2.5%, w/w) was used as a model formulation. The intra...

  20. Study on Heat Hardening Mechanism of Starch Composite Binder for Sand Mold (Core) by IR Spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia ZHOU; Jinzong YANG; Qin GAO; Guohui QU

    2001-01-01

    The heat hardening mechanism of starch composite binder for sand mold (core) was studied by way of IR spectra. It is thought that the bonding strength of molding sand is mainly depended on the strength of the adhesive membrane itself. During heating the binder at certain temperature between 160~200℃ for one hour, a special composite structure is formed because of the interactions between different components, thus, it has higher low-temperature drying strength,better humidity resistance and higher high-temperature strength.

  1. Cellulose Acetate Binder-Based LOVA Gun Propellant for Tank Guns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.S. Pillai

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA binder-based low vulnerability ammunition (LOYA gun propellant formulations with varying percentages of fine RDX as energetic ingredient have been studied. RDX percentage varied from 76 to 80 in these formulations. An optimised composition with 78 per cent RDX was then studied exhaustively. Ballistic data determined by closed vessel (CV evaluation and vulnerability aspects obtained by safety tests were then compared vis-a-vis the properties of standard triple base NQ composition. Theoretical prediction and CV test results indicated that the CA binder-based LOVA gun propellant Could satisfactorily meet the ballistic requirements for gun application.

  2. ISRO Polyol - The Versatile Binder for Composite Solid Propellants for Launch Vehicles and Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krishnamurthy

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of propellants based on a low cost hydroxy terminated binder has been developed and proved in large size motors. It can meet the requirements of Apogee motors as well as large boosters. The system offers advantages comparable with HTPB propellants in terms of high ballistic performance, stringent mechanical properties, ease and reliability of cure even at ambient conditions and high storage stability. The near-Newtonian flow behaviour, simplicity and processing characteristics of this saturated binder propellant are particularly note-worthy.

  3. Effect of the properties of natural resin binder in a high friction composite material

    OpenAIRE

    S. Stephen Bernard; L. S. Jayakumari

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a high-friction composite material based on the combination of binder, friction modifiers, fibers and fillers is investigated. In the binder, up to 20% of phenol are replaced by cardanol with various weight ratios of 100/0, 95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20. Cardanol may react both through the phenolic group and the double bond of the side chain yielding addition, condensation and polymerisation reactions that allow the synthesis of tailor-made products and polymers of high value. In t...

  4. EVALUATION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA GUM AS A BINDER IN TABLET FORMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Basawaraj S.; Soodam Srinivas R.; Kulkarni Upendra; Korwar Prakassh G.

    2010-01-01

    Various plant gums have been used as binders in tablet formulations. But still finding novel binder for the manufacture of tablets, in pharmaceutical industry. The Moringa oleifera gum was found its binding property. In the present study Moringa oleifera gum was employed as a binding agent in Chloroquine phosphate tablets at concentrations of 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 % w/w, in comparison with potato starch. The properties of Moringa oleifera gum were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tappe...

  5. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  6. Selective catalytic reduction system and process using a pre-sulfated zirconia binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.

    2010-06-29

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system, the catalyst system comprising (ZrO.sub.2)SO.sub.4, palladium, and a pre-sulfated zirconia binder. The inclusion of a pre-sulfated zirconia binder substantially increases the durability of a Pd-based SCR catalyst system. A system for implementing the disclosed process is further provided.

  7. The Durability and Performance of Short Fibers for a Newly Developed Alkali-Activated Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Funke; Sandra Gelbrich; Lothar Kroll

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the development of a fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binder (FRAAB) with an emphasis on the performance and the durability of the fibers in the alkaline alkali-activated binder (AAB)-matrix. For the development of the matrix, the reactive components granulated slag and coal fly ash were used, which were alkali-activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide (2–10 mol/L) and an aqueous sodium silicate solution (SiO2/Na2O molar ratio: 2.1) at ambient temperature. For the reinf...

  8. Binder composition and debinding process in PIM of AlN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The thermal degradation behaviors of AlN green specimens were studied by thermogravimetry analysis during the ceramic powder injection molding debinding process. The optimum binder composition and the debinding cycle were demonstrated by observing the TGA and DTA plots of AlN green specimens and analyzing the microstructure at different temperatures. By adding HDPE into the PW-EVA binder used in powder injection molding AlN can effectively reduce the mass lose rate in debinding process and improve the shape retention ability. At last, aluminum nitride ceramic with high room-temperature thermal conductivity of 162.5 W*m-1*K-1 was produced.

  9. Analyzing the influence of manufacturing conditions of reclaimed asphalt concrete on the characteristics of the asphalt binder: development of a gradual binder extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaro, J.; Bruneau, D.; Drouadaine, I.; Pouteau, B.; Colin, J.; Dony, A.

    2012-05-01

    When asphalt concrete is manufactured incorporating a high percentage (almost 70%) of reclaimed materials from the deconstruction of road surfaces under renovation, and when the corresponding production device is designed specifically to reduce the energy input need (lowering the production temperature), the resulting manufacturing process contributes to the protection of the environment and reduces production costs. However, to meet the quality requirements of the finished product, virgin materials of appropriate quality and quantity must also be added (mineral aggregates and new asphalt binder) and control systems set up to quantify and optimize the parameters involved (thus avoiding the guess work which still often prevails today). It was for this reason that a new experimental technique described here was devised, which will ultimately be used in asphalt concrete production plants. The technique involves lixiviating reclaimed asphalt concrete using a chlorinated solvent; the resulting solute is collected gradually, then the mixture of binders (virgin and reclaimed asphalt concrete) can be characterized and their mass fractions quantified using a combination of UV and IR spectrometry. With this experimental technique we were able to assess the extent to which the reclaimed asphalt pavement binder participates in the agglomeration and cohesion of the reclaimed asphalt concrete. This assessment was made in terms of the main parameters in the production process, temperature of the materials and mixing time.

  10. VISCOSITY AND BINDER COMPOSITION EFFECTS ON TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE FOR DETECTION OF PHENOL AND CATECHOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The systematic study of the effect of binder viscosity on the sensitivity of a tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrode (CPE) biosensor for phenol and catechol is reported. Silicon oil binders with similar (polydimethylsiloxane) chemical composition were used to represent a wid...

  11. Low toxicity binder systems for tape cast Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Menon, Mohan; Ramousse, Severine

    2010-01-01

    Conventional binder systems for tape casting contain toxic phthalate plasticizers and butanone (MEK) as part of the solvent. The effects of exchanging the phthalate with a non-toxic alternative, and butanone with ethanol, were studied on laminates of high-green density CGO (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) tapes....... Samples were prepared with a binder system containing DBP (dibutyl phthalate) plasticizer and MEK solvent, and with a binder system based on a non-toxic non-phthalate plasticizer and ethanol. In both systems, the weight ratio of plasticizer to the PVB (polyvinyl butyral) binder was varied between 0.......4 and 0.7. Substitution to the less toxic binder system had no adverse impacts on the microstructure. In fact, denser packing and improved homogeneity were observed with the non-phthalate-based system at ratio 0.5 indicating improved dispersion in this system. The denser packing also coincided...

  12. The Effects of Cross-Linking in a Supramolecular Binder on Cycle Life in Silicon Microparticle Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jeffrey; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Chao; Andrews, Sean C; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-01-27

    Self-healing supramolecular binder was previously found to enhance the cycling stability of micron-sized silicon particles used as the active material in lithium-ion battery anodes. In this study, we systematically control the density of cross-linking junctions in a modified supramolecular polymer binder in order to better understand how viscoelastic materials properties affect cycling stability. We found that binders with relaxation times on the order of 0.1 s gave the best cycling stability with 80% capacity maintained for over 175 cycles using large silicon particles (∼0.9 um). We attributed this to an improved balance between the viscoelastic stress relaxation in the binder and the stiffness needed to maintain mechanical integrity of the electrode. The more cross-linked binder showed markedly worse performance confirming the need for liquid-like flow in order for our self-healing polymer electrode concept to be effective. PMID:26716873

  13. Effect of coal tar pitch modified by sulfur as a binder on the mechanical and tribological properties of bronze-impregnated carbon-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Sulfur addition increased the softening point and carbon yield of coal tar pitch. → The mechanical properties of the composites reached a maximum at 7 wt. % of sulfur. → The friction coefficient rose monotonously with increasing the content of sulfur. → The wear rate of the composites reached a minimum at 7 wt. % of sulfur. → The wear mechanism of composites was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidative wear. - Abstract: Bronze-impregnated carbon-matrix composites were prepared through compression molding, carbonization and impregnation. The mechanism of sulfuration was studied, and the effect of coal tar pitch modified by sulfur as a binder on the mechanical and tribological properties of composites was investigated by varying the content of sulfur. The results showed that the sulfur addition increased the softening point, carbon yield and C/H atomic ratio of coal tar pitch but decreased the toluene solubility and quinoline solubility due to the dehydrogenating polymerization of pitch molecules. The micro-hardness, bending strength and compressive strength of the composites were enhanced by increasing the mass percentage of sulfur and reached a maximum of 160 HV, 132.82 MPa and 293 MPa at 7 wt. % of sulfur, respectively. However, both the hardness and strength of the composites decreased as the content of sulfur increased beyond 7 wt. %. The friction coefficient value of composites increased monotonously, but the wear rate decreased with increasing sulfur content; subsequently, the wear rate reached a minimum of 3.045 x 10-7 mm3/Nm at 7 wt. % of sulfur and then ascended. The wear mechanisms of the composites were adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidative wear. However, adhesive wear and oxidative wear occurred slightly for the composites with the binder modified by sulfur.

  14. Rheology and Reactivity of Cementitious Binders with Plasticizers

    OpenAIRE

    Vikan, Hedda Vestøl

    2005-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of cementitious pastes has been studied by various means. Six different cements have been studied in main parts of the work and all of them have been characterized according to the Rietveld method in order to determine the exact content of minerals. Easily soluble alkalis were measured by plasma-emission- spectroscopy of the fluid filtered from paste. Three types of plasticizers namely naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensate (SNF), lignosulphonate and polyacryl...

  15. Influences of Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from Grease Trap as Binder on Rheological and Solvent Extraction Behavior in SS316L Metal Injection Molding

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Halim Irwan Ibrahim; Azriszul Mohd Amin; Rosli Asmawi; Najwa Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with rheological and solvent extraction behavior of stainless steel 316L feedstocks using Restaurant Waste Fats and Oils (RWFO) from grease traps as binder components along with Polypropylene (PP) copolymer as a backbone binder. Optimal binder formulation and effect of solvent extraction variables on green compacts are being analyzed. Four binder formulations based on volumetric ratio/weight fraction between PP and RWFO being mixed with 60% volumetric powder loading of SS31...

  16. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C., E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Lambertin, D.; Lahalle, H.; Antonucci, P. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/DEN/MAR/DTCD/SPDE, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze cedex (France); Cannes, C.; Delpech, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H{sub 2} release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO{sub 3} to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder.

  17. Synthesis and properties of a novel structural binder utilizing the chemistry of iron carbonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumanta; Souliman, Beshoy; Stone, David; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2014-06-11

    This paper explores, for the first time, the possibility of carbonating waste metallic iron powder to develop sustainable binder systems for concrete. The fundamental premise of this work is that metallic iron will react with aqueous CO2 under controlled conditions to form complex iron carbonates which have binding capabilities. Chosen additives containing silica and alumina are added to facilitate iron dissolution and to obtain beneficial rheological and later-age properties. Water is generally only a medium for mass transfer in these systems thereby making the common reaction schemes in portland cement concretes inapplicable. The compressive and flexural strengths of the chosen iron-based binder systems increase with carbonation duration and the specimens carbonated for 4 days exhibit mechanical properties that are comparable to those of companion ordinary portland cement systems that are most commonly used as the binder in building and infrastructural construction. The influence of the additives, carbonation duration, and the air curing duration after carbonation are explored in detail. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrate the presence of an organic carbonate complex (the dissolution agent used to dissolve iron is organic), the amount of which increases with carbonation duration. Thermal analysis also confirms the participation of some amount of limestone powder in the reaction product formation. The viability of this binder type for concrete applications is proved in this study. PMID:24840162

  18. Effect of different binders on mechanical and ballistic properties of boron - viton based fuel rich propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaaj; Bhujbal, J. G.; Ghavate, R. B.; Darekar, S. D.; Singh, R. V.

    2013-06-01

    Boron is a preferred metal in air augmented propulsion because of its very high heat of combustion per unit mass and per unit volume. But oxide layer (B2O3) formed on its surface inhibits the combustion of boron. Use of fluorocarbon binder can be a promising approach for the improved ignition of boron. In the present study Fuel Rich Propellant composition based on Boron / Ammonium Perchlorate / vinylidene fluoride, hexafluoropropylene and tetrafluoroethylene terpolymer (Viton-B) as a fluorocarbon binder is processed. The objective of the study is to improve mechanical and ballistic properties of the propellant; Viton-B is partially replaced by other binders like estane, polymethyl metha acrylate, polystyrene and irostic. The different compositions are tested for mechanical properties like ultimate compressive strength (UCS), % Compression and Modulus by Universal Testing Machine following ASTM standard D695-02A; and ballistic properties like pressure exponent value (`n' value) and rate of burning constant value by strand burner technique. It is observed that as Viton is partially replaced; mechanical properties improve; and ballistic properties decrease. From the results, it is concluded that estane can be used as partial replacement of Viton-B, as value of UCS increases by 27% and burn rate & `n' value is comparable with the full Viton-B binder composition.

  19. Water soluble binder for fabrication of Li4Ti5O12 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjalainen, Elina; Räsänen, Samuli; Jokinen, Miikka; Yliniemi, Kirsi; Worsley, David A.; Kuusivaara, Juha; Juurikivi, Jouni; Ekqvist, Risto; Kallio, Tanja; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-03-01

    Less expensive and greener aqueous electrode preparation processes are essential for the market penetration of lithium ion batteries to mid-scale applications. So far only carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) binder has been adopted for industrial use to fabricate carbon electrodes without harmful organic solvents but this process is prone to bacterial growth. In this study a new binder candidate, Acryl S020, is introduced for an aqueous preparation process that has been used for preparing Li4Ti5O12 electrodes for lithium ion batteries. It is shown that with our water based process electrodes with capacities comparable to those electrodes fabricated with the conventional organic solvent based process with the PVDF binder are obtained. Moreover, our lithium titanate electrodes with the Acryl S020 binder show high capacity retention and they can be operated at sub-zero temperatures. Electrodes were also fabricated with pilot-scale gravure printing and slot-die coating methods and they showed stable cycles lives of 500 cycles.

  20. A Preliminary Study on Gum Arabic as a Binder in Preparation of Starch Based Edible Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ayuni A. Apandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes on synthesizing edible plastic using a one pot method by adding starch, gum Arabic as theb binder and sugar (sorbitol and glycerol. In order to get the right composition, the ratio of each ingredient was varied. The FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the structure and composition of the sample produced.

  1. Biobased adhesives, gums, emulsions and binders: current trends and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers derived from renewable resources are an emerging class of advanced materials that offer many useful properties for a wide range of food and non-food applications. Current state of the art in research and development of renewable polymers as adhesives, gums, binders and emulsions will be ...

  2. Effect of phosphate binders on supplemental iron absorption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchnicki, Maria C; Coyle, James D; Hoshaw-Woodard, Stacy; Bay, William H

    2002-10-01

    A single-dose, prospective, randomized, four-treatment, four-period crossover study was conducted to determine the acute effect of therapeutically equivalent doses of three commonly used phosphate binders on oral iron absorption. Twenty-three healthy subjects received 65 mg of elemental iron alone and with each phosphate binder (calcium carbonate 3000 mg, calcium acetate 2668 mg, or sevelamer HCl 2821 mg). Area under the change in plasma iron concentration-time curve over 6 hours postdosing was measured. ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance of differences in iron absorption among the treatments. The relative bioavailability of iron administered with each phosphate binder compared to iron administered alone was estimated. The relative iron bioavailabilities (95% confidence intervals) for the calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, and sevelamer HCI treatments were 0.81 (0.70, 0.94), 0.73 (0.63, 0.85), and 0.90 (0.78, 1.05), respectively. Thus, single doses of both calcium-based phosphate binders significantly reduced single-dose iron absorption, while sevelamer HCl did not. PMID:12362933

  3. Interactions between TiAl alloy and AZC/AMT binder systems in investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two kinds of binders, Ammonium Zirconium Carbonate (AZC and Ammonium Metatungstate (AMT hydrate, and three kinds of powders (ZrO2, Al2O3 and Y2O3 were mixed to fabricate six kinds of face coating systems. The thermal behaviors of the AZC and AMT dried binders were investigated by TG-DTA, and the phase transformation of the two binders was determined by XRD. Monoclinic ZrO2 phase was formed from AZC at 620 °C and WO3 at 700 °C, and the phase transformation was completed at lower than 1000 °C in both binders, and therefore, the sintering temperature for the molds was selected at 950 °C. The interaction between the ceramic molds with different face coatings and the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb alloy during investment casting was studied. Results showed no α-case reaction in the TiAl-mold reaction, and the AMT + Y2O3 face coating appeared to be the best choice for investment casting of TiAl alloys under the experimental conditions.

  4. Selection of a mineral binder with potentialities for the stabilization/solidification of aluminum metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cements are reviewed. • The binders are then tested against aluminum corrosion. • Corrosion of aluminum metal is minimal with magnesium phosphate cement. • The H2 release can be reduced still further by adding LiNO3 to the mixing solution. • Electrochemical characterizations show that aluminum tends to a passive state. - Abstract: In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal is corroded, with continued production of hydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced still further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution. Open circuit potential measurement and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of aluminum electrode encapsulated in two pastes based on Portland cement and magnesium phosphate cement showed different redox behaviors. In the Portland cement paste, the electrochemical data confirmed the corrosion of aluminum whereas this latter tended to a passive state in the magnesium phosphate binder

  5. Physical and Combustion Characteristics of Briquettes Made from Water Hyacinth and Phytoplankton Scum as Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, R M; O. A. Davies

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the potential of water hyacinths and phytoplankton scum, an aquatic weed, as binder for production of fuel briquettes. It also evaluated some physical and combustion characteristics. The water hyacinths were manually harvested, cleaned, sun-dried, and milled to particle sizes distribution ranging from

  6. Towards an Accurate Stress Dependant Time & Frequency Domain VE Response Model for Bituminous Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Pronk, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Linear viscoelastic properties of bituminous binders for short loading times are analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis methods. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test with parallel plate (PP) configuration is widely used for this purpose. Due to the complex stress distribution over the cross-sectio

  7. Adherent diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide substrates with new Fe/Ni/Co binder phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WC-Co hard metals continue to gain importance for cutting, mining and chipless forming tools. Cobalt metal currently dominates the market as a binder because of its unique properties. However, the use of cobalt as a binder has several drawbacks related to its hexagonal close-packed structure and market price fluctuations. These issues pushed the development of pre-alloyed binder powders which contain less than 40 wt.% cobalt. In this paper we first report the results of extensive investigations of WC-Fe/Ni/Co hard metal sintering, surface pretreating and deposition of adherent diamond films by using an industrial hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor. In particular, CVD diamond was deposited onto WC-Fe/Ni/Co grades which exhibited the best mechanical properties. Prior to deposition, the substrates were submitted to surface roughening by Murakami's etching and to surface binder removal by aqua regia. The adhesion was evaluated by Rockwell indentation tests (20, 40, 60 and 100 kg) conducted with a Brale indenter and compared to the adhesion of diamond films grown onto Co-cemented tungsten carbide substrates, which were submitted to similar etching pretreatments and identical deposition conditions. The results showed that diamond films on medium-grained WC-6 wt.% Fe/Ni/Co substrates exhibited good adhesion levels, comparable to those obtained for HFCVD diamond on Co-cemented carbides with similar microstructure

  8. Phenolic resin binder for the production of metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Ayse; Coban, Abdullah [University of Erciyes, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Talu, Muzaffer [University of Gazi, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    Phenol based novalac, resol and the blend of both resins were used as binders in briquette production from coke breeze. The effects of the amount of catalyst on the tensile strength of the cured briquette were studied. The results obtained have indicated that the highest tensile strength could not be attained unless the blend of novalac and resol was used as binder. The most suitable blend was the binder prepared from the hydrochloric acid catalyzed novalac of F/P = 0.5 and the N/P = 0.3 catalyzed resol of F/P = 2.0. When this blend was used as a binder the tensile strength of the cured briquettes did not drop even if they were carbonized at 470 C and 570 C. Their strengths at these carbonization temperatures were 67 MPa and 72 MPa respectively, and the rise in the temperature resulted in some increase in their strength. These results show the fact that as the formed coke briquettes descends from the top of the blast furnace, the rise in temperature will not deteriorate their strength; it will probably improve their properties. Therefore, only curing at 200 C for 2 h will be sufficient for the briquettes to be used as substitute for metallurgical coke in the blast furnace. (author)

  9. Utilization of Cellulose from Luffa cylindrica Fiber as Binder in Acetaminophen Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carlo O. Macuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is an important pharmaceutical excipient. This study aimed to produce cellulose from the fiber of Luffa cylindrica as an effective binder in the formulation of acetaminophen tablets. This study was divided into three phases, namely, (I preparation of cellulose from Luffa cylindrica, (II determination of the powder properties of the LC-cellulose, and (III production and evaluation of acetaminophen of the tablets produced using LC-cellulose as binder. The percentage yield of LC-cellulose was 61%. The values of the powder properties of LC-cellulose produced show fair and passable flow properties and are within the specifications of a powdered pharmaceutical excipient. The mean tablet hardness and disintegration time of the LC-cellulose tablets have a significant difference in the mean tablet hardness and disintegration time of the tablets without binder; thus the cellulose produced improved the suitability of acetaminophen in the dry compression process. However, the tablet properties of the tablets produced using LC-cellulose as binder do not conform to the specifications of the US pharmacopeia; thus the study of additional methods and excipients is recommended.

  10. How good are linear viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder to predict rutting and fatigue cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.S.; Tsai, C.J. (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1999-08-01

    This article evaluates the effects of linear viscoelastic properties of asphalt on pavement rutting and fatigue cracking. The parameters in the binder specification recently developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) were also compared for pavement performance. Two studies were conducted for asphalt-aggregate mixes. The first study was the wheel tracking test to evaluate the rutting of mixes containing three asphalts. The second study was a detailed field study of the effects of binder properties on the pavement performance of eight different sections. Results of both investigations indicated that SHRP parameters were not sufficient indicators for predicting the rutting and fatigue cracking of pavements. The discrepancies between performance data and existing parameters of the binder mainly resulted from the inherited assumptions made during the specification development, that is, stress- or strain-controlled mode and traffic loading frequency. In order to directly relate the linear viscoelastic properties of asphalt binders to pavement performance, calculating the dissipated energy per traffic cycle, W[sub d], became imperative. Fundamental derivation of W[sub d] was developed in this study. Results indicated that W[sub d] could predict the rutting and fatigue cracking of pavements reasonably well, This study, proposed the dissipated energy, W[sub d], as the single parameter for evaluating pavement rutting and fatigue cracking.

  11. Method for the Accelerated Testing of the Durability of a Construction Binder using the Arrhenius Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridrichová Marcela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The single most reliable indicator of a material’s durability is its performance in long-term tests, which cannot always be carried out due to a limited time budget. The second option is to perform some kind of accelerated durability tests. The aim of the work described in this article was to develop a method for the accelerated durability testing of binders. It was decided that the Arrhenius equation approach and the theory of chemical reaction kinetics would be applied in this case. The degradation process has been simplified to a single quantifiable parameter, which became compressive strength. A model hydraulic binder based on fluidised bed combustion ash (FBC ash was chosen as the test subject for the development of the method. The model binder and its hydration products were tested by high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. The main hydration product of this binder was ettringite. Due to the thermodynamic instability of this mineral, it was possible to verify the proposed method via long term testing. In order to accelerate the chemical reactions in the binder, four combinations of two temperatures (65 and 85°C and two different relative humidities (14 and 100% were used. The upper temperature limit was chosen because of the results of the high-temperature x-ray testing of the ettringite’s decomposition. The calculation formulae for the accelerated durability tests were derived on the basis of data regarding the decrease in compressive strength under the conditions imposed by the four above-mentioned combinations. The mineralogical composition of the binder after degradation was also described. The final degradation product was gypsum under dry conditions and monosulphate under wet conditions. The validity of the method and formula was subsequently verified by means of long-term testing. A very good correspondence between the calculated and real values was achieved. The deviation of these values did not exceed 5 %. The designed

  12. Cold in-place recycling characterization framework for single or multiple component binder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin C.

    Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is a pavement rehabilitation technique which has gained momentum in recent years. This momentum is due partly to its economic and sustainability characteristics, which has led to CIR market expansion. When pavement network deterioration is considered alongside increasing material costs, it is not beyond reason to expect demands on CIR to continue to increase. Historically, single component binder (SCB) systems, those with one stabilization binder (or two if the secondary binder dosage is 1% or less), have dominated the CIR market and could be considered the general state of practice. Common stabilization binders are either bituminous or cementitious. Two example SCB systems would be: 1) 3% portland cement, or 2) 3% asphalt emulsion with 1% hydrated lime. While traditional SCB systems have demonstrated positive economic and sustainability impacts, this dissertation focuses on multiple component binder (MCB) systems (bituminous and cementitious combined) which exhibit the potential to provide better overall economics and performance. Use of MCBs has the potential to alleviate SCB issues to some extent (e.g. cracking with cementitious SCBs, rutting with bituminous SCBs). Furthermore, to fairly represent both binders in an MCB system a universal design method which can accommodate multiple binder types is needed. The main objectives of this dissertation are to develop a universal CIR design framework and, using this framework, characterize multiple SCB and MCB systems. Approximately 1500 CIR specimens were tested herein along with approximately 300 asphalt concrete specimens which serve as a reference data set for CIR characterization. A case study of a high-traffic Mississippi CIR project which included cement SCB and emulsion SCB sections is also presented to support laboratory efforts. Individual components needed to comprise a universal design framework, such as curing protocols, were developed. SCB and MCB characterization indicated

  13. Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Lv, Dongping; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Darsell, Jens T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Tomalia, Donald A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems because of their ultra high theoretical specific energy. To realize the practical application of Li-S batteries, however, a high S active material loading is essential (>70 wt% in the carbon-sulfur (C-S) composite cathode and >2 mg cm-2 in the electrode). A critical challenge to achieving this high capacity in practical electrodes is the dissolution of the longer lithium polysulfide reaction intermediates in the electrolyte (resulting in loss of active material from the cathode and contamination of the anode due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism). The binder material used for the cathode is therefore crucial as this is a key determinant of the bonding interactions between the active material (S) and electronic conducting support (C), as well as the maintenance of intimate contact between the electrode materials and current collector. The battery performance can thus be directly correlated with the choice of binder, but this has received only minimal attention in the relevant Li-S battery published literature. Here, we investigated the application of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as functional binders in Li-S batteries—a class of materials which has been unexplored for electrode design. By using dendrimers, it is demonstrated that high S loadings (>4 mg cm-2) can be easily achieved using "standard" (not specifically tailored) materials and simple processing methods. An exceptional electrochemical cycling performance was obtained (as compared to cathodes with conventional linear polymeric binders such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)) with >100 cycles and 85-98% capacity retention, thus demonstrating the significant utility of this new binder architecture which exhibits critical physicochemical properties and flexible nanoscale design parameters (CNDP's).

  14. Mechanical strength development of mortars containing volcanic scoria-based binders with different fineness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref M. al-Swaidani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of using natural pozzolan as cement replacement are often associated with shortcomings such as the need to moist-curing for longer time and a reduction of strength at early ages. The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of binder fineness on the mechanical strength development of scoria-based binder mortars. In the study, mortar specimens have been produced with four types of binder: one plain Portland cement (control and three scoria-based binders with three replacement levels: 25%, 30% and 35%, respectively. All scoria-based binders have been inter-ground into four different Blaine fineness: 2400, 3200, 4200 and 5100 cm2/g. The development of the compressive and flexural tensile strength of all mortar specimens with curing time has been investigated. The effects of the Blaine fineness of the scoria-based blended cement on the compressive and flexural strengths of mortar have been evaluated at curing ages of 2, 7, 28 and 90 days, respectively. Particle size distribution measured by a laser diffractometer has been considered in the study. Test results revealed that there is a decrease in strength with increasing amounts of scoria. In addition, there was found an increase in strength with increasing the Blaine fineness values. No direct relationship between Blaine and particle size distribution was observed. Effects of Blaine fineness on some physical properties of blended cements such as water demand, setting times and soundness have also been investigated. Further, an estimation equation for strength development incorporating the effects of fineness measured either by Blaine or by particle size distribution has been derived by the authors.

  15. Sol de sílica como agente ligante para concretos refratários Silica sol as a binder agent for refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Ismael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Grandes esforços têm sido empregados nas tentativas de substituição do cimento de aluminato de cálcio por outros tipos de agentes ligantes em concretos refratários. Adições superiores a 2-3% em peso desse ligante podem ser prejudiciais ao comportamento de secagem e a refratariedade em sistemas contendo microssílica. A literatura sugere como interessante alternativa a substituição desse agente ligante pelo sol de sílica, que proporciona, entre outras vantagens, uma maior velocidade de secagem e sinterização do concreto. Neste trabalho, comparou-se o desempenho do cimento aluminoso e do sol de sílica como agentes ligantes para concretos refratários. Os concretos foram avaliados quanto ao comportamento de mistura, secagem, resistência mecânica, permeabilidade, explosão, porosidade e refratariedade sob carga, em diferentes temperaturas e tempos de cura. Os resultados indicaram que o uso do sol de sílica pode apresentar vantagens com relação ao cimento refratário, porém para sua correta utilização novas pesquisas serão necessárias.Great efforts have been carried out in order to replace the calcium aluminate cement (CAC by other types of binders in refractory castables. Contents higher than 2-3 wt% of this binder can be deleterious to the drying behavior and to the system's refractoriness when microsilica is present. The literature relates as an interesting alternative the replacement of CAC for silica sol that provides, among another advantage, a higher drying speed and sinterability of the castable. In this work, the performance of CAC and silica sol as binder agents in refractory castables was compared. Their rheological and drying behavior, mechanical strength, permeability, explosion, porosity and refractoriness under load were evaluated. The results showed that the use of silica sol may be advantageous in comparison with the refractory cement, however in order to master the application of this binder, further research

  16. Pitch-asphalts - new binder for road construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stompel, Z.; Collin, G.; Szen, A.; Herion, G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses chemical and physical properties of a mixture of pitches and asphalts produced by the Blachownia Chemical Plant. The mixture consists of coal tar pitches with 25.7% content of toluene-insoluble fractions, anthracene oil and Dex asphalt. The following properties were analyzed: density, softening and softening point, adhesion, viscosity, sedimentation after 14 days. Physical and chemical properties of the pitch-asphalt from Blachownia were compared to those of pitch-asphalt from Ruetgerswerke AG in the FRG. Pitch-asphalt properties were evaluated from the point of view of their use in road construction. 8 refs.

  17. The effects of CuO nanoparticles on properties of self compacting concrete with GGBFS as binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of high performance self compacting concrete containing different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and CuO nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early age of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (% at later ages. CuO nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. CuO nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased the CuO nanoparticles' content more than 3.0 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. More rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that CuO nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  18. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur GÖKMEN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG based and can be dissolved in water, were used. Polypropylene was used as binder and steric acid was used as lubricant for both binder systems as skeleton binder. Dry binder system were mixed for 30 min in a three dimensional Turbola. Capillary rheometer was used to characterize the rheological properties of feed stocks at 150-200 °C and a pressures of 0.165-2.069 MPa. Powder loading capacity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be %55 and %61 respectively. The lowest viscosity of PEG and PW based feed stocks were found to be 304.707 Pa.s and 48.857 Pa.s respectively.Keywords: PIM, Binder, Rheological properties

  19. Influence of binder composition on the rheological behavior of injection-molded microsized SiC suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubin Ren; Xinbo He; Xuanhui Qu; Islam S. Humail; Yanping Wei

    2008-01-01

    The influence of four kinds of binders consisting of paraffin wax (PW), random-polypropylene (RPP), high-density poly-ethylene (HDPE), and stearic acid (SA) on the theological behavior of injection-molded SiC feedstocks was investigated over a tem-perature range of 150℃ to 180℃ and a shear rate range of 4 s-1 to 1259 s-1. The results showed that all the feedstocks exhibited pseudoplastic flow behavior. The wax-based binder of multipolymer components (PW-RPP-HDPE) exhibited better comprehensive rheological properties compared with the binder of monopolymer components (PW-RPP or PW-HDPE). The addition of 5wt% SA to the binder could reduce the viscosity of the feedstock but enhance the rbeological stability by improving the wettability between the binder and the SiC powder. The binder of 65wt% PW + 15wt% HDPE + 15wt% RPP + 5wt% SA was found to be a better binder for microsized SiC injection molding.

  20. Chitosan, a new and environmental benign electrode binder for use with graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chitosan is used as a new electrode binder for graphite anode. • Electrochemical properties of the chitosan-based electrode are compared with that of PVDF-based one. • Electrochemical performances of the graphite anode are improved by using chitosan binder. • Chitosan binder facilitates the formation of a thin, homogenous and stable SEI film of the electrode. -- Abstract: Chitosan was applied as the electrode binder material for a spherical graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared to using poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the graphite anode using chitosan exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, rate capability and cycling behavior. With similar specific capacity, the first Columbic efficiency of the chitosan-based anode is 95.4% compared to 89.3% of the PVDF-based anode. After 200 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5C, the capacity retention of the chitosan-based electrode showed to be significantly higher than that of the PVDF-based electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the graphite electrodes. The results show that a thin, homogenous and stable SEI layer is formed on the graphite electrode surface with chitosan binder compared with that using the conventional PVDF binder

  1. Absorption of vitamin B12 and effect of pancreatic juice on gastric vitamin B12 binder in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of pancreatic juice on vitamin B12 absorption was studied in dogs. It was found that dog gastric juice as well as pancreatic juice contain vitamin B12 binding proteins which differ in the elution pattern on DEAE-cellulose columns, the former being eluted at much lower sodium chloride concentrations. When radio-active vitamin B12 was fed or instilled in the proximal bowel and vitamin B12 recovered at different bowel levels, it was found that vitamin B12-protein complex behaved like gastric juice binder in the proximal bowel and like pancreatic binder in the distal. In vitro digestion of gastric binder with pancreatic juice altered vitamin B12-protein complex in such a way that elution pattern became similar to that of pancreatic juice. It was also shown that the change was not due to transfer of vitamin B12 from gastric binder to pancreatic binder. Trypsin digestion had similar effect on gastric binder, and Sephadex G-200 gelfiltration demonstrated reduction in the molecular size. In the doz, vitamin B12 first bound to gastric binder undergoes chemical changes in the bowel and becomes a readily absorbable form in the distal bowel. (auth.)

  2. Injection Molding of Titanium Alloy Implant For Biomedical Application Using Novel Binder System Based on Palm Oil Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V has been widely used as an implant for biomedical application. In this study, the implant had been fabricated using high technology of Powder Injection Molding (PIM process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Approach: Through PIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the implants. Even though, the binder system is a temporary, but failure in the selection and removal of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. Therefore, the binder system based on palm oil derivative which is palm stearin had been formulated and developed to replace the conventional binder system. Results: The rheological studies of the mixture between the powder and binders system had been determined properly in order to be successful during injection into injection molding machine. After molding, the binder held the particles in place. The binder system had to be removed completely through debinding step. During debinding step, solvent debinding and thermal pyrolysis had been used to remove completely of the binder system. The debound part was then sintered to give the required physical and mechanical properties. The in vitro biocompatibility also was tested using Neutral Red (NR and mouse fibroblast cell lines L-929 for the direct contact assay. Conclusion: The results showed that the properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Standard Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF 35 for PIM parts except for tensile strength and elongation due to the formation of titanium carbide. The in vitro biocompatibility on the extraction using mouse fibroblast cell line L-929 by means of NR assays showed non toxic for the sintered specimen titanium alloy parts.

  3. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-01-01

    compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation...... of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO...

  4. [Phosphate binders in renal patients: a point estimate from rationale, through evidences to the real world setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Andrea; Giovenzana, Maria Enrica; Galbiati, Eleonora; Auricchio, Sara; Colzani, Sara; Scanziani, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate binders represent a common intervention in renal patients affected by chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Although counteracting P overload through binders adoption is argued by a physiology-driven approach, the efficacy of this intervention on hard endpoints remains poorly evident. The inconsistencies between rationale and methodological weakness, concerning the clinical relevance of P binding in chronic kidney disease, will be herein discussed with special focus on the need of a multi-factorial treatment against CKD-MBD, which is currently more achievable due to the variety of P binders and the rapid evolution of nutritional therapy, dialysis techniques and nursing science. PMID:27545626

  5. Effects of Nanosilica on Compressive Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete with Different Water to Binder Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Forood Torabian Isfahani; Elena Redaelli; Federica Lollini; Weiwen Li; Luca Bertolini

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the addition of different nanosilica dosages (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% with respect to cement) on compressive strength and durability properties of concrete with water/binder ratios 0.65, 0.55, and 0.5 were investigated. Water sorptivity, apparent chloride diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity, and carbonation coefficient of concrete were measured. The results showed that compressive strength significantly improved in case of water/binder = 0.65, while for water/binder = 0.5 ...

  6. Liquid crystalline graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS self-assembled 3D architecture for binder-free supercapacitor electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KonstantinKonstantinov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Binder-free self-assembled 3D architecture electrodes have been fabricated by a novel convienient method. Liquid crystalline graphene oxide (LC GO was used as precursor to interact with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS in dispersion in order to form a conductive polymer entrapped, self-assembled layer-by-layer structure. This advanced network containing PEDOT:PSS enabled us to ascribe the superior electrochemical properties of particular graphene sheets. This layer-by-layer self-assembled 3D architecture of best performing composite (rGO-PEDOT:PSS 25 showed excellent electrochemical performance of 434 F g-1 through chemical treatment. To highlight these advances, we further explored the practicality of the as-prepared electrode by varying the composite material content. An asymmetric supercapacitor device using aqueous electrolyte was also studied of this same composite. The resulting performance from this set up included a specific capacitance of 132 F g-1. Above all, we observed an increase in specific capacitance (19% with increase in cycle life emphasizing the excellent stability of this device.

  7. Method for the Accelerated Testing of the Durability of a Construction Binder using the Arrhenius Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrichová, Marcela; Dvořák, Karel; Gazdič, Dominik

    2016-03-01

    The single most reliable indicator of a material's durability is its performance in long-term tests, which cannot always be carried out due to a limited time budget. The second option is to perform some kind of accelerated durability tests. The aim of the work described in this article was to develop a method for the accelerated durability testing of binders. It was decided that the Arrhenius equation approach and the theory of chemical reaction kinetics would be applied in this case. The degradation process has been simplified to a single quantifiable parameter, which became compressive strength. A model hydraulic binder based on fluidised bed combustion ash (FBC ash) was chosen as the test subject for the development of the method. The model binder and its hydration products were tested by high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis. The main hydration product of this binder was ettringite. Due to the thermodynamic instability of this mineral, it was possible to verify the proposed method via long term testing. In order to accelerate the chemical reactions in the binder, four combinations of two temperatures (65 and 85°C) and two different relative humidities (14 and 100%) were used. The upper temperature limit was chosen because of the results of the high-temperature x-ray testing of the ettringite's decomposition. The calculation formulae for the accelerated durability tests were derived on the basis of data regarding the decrease in compressive strength under the conditions imposed by the four above-mentioned combinations. The mineralogical composition of the binder after degradation was also described. The final degradation product was gypsum under dry conditions and monosulphate under wet conditions. The validity of the method and formula was subsequently verified by means of long-term testing. A very good correspondence between the calculated and real values was achieved. The deviation of these values did not exceed 5 %. The designed and verified method

  8. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite. To...... evaluate the performance of hemp-lime, it is compared to models with common external walls, upon defined parameters. The article also determines the variation of thermal conductivity for hemp-lime commercial plaster and wall mix, as a function of moisture content. The most promising binder composition and...

  9. Comparison between Palm Oil Derivative and Commercial Thermo-Plastic Binder System on the Properties of the Stainless Steel 316L Sintered Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R.; Azmirruddin, M.; Wei, G. C.; Fong, L. K.; Abdullah, N. I.; Omar, K.; Muhamad, M.; Muhamad, S.

    2010-03-01

    Binder system is one of the most important criteria for the powder injection molding (PIM) process. Failure in the selection of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. The objectives of this studied is to develop a novel binder system based on the local natural resources and environmental friendly binder system from palm oil derivative which is easily available and cheap in our country of Malaysia. The novel binder that has been developed will be replaced the commercial thermo-plastic binder system or as an alternative binder system. The results show that the physical and mechanical properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) standard 35 for PIM parts. The biocompatibility test using cell osteosarcoma (MG63) and vero fibroblastic also shows that the cell was successfully growth on the sintered stainless steel 316L parts indicate that the novel binder was not toxic. Therefore, the novel binder system based on palm oil derivative that has been developed as a binder system fulfills the important criteria for the binder system in PIM process.

  10. Konkursgäldenärs skiljeavtal : när binder avtalet konkursboet?

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Emilia; Larsson, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att beskriva gällande rätt kring om och när en konkursgäldenärs skiljeavtal binder dess konkursbo samt konsekvenserna av detta. I dagsläget är rättsområdet osäkert och enbart grundat på praxis, uppsatsen utreder därför även om lagstiftning eller annan utveckling på området är erforderlig. Det har i praxis konstaterats att en konkursgäldenärs skiljeavtal binder dess konkursbo då tvister gäller obligationsrättsliga anspråk och bevakningsförfaranden är aktuell...

  11. A Comparison of New TATBs, FK-800 binder and LX-17-like PBXs to Legacy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willey, T M; DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2009-05-01

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. New FK-800 binder was used to prepare LX-17-like plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) from new and wet aminated TATB. Some mechanical, thermal and performance characterization of the new binder and LX-17-like PBXs was done. Significant differences were found. The reason for a number of these differences is not well understood.

  12. A mathematical model for mechanically-induced deterioration of the binder in lithium-ion electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jamie M; Richardson, Giles; Protas, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with modeling detrimental deformations of the binder phase within lithium-ion batteries that occur during cell assembly and usage. A two-dimensional poroviscoelastic model for the mechanical behavior of porous electrodes is formulated and posed on a geometry corresponding to a thin rectangular electrode, with a regular square array of microscopic circular electrode particles, stuck to a rigid base formed by the current collector. Deformation is forced both by (i) electrolyte absorption driven binder swelling, and; (ii) cyclic growth and shrinkage of electrode particles as the battery is charged and discharged. The governing equations are upscaled in order to obtain macroscopic effective-medium equations. A solution to these equations is obtained, in the asymptotic limit that the height of the rectangular electrode is much smaller than its width, that shows the macroscopic deformation is one-dimensional. The confinement of macroscopic deformations to one dimension is used to obtain boun...

  13. Influence of surface modified nano silica on alkyd binder before and after accelerated weathering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Daugaard, Anders Egede;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of nano fillers in exterior wood coatings is not straight forward. Influence on aging of polymer binder needs to be taken into account along with possible benefits that nano fillers can provide immediately after application. This study shows the influence of two differently modified...... hydrophobic nano silica on an alkyd binder for exterior wood coatings. One month after application, the highest strength and energy required to break the films was obtained with addition of 3% disilazane modified silica. Changes in tensile properties were accompanied with a small increase in glass transition...... temperature. However, the highest stability upon accelerated weathering, measured by ATR-IR and DMA, was for nano composites with the highest amount of nano filler. The reasons for the observed changes are discussed together with the appearance of a feature that is possibly a secondary relaxation of alkyd...

  14. Enabling aqueous binders for lithium battery cathodes - Carbon coating of aluminum current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberdò, Italo; Löffler, Nicholas; Laszczynski, Nina; Cericola, Dario; Penazzi, Nerino; Bodoardo, Silvia; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In this manuscript a novel approach to enable aqueous binders for lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes is reported. Producing LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes using sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a binder and water as a solvent, in fact, results in serious aluminum corrosion during electrode manufacturing due to the high pH of the slurry. In order to prevent the direct contact of the corrosive slurry with aluminum foil, the latter is first coated with a thin carbon layer. The CMC-based electrodes formed on carbon coated aluminum foil show enhanced performance than those made using unprotected aluminum instead. In particular, electrodes using protected aluminum foil are able to deliver a capacity of 126 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, which is rather close to that delivered by polyvinylidene-di-fluoride (PVdF)-based electrode having the same composition.

  15. Use of natural binders and ionic liquid electrolytes for greener and safer lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G.T.; Jeong, S.S.; Joost, M.; Rocca, E.; Winter, M.; Passerini, S.; Balducci, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Muenster, Corrensstr. 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    This manuscript reports on the development of a safe and green lithium-ion battery containing sodium salt of CarboxyMethylCellulose (CMC) as binder, lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) as anodic active material, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) as cathodic active material and an electrolytic solution based on the ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR{sub 14}FSI). The battery showed, at room temperature, a very stable specific capacity of 140 mAh g{sup -1} constant for more than 150 cycles. This indicated that the introduction of low cost and environmentally benign binders, like CMC, and non-flammable electrolytes, such as PYR{sub 14}FSI, represents a viable strategy for the development of new, greener and safer lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  16. Using the organic-mineral binder for molybdenum concentrate granulation in metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhod Yusupov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When we use the traditional composition of the batch mixture in the production of cinder, the proportion of Mo in the granules is reduced to 4% (Table 1. In addition, it is known that the presence of kaolin in cinder makes difficult sublimating rhenium oxide and impairs its commodity indices such as the fullness of ammonia leaching, Au and Ag extraction from a cake. To improve these technical and economic indicators was an idea to replace, completely or partially, kaolin with organic binder to be burned at a sintering of Mo-concentrate and causing no dilution of the product. The purpose of our study is to develop such a binder for JSC "Almalyk GMK" with the specific requirements. It should not contain any "technological poisons" (such as phosphates adversely affecting the redistribution of cinder: leaching, sorption of Mo (VI ions, hydrogen reduction to metal, sintering rods.

  17. Synthesis and methane storage of binder-free porous graphene monoliths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing Ning; Hao Wang; Xiaoxin Zhang; Chenggen Xu; Guangjin Chen; Jinsen Gao

    2013-01-01

    Nanomesh graphene (NMG) obtained by template chemical vapor deposition was used to synthesize the binder-free graphene monoliths by simple tablet pressing.The stacking manner of the NMG sheets was crucial to the cohesion interaction between the graphene sheets,only the NMG materials with a loosely stacking manner could be pressed into binder-free monoliths.At the tableting pressure of 2-8 MPa,both the bulk densities and the specific surface areas of the monoliths keep nearly constant as the tableting pressure increases,indicating that the NMG monoliths have obvious elasticity and a porous structure due to the large corrugations and the mesh structures of the graphene sheets.As a result,an extraordinary methane storage capacity of 236 (v/v) at 9MPa was obtained in the graphene monolith prepared by tableting at 4 MPa.

  18. Studies on Some Nitramine based Low Vulnerability Ammunition Propellants with Cellulose Acetate as a Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Pillai

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Several formulations of propellants based on RDX as an energetic solid ingredients and cellulose acetate (CA as a binder were processed using either dioctyl pthalate(DOP or tracetin(TA as plastisizer and a small amount of nitrocellulose(NC. The Performance of these propellants was evaluated on the basis of closed vessel firing data. The vulnerability aspects of these formulations were compared with those of conventional picrite propellant, NQ on the basis of their ignition temperatures and sensitivity to friction and impact. Triacetin was found to be better plasticizer than DOP for CA binder. Some RDX/CA/TA/NC/-based propellants were found to have energy levels comparable with NQ propellant and had less sensitivity to heat, impact and friction, and therefore have the potential for being used as low-vulnerability ammunition propellants for gun applications.

  19. Thermal degradation of biopolymer binders: the example of starch-poly(acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterise a polymer, it is of fundamental importance to determine its parameters, like the temperatures of destruction, vitrification, melting point, specific mass losses or polymorphic transformations, which frequently determine the quality of the product and its applications. Thermal analyses were conducted of samples of a biopolymer binder: a starch-poly(acrylic acid composition and a moulding sand with a biopolymer binder previously hardened with microwaves. In order to determine the thermal stability of the examined samples by determining the destruction temperature and the thermal effects of transformations taking place during heating, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC, DTG, TG methods were used. In addition, volatile products of degradation were analysed using the thermogravimetry (TG method coupled online with mass spectrometry (MS. These examinations were also aimed at identifying the changes that can take place in the moulding sand when it comes into contact with liquid metal.

  20. Complexity of chromatin folding is captured by the strings and binders switch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Mariano; Chotalia, Mita; Fraser, James; Lavitas, Liron-Mark; Dostie, Josée; Pombo, Ana; Nicodemi, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Chromatin has a complex spatial organization in the cell nucleus that serves vital functional purposes. A variety of chromatin folding conformations has been detected by single-cell imaging and chromosome conformation capture-based approaches. However, a unified quantitative framework describing spatial chromatin organization is still lacking. Here, we explore the "strings and binders switch" model to explain the origin and variety of chromatin behaviors that coexist and dynamically change within living cells. This simple polymer model recapitulates the scaling properties of chromatin folding reported experimentally in different cellular systems, the fractal state of chromatin, the processes of domain formation, and looping out. Additionally, the strings and binders switch model reproduces the recently proposed "fractal-globule" model, but only as one of many possible transient conformations. PMID:22988072

  1. Instrumentation for studying binder burnout in an immobilized plutonium ceramic wasteform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M; Pugh, D; Herman, C

    2000-04-21

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program produces a ceramic wasteform that utilizes organic binders. Several techniques and instruments were developed to study binder burnout on full size ceramic samples in a production environment. This approach provides a method for developing process parameters on production scale to optimize throughput, product quality, offgas behavior, and plant emissions. These instruments allow for offgas analysis, large-scale TGA, product quality observation, and thermal modeling. Using these tools, results from lab-scale techniques such as laser dilametry studies and traditional TGA/DTA analysis can be integrated. Often, the sintering step of a ceramification process is the limiting process step that controls the production throughput. Therefore, optimization of sintering behavior is important for overall process success. Furthermore, the capabilities of this instrumentation allows better understanding of plant emissions of key gases: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), volatile inorganics including some halide compounds, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

  2. The use of bentonite and zeolite as caesium-binders in feed to reindeer - experiences from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is used in Sweden to lower radiocaesium levels in reindeer before slaughter. In feeds used for this purpose, bentonite is added as a caesium-binder to prevent absorption of radiocaesium, since the animals usually have som access to contaminated pasture in their corrals. Bentonite is efficient as a caesium-binder but increases water consumption and excretion of urine. Zeolite has been used as a caesium-binder to reindeer in a few experiments. The effect, however, has been inferior to that of bentonite. It seems that zeolite, mixed in feeds, loose some of its effect as the feed is stored. The need of a caesium-binder is demonstrated by results from practical feeding of reindeer where radiocaesium levels have not decreased as expected when feed without bentonite has been used.

  3. Lanthanum carbonate vs conventional phosphate binders for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect and safety of lanthanum carbonate vs conventional phosphate binders for hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.Methods According to the collaborative search strategy,MEDLINE (1996 to 2012.12) ,EBCO

  4. Technological and ecological studies of moulding sands with new inorganic binders for casting of non-ferrous metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies which form a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".In a concise manner, the results of studies on the effect of chemical modification of inorganic binders on the technological properties ofmoulding sands containing these binders were presented.Special attention was paid to the effect of modification of inorganic binders on their thermal destruction behaviour in the range of pouringtemperatures of the non-ferrous metals and their alloys.Also the results of comparative studies of the thermal emission of toxic gases and odours from moulding sands with new inorganic andorganic binders were discussed.

  5. Using a polyester binder for the interlaminar toughening of glass/epoxy composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Daelemans, Lode; van der Heijden, Sam; De Baere, Ives; Rahier, Hubert; Van Paepegem, Wim; De Clerck, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A based polyester is commonly used in the industry as a binder, or tackifier, to produce cost-saving preforms in Liquid Composite Moulding processes such as Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM). However, it is often reported that the presence of these polyesters has a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the resulting composite laminates. This study shows that interlaminar toughness can be increased without negatively affecting other properties by a applying...

  6. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    OpenAIRE

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by ...

  7. Ferric Citrate Hydrate as a Phosphate Binder and Risk of Aluminum Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Ferric citrate hydrate was recently approved in Japan as an oral phosphate binder to be taken with food for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The daily therapeutic dose is about 3 to 6 g, which comprises about 2 to 4 g of citrate. Oral citrate solubilizes aluminum that is present in food and drinking water, and opens the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing aluminum absorption and urinary excretion. In healthy animals d...

  8. Peran Sulfas Ferrosus Sebagai Pengikat Fosfat (Phosphate Binder) Pada Pasien PGK Dengan Hemodialisis Reguler

    OpenAIRE

    Erwinsyah

    2011-01-01

    Background Patient suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher risk of death compared to the normal population. Hyperphosphatemia and high calcium/phosporus product independently associated to the mortality of ESRD patients on haemodialysis. This condition are also associated increased incidence of hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular organ calcification,etc. Several researchses reported that iron containing drugs, were able to act as phosphate binder, when given orally togethe...

  9. Use of grape must as a binder to obtain activated carbon briquettes

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Deiana; D. L. Granados; L. M. Petkovic; M. F. Sardella; H. S. Silva

    2004-01-01

    The results of studies on briquetting activated-carbon-based adsorbent materials, prepared from raw materials from the region of Cuyo, Argentina, are reported in this article. Several steps were carried out to obtain activated-carbon briquettes from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn wood. These steps included carbonization of wood to obtain char; blending of char and a novel binder, i.e., grape must; formation of cylinder-like briquettes by pressure; and activation of the resulting material. The ...

  10. Interaction of milk proteins and Binder of Sperm (BSP) proteins from boar, stallion and ram semen

    OpenAIRE

    Plante, Geneviève; Lusignan, Marie-France; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammalian semen contains a family of closely related proteins known as Binder of SPerm (BSP proteins) that are added to sperm at ejaculation. BSP proteins extract lipids from the sperm membrane thereby extensively modifying its composition. These changes can ultimately be detrimental to sperm storage. We have demonstrated that bovine BSP proteins interact with major milk proteins and proposed that this interaction could be the basis of sperm protection by milk extenders. In the pre...

  11. The development of powder injection moulding binders: A quantification of individual components' interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bleyan, Davit; Hausnerová, Berenika; Svoboda, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The study of interactions between binder system components is critical for improving the processing properties of powder injection moulding (PIM) feedstocks. In this paper the interactions between acrawax (AW) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were analysed and compared with those obtained for carnauba wax (CW). Due to the complexity of interaction mechanisms, the polymers were substituted with their basic low molecular weight analogues and analysed by FTIR and calorimetry. Self-interaction energ...

  12. Black curves and creep behaviour of crumb rubber modified binders containing warm mix asphalt additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Juan; Rodríguez-Alloza, Ana María; Giuliani, Felice

    2016-08-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a new research topic in the field of road pavement materials. This technology allows lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by reducing compaction and placement temperatures of the asphalt mixtures. However, this technology is still under study, and the influence of the WMA additives has yet to be investigated thoroughly and clearly identified, especially in the case of crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders.

  13. Exploring the Ageing Effect of Binder on Skid Resistance Evolution of Asphalt Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Malal; ZHAO, Dan; Do, Minh Tan; Chailleux, Emmanuel; DE LARRARD, Francois

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important safety requirements of a road is its capability of preventing skidding of vehicles. However, this requirement so called "skid resistance" evolves during the whole pavement life. Phenomena that are identified to be responsible of this evolution are binder removal, aggregate polishing and seasonnal variations. In addition, ageing of bitumen is also identified to play a significant role on skid resistance evolution. One of the main results of previous works about skid r...

  14. Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders due to carbonation and hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Cizer, Özlem; Campforts, J; Balen, Koenraad Van; Elsen, Jan; Gemert, Dionys van

    2006-01-01

    Hardening of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate binders composed of cement, rice husk ash (RHA) and lime in different compositions were studied with mechanical strength, mercury intrusion porosimetry, thermal analysis and SEM. When cement is partially replaced with RHA and lime, hardening occurs as a result of combined hydration, pozzolanic reaction and carbonation reaction. While hydration of cement contributes to the early strength development of the mortars, carbonation is much more pr...

  15. Outstanding aspects on the use of spent FCC catalyst in binders

    OpenAIRE

    Payá, J.; Monzó, J.; Borrachero, M. V.; Garcés, P.; Mellado, A.; S. Velázquez; L. Soriano); Zornoza, E.

    2009-01-01

    FCC is a waste material from petrochemical plants which has interesting properties for preparing binders. FCC is lightly grey in color, and white FCC-portland cements with L*≥85 can be prepared. FCC reactivity is enhanced by grinding and it is attributed to pozzolanic reaction towards lime. Stratlingite is the main hydrated product from pozzolanic reaction, and CSH and CAH are also formed. Reactivity of FCC is high, and low curing temperature does not affect this co...

  16. Behaviour of asphalt rubber mixtures with different crumb rubber and asphalt binder sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Trichês, Glicério

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance in laboratory of gap graded mixture prepared with different crumb rubber types and different conventional grade asphalt binders. The asphalt rubbers were prepared via wet process (continuous blend) and their properties were measured through the current tests: (i) penetration;(ii) softening point: (iii) resilience; (iv) apparent viscosity using a Brookfield viscometer. The rheological properties for conventional asphalts were measured too, in order to evalu...

  17. Black curves and creep behaviour of crumb rubber modified binders containing warm mix asphalt additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Juan; Rodríguez-Alloza, Ana María; Giuliani, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a new research topic in the field of road pavement materials. This technology allows lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by reducing compaction and placement temperatures of the asphalt mixtures. However, this technology is still under study, and the influence of the WMA additives has yet to be investigated thoroughly and clearly identified, especially in the case of crumb rubber modified (CRM) binders.

  18. Physical properties and compact analysis of commonly used direct compression binders

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yeli; Law, Yuet; Chakrabarti, Sibu

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the basic physico-chemical property and binding functionality of commonly used commercial direct compression binders/fillers. The compressibility of these materials was also analyzed using compression parameters derived from the Heckel, Kawakita, and Cooper-Eaton equations. Five classes of excipients were evaluated, including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), starch, lactose, dicalcium phosphate (DCP), and sugar. In general, the starch category exhibited the highest mo...

  19. Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bobrowski; B. Grabowska; M. Holtzer; Kubecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop a method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Research were performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials mixtures of semi-volatiles compounds with furfuryl alcohol and aldehyde. Furfuryl-urea resin samples were also used. Station for thermal degradation of materials used in foundry was designed and made. Thermal degradation process conditions and gas chromatograph coupled with high reso...

  20. Evaluation of Gum of Moringa oleifera as a Binder and Release Retardant in Tablet Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, D. S.; Choudhury, N. S. K.; Yedukondalu, M.; S. Si; Gupta, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the potential of gum from Moringa oleifera to act as a binder and release retardant in tablet formulations. The effect of calcium sulphate dihydrate (water insoluble) and lactose (water soluble) diluent on the release of propranolol hydrochloride was studied. The DSC thermograms of drug, gum and mixture of gum/drug indicated no chemical interaction. Tablets (F1, F2, F3, and F4) were prepared containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as diluent, propran...

  1. The estimation of harmfulness for environment of moulding sand with biopolymer binder based on polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major-Gabryś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article takes into consideration technological and ecological aspects of IV generation moulding sands. Investigations concerning anapplication of biopolymer materials as binders for moulding sands are presented in the paper. These investigations are the continuation ofexaminations related to applications of various biopolymers as binding agents and to the properties of the moulding sands with biopolymerbinders. In the paper there are the researches concerning analyzing gases emitted from moulding sands during heating.

  2. The estimation of harmfulness for environment of moulding sand with biopolymer binder based on polylactide

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabryś; St.M. Dobosz; J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    The article takes into consideration technological and ecological aspects of IV generation moulding sands. Investigations concerning anapplication of biopolymer materials as binders for moulding sands are presented in the paper. These investigations are the continuation ofexaminations related to applications of various biopolymers as binding agents and to the properties of the moulding sands with biopolymerbinders. In the paper there are the researches concerning analyzing gases emitted from ...

  3. The role of the binder phase in the WC-Co sintering

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The sintering of hardmetal in the solid state is studied. The influence of the WC particle size on the sintering kinetics, the role of the binder phase in the densification process and how sintering depends on the heating conditions are investigated. It is observed that alloys with different WC particle size show quite different structural evolution during sintering, although the densification mechanisms are the same. This is explained by the formation of agglomerates of WC and Co. Hardmetal ...

  4. Effects of Moisture on Rheological Properties of PAV Aged Asphalt Binders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xin; Wei Jianming; Liu Yunxin; Luo Yilin; Wang Ying; Yin Long

    2013-01-01

    For the most coastal areas where the air is very humid, study on the effect of humidity on the performance of asphalt has its practical signiifcance. However, limited research has been done to investigate the effect of humidity on rheo-logical properties of asphalt. In this study, asphalt binders were aged in the pressure aging vessel (PAV) under different con-ditions of moisture and aging time. Then Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) measure-ments were conducted to obtain the parameters relating to the complex modulus, phase angle, failure temperature, and creep stiffness. It was found that the low temperature performance decreased as evidenced by the results of the creep stiffness. While there were no signiifcant differences among conditioned binders based on complex modulus G*and phase angleδ, it was found that theδvalue increased when the humidity increased from 0%to 80%, and then theδvalue decreased when the humidity increased to 100%. In addition, the results of the failure temperature indicated that the humidity of 80%would be a critical point for the high temperature performance of the asphalt binders.

  5. Influence of binder solvent on carbon-layer structure in electrical-double-layer capacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; P Suresh Kumar; A K Shukla

    2013-09-01

    Porous activated-carbons with a large surface-area have been the most common materials for electrical-double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). These carbons having a wide pore distribution ranges from micropores to macropores in conjunction with a random pore connection that facilitates the high specific-capacitance values. Pore distribution plays a central role in controlling the capacitance value of EDLCs, since electrolyte distribution inside the active material mainly depends on the pore distribution. This has a direct influence on the distribution of resistance and capacitance values within the electrode. As a result, preparation of electrodes remains a vital issue in realising high-performance EDLCs. Generally, carbon materials along with some binders are dispersed into a solvent and coated onto the current collectors. This study examines the role of binder solvents used for the carbon-ink preparation on the microstructure of the electrodes and the consequent performance of the EDLCs. It is observed that the physical properties of the binder solvent namely its dielectric constant, viscosity and boiling point have important role in determining the pore-size distribution as well as the microstructure of electrodes which influence their specific capacitance values.

  6. Physics-Based Reactive Burn Model: Grain size effects and binder effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Hamate, Yuichio; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2007-06-01

    We have been developing a physics-based reactive burn (PBRB) model aiming at expanding predictive capability. The PBRB model was formulated based on the concept of a statistical hot spot cell. In the model, thermomechanics and physiochemical features are explicitly modeled. In this paper, we have extended the statistical hot spot model to explicitly describe the ignition and growth of hot spots. In particular, grain size effects are explicitly delineated through introduction of a size-dependent thickness of the hot-region thickness, a size-dependent energy deposition criterion, and a specific surface area. Besides the linear relationships between the run distance to detonation and critical diameter with the reciprocal specific surface area of HE, as discussed in a parallel paper in this meeting, parametric studies have also shown that the PBRB can predict a non-monotonous variation of shock sensitivity with grain size, as observed by Moulard et al. The purpose of this work is to extend the model to include the effects of explosive binders explicitly. As a first step we investigate the thermomechanical effects of a binder by using direct mesoscale simulations. The results will be used in the extending the PBRB model to include binder thermomechanics explicitly.

  7. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  8. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  9. Fiber concrete containing composite binders and technogenic sands of Kursk magnetic anomaly for flexural structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesovik R.V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There are different methods for improving strength characteristics of concrete. One of them is fiber reinforcement of concrete with fibrils.This paper considers the application of steel fiber for the reinforcement of fine-grained concrete. The previous studies of this issue regarded mainly the cement and silica sand. In this project, the fine ground cement and the binder with low water demand were used as the main binder. The fiber-concrete mixture consisted mainly of the antropogenic sand of the Kursk magnetic anomaly, enriched with Tavolzhan sand.The studies have shown the evident advantage of a steel wave fiber in comparison to the anchor and flat milled fiber. The use of composite binders and high-density packing of the grains significantly increases the strength characteristics. With the rational selection of the filler, the steel-fiber concrete was procured on the antropogenic sand Kursk Magnetic Anomaly. Its compressive strength limit is 84.8 MPa and bending strength limit is 19.8 MPa for flexural structures.

  10. Alkali-activated complex binders from class C fly ash and Ca-containing admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolu; Shi, Huisheng; Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A

    2010-01-15

    Processes that maximize utilization of industrial solid wastes are greatly needed. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution were used to create alkali-activated complex binders (AACBs) from class C fly ash (CFA) and other Ca-containing admixtures including Portland cement (PC), flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), and water treatment residual (WTR). Specimens made only from CFA (CFA100), or the same fly ash mixed with 40 wt% PC (CFA60-PC40), with 10 wt% FGDG (CFA90-FGDG10), or with 10 wt% WTR (CFA90-WTR10) had better mechanical performance compared to binders using other mix ratios. The maximum compressive strength of specimens reached 80.0 MPa. Geopolymeric gel, sodium polysilicate zeolite, and hydrated products coexist when AACB reactions occur. Ca from CFA, PC, and WTR precipitated as Ca(OH)(2), bonded in geopolymers to obtain charge balance, or reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. However, Ca from FGDG probably reacted with dissolved silicate and aluminate species to form ettringite. Utilization of CFA and Ca-containing admixtures in AACB is feasible. These binders may be widely utilized in various applications such as in building materials and for solidification/stabilization of other wastes, thus making the wastes more environmentally benign. PMID:19767143

  11. Effect of Chitosan Binder on Water Absorption of Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of chitosan as filter media binder was investigated in this study. Chitosan solution with different concentrations were applied to the empty fruit bunches using two different deposition techniques, namely, spray method and addition method. In this study, a water absorption test was used to study the sorption behaviour of empty fruit bunches filter media. The water absorption study showed that the water uptake for empty fruit bunches filter media without the chitosan binder increases with time, until the water sorption reaches the equilibrium state. It was observed that the water uptake decreased from 23 % to 14 % for the chitosan-filled filter media as compared to binder-less filter media, over the duration of 24 hours. For 1 % chitosan concentration, the water uptake is higher compared to 3 % chitosan-filled filter media. The water absorption is relatively lower for filter media with a higher concentration of chitosan due to the high compatibility achieved at this interfacial region between empty fruit bunches fibres and chitosan. Alkali-treated filter media showed the lowest water uptake compared to diethyl ether, ethanol and hot water pretreatment methods. (author)

  12. Performance of adsorbent-embedded heat exchangers using binder-coating method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ang

    2016-01-01

    The performance of adsorption (AD) chillers or desalination cycles is dictated by the rates of heat and mass transfer of adsorbate in adsorbent-packed beds. Conventional granular-adsorbent, packed in fin-tube heat exchangers, suffered from poor heat transfer in heating (desorption) or cooling (adsorption) processes of the batch-operated cycles, with undesirable performance parameters such as higher footprint of plants, low coefficient of performance (COP) of AD cycles and higher capital cost of the machines. The motivation of present work is to mitigate the heat and mass "bottlenecks" of fin-tube heat exchangers by using a powdered-adsorbent cum binder coated onto the fin surfaces of exchangers. Suitable adsorbent-binder pairs have been identified for the silica gel adsorbent with pore surface areas up to 680 m2/g and pore diameters less than 6 nm. The parent silica gel remains largely unaffected despite being pulverized into fine particles of 100 μm, and yet maintaining its water uptake characteristics. The paper presents an experimental study on the selection and testing processes to achieve high efficacy of adsorbent-binder coated exchangers. The test results indicate 3.4-4.6 folds improvement in heat transfer rates over the conventional granular-packed method, resulting a faster rate of water uptake by 1.5-2 times on the suitable silica gel type. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemically tuned anode with tailored aqueous hydrocarbon binder for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Lee, So Young; Lee, Young Moo; McGrath, James E

    2009-07-21

    An anode for direct methanol fuel cells was chemically tuned by tailoring an aqueous hydrocarbon catalyst (SPI-BT) binder instead of using a conventional perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer (PFSI). SPI-BT designed in triethylamine salt form showed lower proton conductivity than PFSI, but it was stable in the catalyst ink forming the aqueous colloids. The aqueous colloidal particle size of SPI-BT was much smaller than that of PFSI. The small SPI-BT colloidal particles contributed to forming small catalyst agglomerates and simultaneously reducing their pore volume. Consequently, the high filling level of binders in the pores, where Pt-Ru catalysts are mainly located on the wall and physically interconnected, resulted in increased electrochemical active surface area of the anode, leading to high catalyst utilization. In addition, the chemical affinity between the SPI-BT binder and the membrane material derived from their similar chemical structure induced a stable interface on the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) and showed low electric resistance. Upon adding SPI-BT, the synergistic effect of high catalyst utilization, improved mass transfer behavior to Pt-Ru catalyst, and low interfacial resistance of MEA became greater than the influence of reduced proton conductivity in the electrochemical performance of single cells. The electrochemical performance of MEAs with SPI-BT anode was enhanced to almost the same degree or somewhat higher than that with PFSI at 90 degrees C. PMID:19485372

  14. Effect of stabilizing binder and dispersion media on spin-on zeolite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the dispersion media and types of binding agent on the hydrophilic properties of silica MFI-type films is evaluated. As dispersants ethanol, butanol and hexanol are used to stabilize the purified MFI nanocrystals in coating suspensions. Three types of binders, including non-purified silica MFI, pre-hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane, and colloidal alumina were mixed with MFI nanocrystals stabilized in different dispersants in various ratios, and deposited on silicon wafers by spin-on process. The main physicochemical properties including homogeneity, thickness, and surface roughness of the films were determined by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. Additionally, the crystalline structure and degree of disorientation of the MFI crystallites in the films were characterized by grazing X-ray incident diffraction. Besides, the degree of hydrophobicity of films is evaluated by comparing the ellipsometry data with contact angle measurements. It has been found that the colloidal alumina binder introduced hydrophilic centers, high disordering, and low density resulting in higher hydrophilicity, while the as-synthesized silica MFI and pre-hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane binders formed dense, more stable and hydrophobic films.

  15. Properties of concretes and wood composites using a phosphate-based binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Luong Thanh

    Magnesium potassium phosphate ceramics are from the family of phosphate-based cements which can be used as alternatives to Portland cements. In this study, concretes and wood composites were produced using magnesium potassium phosphate ceramic binders and supplementary materials including fly ash, sand, silica fume and sawdust. Bentonite, Delvo Stabilizer and baking soda were used as additives to increase the workability and the setting time of the fresh mixutres and decrease the density of the hardened products. The materials were then reinforced with chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics to increase their hardened properties. At 50% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the concretes had compressive strength and density of 33 MPa and 2170 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days of simple curing. At 20% fly ash by total mass of the binder, the wood composites had compressive strength and density of 13 MPa and 1320 kg/m3, respectively, after 90 days. The flexural strengths were about 10% to 47% of the corresponding cylinder compressive strengths for these mixes. Increases in both compressive and flexural strengths for these mixes were observed with the addition of chopped glass-fibers or textile glass-fabrics.

  16. Effect of binders on natural graphite powder-based gas diffusion electrode for Mg-air cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinton, Ghenadi; Rianto, Anton; Faizal, Ferry; Hidayat, Darmawan; Hidayat, Sahrul; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    This paper mainly discussed the electrical performance of gas diffusion electrode of Mg-Air Cell. The gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) use a natural graphite powder as catalyst material. The effect of additional binders to the GDE have been investigated to improve electrode performances. Several types of GDE have been developed using binder materials such as epoxy resin, natural clay, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and urea-formaldehyde (UF). By using discharge performance measurement, the characteristics of the as-prepared GDEs are reported.

  17. Effect of a magnesium-based phosphate binder on medial calcification in a rat model of uremia

    OpenAIRE

    De Schutter, Tineke M.; Geert J Behets; Geryl, Hilde; Peter, Mirjam E.; Steppan, Sonja; Gundlach, Kristina; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Neven, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-based phosphate binders are used to control hyperphosphatemia; however, they promote hypercalcemia and may accelerate aortic calcification. Here we compared the effect of a phosphate binder containing calcium acetate and magnesium carbonate (CaMg) to that of sevelamer carbonate on the development of medial calcification in rats with chronic renal failure induced by an adenine diet for 4 weeks. After 1 week, rats with chronic renal failure were treated with vehicle, 375 or 750 mg/kg Ca...

  18. Influence of binder system and temperature on rheological properties of water atomized 316L powder injection moulding feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Uğur GÖKMEN; Türker, Mehmet; ÇİNİCİ, Hanifi

    2016-01-01

    In order to obtain a proper powder injection molding the rheological behavior of feedstocks should be known. To determine the binder effect on the rheological behavior of 316L stainless steel powders feedstock two different feedstock were prepared. In the current experiments water atomized 316L stainless steel powders (-20 µm) were used. Two types of binders, one of which is mainly paraffin wax can be dissolved in heptane and the other Polietilenglikol (PEG) based and can be dissolved in wate...

  19. Development of a rubber-modified fractionated bio-oil for use as noncrude petroleum binder in flexible pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Williams, R. Christopher; Rover, Marjori; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for petroleum-derived products coupled with decreasing world crude reserves has led to substantial increases in asphalt pricing. Society’s additional interest in energy independence and use of renewable sources of energy is also a motivation for developing and using more sustainable materials such as binders derived from noncrude petroleum sources for use in highway applications. Iowa State University has been developing noncrude petroleum binders derived from the produc...

  20. Effect of treatment temperature on the microstructure of asphalt binders: insights on the development of dispersed domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, I; Masad, E; Bhasin, A

    2016-04-01

    This paper offers important insights on the development of the microstructure in asphalt binders as a function of the treatment temperature. Different treatment temperatures are useful to understand how dispersed domains form when different driving energies for the mobility of molecular species are provided. Small and flat dispersed domains, with average diameter between 0.02 and 0.70 μm, were detected on the surface of two binders at room temperature, and these domains were observed to grow with an increase in treatment temperature (up to over 2 μm). Bee-like structures started to appear after treatment at or above 100°C. Moreover, the effect of the binder thickness on its microstructure at room temperature and at higher treatment temperatures was investigated and is discussed in this paper. At room temperature, the average size of the dispersed domains increased as the binder thickness decreased. A hypothesis that conciliates current theories on the origin and development of dispersed domains is proposed. Small dispersed domains (average diameter around 0.02 μm) are present in the bulk of the binder, whereas larger domains and bee-like structures develop on the surface, following heat treatment or mechanical disturbance that reduces the film thickness. Molecular mobility and association are the key factors in the development of binder microstructure. PMID:26540203

  1. Randomized Clinical Trial on the postoperative use of an abdominal binder after laparoscopic umbilical and epigastric hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Olsen, B H; Rosenberg, J; Bisgaard, T

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Application of an abdominal binder is often part of a standard postoperative regimen after ventral hernia repair to reduce pain and seroma formation. However, there is lack of evidence of the clinical effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pain- and seroma-reducing ......PURPOSE: Application of an abdominal binder is often part of a standard postoperative regimen after ventral hernia repair to reduce pain and seroma formation. However, there is lack of evidence of the clinical effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pain- and seroma...... abdominal binders during the first postoperative week. Standardized surgical technique, anaesthesia, and analgesic regimens were used and study observers were blinded towards the intervention. Postoperative pain (visual analogue score) on day 1 was the primary outcome. In addition, ultrasonographic...... the abdominal binder were found. CONCLUSIONS: There were no effects of an abdominal binder on pain, movement limitation, fatigue, seroma formation, general well-being, or quality of life. However, most patients claimed a subjective beneficial effect of using their abdominal binder....

  2. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  3. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm3) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between ± 3% and ± 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed. The

  4. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Otruba, Vitezslav [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz

    2006-05-15

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm{sup 3}) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between {+-} 3% and {+-} 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed

  5. Dependence of Specific Impulse of Metal-free Formulations on CHNO-oxidizer′s Element Content and Enthalpy of Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.LEMPERT

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that it is not correct to estimate energetic characteristics of different compounds of solid composite propellants by evaluation of the specific impulse values of these components serving as an only component in the formulation. Such an approach may turn the researcher to a wrong conclusion.One has to compare compound′s potential in formulations close to real,e.g.at least with necessary amount of binders.Dependences of specific impulse upon element content of high-enthalpy CHNO oxidizer,its enthalpy of formation,and kind of binder have been found.

  6. Evaluation of the composition of the binder bridges in matrix granules prepared with a small-scale high-shear granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajdik, János; Baki, Gabriella; Szent-Királlyi, Zsuzsanna; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the binder bridges which can form in hydrophilic matrix granules prepared with a small-scale high-shear granulator. Matrices contained hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a matrix-forming agent, together with lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose as filler. Water was used as granulating liquid. A 2(4) full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the operational parameters (impeller speed, chopper speed, dosing speed and wet massing time) on the granulation process. The temperature of the sample increased relevantly during the preparation in the small-scale apparatus. The same setup induced different temperature increases for different amounts of powder. This alteration enhances the solubility of lactose and decreases that of HPMC, and thus the quantities of the dissolved components can vary. Accordingly, changes in composition of the binder bridge can occur. Since exact determination of the dissolution of these materials during granulation is difficult, the consequences of the changes in solubility were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were made to evaluate the films prepared from liquids with different ratios of soluble materials. The DSC and XRD measurements confirmed that the lactose lost its crystalline state in the film. The TMA tests revealed that increase of the quantity of lactose in the film decreased the glass transition temperature of the film; this may be attributed to the interaction of the additives. At a lactose content of 37.5%, a second glass transition appeared. This phenomenon may be indicative of a separate amorphous lactose phase. PMID:18774256

  7. Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete at Low and High Water/Binder Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Gai-Fei Peng; Yan-Zhu Huang; Hai-Sheng Wang; Jiu-Feng Zhang; Qi-Bing Liu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research on mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) at low and high water/binder (W/B) ratios. Concrete at two W/B ratios (0.255 and 0.586) was broken into recycled concrete aggregates (RCA). A type of thermal treatment was employed to remove mortar attached to RCA. The RAC at a certain (low or high) W/B ratio was prepared with RCA made from demolished concrete of the same W/B ratio. Tests were conducted on aggregate to measure water abso...

  8. Investigation of Phosphate Cement-based Binder with Super High Early Strength for Repair of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Magnesium phosphate cement-based binder (MPB) for repair of concrete was prepared by proportionally mixing over burned MgO powder (M) with NHH2PO4 powder (P) and set modifying admixtures. It is characteristic by excellent properties such as rapid setting,high strength and high bond strength to old concrete.. The study is focused on the key factors influencing the setting time and strength of MPB, the bond property of MPB to old concrete and the kinetic feature of the hydration of MPB.

  9. Highly robust silicon nanowire/graphene core-shell electrodes without polymeric binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eon; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Hwanjin; Park, Jong Hyeok; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2013-09-01

    A large theoretical charge storage capacity along with a low discharge working potential renders silicon a promising anode material for high energy density lithium ion batteries. However, up to 400% volume expansion during charge-discharge cycling coupled with a low intrinsic electronic conductivity causes pulverization and fracture, thus inhibiting silicon's widespread use in practical applications. We report herein on a low cost approach to fabricate hybrid silicon nanowire (SiNW)/graphene nanostructures that exhibit enhanced cycle performance with the capability of retaining more than 90% of their initial capacity after 50 cycles. We also demonstrate the use of hot-pressing in the absence of any common polymer binder such as PVDF to bind the hybrid structure to the current collector. The applied heat and pressure ensure strong adhesion between the SiNW/graphene nano-composite and current collector. This facile yet strong binding method is expected to find use in the further development of polymer-binder free anodes for lithium ion batteries.A large theoretical charge storage capacity along with a low discharge working potential renders silicon a promising anode material for high energy density lithium ion batteries. However, up to 400% volume expansion during charge-discharge cycling coupled with a low intrinsic electronic conductivity causes pulverization and fracture, thus inhibiting silicon's widespread use in practical applications. We report herein on a low cost approach to fabricate hybrid silicon nanowire (SiNW)/graphene nanostructures that exhibit enhanced cycle performance with the capability of retaining more than 90% of their initial capacity after 50 cycles. We also demonstrate the use of hot-pressing in the absence of any common polymer binder such as PVDF to bind the hybrid structure to the current collector. The applied heat and pressure ensure strong adhesion between the SiNW/graphene nano-composite and current collector. This facile yet strong

  10. Effect of Organic Binders on The Quality of Manganese Ore Sinter Fines Briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinai Manganese Company imports the manganese ore sinter from abroad for ferromanganese alloy production. Large quantities of manganese ore sinter fines are produced in this process. These fines must be agglomerated to a suitable size in order to be reused for charging the electric arc furnace. The aim of this work is studying the briquetting ability of these fines using organic binders such as starch and bitumen. The results showed that, the suitable briquettes were produced with the addition of 5 % of starch and 20% H2O under pressure 3 ton/cm2 or 8 % bitumen under pressure 4 ton/cm2 and 3 days curing time

  11. Lunar building materials: Some considerations on the use of inorganic polymers. [adhesives, coatings, and binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of inorganic polymer systems synthesized from the available lunar chemical elements, viz., silicon, aluminum, and oxygen to make adhesives, binders, and sealants needed in the fabrication of lunar building materials and the assembly of structures is considered. Inorganic polymer systems, their background, status, and shortcomings, and the use of network polymers as a possible approach to synthesis are examined as well as glassy metals for unusual structural strength, and the use of cold-mold materials as well as foam-sintered lunar silicates for lightweight shielding and structural building materials.

  12. Maxillo-nasal dysplasia (Binder syndrome) and associated malformations of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olow-Nordenram, M.A.K.; Raadberg, C.T.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-three patients with maxillo-nasal dysplasia have been subjected to a radiographic examination of the cervical spine. In 44.2 per cent malformations of the cervical vertebrae of a minor or major type were revealed. Dysplasia of the vertebral bodies related to persistence of the chorda dorsalis, a very rare malformation, was found in six cases. No correlation between the incidence or serverity of the malformations and the degree of malocclusion of the jaws and facial deformity, characteristic of Binder syndrome, were noted. The maxillo-nasal dysplasia and the spinal malformations probably have a common cause during the embryologic stage.

  13. Rheological Properties of Mixtures of 316L Stainless Stell Powders With Polyproplylen Based Binders

    OpenAIRE

    KARATAŞ, Çetin

    1998-01-01

    The flowabilities of feedstocks for powder injection molding (PIM), of 316L stainless steel powders (mean diameters 5.84, 30.42, 40.35, 67.42 mm) with thermoplastic binders (60% paraffin, 35% polypropylene, 5% stearic acid) were investigated. For this purpose, a capillary rheometer was designed and constructed. The rheometer was heated in 30 minutes to 300 °C with an accuracy of \\pm 1 °C. Its load range was 63-55.000 grams. The best flow measurements were made at 175 °C for all feed...

  14. Fugitive binder-containing nuclear fuel material and method of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel material green body of density from about 30 to 70% of theoretical density having tensile strength and plastici adequate to maintain the integrity of the body during processing leading to ultimate sintered condition is produced by adding one or more amines to a particulate mass of the nuclear fuel containing about five percent of ammonium uranyl carbonate under conditions resulting in reaction of the amine with the ammonium uranyl carbonate, liberation of ammonia and formation of a watersoluble uranyl compound more effective as a binder than the ammonium uranyl carbonate

  15. Change in fatigue behavior of asphalt hot mixes produced with asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Silvrano Adonias Dantas; Farias, Farias, Márcio Muniz de; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue life of asphalt hot mixes is given as a function of both stiffness and tensilestrains induced in the bottom of the wearing courses of flexible pavements. In conventional as-phalt hot mixes the increase of stiffness leads to a decrease of fatigue life. However, this work shows that there is an increase of both fatigue life and stiffness of asphalt rubber hot mixes in comparison with the asphalt hot mixes produced with straight binders. In this work laboratory tests were performed in as...

  16. Influence of binder composition on the properties of feedstock for cemented carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gołombek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The plastic mixtures shaping of polymer-powder slurries with use of injection moulding and extrusion techniques for development and optimization of metal matrix tool materials reinforced with hard carbide phases.Design/methodology/approach: Mixtures preparation and preliminary tests, injection moulding and extrusion moulding processes optimization, the grain size measurement with use of laser diffraction method, torque measurement, rheological characterization, differential scanning calorimetry.Findings: All of investigated polymer-powder mixtures are proper for injection moulding and extrusion processes. Increasing the maximal possible fraction of carbides powder in the mixture is possible due to SA acid addition in the composition of binder. Advantages of SA acid as a component of binder are connected with significant decreasing the viscosity of polymer-powder mixtures as a result of SA acid presence. Binder fraction in injection moulded and extruded materials should be as small as possible, but enough for slurry moulding process. Too large fraction of binder causes the problems during degradation process because of higher shrinkage value and can be a reason of the distortion effect during sintering process. The results of bending strength measurements of injection moulded and extruded samples depends mainly on the moulding conditions, which should be optimized, to obtain the homogeneous structure of material with no discontinuities.Practical implications: Using investigated PM methods makes it possible to take advantage of injection moulding benefits obtained in area of polymer materials to fabrication of metallic materials, cermets and ceramics. There are wide possibilities of PIM (Powder Injection Moulding method application for “near-net-shape” production of small size units with complicated shape and extended surface so the range of practical use of this method is wide and covers many aspects of life. The elimination the

  17. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Poulsen, Thomas; Bischoff, Claus

    veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated......Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during...

  18. Effect of Polymer Binders on UV-Responsive Organic Thin-Film Phototransistors with Benzothienobenzothiophene Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubic, Darko; Smithson, Chad S; Wu, Yiliang; Zhu, Shiping

    2016-02-17

    The influence of polymer binders on the UV response of organic thin-film phototransistors (OTF-PTs) is reported. The active channel of the OTF-PTs was fabricated by blending a UV responsive 2,7-dipenty-[1]benzothieno[2,3-b][1]benzothiophene (C5-BTBT) as small molecule semiconductor and a branched unsaturated polyester (B-upe) as dielectric binder (ratio 1:1). To understand the influence of the polymer composition on the photoelectrical properties and UV response of C5-BTBT, control blends were prepared using common dielectric polymers, namely, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), polycarbonate (PC), and polystyrene (PS), for comparison. Thin-film morphology and nanostructure of the C5-BTBT/polymer blends were investigated by means of optical and atomic force microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. Electrical and photoelectrical characteristics of the studied OTF-PTs were evaluated in the dark and under UV illumination with a constant light intensity (P = 3 mW cm(-2), λ = 365 nm), respectively, using two- and three-terminal I-V measurements. Results revealed that the purposely chosen B-upe polymer binder strongly affected the UV response of OTF-PTs. A photocurrent increase of more than 5 orders of magnitude in the subthreshold region was observed with a responsivity as high as 9.7 AW(-1), at VG = 0 V. The photocurrent increase and dramatic shift of VTh,average (∼86 V) were justified by the high number of photogenerated charge carriers upon the high trap density in bulk 8.0 × 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1) generated by highly dispersed C5-BTBT in B-upe binder. Compared with other devices, the B-upe OTF-PTs had the fastest UV response times (τr1/τr2 = 0.5/6.0) reaching the highest saturated photocurrent (>10(6)), at VG = -5 V and VSD = -60 V. The enhanced UV sensing properties of B-upe based OTF-PTs were attributed to a self-induced thin-film morphology. The enlarged interface facilitated the electron withdrawing/donating functional groups in the polymer chains in

  19. Characteristic of Core Manufacturing Process with Use of Sand, Bonded by Ecological Friendly Nonorganic Binders

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn; Dańko, J.; Dańko, R.; M. Asłanowicz; T. Fulko; A. Ościłowski

    2013-01-01

    Mechanization of the process of core making with the use of inorganic and organic binders is based, almost solely, on core blowing machines. Presently the core blowing machines are equipped with tools and devices that allow for application of different technologies of core making. Cold-box, hot-box and warm-air technologies require that core blowing machines shall be additionally equipped with either core-box pre-heating system or gas purging and neutralization system, or hot air purging syst...

  20. Characteristic of Core Manufacturing Process with Use of Sand, Bonded by Ecological Friendly Nonorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanization of the process of core making with the use of inorganic and organic binders is based, almost solely, on core blowing machines. Presently the core blowing machines are equipped with tools and devices that allow for application of different technologies of core making. Cold-box, hot-box and warm-air technologies require that core blowing machines shall be additionally equipped with either core-box pre-heating system or gas purging and neutralization system, or hot air purging systems.

  1. Determining the rational technological parameters of heatresistant concrete produced with sodium silicate binder

    OpenAIRE

    Manturov Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Heat-resistant concrete is one of the most effective refractory materials. Using such concrete reduces the time of construction by 3-4 times, it decreases the labor costs during the construction of thermal units by 2-3 times, increases the working life of the thermal unit and, therefore, reduces the costs of maintenance and major repairs.This paper deals with heat-resistant concrete based on a sodium-silicate composite binder, regarded as an alternative to refractory concrete based on liquid ...

  2. Evaluation of novel reactive MgO activated slag binder for the immobilisation of lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2014-12-01

    Although Portland cement is the most widely used binder in the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) processes, slag-based binders have gained significant attention recently due to their economic and environmental merits. In the present study, a novel binder, reactive MgO activated slag, is compared with hydrated lime activated slag in the immobilisation of lead and zinc. A series of lead or zinc-doped pastes and mortars were prepared with metal to binder ratio from 0.25% to 1%. The hydration products and microstructure were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The major hydration products were calcium silicate hydrate and hydrotalcite-like phases. The unconfined compressive strength was measured up to 160 d. Findings show that lead had a slight influence on the strength of MgO-slag paste while zinc reduced the strength significantly as its concentration increased. Leachate results using the TCLP tests revealed that the immobilisation degree was dependent on the pH and reactive MgO activated slag showed an increased pH buffering capacity, and thus improved the immobilisation efficiency compared to lime activated slag. It was proposed that zinc was mainly immobilised within the structure of the hydrotalcite-like phases or in the form of calcium zincate, while lead was primarily precipitated as the hydroxide. It is concluded, therefore, that reactive MgO activated slag can serve as clinker-free alternative binder in the S/S process. PMID:25123653

  3. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO2 concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO2 exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods

  4. Burning Characteristics of Ammonium-Nitrate-Based Composite Propellants with a Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene/Polytetrahydrofuran Blend Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kohga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium-nitrate-(AN- based composite propellants prepared with a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB/polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF blend binder have unique thermal decomposition characteristics. In this study, the burning characteristics of AN/HTPB/PTHF propellants are investigated. The specific impulse and adiabatic flame temperature of an AN-based propellant theoretically increases with an increase in the proportion of PTHF in the HTPB/PTHF blend. With an AN/HTPB propellant, a solid residue is left on the burning surface of the propellant, and the shape of this residue is similar to that of the propellant. On the other hand, an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant does not leave a solid residue. The burning rates of the AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant are not markedly different from those of the AN/HTPB propellant because some of the liquefied HTPB/PTHF binder cover the burning surface and impede decomposition and combustion. The burning rates of an AN/HTPB/PTHF propellant with a burning catalyst are higher than those of an AN/HTPB propellant supplemented with a catalyst. The beneficial effect of the blend binder on the burning characteristics is clarified upon the addition of a catalyst. The catalyst suppresses the negative influence of the liquefied binder that covers the burning surface. Thus, HTPB/PTHF blend binders are useful in improving the performance of AN-based propellants.

  5. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangming; Chen, Changxin; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dimensional binders, the NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer binder is expected to present multi-point interaction with Si surface, resulting in enhanced binding ability with Si particles as well as with the copper (Cu) current collectors, and building a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the Si surface. The NaPAA-g-CMC based Si anode shows much better cycle stability and higher coulombic efficiency than those made with the well-known linear polymeric binders such as CMC and NaPPA. PMID:26786315

  6. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  7. Use of a Naphthalene-Based Binder in Injection Molding Net-Shape Titanium Components of Controlled Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, K. Scott; Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2005-07-01

    We have recently developed a naphthalene-based binder system for use in powder injection molding (PIM) of ceramic and metallic materials. The use of a binder that can be removed via sublimation offers several unique advantages relative to the typical thermoplastic and/or thermoset binders employed in PIM. One of these is that essentially no volume change takes place during debindering. This offers a relatively facile method of introducing porosity into a net-shape part of potentially complex geometry. In the study described in this paper, the effects of powder loading and subsequent isostatic compaction on the size and amount of porosity in the components produced by this technique were investigated. In general, it was found that the amount of porosity is inversely proportional to the initial concentration of metal powder in the PIM feedstock. Likewise, average pore size displays a similar relationship with powder loading.

  8. Special tablets containing cellulose binder and Sr internal standard for simplifying X-ray fluorescence analysis of powder samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzyk, Zofia; Anyszkiewicz, Jacek; Gorewoda, Tadeusz

    2015-12-01

    The addition of a constant amount of SrCO3 was observed to be the proper internal standard for analysis by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to correct the matrix and grain size effects of many constituents. The weighing of constant amounts of SrCO3, binder and sample allowed for the preparation time for analysis to be extended, and special tablets containing binder and SrCO3 were developed. Several substances were tested as binders, among which microcrystalline cellulose was chosen for further study. The prepared tablets were checked for their weight stability and the repeatability of SrCO3 addition. The tablets were then used to prepare pellets from geological samples for X-ray fluorescence analysis. The exemplary application and calibration curves for several analytes confirmed that the prepared tablets could be useful for the pelletizing of such materials to compensate for matrix effects.

  9. Effect of the properties of natural resin binder in a high friction composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stephen Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high-friction composite material based on the combination of binder, friction modifiers, fibers and fillers is investigated. In the binder, up to 20% of phenol are replaced by cardanol with various weight ratios of 100/0, 95/5, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20. Cardanol may react both through the phenolic group and the double bond of the side chain yielding addition, condensation and polymerisation reactions that allow the synthesis of tailor-made products and polymers of high value. In the present work, mechanical, thermal and wear characteristics of cardanol based phenolic resin with organic ingredients were manufactured and tested. An analysis of microstructure characteristics of composites was carried out using scanning electron microscope. The effect of environment on the composite was investigated in water, salty water and oil. The results showed that the addition of cardanol reduces the wear resistance and increases the compressibility which reduces the noise propensity.

  10. Dependency of Electrochemical Performances of Silicon Lithium-Ion Batteries on Glycosidic Linkages of Polysaccharide Binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Da-Eun; Hwang, Chihyun; Kang, Na-Ri; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2016-02-17

    Molecular structures of polysaccharide binders determining mechanical properties were correlated to electrochemical performances of silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Glycosidic linkages (α and β) and side chains (-COOH and -OH) were selected and proven as the major factors of the molecular structures. Three different single-component polysaccharides were compared: pectin for α-linkages versus carboxylic methyl cellulose (CMC) for β-linkages from the linkage's standpoint, and pectin as a COOH-containing polymer and amylose as its non-COOH counterpart from the side chain's standpoint. Pectin was remarkably superior to CMC and amylose in cyclability and rate capability of battery cells based on silicon anodes. The pectin binder allowed volume expansion of silicon electrodes with keeping high porosity during lithiation due to the elastic nature caused by the chair-to-boat conformation in α-linkages of its backbone. Physical integrity of pectin-based electrodes was not challenged during repeated lithiation/delithiation cycles without crack development that was observed in rigid CMC-based electrodes. Covalent bonds formed between carboxylic side chains of pectin and silicon surface oxide prevented active silicon mass from being detached away from electric pathways. However, hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl side chains of amylose and silicon surface oxide were not strong enough to keep the silicon mass electrochemically active after cyclability tests. PMID:26807998

  11. Binder Jetting: A Novel NdFeB Bonded Magnet Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Shafer, Christopher S.; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek H.; McGuire, Michael A.; Springfield, Robert M.; Martin, Josh; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research is to fabricate near-net-shape isotropic (Nd)2Fe14B-based (NdFeB) bonded magnets using a three dimensional printing process to compete with conventional injection molding techniques used for bonded magnets. Additive manufacturing minimizes the waste of critical materials and allows for the creation of complex shapes and sizes. The binder jetting process works similarly to an inkjet printer. A print-head passes over a bed of NdFeB powder and deposits a polymer binding agent to bind the layer of particles together. The bound powder is then coated with another layer of powder, building the desired shape in successive layers of bonded powder. Upon completion, the green part and surrounding powders are placed in an oven at temperatures between 100°C and 150°C for 4-6 h to cure the binder. After curing, the excess powder can be brushed away to reveal the completed "green" part. Green magnet parts were then infiltrated with a clear urethane resin to achieve the measured density of the magnet of 3.47 g/cm3 close to 46% relative to the NdFeB single crystal density of 7.6 g/cm3. Magnetic measurements indicate that there is no degradation in the magnetic properties. This study provides a new pathway for preparing near-net-shape bonded magnets for various magnetic applications.

  12. A roadmap to generate renewable protein binders to the human proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwill, Karen; Gräslund, Susanne

    2011-07-01

    Despite the wealth of commercially available antibodies to human proteins, research is often hindered by their inconsistent validation, their poor performance and the inadequate coverage of the proteome. These issues could be addressed by systematic, genome-wide efforts to generate and validate renewable protein binders. We report a multicenter study to assess the potential of hybridoma and phage-display technologies in a coordinated large-scale antibody generation and validation effort. We produced over 1,000 antibodies targeting 20 SH2 domain proteins and evaluated them for potency and specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), protein microarray and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We also tested selected antibodies in immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays. Our results show that high-affinity, high-specificity renewable antibodies generated by different technologies can be produced quickly and efficiently. We believe that this work serves as a foundation and template for future larger-scale studies to create renewable protein binders. PMID:21572409

  13. Binder Jetting: A Novel NdFeB Bonded Magnet Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Shafer, Christopher S.; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek H.; McGuire, Michael A.; Springfield, Robert M.; Martin, Josh; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research is to fabricate near-net-shape isotropic (Nd)2Fe14B-based (NdFeB) bonded magnets using a three dimensional printing process to compete with conventional injection molding techniques used for bonded magnets. Additive manufacturing minimizes the waste of critical materials and allows for the creation of complex shapes and sizes. The binder jetting process works similarly to an inkjet printer. A print-head passes over a bed of NdFeB powder and deposits a polymer binding agent to bind the layer of particles together. The bound powder is then coated with another layer of powder, building the desired shape in successive layers of bonded powder. Upon completion, the green part and surrounding powders are placed in an oven at temperatures between 100°C and 150°C for 4-6 h to cure the binder. After curing, the excess powder can be brushed away to reveal the completed "green" part. Green magnet parts were then infiltrated with a clear urethane resin to achieve the measured density of the magnet of 3.47 g/cm3 close to 46% relative to the NdFeB single crystal density of 7.6 g/cm3. Magnetic measurements indicate that there is no degradation in the magnetic properties. This study provides a new pathway for preparing near-net-shape bonded magnets for various magnetic applications.

  14. Pore- and micro-structural characterization of a novel structural binder based on iron carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sumanta, E-mail: Sumanta.Das@asu.edu [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Stone, David, E-mail: dajstone@gmail.com [Iron Shell LLC, Tucson, AZ (United States); Convey, Diana, E-mail: Diana.Convey@asu.edu [LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Neithalath, Narayanan, E-mail: Narayanan.Neithalath@asu.edu [School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The pore- and micro-structural features of a novel binding material based on the carbonation of waste metallic iron powder are reported in this paper. The binder contains metallic iron powder as the major ingredient, followed by additives containing silica and alumina to facilitate favorable reaction product formation. Compressive strengths sufficient for a majority of concrete applications are attained. The material pore structure is investigated primarily through mercury intrusion porosimetry whereas electron microscopy is used for microstructural characterization. Reduction in the overall porosity and the average pore size with an increase in carbonation duration from 1 day to 4 days is noticed. The pore structure features are used in predictive models for gas and moisture transport (water vapor diffusivity and moisture permeability) through the porous medium which dictates its long-term durability when used in structural applications. Comparisons of the pore structure with those of a Portland cement paste are also provided. The morphology of the reaction products in the iron-based binder, and the distribution of constituent elements in the microstructure are also reported. - Highlights: • Carbonation of iron produces a dense microstructure. • Pore volume in iron carbonate lower, critical size higher than those in OPC pastes • Reaction product contains iron, carbon, silicon, aluminum and calcium. • Power-law for porosity-moisture permeability relationship was established.

  15. On the characterisation of the corrosion layout of ferrous archaeological analogues in binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with an analytical study on ferrous reinforcements embedded in hydraulic binders found in ancient buildings from the Middle Age period to the beginning of the 20. c. AD. The study of these kind of archaeological analogues is necessary to improve the knowledge on the long-term corrosion of low carbon steels that could be used in concrete to build the substructure of nuclear wastes reversible storage facilities. The corrosion system can be described as a multi-layer pattern made of the metal, a dense corrosion product layer, a transformed medium and a binder. All the morphological and physicochemical properties as composition, structure and porosities of these different parts were studied with different analytical methods as optical and electron microscopy, EDS coupled to SEM, EPMA, mercury porosimetry, micro Raman spectroscopy and micro Diffraction under Synchrotron Radiation. Moreover, average corrosion rates were evaluated by two different methods. These rates are relatively low compared to the same parameters measured on low alloyed steels immersed in aqueous environments and are comparable with results obtained for passivated systems. (authors)

  16. Crystal structure of the binder phase in a model HfC-TiC-Ni material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the binder phase in a model HfC-TiC-Ni sample produced by hot pressing is investigated. The nature of the binder depends on the amount of Hf and Ti that remains in solution with Ni after cooling. Four different crystal structures are identified by analysis of electron diffraction patterns obtained using transmission electron microscopy techniques and the composition of the phases determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Three of the phases are cubic; Ni, Ni3(Ti,Hf) and Ni23(Ti,Hf)6 with lattice parameters of 3.52 ± 0.05, 3.52 ± 0.03 and 10.70 ± 0.40 A, respectively. The hexagonal phase is an intermetallic Ni3Ti phase, with lattice parameters of a = b = 5.00 ± 0.20 A and c = 8.16 ± 0.20 A. The crystal structures are confirmed by simulations of the electron diffraction patterns using JEMS software

  17. Optical Characterization of Temperature- and Composition-Dependent Microstructure in Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Adam; Nazmus, Sakib; Bhasin, Amit; Downer, Michael

    We introduce noncontact optical microscopy and optical scattering to characterize asphalt binder microstructure at temperatures ranging from 15 to 85°C for two compositionally different asphalt binders. We benchmark optical measurements against rheometric measurements of the magnitude of the temperature-dependent bulk complex shear modulus | G* (T) | . The main findings are: (1) Elongated (5 x 1 μm), striped microstructures (known from AFM studies as ''bees'' because they resemble bumble-bees) are resolved optically, found to reside primarily at the surface, and do not reappear immediately after a single heating-cooling cycle. (2) Smaller (1 μm2) microstructures with no observable internal structure (hereafter dubbed ``ants''), are found to reside primarily in the bulk, to persist after multiple thermal cycles and to scatter light strongly. Optical scattering from ''ants'' decreases to zero with heating from 15 to 65°C, but recovers completely upon cooling back to 15°C, albeit with distinct hysteresis. (3) Rheometric measurements of | G* (T) | reveal hysteresis that closely resembles that observed by optical scatter, suggesting that thermally-driven changes in microstructure volume fraction cause corresponding changes in | G* (T) | .

  18. Graphene oxide nanosheets/polymer binders as superior electrocatalytic materials for vanadium bromide redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few layered graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with large specific surface area (42.1 m2 g−1) are successfully prepared by a modified Hummers method for use as electrodes in the vanadium bromide redox battery. The structure and physicochemical properties of GO are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry results indicate that GO nanosheets with polymer binder (i.e., polyvinylidiene fluoride (PVDF) or sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK)) hybrids demonstrate more favorable electrocatalytic activity towards the Br−/Br3− and V3+/V2+ redox couples than the pure graphite. This is attributed to the large numbers of oxygen-containing functional groups on the GO nanosheet surface which can generate more active sites to catalyze the redox reactions. For the binder-based electrodes, the SPEEK based electrode gives the best electrochemical performance (e.g., lower overvoltage for both Br−/Br3− and V3+/V2+ redox couple reactions and higher peak currents for the V3+/V2+ redox couple).

  19. Enhancing mechanical properties of ceramic papers loaded with zeolites using borate compounds as binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Cecchini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available NaY zeolite-containing ceramic papers were prepared by a papermaking technique with a dual polyelectrolyte retention system that implied the use of cationic and anionic polymers. To improve their mechanical properties, we found that some borate compounds could be successfully used as ceramic binders. Three types of sodium and/or calcium borates were tested as binders: colemanite, nobleite, and anhydrous ulexite. The improvement in the mechanical properties depends both on the borate used and on the calcination temperature. By XRD it was determined that the faujasite structure collapsed after calcination at 700°C, which limited the final calcination temperature of zeolitic ceramic papers. Different amounts of NaY zeolite were added to ceramic papers and, as observed by SEM, faujasite particles were well distributed throughout the ceramic paper structure. Ceramic papers containing 1.2 wt.% zeolite after calcination at 650°C resulted in structured catalysts that were easy-to-handle, and which can be adapted to different conformations.

  20. On the characterisation of the corrosion layout of ferrous archaeological analogues in binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitty, Walter-John [Laboratoire Pierre Sue, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dillmann, Philippe [LRC CEA DSM 01-27: CNRS IRAMAT UMR5060, IPSE, and Laboratoire Pierre Sue, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); L' Hostis, Valerie [Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et Argiles, CEA, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Beranger, Gerard [Universite de technologie de Compiegne, BP 60319, 60203 Compiegne (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper deals with an analytical study on ferrous reinforcements embedded in hydraulic binders found in ancient buildings from the Middle Age period to the beginning of the 20. c. AD. The study of these kind of archaeological analogues is necessary to improve the knowledge on the long-term corrosion of low carbon steels that could be used in concrete to build the substructure of nuclear wastes reversible storage facilities. The corrosion system can be described as a multi-layer pattern made of the metal, a dense corrosion product layer, a transformed medium and a binder. All the morphological and physicochemical properties as composition, structure and porosities of these different parts were studied with different analytical methods as optical and electron microscopy, EDS coupled to SEM, EPMA, mercury porosimetry, micro Raman spectroscopy and micro Diffraction under Synchrotron Radiation. Moreover, average corrosion rates were evaluated by two different methods. These rates are relatively low compared to the same parameters measured on low alloyed steels immersed in aqueous environments and are comparable with results obtained for passivated systems. (authors)

  1. Effect of binder burnout on the sealing performance of glass ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Tugrul Y.; Celik, Selahattin; Mat, Mahmut D.

    2013-11-01

    The glass ceramics composite sealants are among few materials suitable for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to their high operating temperatures (600 °C-850 °C). The glass ceramics chemically bond to both the metallic interconnector and the ceramic electrolyte and provide a gas tight connection. A careful and several stages manufacturing procedure is required to obtain a gas tight sealing. In this study, effects of binder burnout process on the sealing performance are investigated employing commercially available glass ceramic powders. The glass ceramic laminates are produced by mixing glass ceramic powders with the organic binders and employing a tape casting method. The laminates are sandwiched between the metallic interconnectors of an SOFC cell. The burnout and subsequent sealing quality are analyzed by measuring leakage rate and final macrostructure of sealing region. The effects of heating rate, dead weight load, solid loading, carrier gas and their flow rates are investigated. It is found that sealing quality is affected from all investigated parameters. While a slower heating rate is required for a better burnout, the mass flow rate of sweep gas must be adequate for removal of the burned gas. The leakage rate is reduced to 0.1 ml min-1 with 2 °C min-1 + 1 °C min-1 heating rate, 86.25% solid loading, 200 N dead weight load and 500 ml min-1 sweep gas flow rate.

  2. Bovine binder-of-sperm protein BSP1 promotes protrusion and nanotube formation from liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, Michel, E-mail: michel.lafleur@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Systems, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Courtemanche, Lesley [Department of Chemistry, Center for Self-Assembled Chemical Systems, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Karlsson, Goeran; Edwards, Katarina [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 579, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Schwartz, Jean-Louis [Department of Physiology, Groupe d' etude des Proteines Membranaires, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Manjunath, Puttaswamy [Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Faculty of Medecine, Universite de Montreal, 5415 L' Assomption Blvd, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 2M4 (Canada)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Binder-of-sperm protein 1 (BSP1) modifies the morphology of lipidic vesicles inducing bead necklace-like and thread-like structures. {yields} In the presence of multilamellar liposomes, BSP1 leads to the formation of long nanotubes. {yields} The insertion of BSP1 in the external lipid leaflet of membranes induces local changes in bilayer curvature. -- Abstract: Binder-of-sperm (BSP) proteins interact with sperm membranes and are proposed to extract selectively phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol from these. This change in lipid composition is a key step in sperm capacitation. The present work demonstrates that the interactions between the protein BSP1 and model membranes composed with phosphatidylcholine lead to drastic changes in the morphology of the lipidic self-assemblies. Using cryo-electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, we show that, in the presence of the protein, the lipid vesicles elongate, and form bead necklace-like structures that evolve toward small vesicles or thread-like structures. In the presence of multilamellar vesicles, where a large reservoir of lipid is available, the presence of BSP proteins lead to the formation of long nanotubes. Long spiral-like threads, associated with lipid/protein complexes, are also observed. The local curvature of lipid membranes induced by the BSP proteins may be involved in lipid domain formation and the extraction of some lipids during the sperm maturation process.

  3. Bovine binder-of-sperm protein BSP1 promotes protrusion and nanotube formation from liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Binder-of-sperm protein 1 (BSP1) modifies the morphology of lipidic vesicles inducing bead necklace-like and thread-like structures. → In the presence of multilamellar liposomes, BSP1 leads to the formation of long nanotubes. → The insertion of BSP1 in the external lipid leaflet of membranes induces local changes in bilayer curvature. -- Abstract: Binder-of-sperm (BSP) proteins interact with sperm membranes and are proposed to extract selectively phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol from these. This change in lipid composition is a key step in sperm capacitation. The present work demonstrates that the interactions between the protein BSP1 and model membranes composed with phosphatidylcholine lead to drastic changes in the morphology of the lipidic self-assemblies. Using cryo-electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, we show that, in the presence of the protein, the lipid vesicles elongate, and form bead necklace-like structures that evolve toward small vesicles or thread-like structures. In the presence of multilamellar vesicles, where a large reservoir of lipid is available, the presence of BSP proteins lead to the formation of long nanotubes. Long spiral-like threads, associated with lipid/protein complexes, are also observed. The local curvature of lipid membranes induced by the BSP proteins may be involved in lipid domain formation and the extraction of some lipids during the sperm maturation process.

  4. Effect of rapid set binder on early strength and permeability of HES latex modified road repair pre-packed concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. W.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, C.; Park, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    The early strength development characteristics and permeability resistance of high early strength (HES) pre-packed road repair concrete incorporating a rapid-set binder material were evaluated for emergency repairs to road pavement. The rapid-set binder is a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sands whose fluidity improves with the addition of styrene butadiene latex (latex). The resulting mixture has a compressive strength of 21 MPa or higher and a flexural strength of greater than 3.5 MPa after 4 hours, the maximum curing age allowed for emergency repair materials. This study examines the strength development properties and permeability resistance of HES latex-modified pre-packed road repair concrete using a rapid- set binder as a function of the latex-to-binder mixing ratio at values of 0.40, 0.33, 0.29 and 0.25. Both early strength development properties and permeability resistance increased as the ratio of latex to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture showed a compressive strength of 21 MPa or higher after 4 hours, which is the design standard of emergency repair concrete, only when this ratio was 0.29 or lower. A flexural strength of 3.5 MPa or greater was observed after hours only when this ratio was 0.33 or lower. The standard for permeability resistance, less than 2,000 C of chloride after 7 days of curing, was satisfied by all ratios. The ratio of latex to rapid-set binder satisfying all of the conditions for an emergency road repair material was 0.29 or less.

  5. Ligantes hidráulicos e a hidratação de óxido de magnésio em concretos refratários Hydraulic binders and magnesium oxide hydration in refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Salomão

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A presença de cimento de aluminato de cálcio e alumina hidratável pode afetar significativamente o comportamento de hidratação do óxido de magnésio (MgO em suspensões aquosas. Entre outros efeitos, destaca-se a formação do composto conhecido como hidrotalcita (Mg6Al2(CO3(OH16·(4H2O, que pode potencializar ou inibir os danos causados pela hidratação do MgO, dependendo da quantidade em que é gerado. Este trabalho investigou como a presença desses ligantes afeta a hidratação do MgO e suas conseqüências em formulações de concretos refratários usando testes de hidratação-desidratação, medidas de pH, expansão volumétrica aparente, resistência à tração por compressão diametral e porosidade. Por meio de comparações com composições de referência sem-ligante e sem-ligante-e-sem-MgO, foi verificado que os efeitos danosos da hidratação do MgO podem ser significativamente reduzidos por meio do ajuste do tipo e do teor de ligante aos concretos.The presence of calcium aluminate cement and hydratable alumina can significantly modify the magnesia sinter hydration behavior in aqueous suspensions. As a consequence of these studies, the present paper investigates how these binders content could affect magnesia hydration in refractory castables using hydration-dehydration tests, pH, AVE, mechanical strength and porosity measurements. Besides this, because for these materials the aspects related to mechanical strength, porosity and refractoriness also must be taken into account, binder-free, magnesia-free and magnesia-and-binder-free samples were also tested as references. It was found out that the deleterious effects of magnesia hydration can be greatly minimized by the binder content.

  6. Preparation and characterization of RuO2/polyaniline/polymer binder composite electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANA SOPČIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The composite electrodes consisting of amorphous and hydrous RuO2, polyaniline and polymeric binder, Nafion® or poly(vinilydene fluoride were prepared. The electro¬chem-ical and pseudocapacitive properties of the prepared electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the responses of composite electrodes are very sensitive to the presence of individual components and their respective ratio in the mixture. The difference in the electro-chemical behavior was explained by the different physico-chemical properties of the polymeric binders.

  7. Thermally stimulated current spectra of binder resin powders for copiers: Correction for thermal shrinkage of the sample powder compactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezakt, K [Keio University, 2-15-45 Tokyo 108-8345 (Japan); Murata, Y [Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, 278-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: ikezaki@khaki.plala.or.ip

    2008-12-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectra observed under open- circuit condition for styrene- acrylic binder resin powder compactions for toners are corrected for their thermal shrinkage during TSC observation. For this binder resin, extrinsic current from motion of powder compactions with charges due to their thermal shrinkage was found to be much more effective than the sensitivity coefficient of a TSC measuring apparatus used. Particle size dependence of charge retention power of the resin powders was also examined by using this correction method and found that it decreased with decreasing their particle size.

  8. Study of solid fuel from coconut shell produced by extrusion technique using treated rice straw and molasses as binders

    OpenAIRE

    Madhiyanon, T.; Sathitruangsak, P.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to study solid fuel produced from biomass by cold extrusion technique. The raw materials used comprised crushed coconut shell char and coconut fiber char mixed with two kinds of binders produced from treated rice straw and molasses. In order to investigate the effects of the amounts of binder used on the physical properties of the solid fuel produced, the mass ratio of molasses was varied, at 10:100, 15:100, and 20:100, whereas that of the treated rice straw was 15:100, 20:1...

  9. Microstructure and properties of test castings of cast iron made in moulding sands with the BioCo2 binder

    OpenAIRE

    B. Grabowska; M. Holtzer; M. Górny; R. Dańko; G. Grabowski

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigations on using new BioCo2 polymer binders in a form of thermodynamically stable polymer compositions are presented, together with the indication for its possible application as moulding sand binding agents. Moulding sands bound with the BioCo2 binder hardened by microwaves or under an influence of a temperature are characterized by a compression strength ( Rcu ) of an order of 2 MPa and a bending strength ( Rgu ) of an order of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of samp...

  10. The most appropriate mixing method of polypropylene fiber with aggregates and bitumen based on binder mix design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zahedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is used in road pavements as the binder of aggregates in a great extent all around the world. Asphalt Modifiers have used in pavement engineering in order to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. One of the most important of them is Polypropylene Fiber that causes increasing stability in the mixture. In this article usage of this fiber in civil engineering and especially in asphalt mixtures is investigated; Mixing methods of fiber with aggregates and bitumen are dry, wet and complex are investigated and the most appropriate method because of homogenous mixing and better result is introduced. Keywords: Polypropylene Fiber, Mixing, Bitumen, Aggregates, Binder.

  11. About the sizes of elastomer particles in the asphalt concrete binder providing the maximum service life of pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A. M.; Chekunaev, N. I.

    2014-05-01

    It is noted that the durability of asphalt concrete pavements is determined by the time of the trunk cracks formation in the polymer-containing composites - in the modified by elastomers (e.g., by rubber) bitumenous binder of asphalt. Developed by the authors previously the theory of the cracks propagation in heterosystems [1] has allowed to investigate the problem of the cracks propagation in the rubber-bitumen composite. This investigations show that most effectively to prevente the trunk cracks formation in asphalt concrete can ultrafine rubber particles (150-750 nm) in a bitumenos binder of asphalt.

  12. Poly (acrylic acid sodium) grafted carboxymethyl cellulose as a high performance polymer binder for silicon anode in lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Liangming Wei; Changxin Chen; Zhongyu Hou; Hao Wei

    2016-01-01

    The design of novel binder systems is required for the high capacity silicon (Si) anodes which usually undergo huge volume change during the charge/discharge cycling. Here, we introduce a poly (acrylic acid sodium)-grafted-carboxymethyl cellulose (NaPAA-g-CMC) copolymer as an excellent binder for Si anode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The NaPAA-g-CMC copolymer was prepared via a free radical graft polymerization method by using CMC and acrylic acid as precursors. Unlike the linear, one-dim...

  13. Press powder flow compaction of soft ferrite granule by using liquid binder. Soft ferrite karyufun no ekijo binder wo mochiita kaatsu ryudo seikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology); Nakagawa, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1992-11-15

    Soft ferrite granule powder granulated with small amount of resin binder (polyvinyl alchohol) was mixed with liquid paraffin to form a deep-cup shaped compact by uniaxis press. The raw material was able to be supplied automatically to a cylindrical die cavity, and the filled granule was compacted by a single step. The compact was formed to have outer diameter of 20mm, cup wall thickness of 3mm, and bottom thickness of 5mm by changing liquid paraffin mixing volume and compacting pressure. When the granule powder with sufficient flowability was used, the powder densified at the bottom flowed to the cup wall, and the difference in partial density could be reduced. This was resulted from the fact that liquid paraffin worked as lubricant to decrease the friction between powders. The compact with 10% addition of liquid paraffin had the small difference in partial density even at lower compacting pressure. In this case, shrinkage of the compact after sintering was uniform, and the sintered compact having a diameter being uniform from the bottom to the cup wall was obtained. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Production of activated charcoal beads or green moldnings useful in stationary or fluidized bed uses rotary stirrer(s) for mixing carbonaceous powder with binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s).......In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s)....

  15. Binder-free activated graphene compact films for all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric capacitances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhong Shuai; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Lili;

    2015-01-01

    of binder-free, electrically conductive, nanoporous activated graphene (AG) compact films for high-performance MSCs. The binder-free AG films are fabricated by alternating deposition of electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EG) and nanoporous AG with a high specific surface area of 2920 m2/g, and...

  16. Water soluble styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose binder for ZnFe2O4 anode electrodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongyu; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Dong; Qiu, Hailong; Fu, Qiang; Na, Hui; Guo, Zhendong; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2015-07-01

    ZnFe2O4 nano particles as an anode material for lithium ion batteries are prepared by the glycine-nitrate combustion method. The mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SBR/CMC) with the weight ratio of 1:1 is used as the binder for ZnFe2O4 electrode. Compared with the conventional polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) binder, the SBR/CMC binder is much cheaper and environment benign. More significantly, this water soluble binder significantly improves the rate capability and cycle stability of ZnFe2O4. A discharge capacity of 873.8 mAh g-1 is obtained after 100 cycles at the 0.1C rate, with a very little capacity fading rate of 0.06% per cycle. Studies show that the SBR/CMC binder enhances the adhesion of the electrode film to the current collector, and constructs an effective three-dimensional network for electrons transport. In addition, the SBR/CMC binder helps to form a uniform SEI film thus prohibiting the formation of lithium dendrite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SBR/CMC binder lowers the ohmic resistance of the electrode, depresses the formation of SEI film and facilitates the charge transfer reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. These advantages highlight the potential applications of SBR/CMC binder in lithium ion batteries.

  17. Early Age Characterization and Microstructural Features of Sustainable Binder Systems for Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Kirk

    Concrete is the most widely used infrastructure material worldwide. Production of Portland cement, the main binding component in concrete, has been shown to require significant energy and account for approximately 5-7% of global carbon dioxide production. The expected continued increased use of concrete over the coming decades indicates this is an ideal time to implement sustainable binder technologies. The current work aims to explore enhanced sustainability concretes, primarily in the context of limestone and flow. Aspects such as hydration kinetics, hydration product formation and pore structure add to the understanding of the strength development and potential durability characteristics of these binder systems. Two main strategies for enhancing this sustainability are explored in this work: (i) the use of high volume limestone in combination with other alternative cementitious materials to decrease the Portland cement quantity in concrete and (ii) the use of geopolymers as the binder phase in concrete. The first phase of the work investigates the use of fine limestone as cement replacement from the perspective of hydration, strength development, and pore structure. The nature of the potential synergistic benefit of limestone and alumina will be explored. The second phase will focus on the rheological characterization of these materials in the fresh state, as well as a more general investigation of the rheological characterization of suspensions. The results of this work indicate several key ideas. (i) There is a potential synergistic benefit for strength, hydration, and pore structure by using alumina and in Portland limestone cements, (ii) the limestone in these systems is shown to react to some extent, and fine limestone is shown to accelerate hydration, (iii) rheological characteristics of cementitious suspensions are complex, and strongly dependent on several key parameters including: the solid loading, interparticle forces, surface area of the particles

  18. New insight into the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of DNA minor groove binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisbenzimides, or Hoechst 33258 (H258, and its derivative Hoechst 33342 (H342 are archetypal molecules for designing minor groove binders, and widely used as tools for staining DNA and analyzing side population cells. They are supravital DNA minor groove binders with AT selectivity. H342 and H258 share similar biological effects based on the similarity of their chemical structures, but also have their unique biological effects. For example, H342, but not H258, is a potent apoptotic inducer and both H342 and H258 can induce transgene overexpression in in vitro studies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hoechst dyes induce apoptosis and enhance transgene overexpression are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying different biological effects between H342 and H258, microarray technique coupled with bioinformatics analyses and multiple other techniques has been utilized to detect differential global gene expression profiles, Hoechst dye-specific gene expression signatures, and changes in cell morphology and levels of apoptosis-associated proteins in malignant mesothelioma cells. H342-induced apoptosis occurs in a dose-dependent fashion and is associated with morphological changes, caspase-3 activation, cytochrome c mitochondrial translocation, and cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins. The antagonistic effect of H258 on H342-induced apoptosis indicates a pharmacokinetic basis for the two dyes' different biological effects. Differential global gene expression profiles induced by H258 and H342 are accompanied by unique gene expression signatures determined by DNA microarray and bioinformatics software, indicating a genetic basis for their different biological effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A unique gene expression signature associated with H342-induced apoptosis provides a new avenue to predict and classify the therapeutic class of minor groove binders in the drug

  19. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  20. TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE BIOSENSOR FOR DETECTION OF PHENOLS: BINDER AND PRE-OXIDATION EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrodes are evaluated with respect to the viscosity and polarity of the binder liquids. The electrodes constructed using a lower viscosity mineral oil or paraffin wax oil yielded a greater response to phenol and catechol than those using the hi...

  1. Effect of cathode binder on capacity retention and cycle life in transition metal phosphate of a rechargeable lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With an objective of understanding the differences in the capacity retention behavior and cycle life of cathode consisting transition metal phosphate, Cr0.5Nb1.5(PO4)3, active material and the binder polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), the role of these binders have been analyzed. An electrochemical analysis of the active material mixed with the binders PVDF or PTFE reveals that the PTFE cell experiences an additional discharge capacity of 93 mA h g-1 during the discharge cycle compared to the PVDF cell. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the PTFE mixed cathode reveals nearly the same intensity of F (1s) spectra for before and after discharge cycles suggests that the fluorine atom is not decomposed but permits high utilization of the reactant to be achieved in the cathode during discharge/charge cycles. A remarkable improvement in cell performance in terms of capacity and cycle life for PTFE suggests that the binder PTFE should be an attractive candidate in lithium batteries than that of PVDF

  2. Identification of Phase Composition of Binders from Alkali-Activated Mixtures of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, J.; Drongová, L.; Topinková, M.; Matějka, V.; Kukutschová, J.; Vavro, Martin; Tomková, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2014), s. 79-88. ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : binders * alkali activation * hydration products Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2014/pdf/2014_01_079.pdf

  3. Natural binders and solid bridge type binding mechanisms in briquettes and pellets made from corn stover and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R Vance

    2010-02-01

    Corn stover and switchgrass are two important feedstocks considered for producing renewable fuels and energy in the US. Densification of these biomass feedstocks into briquettes/pellets would help reduce the problems and costs of bulk transportation, handling, and storage of biomass feedstocks. In this study, the role of the natural binders in corn stover and switchgrass to make durable particle-particle bonding in briquettes/pellets was investigated by micro-structural analyses. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of briquettes made by using a uniaxial piston-cylinder densification apparatus in the laboratory, briquettes made by using a pilot-scale roll-press briquetting machine, and pellets made by using a pilot-scale conventional ring-die pelleting machine were analysed. The SEM images showed that the bonding between particles was created mainly through solid bridges. The solid bridges between particles were made by natural binders in the biomass expressed during the densification process. UV auto-fluorescence images of briquettes and pellets further confirmed that the solid bridges were made mainly by natural binders such as lignin and protein. It was found that activating (softening) the natural binders using moisture and temperature in the range of glass transition is important to make durable particle-particle bonding. PMID:19796933

  4. Effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shiro; Tabata, Seiichiro [Yokohama National University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology; Matsui, Shohei [DAISO Co. Ltd., Amagasaki (Japan); Watanabe, Masayoshi [Yokohama National University (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology; CREST JST, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-11-30

    The effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on the interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries (LPB) has been studied in detail. A cross-linked comb-copolymer, consisting of ethylene oxide (EO), 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether (MEEGE), and allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), was used as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). LiCoO{sub 2} composite cathodes were fabricated using binder comb-copolymers, consisting of EO and MEEGE with different compositions. Ionic conductivity of the SPE, and the interfacial charge transfer processes between the SPE and metallic lithium and between the SPE and the composite cathode at several cathode potentials versus Li/Li{sup +}, were electrochemically explored. With increasing MEEGE composition in the binder copolymers, the interfacial resistances between the SPE and the composite cathode appreciably decreased. As the result, discharge capacity of the LPB also enhanced with increasing the MEEGE composition. The introduction of the branched-side-chains to the polymer backbone to the binder polymers for the composite cathodes caused to facilitate the interfacial charge transport processes, while the introduction had also been found to be very effective in terms of the enhancement of ionic conductivity of SPE. (author)

  5. Effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of binder polymer structures used in composite cathodes on the interfacial charge transfer processes in lithium polymer batteries (LPB) has been studied in detail. A cross-linked comb-copolymer, consisting of ethylene oxide (EO), 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether (MEEGE), and allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), was used as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). LiCoO2 composite cathodes were fabricated using binder comb-copolymers, consisting of EO and MEEGE with different compositions. Ionic conductivity of the SPE, and the interfacial charge transfer processes between the SPE and metallic lithium and between the SPE and the composite cathode at several cathode potentials versus Li/Li+, were electrochemically explored. With increasing MEEGE composition in the binder copolymers, the interfacial resistances between the SPE and the composite cathode appreciably decreased. As the result, discharge capacity of the LPB also enhanced with increasing the MEEGE composition. The introduction of the branched-side-chains to the polymer backbone to the binder polymers for the composite cathodes caused to facilitate the interfacial charge transport processes, while the introduction had also been found to be very effective in terms of the enhancement of ionic conductivity of SPE

  6. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Separation Behavior at the Interface between PVDF Binder and Copper Current Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Li-ion batteries, the mechanical strengths at the interfaces of binder/particle and binder/current collector play an important role in maintaining the mechanical integrity of the composite electrode. In this work, the separation behaviors between polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF binders and copper current collectors are studied in the opening and sliding modes using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The simulation shows that the separation occurs inside the PVDF rather than at the interface due to the strong adhesion between PVDF and copper. This fracture behavior is different from the behavior of the PVDF/graphite basal plane that shows a clear separation at the interface. The results suggest that the adhesion strength of the PVDF/copper is stronger than that of the PVDF/graphite basal plane. The methodology used in MD simulation can directly evaluate the adhesion strength at the interfaces of various materials between binders, substrates, and particles at the atomic scales. The proposed method can therefore provide a guideline for the design of the electrode in order to enhance the mechanical integrity for better battery performance.

  7. High Speed Machining of Bio-Titanium Alloy with a Binder-Less PcBN Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaki, Kenichi; Shintani, Kazuhiro; Kato, Hideharu; Asakura, Fumi; Matsuo, Kazuya

    Using a binder-less PcBN tool, improvement of processing efficiency was tried in machining of a vanadium-free titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta which was recently applied for a surgical implant material. The tool which is prepared through the direct conversion sintering of h-BN under both high pressure and temperature, exhibits an improved high thermal durability. It was confirmed that a binder-less PcBN tool exhibited lower flank wear and kept sharper cutting edge compared to the tools made of materials such as sintered carbide, conventional PcBN and polycrystalline diamond with Co-based binder, after turning in cutting speed of 4.2m/s, feed rate of 0.15mm/rev, depth of cut of 0.5mm under an application of a high pressure coolant. Also, milling tests were conducted with a radius end mill tool whose tip was made of the binder-less PcBN material. As a result, the possibility of high speed milling at cutting speed of 8.3m/s was found.

  8. Synthesis of furan-based DNA binders and their interaction with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, many substances, based on naturally occurring DNA-binding molecules have been developed for the use in cancer therapy and as virostatica. Most of these substances are binding specifically to A-T rich sequences in the DNA minor groove. Neutral and positively charged DNA-binders are known. BNCT is most effective, which the boron is directly located in the cellular nucleus, so that the intercation with thermal neutrons can directly damage the DNA. To reach this aim, we have connected ammonioundecahydrododecaborate(1-) to DNA-binding structures such as 2,5-bis(4-formylphenyl)furan via a Schiff-Base reaction followed by a reduction of the imine to a secondary amine. In a following step the amine can be alkylated to insert positive charges to prevent repulsion between the compounds and the negatively charged sugar-phosphate-backbone of the DNA. (author)

  9. Binder-less activated carbon electrode from gelam wood for use in supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANDINI A. TRIBIDASARI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the relation between the porous structure of activated carbon and its capacitive properties. Three types of activated carbon monoliths were used as the electrodes in a half cell electrochemical system. One monolith was produced from activated carbon and considered to be a binder-less electrode. Two others were produced from acid and high pressure steam oxidized activated carbon. The micrographs clearly indicate that three electrodes have different porous structures. Both porosity and surface area of carbons increased due to the formation of grains during oxidation. This fact specified that an acid oxidized carbon monolith will have relatively higher capacitance compared to non-oxidized and steam oxidized monoliths. Maximum capacitance values for acid, steam oxidized and non-oxidized electrodes were 27.68, 2.23 and 1.20 F g-1, respectively.

  10. Use of grape must as a binder to obtain activated carbon briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Deiana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on briquetting activated-carbon-based adsorbent materials, prepared from raw materials from the region of Cuyo, Argentina, are reported in this article. Several steps were carried out to obtain activated-carbon briquettes from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn wood. These steps included carbonization of wood to obtain char; blending of char and a novel binder, i.e., grape must; formation of cylinder-like briquettes by pressure; and activation of the resulting material. The material was activated with steam under different temperatures, activation times, and activating agent flow rates. Impact resistance index, axial compressive strength, tensile strength by diametrical compression, BET area, and pore volume were measured for product characterization. Satisfactory surface areas and mechanical strengths were found in the final products.

  11. Selection of a mineral binder for the stabilization - solidification of waste containing aluminum metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling of nuclear facilities produces radioactive waste materials, some of which may contain aluminum metal. In a strongly alkaline medium, such as that encountered in conventional cementitious materials based on Portland cement, aluminum metal becomes corroded, with a continued production of dihydrogen. In order to develop a mineral matrix having enhanced compatibility with aluminum, a literature review was first undertaken to identify binders capable of reducing the pore solution pH compared with Portland cement. An experimental study was then carried out to measure the hydrogen production resulting from corrosion of aluminum metal rods encapsulated in the different selected cement pastes. The best results were achieved with magnesium phosphate cement, which released very little hydrogen over the duration of the study. This production could be reduced further by adding a corrosion inhibitor (lithium nitrate) to the mixing solution

  12. Effect of Starch Binders in Alumina Coatings on Aisi 316 L Stainless Steel for Medical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M. J.; Pauzi, A. A.; Azhari, C. H.; Ghani, J. A.; Sulong, A. B.; Mustafa, R.

    A slurry immersion technique of alumina coatings was carried out on several AISI 316 L stainless steels using two types of binding agents; commercial starch and Sarawakian starch (sago), which were also mixed with polyvinylchloride (PVA) for strengthening purposes. The sintering temperatures in this work were varied from 500 to 1000°C. Prior to sintering process, all stainless steels were metallographically ground and polished to approximately 0.6 µm of average roughness. Detailed characterisations on the sintered specimens were carried out with the aid of the secondary electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness and a profilometer. The results revealed that coated steels using sago binder showed improved adhesion and homogenous microstructures with greater hardness of 2642 HV than those found in coated steel with commercial starch after sintering process.

  13. Shock wave and detonation wave response of selected HMX based research explosives with HTPB binder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G. T.; Lemar, E. R.; Forbes, J. W.; Anderson, E.; Miller, P.; Ashwell, K. D.; Baker, R. N.; Liddiard, T. P.

    1994-07-01

    The sensitivity, detonation properties, and performance of selected HMX based explosives are compared. All explosives were manufactured using a hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) binder system. IRX class explosives were manufactured to obtain explosives in which ingredients were systematically varied. The particle size range of the HMX particles was controlled by sieving. Sensitivity and performance experiments were conducted using the explosives IRX-1, and IRX-3A. These experiments measured: detonation pressure, detonation velocity, modified gap test shock sensitivity, and detonation wave curvature. Modified gap tests were also performed for SW-21 and PBXN-110. In addition, light gas gun experiments were performed in which reactive stress-time profiles were obtained for IRX-1 and PBXN-110.

  14. The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Yun

    2013-06-01

    To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

  15. The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

  16. Towards the identification of plant and animal binders on Australian stone knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, Alisa J; Walshe, Keryn; Pring, Allan; Quinton, Jamie S; Lenehan, Claire E

    2010-07-15

    There is limited information regarding the nature of plant and animal residues used as adhesives, fixatives and pigments found on Australian Aboriginal artefacts. This paper reports the use of FTIR in combination with the chemometric tools principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HC) for the analysis and identification of Australian plant and animal fixatives on Australian stone artefacts. Ten different plant and animal residues were able to be discriminated from each other at a species level by combining FTIR spectroscopy with the chemometric data analysis methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HC). Application of this method to residues from three broken stone knives from the collections of the South Australian Museum indicated that two of the handles of knives were likely to have contained beeswax as the fixative whilst Spinifex resin was the probable binder on the third. PMID:20602964

  17. A thermal analysis study on proprietary quick-setting mixed binder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper presents a study, by thermal analysis, of the hydration of a mixed binder system consist of Portland composite cement type CEM II/A-M(S-LL) 32,5 R and calcium aluminate cement type GORKAL 70, patented by the authors for embedding spent radioactive solvents. Cement hydration reactions are often affected by the presence of a spent radioactive solvent, usually retarded. This process can be monitored by thermal analysis and often quantified. The data are being used as a reference to compare the changes in the cement blend hydration during the solidification caused by the presence of the spent radioactive solvents itself or by emulsifier additives which are being availed. Detailed analysis of DTG (derivative thermo gravimetric) decomposition profiles of portlandite and carbonate enabled the evaluation of admixture-related parameters concerning portlandite formation and also indicated the behaviour of specific carbonates during the hydration process. (authors)

  18. Desenvolvimento de pó à base de gesso e binder para prototipagem rápida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Meira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidas formulações de pó à base de gesso e binder para aplicação em equipamento de prototipagem do tipo 3D Print. Na técnica de impressão tridimensional, impressoras denominadas 3D Print são baseadas em cabeçotes de impressão de impressoras comerciais a jato de tinta, que depositam um binder sobre camadas sucessivas de pó e, em cada fatia, o binder reage com o pó e consolida o formato bidimensional da seção, que somadas às fatias subsequentes, consolidam um modelo tridimensional. Embora este modelo de impressora tridimensional esteja se popularizando pelo baixo custo, ainda tem em seus insumos o pó e o binder o seu maior empecilho devido ao custo elevado. Neste projeto foram desenvolvidas formulações de pós, obtidos pela moagem do gesso em meio alcoólico com ligantes e aditivos, seguido de aglomeração das finas partículas de gesso, e formulações de binder baseadas na reação com o gesso. Foram avaliadas as condições do pó aglomerado para a uniformidade da deposição das camadas e os requisitos mínimos do binder para a operação do cabeçote de impressão. Corpos de prova no formato de barras foram produzidos em equipamento comercial e analisados com relação à resistência a flexão, densidade e metrologia. Foram obtidos corpos a partir de pó com adição de 5 vol.% de PVB e binder com 90 vol.% de água destilada e resistência de 290 kΩ, que apresentaram resistência média à flexão de 0,33 MPa, suficiente para o manuseio inicial dos prototipados, com manufatura simplificada e a um custo muito econômico.

  19. Binder Jetting: A Novel Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Fabrication Process and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogharan, Guha; Kioko, Meshack; Linkous, Clovis

    2015-03-01

    With an ever-growing concern to find a more efficient and less polluting means of producing electricity, fuel cells have constantly been of great interest. Fuel cells electrochemically convert chemical energy directly into electricity and heat without resorting to combustion/mechanical cycling. This article studies the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which is a high-temperature (100°C to 1000°C) ceramic cell made from all solid-state components and can operate under a wide range of fuel sources such as hydrogen, methanol, gasoline, diesel, and gasified coal. Traditionally, SOFCs are fabricated using processes such as tape casting, calendaring, extrusion, and warm pressing for substrate support, followed by screen printing, slurry coating, spray techniques, vapor deposition, and sputter techniques, which have limited control in substrate microstructure. In this article, the feasibility of engineering the porosity and configuration of an SOFC via an additive manufacturing (AM) method known as binder jet printing was explored. The anode, cathode and oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte layers were fabricated through AM sequentially as a complete fuel cell unit. The cell performance was measured in two modes: (I) as an electrolytic oxygen pump and (II) as a galvanic electricity generator using hydrogen gas as the fuel. An analysis on influence of porosity was performed through SEM studies and permeability testing. An additional study on fuel cell material composition was conducted to verify the effects of binder jetting through SEM-EDS. Electrical discharge of the AM fabricated SOFC and nonlinearity of permeability tests show that, with additional work, the porosity of the cell can be modified for optimal performance at operating flow and temperature conditions.

  20. The development of a new analytical model for the identification of saccharide binders in paint samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lluveras-Tenorio

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for reliably identifying saccharide materials in paintings. Since the 3(rd millennium B.C., polysaccharide materials such as plant gums, sugar, flour, and honey were used as binding media and sizing agents in paintings, illuminated manuscripts, and polychrome objects. Although it has been reported that plant gums have a stable composition, their identification in paint samples is often doubtful and rarely discussed. Our research was carried out independently at two different laboratories: the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles, USA (GCI and the Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry of the University of Pisa, Italy (DCCI. It was shown in a previous stage of this research that the two methods give highly comparable data when analysing both reference paint samples and paint layers from art objects, thus the combined data was used to build a large database. In this study, the simultaneous presence of proteinaceous binders and pigments in fresh and artificially aged paint replicas was investigated, and it highlighted how these can affect the sugar profile of arabic, tragacanth, and fruit tree gums. The environmental contamination due to sugars from various plant tissues is also discussed. The results allowed the development of a new model for the reliable identification of saccharide binders in paintings based on the evaluation of markers that are stable to ageing and unaffected by pigments. This new model was applied to the sugar profiles obtained from the analysis of a large number of samples from murals, easel paintings, manuscripts, and polychrome objects from different geographical areas and dating from the 13(th century BC to the 20(th century AD, thus demonstrating its reliability.

  1. Mechanisms of Binder Removal Involved in Supercritical Debinding of Injection Moulded Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Thierry; Delhomme, Eric; Baumard, Jean-François

    1997-02-01

    Extraction of organic additives from extrusion-moulded ceramic parts by supercritical carbon dioxide has proved to be an efficient method for debinding [1,2]. A model of binder extraction based on diffusion equations was developed. This model was found to be in fair agreement with experimental results. Experimental kinetics of extraction of low melt point paraffins, by supercritical fluids, from injection-moulded samples are now established. A redistribution of the binder in the liquid state in the porosity of the sample, during supercritical debinding, is put in evidence. The importance of this mechanism and its influence on the validity of the model are discussed. Des études précédentes [1, 2] ont montré l'intérêt de l'extraction, à l'aide de gaz carbonique dans l'état supercritique, des additifs organiques de mise en forme de pièces céramiques. Elles ont permis de développer un modèle, établi à partir des équations de diffusion, qui est en bon accord avec les résultats expérimentaux. Les cinétiques expérimentales d'extraction, par fluide supercritique, de paraffines à bas point de fusion utilisées comme liant pour des compositions d'injection sont maintenant étudiées. Une redistribution du liant à l'état liquide au sein de la porosité de l'échantillon pendant le déliantage supercritique est mise en évidence. L'importance de ce mécanisme et son influence sur la validité du modèle sont discutées.

  2. High Affinity Binders to EphA2 Isolated from Abdurin Scaffold Libraries; Characterization, Binding and Tumor Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Christopher; Mathonet, Pascale; Oleksy, Arkadiusz; Diamandakis, Agata; Tomei, Licia; Demartis, Anna; Nardi, Chiara; Sambucini, Sonia; Missineo, Antonino; Alt, Karen; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.; Harris, Matt; Hedt, Amos; Weis, Roland; Gehlsen, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Abdurins are a novel antibody-like scaffold derived from the engineering of a single isolated CH2 domain of human IgG. Previous studies established the prolonged serum half-life of Abdurins, the result of a retained FcRn binding motif. Here we present data on the construction of large, diverse, phage-display and cell-free DNA display libraries and the isolation of high affinity binders to the cancer target, membrane-bound ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 (EphA2). Antigen binding regions were created by designing combinatorial libraries into the structural loops and Abdurins were selected using phage display methods. Initial binders were reformatted into new maturation libraries and low nanomolar binders were isolated using cell-free DNA display, CIS display. Further characterization confirmed binding of the Abdurins to both human and murine EphA2 proteins and exclusively to cell lines that expressed EphA2, followed by rapid internalization. Two different EphA2 binders were labeled with 64Cu, using a bifunctional MeCOSar chelator, and administered to mice bearing tumors from transplanted human prostate cancer cells, followed by PET/CT imaging. The anti-EphA2 Abdurins localized in the tumors as early as 4 hours after injection and continued to accumulate up to 48 hours when the imaging was completed. These data demonstrate the ability to isolate high affinity binders from the engineered Abdurin scaffold, which retain a long serum half-life, and specifically target tumors in a xenograft model. PMID:26313909

  3. Effect of V content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mo2FeB2 based cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four series of cermets with V content between 0 and 7.5 wt.% in 2.5 wt.% increments were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The transverse rupture strength (TRS), hardness (HRA) and fracture toughness (KIC) were also measured. It was found that the grain size was affected by the V content. The cermets with 2.5 wt.% V addition exhibited the smallest grain size. An increasing V content decreased the wettability of the binder on the Mo2FeB2 hard phase, and accordingly resulted in the increase of porosity and aggregation of ceramic grains. EDS results showed that V addition occurred primarily in the hard phase, with a little amount in the Fe alloy binder. In addition, the content of Mo element in the binder decreased with increasing V content. The cermets with 2.5 wt.% V addition showed the highest TRS, hardness and fracture toughness of 2350 MPa, HRA 90.6 and 15.1 MPa m1/2, respectively.

  4. Effects of compatibility of polymer binders with solvate ionic liquid electrolytes on discharge and charge reactions of lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toshitada; Ikoma, Ai; Kido, Ryosuke; Ueno, Kazuhide; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical reactions in Li-S cells with a solvate ionic liquid (SIL) electrolyte composed of tetraglyme (G4) and Li[TFSA] (TFSA: bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide) are studied. The sulfur cathode (S cathode) comprises sulfur, carbon powder, and a polymer binder. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-x) with different degrees of saponification (x%) are used as binders to prepare the composite cathodes. For the Li-S cell containing PEO binder, lithium polysulfides (Li2Sm, 2 ≤ m ≤ 8), reaction intermediates of the S cathode, dissolve into the electrolyte, and Li2Sm acts as a redox shuttle in the Li-S cell. In contrast, in the Li-S cell with PVA-x binder, the dissolution of Li2Sm is suppressed, leading to high columbic efficiencies during charge-discharge cycles. The compatibility of the PVA-x binder with the SIL electrolyte changes depending on the degree of saponification. Decreasing the degree of saponification leads to increased electrolyte uptake by the PVA-x binder, increasing the charge and discharge capacities of Li-S cell. The rate capability of Li-S cell is also enhanced by the partial swelling of the PVA-x binder. The enhanced performance of Li-S cell containing PVA-x is attributed to the lowering of resistance of Li+ ion transport in the composite cathode.

  5. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Boron Nitride Composite Film as a Novel Binder-Free Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries with Enhanced Performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/boron nitride (BN) composite films were successfully fabricated by facile vacuum filtration and subsequent thermal treatment. Their morphology, structure and electrochemical performance were systematically characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Importantly, the as-prepared rGO/BN composite film with a 2 wt.% BN content as binder-free anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) exhibited a high reversible capacity of 278 mAh·g−1 at a high current density of 100 mA·g−1, high rate capability, and high capacity retention over the first 200 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performances of rGO/BN composite film are attributed to the unique structure and the synergistic effects between layered BN and graphene, which favored electrolyte penetration and buffered the volume expansion during the lithiation and delithiation process. In addition, this work not only provides a versatile strategy for fabrication of other graphene-based films, but also shows the potential promise of rGO/BN composite film for other energy storage devices

  6. Effectiveness of Sr-binders tested using an in vitro model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The radioisotope 90Sr is a fission product that in biological systems will behave like calcium and accumulate in bone. Because of the dose effect and the long biological half life of radiostrontium in humans the best countermeasure is to avoid absorption. Low levels of radiostrontium in food products are therefore necessary. To obtain food products, particularly milk, with low radiostrontium levels, the use of Sr-binders in animals may be required. We have tested a number of potential Sr-binders that may be used in animal production. Preliminary studies testing the Sr-binding effect of several compounds in goats demonstrated that only zeolite A(Na) and zeolite P would be of practical interest. Given at a rate of up to 30 g/d the Sr transfer to milk was reduced by 40%. However, because of the chemical properties of the zeolites, they may also bind other cations like Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn, all important minerals for animals. We have therefore tested the binding kinetics of Sr, Ca and Mg by the zeolites in rumen liquid from cows. We used 85Sr to measure Sr binding and the stable elements of Ca and Mg naturally present in the rumen liquid to measure the binding of these minerals. In the rumen liquid mixture the pH was varied to simulate the pH variation in the digestive system of ruminants and the binding of the minerals to the zeolites were measured at each step. The time dependant 85Sr binding showed that zeolite A(Na), at 0.5% in rumen liquid, pH 7.3, bound 98% of the 85Sr already after 10 min. This proportion of Sr binding was persistent for the tested period of 24 h. The zeolite P at 0.5% in rumen liquid, pH 7.3, bound ca 85% and had a similar time dependant behavior. When pH was reduced to 2.5, similar to the pH in the abomasum, no Sr was bound to the zeolites. This was also the case at pH 3 and 4. At pH 5 ca 10% of the Sr was bound. Theses levels of pH simulated the conditions in the small intestine. To simulate the conditions in the large intestine the p

  7. Quantitative determination of trace metals in high-purity silicon carbide powder by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry without binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method to directly determine the concentrations of trace metals in high-purity powdery silicon carbide (SiC) samples. The sample preparation procedure is simple and rapid. The sample was formed into pellets using no binders and heated at 1000 °C for 2 h. The operation parameters for LA and ICP-MS were optimized to achieve a table signal intensity and high sensitivity. National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials glasses were chosen as calibration standards, with 29Si chosen as the internal standard. The relative sensitivity factor obtained from the glass matrix was used to calculate the concentrations of analytes in the SiC ceramic samples. The regression correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for elements with internal standard correction ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9999, which are better than those obtained with an external standard correction method only. The relative standard deviation of the measured trace element concentrations was less than 5%. The limits of detection were 0.02, 0.08, 0.04, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.004, 0.07, and 0.006 mg kg−1 for B, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, and Sr, respectively. The method was applied to analyze SiC samples with two different particle sizes. The analysis showed good agreement with the results of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by determining the contents of B, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu in BAM-S003. - Highlights: • Powdery SiC was converted into stable targets without any binders. • Stable signals for trace elements were obtained with RSDs less than 5%. • This method was successfully used to analyze silicon carbide samples with μm and nm particle sizes. • The limits of detection were much better than those obtained for INAA, SIS-ET-AAS, ICP-MS-decomposition, and other methods

  8. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S, Class F fly ash (FFA, and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA. To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B, curing regime, and FFA addition significantly affected the engineering performances and shrinkage/expansion of the SFC pastes and mortars. The SFC mortars had higher workability than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. With similar workability, the SFC mortars had compressive strengths and expansions comparable to OPC mortars. The main hydration products of the hardened SFC cement were ettringite (AFt and C-S-H/C-A-S-H. The transformation of the AFt to the monosulfates was observed as the hydration time increased.Este trabajo estudia las características fisicoquímicas de pastas y morteros con un ligante eco-amigable llamado cemento SFC, producido por una mezcla ternaria de materiales a partir de residuos industriales tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno (S, ceniza volante clase F (FFA, y cenizas volantes de combustión en lecho fluidizado circulante (CFA. Para desencadenar la hidratación, el CFA que actuó como un activador alcalino-sulfato se añadió a la mezcla combinada de escoria y FFA. La relación de agua/ligante (W/B, el tipo de curado, y la adición de FFA afectaron significativamente a las prestaciones mecánicas así como a la retracción/expansión de pastas y morteros de SFC. Los morteros SFC presentaron una trabajabilidad mayor que los correspondientes de cemento de Portland (OPC. Con una trabajabilidad similar, los morteros SFC presentaron resistencias mecánicas y expansión comparables a los morteros de OPC. Los principales productos de hidratación del

  9. Force measurements reveal how small binders perturb the dissociation mechanisms of DNA duplex sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrova, Anastasia; Fresch, Barbara; Sluysmans, Damien; de Pauw, Edwin; Remacle, Françoise; Duwez, Anne-Sophie

    2016-06-01

    The force-driven separation of double-stranded DNA is crucial to the accomplishment of cellular processes like genome transactions. Ligands binding to short DNA sequences can have a local stabilizing or destabilizing effect and thus severely affect these processes. Although the design of ligands that bind to specific sequences is a field of intense research with promising biomedical applications, so far, their effect on the force-induced strand separation has remained elusive. Here, by means of AFM-based single molecule force spectroscopy, we show the co-existence of two different mechanisms for the separation of a short DNA duplex and demonstrate how they are perturbed by small binders. With the support of Molecular Dynamics simulations, we evidence that above a critical pulling rate one of the dissociation pathways becomes dominant, with a dramatic effect on the rupture forces. Around the critical threshold, we observe a drop of the most probable rupture forces for ligand-stabilized duplexes. Our results offer a deep understanding of how a stable DNA-ligand complex behaves under force-driven strand separation.The force-driven separation of double-stranded DNA is crucial to the accomplishment of cellular processes like genome transactions. Ligands binding to short DNA sequences can have a local stabilizing or destabilizing effect and thus severely affect these processes. Although the design of ligands that bind to specific sequences is a field of intense research with promising biomedical applications, so far, their effect on the force-induced strand separation has remained elusive. Here, by means of AFM-based single molecule force spectroscopy, we show the co-existence of two different mechanisms for the separation of a short DNA duplex and demonstrate how they are perturbed by small binders. With the support of Molecular Dynamics simulations, we evidence that above a critical pulling rate one of the dissociation pathways becomes dominant, with a dramatic effect

  10. Carbonation process in lime pastes with different water/binder ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, J. I.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Most research on binder carbonation is based on the analysis of depth changes in the carbonation front. Moreover, previous studies have dealt with mortars, where aggregates play a role in the variations in carbonation patterns. In the approach adopted in the present study, carbonation was determined in terms of the variation in weight resulting from CO2 absorption, and a new parameter (independent of the drying process, denominated A, was established. This parameter was assessed in several lime pastes with different W/B (water/binder ratios and its variations were correlated to paste microstructure. Due to the type of porosity prevailing in lime pastes, diffusion took place according to Fick's law; water was retained not by capillarity but by surface adsorption. Drying did not retard carbonation in lime pastesLa mayoría de las investigaciones sobre el proceso de carbonatación en materiales conglomerantes estudia el movimiento del frente de carbonatación. Además, los trabajos previos han sido llevados a cabo en morteros, lo que implica variaciones en el comportamiento de la carbonatación debido a la presencia del agregado. En este trabajo, la carbonatación es discutida teniendo en cuenta la variación del peso como consecuencia de la absorción de CO2, al establecer un nuevo parámetro A (independiente del proceso de secado. Este parámetro ha sido evaluado en varias pastas de cal con distinta relación A/C (agua/conglomerante, y su variación se ha correlacionado con la microestructura de las pastas. Durante el proceso de la carbonatación, y debido al tipo de porosidad de las pastas de cal, tiene lugar la difusión de Fick: el agua no es retenida por capilaridad sino por adsorción sobre la superficie. El proceso de secado no retrasa la carbonatación en las pastas de cal.

  11. Fly-ash and Green liquor as binder in gravel road stabilization. Pilot study at Iggesund; Flygaska-Groenlutslamstabiliserad skogsbilvaeg. Fallstudie Iggesund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Erlandsson, Aasa; Wexell, Bengt-Arne

    2009-03-15

    The quality of gravel roads is of importance for public and the forestry industry. Frost damages lead to the closure of roads due to reduced bearing capacity, settlements and tracks made by wheel. Lately these frost damages have worsened due to milder winter temperatures. The need to improve the quality of these roads and to minimize the periods when the roads are closed is ever increasing. Several Swedish and Finnish projects have shown that rest materials from the paper industry can improve bearing capacity of roads. Both green liquor and fly ash was used successfully in an earlier project as pelletized mineral nutrient in forest soil. In this project fly ash and green liquor from Iggesund Paperboard was used as a binder during stabilization of a gravel road. The aim was to improve bearing capacity of a gravel road, mainly during the thawing period. The target group of the project was local road associations, forestry industry, which have a need to improve road quality, the paper industry which produce suitable rest materials and local environmental agencies. During an initial laboratory investigation proper binder recipe, based on fly ash, green liquor and cement was chosen. The laboratory investigation and earlier studies indicate in order to increase resistance to frost damage cement should be included in the binder. The aim was to stabilize ballast and improve the stabilized road materials shear strength, frost susceptibility. Total elemental content and Leachability was also investigated. Based on the results the local environmental agency was notified. During spring of 2008 two road sections, about 2 km was stabilized. The stabilized road was investigated during autumn 2008 regarding bearing capacity and environmental impact. The stabilization of the road section was estimated to cause minor impact on the recipient. The local environmental agency approved the stabilization of the road section, however increased the follow up effort with more analyses

  12. On the dispersion of lithium-sulfur battery cathode materials effected by electrostatic and stereo-chemical factors of binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaoheng; Jin, Jun; Wen, Zhaoyin; Zhang, Sanpei; Wang, Qingsong; Shen, Chen; Rui, Kun

    2016-08-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene butadiene rubber (CMC-SBR), sodium alginate (SA) and LA132 are utilized as the polymer binders for the cathodes of Li-S batteries to study their dispersion mechanism on the cathode materials and the consequent influence on the performance of Li-S batteries. Zeta potential tests, differential scanning calorimetry analysis and calculations of the rotational barriers of the links of the polymer chains by General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System (GAMESS) reveal that higher charge densities and better chain flexibility of the binders promise the dispersion of the downsized cathode materials. LA132 is found to have optimal characteristic for dispersing and stabilizing the cathode materials in aqueous environment. The cycling performance and SEM images of the cathodes demonstrate that cathodes with higher dispersion degree achieve higher discharge capacities. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results further support that better dispersed cathodes have lower impedance resulting from their well established conducting frameworks.

  13. Toward practical application of functional conductive polymer binder for a high-energy lithium-ion battery design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zhihui; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Meng; Shi, Feifei; Song, Xiangyun; Zheng, Ziyan; Zhou, Xin; Fu, Yanbao; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Zhi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao

    2014-11-12

    Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ∼500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ∼48% to ∼90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell. PMID:25314674

  14. Irreversible volume growth in polymer-bonded powder systems: effects of crystalline anisotropy, particle size distribution, and binder strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A; Gee, R H; Hoffman, D; Fried, L E

    2007-08-22

    Pressed-powdered crystallites of intrinsically anisotropic materials have been shown to undergo irreversible volume expansion when subjected to repeated cycles of heating and cooling. We develop a coarse-grained (micron-scale) interaction Hamiltonian for this system and perform molecular dynamics simulations, which quantitatively reproduce the experimentally observed irreversible growth. The functional form and values of the interaction parameters at the coarse-grained level are motivated by our knowledge at the atomic/molecular scale, and allows a simple way to incorporate the effect of polymeric binder. We demonstrate that irreversible growth happens only in the presence of intrinsic crystalline anisotropy of the powder material, is mediated by particles much smaller than the average crystallite size, and can be significantly reduced in the presence of high-strength polymeric binder with elevated glass transition temperatures.

  15. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao

    2016-06-01

    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27160017

  16. The Effect of Lime Addition on the Setting Time and Strength of Ambient Cured Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Andi Arham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations of geopolymer as the alternative binders in concrete is the necessity of heat curing. This study aimed to produce fly ash geopolymer binder subjected to ambient curing by adding a small proportion of lime and varying the activator dosage. The Class F fly ash from Mpanau coal-fired power plant was mixed with alkaline solution consists of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide with Na2O dosage of 5%, 7%, and 9%. To achieve ambient cured paste, 8%, 9%, and 10% slaked lime was added as the substitute for the fly ash. The setting time test was conducted for each mix and the compressive strength was performed at age of 7, 14 and 28 days. The test result shows that the setting time of the fly ash based geopolymer paste can be controlled by adding a small proportion of slaked lime. The addition of lime increased strength but decreased the setting time.

  17. Effect of Carbon Content in Stainless Steels on Quantity of Grinding Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcik R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the process of grinding stainless steels with different carbon contents. Verified the size and scope of the energy which is introduced in the surface layers for different types of abrasive grains and binders. The influence of parameters in plunge grinding process was considered in studies. The energy ratio was used for this purpose, which was calculated by multiplying energy and time of grinding wheel contact with the workpiece. To investigate influence of different carbon content on the level of energy density generated during grinding process special parameter Bp have been evaluated. The grinding tests were conducted in dry grinding technique.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of NiFe2O4 electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline water electrolysis using different polymer binders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chanda, D.; Hnát, J.; Paidar, M.; Schauer, Jan; Bouzek, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 1 July (2015), s. 217-226. ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : alkaline water electrolysis * spinel oxides * polymer binder Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2014

  19. Adhesive properties of some fluoropolymer binders with the insensitive explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, J D; Dattelbaum, A M; Orler, E B; Bahr, D F; Dattelbaum, D M

    2010-12-15

    Adhesion between binders and explosive crystals is of critical importance for the mechanical performance of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs). The surface properties of several prospective binders have been determined from static advancing contact angle measurements. The surface energies have been used to calculate theoretical work of adhesion to 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB), a common insensitive high explosive. The fluorinated terpolymer Oxy-461™, and Kel-F™ chlorotrifluoroethylene-vinylidene fluoride copolymers show the greatest potential for wetting TATB surfaces, and should promote the best adhesion to TATB in PBX formulations. In general, none of the fluoropolymer binders investigated here exhibit markedly superior adhesion to TATB. Thus, bulk physical properties are likely to be more important when choosing a binder. PMID:20875644

  20. VS-501: a novel, nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, highly effective phosphate binder derived from natural plant polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Chen, Yung-wu; Gaffin, Robert; Hall, Andy; Wong, Jonathan T; Xiong, Joseph; Wessale, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate control of serum phosphate in chronic kidney disease can lead to pathologies of clinical importance. Effectiveness of on-market phosphate binders is limited by safety concerns and low compliance due to high pill size/burden and gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. VS-501 is a nonabsorbed, calcium- and aluminum-free, chemically modified, plant-derived polymer. In vitro studies show that VS-501 has a high density and a low swell volume when exposed to simulated gastric fluid (vs. sevela...